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A survey of a representative group of bookplates in Texas

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A SURVEY OF A REPRESENTATIVE GROUP
OF BOOKPLATES IN TEXAS
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Department of Fine Arts
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts
by
Kate Gathings Turner
February 1940
UMI Number: EP57819
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI
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UMI EP57819
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 4 81 0 6- 1346
T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by
Kate..^athinKS ...Turner
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f hQ.r_ F a c u l t y C o m m i t t e e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been
present ed to a n d accept ed by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f the r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r the degree o f
MASTER OF.ARTS............
^
Dean
Secretary
D^.S«-p-t©mbe-r-~!939-....
Faculty Cotnmittee
/
/)
—, Chairman
f
INTRODUCTION
At one time Texas was the subject of much jesting due
to its primitive character.
Lven today hosts of travelers
by train see Texas only as a flat, dry, almost treeless
country, or as a desert of hot searing sands and bare moun­
tains vith occasionally a movement of burro, rattlesnake, or
lizard, rather than the more beautiful parts of It, as the
hills blanketed with varicolored flowers, the pine trees,
trout streams, and fertile valleys dotted
with cattle.
There were two classes of early settlers in Texas; the
rough pioneer who, surrounded by his hardy family, typified
the average American family in its daring and determination
to make a good home; and on the other extreme, a small class
composed of escaped criminals and vagabonds of the worst
sort, who rushed into the state.
hithin these two groups
could be found people of all degrees of morality and opin­
ions.
kith the settlement of strife and the influx of a
higher class of Americans, generally, Texas became an agri­
cultural and ranching country.
The farmer was the landlord
with his innumerable "hands” and slaves who adopted a plan
similar to the feudal systems in power and control of cotton.
The average "clodhopper” had little chance at existence if
within the realm of his clutches.
Unfavorable agricultural conditions converted a vast
area of Texas into a ranching country for producing cattle,
horses, and sheep.
The cowboys on these .ranches had their
own cultural background which was
comprised of a dug-out
home when they were near the ranch head quarters, or only
the wide open spaces, if away on a round-up.
Their bed was
the saddle blanket and taupaulin and their enjoyment centered
around the time when they gathered at the campfire to tell
of their experiences, exchange jokes and indulge in cowboy
songs to the strum of a guitar.
This cowboy could be under­
stood only by watching him in action, by enduring with him
the hardships incident to his work and by enjoying his plea­
sures and daring with him the dangers he had to face.
In
this way only could be cleared the false notions regarding
the personality of the true cowboy.
Today these are the business men who look back with
pleasure to the time when they compared their ’’store boughten
ten gallon hats, chaps and six shooters, also their rush for
the chuck wagon to get the red beans, prunes,
sour-dough
biscuits and f,sun-of-a-gun” (stew).
These born Texans were pure American folk still using
many old Anglo-Uaxon words and old style pronunciations, but
they were the sum and substance of real people.
Their loy­
alty to Texas and to their friends has been almost a religion
These cowboys of yesterday have expanded in their in­
terests to own not only the largest ranches in the United
iv
States,
out the most extensive oil fields, the gas, lignite,
iron ore, along with silver
and other minerals, and lumber
camps, citrus fruit areas, wheat fields unbelievably big,
and the greatest cotton producing territories, which is the
spawning ground of farm politics.
with extensive industries
they have developed unlimited transportation and commercial
facilities.
Along with these interests, they are busy work­
ing out social problems and the future economic destiny of
their state.
Today, instead of the dug-outs, adobe huts,or log
cabins, these Texans, rich in the heritage of their fore­
fathers, who possessed great physical endurance, rare courage
and, unswerving loyalty, live in progressive cities with their
families housed in mansions, work in their skyscraper offices
that afford every comfort, direct railroads and stock markets,
and help control the destiny of the nation.
They have united Texas in common things,
so that the
people in South Texas do not regard the people in worth Texas
as "yankees” or those in El Paso jeer -~t those in Galveston
as being effete easterners.
There was, of course, no sudden over-night change in
the daily life of Texas, but it is a sociological fact that
Texas had begun to build for the finer things in life long
before many Eastern states responded to similar twinges of
conscience.
Today few states in the Union can boast of more
museums rich in native historical and art objects, or can
claim more local artists skillful in recording subjects on
canvas or bookplate, pertinent to local people.
Yvhile the
Texas people were slow in becoming art conscious, they are
expending millions of dollars now for world masterpieces and
promoting different phases of fine arts.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TEFL© USED
...
The p r o b l e m ...................................
1
Statement of the p r o b l e m ..................
4
Importance of the s t u d y ....................
5
Definitions of terms u s e d ....................
7
Organization of the remainder of the thesis
II.
.
REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E ......................
Literature on foreign bookplates
III.
1
17
19
...........
19
Literature on bookplates in A m e r i c a .........
24
Literature concerning Texas bookplates
33
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE BOOKPLATE
...
. . . .
37
The origin and development of the bookplate .
37
Early bookplates in A m e r i c a .................
41
Bookplates pertinent to Texas .............
.
44
Geographical and cultural factors as an
Influence on bookplates in Texas
. . . . .
IV. METHODS AND MEDIA USED IN B O O K P L A T E S ..........
47
50
E t c h i n g ........................
51
E n g r a v i n g .....................................
52
W o o d - c u t s .....................................
52
Pen d r a w i n g ...................................
53
Linoleum b l o c k ...............................
54
vii
CHAPTER
PACE
Lithography ........................
V.
VI.
. . . . .
55
Blue p r i n t ...................................
55
S i l h o u e t t e s ...................................
55
BOOKPLATE DESIGNS IN T E X A S ....................
57
Art equalities.................................
57
F u n c t i o n a l i s m .................................
59
Additional uses for bookplate designs . . . .
61
SUBJECT NATTER OF TEXAS
B O O K P L A T E S ...........
Allegorical end symbolical
VII.
64
.................
64
Armorial and heraldic ........................
66
Historical and geographical .................
67
Pictorial and emotional ......................
68
Canting
69
........................
Architectural .................................
70
H o b b i e s .......................................
71
S p o r t s .......................................
72
Philosophical .................................
72
Some bookplate rhymes and Inscriptions
...
73
CLASSES OF BOOKPLATES IN T E X A S ...............
79
Professional bookplates
......................
Bookplates of Institutions
79
.................
82
Bookplates of authors ........................
85
Ladies’ bookplates
..........................
87
Children’s bookplates ........................
88
viii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Bookplates of outstanding Texans
VIII.
...........
SO
Commercial bookplates ........................
93
SOKE BOOKPLATE COLLECTIONS IN T E X A S ...........
96
Collections from the standpoint of the col­
lector
.....................................
Collections with emphasis on famous names .
96
97
The age of the plate as basis of collect­
ing .......................................
Economic value of bookplates
.............
98
99
Collections from the standpoint of the indi­
vidual a r t i s t ...............................
99
Methods and media of production .............
100
Technical e x c e l l e n c e ...............
100
The general collector ........................
101
Collecting as a h o b b y ......................
101
Collecting for the educational value
101
. . .
Employment for the d i s a b l e d ...............
IX.
102
SOME OUTSTANDING BOOKPLATE DESIGNERS IN TEXAS .
103
SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N ........................
109
S u m m a r y .......................................
109
C o n c l u s i o n ...................................
110
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................
112
ILLUSTRATIONS
121
X.
..........................................
ix
CHAPTER
PACE
APPENDIX A:
C O R R E S P O N D E N C E ............................
156
APPENDIX B:
GLOSSARY OF TERMS U S E D ...................
166
APPENDIX D:
MISCELLANEOUS BOOKPLATES NOT DISCUSSED IN
THE THESIS P R O P E R ......................
170
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Bookplates
FIGURE
PAGE
1.
Hay Seaman, commercial p l a t e ....................
122
2.
For a school library-designer, Hate G. Hunt
. . .
122
3.
Frank Klepoer, artist and designer, himself
. . .
123
4.
Owner of a newspaper "The Torch," designer,
L.
R i c h h a r t .......................................
123
5.
Florence Carter Bryan, designed by B. Heilman . .
124
6.
John G. Kenedy Memorial p l a t e ....................
124
7.
R. Niles Graham, artist unknown to writer . . . .
125
8.
Thelma Brummet, designed by herself ..............
125
9.
Walter W a l n e , designer, B. Heilman
125
..............
10.
E. B. Ritchie, designer, Isabel Robinson
. . . .
126
11.
Natalie Williams, designer, Bernhardt Wall
. . .
126
12.
Frederick M. Mayer, designer Guy F. Cahoon
. . .
127
13.
Gustine Courson Weaver, designed by self
. . . .
127
14.
Jos. Charvat (an actor), designer unknown . . . .
128
15.
Mary Katherine and T. D. Broadbook, for selves
16.
Gerald Knight, artist unknown ....................
129
17.
Alfred C. Finn, architect, designed for self
130
18.
Carl York, architect, designed by Ethel
.
. .
E o u r l a n d .......................................
128
151
xi
FIGURE
19.
PAGE
Commercial plate for Missouri University
s t u d e n t s ................................
131
20.
Florence Schwarz Sharp, designer F. IClepper .
. .
131
21.
Inez Gates Glover, designer unknown to writer
. .
132
22.
Alex and Fanita Acheson by Fanita Acheson
23.
Albert Holcomb, designer unknown
24.
B. Russell designed for h e r s e l f ...........
25.
Thomas Watt Gragory, designer B. Heilman
26.
L. I. N. Shephard, designer unknown to writer
27.
Ruby Ethel Cundiff, designer K. Anderson
28.
Stanley Harrod designed for s e l f .........
29.
Dr. <1. A. Armstrong; Miss Maxwell, designer .
30.
William Albert Philpott Jr., designer Ralph
Seymour
.
. . . .
133
................
134
134
. . . .
. . . .
Curtice Rosser, II.D., designed by F. Klepper
32.
Dr. Milton II. Glover, designer not known to
. . . . .
134
135
135
. .
............................
31.
writer
. .
134
135
135
. .
...............................
136
136
33.
Harrell Sansom Hayden done by Bertha Landers
. .
136
34.
George II. Ritchie designed by Isobel Robinson
. .
137
35.
Carl Lars Svensen, self d e s i g n e d .........
36.
Eugene Cecil Seaman (a bishop), designer,
A. H o w a r d ................................
37.
Dan Aynesworth, designer, E. R. C o x .......
138
138
138
xii
FIGURE
38.
PAGE
Including plates 39, 40, 41, 42, and 43, plages
of i n s t i t u t i o n s ...............
139
44.
VAT.II.S. (Test Texas High School) by group
. . .
45.
Baylor University by E. F. O ’B r i e n ..........
142
46.
El Paso Public Library, artist u n k n o w n ......
142
47.
Houston Public Library by B. Heilman
48.
Owen Ulster Memorial Plate by architectural
...........
s t u d e n t ......................................
141
142
143
49.
Southern Methodist University by H. C. Pitz
. . .
143
50.
W. IT. Collum, artist, George E. Lambert Jr.
. .
144
51.
Henry Van Dyke, artist unknown to writer
52.
Evetts Haley by Harold B u g b e e ................
53.
William Perry Bentley by E. G. Eisenlohr
54.
Joseph Benjamin Oakleaf, artist unknown .........
146
55.
Eugene Field, artist unknown to writer
146
56.
J. Howard Hayden. Jr., by Bertha L a n d e r s ......
57.
Antonette and Sharp Kelley, by
58.
Nelma Bishop designed by herself
59.
"Billy" designed by Lucille Richhart
60.
Billie and Stanley Marcus, designer Rockwell
. . . .
144
. .
. . . .
145
.........
F. Klepper
146
. . .
................
61.
Mary Bywaters by her father, Jerry Bywaters
62.
Dorothy Van Kirk,
148
148
. . .
self d e s i g n e d ..............
146
147
............
K e n t ........................................
145
149
148
xiii
FIGURE
63.
PAGE
James V. Allred by Girl Scouts, Wichita Palis,
T e x a s ............................................
64.
Edward IT. House, designer unknown to writer . .
65.. Edwy Rolfe Brown, designer unknown to writer
66.
Frank H. Rosengren by Tracy Collier
67a.
Museum plate--first draft
67b.
Museum plate--second draft
.
149
.
150
.
150
............
150
.......................
151
.....................
152
68.
Mattie Swayne, designed by A. M a c k ............
153
69.
Bernhardt Wall, self designed ...................
153
70.
Isobel Robinson, self designed
153
.................
71.
R. Fuchs, artist, self designer of plate
72.
Frank and Elizabeth (Coulter) designed jointly
73.
Vera Baker Chinn, designer--B. Heilman
. . . .
........
153
.
154
154
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM RED DEFINITIONS 05' TERMS USED
I.
THE PROBLEM
Through a survey of the awareness of fine arts in
Texas, the writer observed that bookplates had generally been
considered as relatively unimportant, and that among local
art patrons as a whole there was some controversy as to the
merit of the bookplates associated with this state.
By some
they are defended as a distinct type of art, while others
consider them unworthy to be classified within this field.
Among those who believe the making of bookplates as
an art is unimportant are Earl Fan Dale,1 J. C. Early,2 and
3. D. Cleveland.3
Van Dale dismisses them as unimportant be­
cause he feels that the examples of Texas bookplates which he
has seen have indicated complete eclecticism on the part of
Texas artists and an eclecticism of which he is not proud.
He believes that any great graphic artist who will resort to
imitation fails to produce worth-while products.
It is true
that G-ustave Dore* has had a predominant influence and that in
1 Earl Van Dale, Rare book collector and an official
of an oil company, Amarillo, Texas.
2 J . C. Early, Official of the city library, Fort
Worth, Texas.
3 S. D. Cleveland, landscape and still-life artist,
Amarillo, Texas.
bookplate design there are also old masters,
such as
Altdor­
fer and Durer, who have been copied beyond any legitimate ex­
cuse.
For some of these reasons Early believes that the in­
clusion of bookplate design with the highest type of art is
absurd.
He thinks that it is extravagant even to suppose
that the Texas artists, who have at one time or another de­
voted some of their spare time to the making of bookplates,
could possibly regard the execution of this type of work with
the same pride and satisfaction resulting from the completion
of a more important subject.
He refused to be convinced that
a bookplate has as yet represented the best efforts of the
artist; but he admits, however, that he has not given much
thought to the subject.
Cleveland,
completing this triumvir­
ate, maintains that in as much as there is no school of book­
plate design nor any unified movement of importance connected
with this work, few artists have given it time and attention.
He doubts that the artist who has established himself would
devote time to a phase of art which seems so minor in aes­
thetic possibilities and so limited in scope.
On the other hand,
there are people living in Texas
who have made a particular study of them, who have owned, de­
signed, and made bookplates, and who claim bookplates possess
positive merit and a definite beauty and charm which link them
unmistakably with the other branches of fine art.
The writer
refers especially to such well informed persons as Ben Carlton
Mead^ who has designed many plates and has taught this art to
others.
He thinks the bookplate of today is not a product of
eclecticism,
but rather that it is a form unique in its
originality, and that the subjects are different from those
of traditional art and the freedom of media is unlimited.
Bookplates, according to Frank Klepper who also appraises
them favorably,
are miniature masterpieces.^
This is true
from the standpoint that regardless of size, every art prin­
ciple is involved in their making.
The fact, says Klenper,
that an artist can produce upon a mere scrap of paper lines
and spaces in relationships which enrich the surface of the
paper so that it catches the fancy or imagination of the ob­
server is proof of the artistic value of the bookplate.
A similar point of view advanced in an attempt to
justify bookplate design was presented by Stella Heilman^ who
assumes that a bookplate is the result of an impulse to im­
part
to the book in a subtle and unpretentious way, something
of the individuality of the owner.
The achievement of this
attempt would produce the effect of a finished picture,
whether it were done pictorially or symbolically, and would
4 Een Carlton Mead, artist and illustrator, Amarillo,
Texas.
5 Frank Kleoper, Artist and bookplate collector, Dallas
Texas.
6 Stella Heilman, Artist and instructor, Houston, Texas
4
suffice to classify bookplates as works of art.
7
E. J. Lawcett' advances the criticism that nativeborn Texans produce the best designs for the people of Texas
because these artists know how to strike the poetic chord and
the innermost expression in the hearts of these people through
their perfect understanding combined with inventive and im­
aginative powers,
cleverness, and technical skill.
They also
know how to include that spark of vanity necessary to the
importance of a bookplate for Texas people.
Since the observer held the opinion of those persons
who have defended the designing of bookplates as an art, she
has based all further statements within this study essen­
tially upon this point of view.
Statement of the problem.
It was the purpose of this
study to investigate the extent of the fine-arts expression
in Texas as manifested in bookplates.
For detailed research
a representative group of plates were selected according to
(1) subject matter,
(2) design,
(3) classes,
(4) rhymes and
inscriptions, and (5) the methods and media used by outstand­
ing designers in their production.
A review of the geographi­
cal and historical influences affecting bookplates in Texas
and the common interests of local artists is presented as an
7 E. 1. Lawcett, Collector of bookplates, Corpus
Christie, Texas.
5
orientation to the problem, and a series of illustrations
are included to encourage a wider observation of all plates,
especially of those in Texas.
Importance of the study.
Since the annexation of
Texas to the Union, its colonization and development have
occupied and engrossed the pioneers and settlers so that not
much time was left for leisure and indulgence in the finer
things of life.
In spite of the lack of leisure time there
is revealed, by a search of this nature, a type of cultural
development which indicates the presence of considerable
fine art in Texas.
The possible value of this study lies
not only in the discovery of material but in the attempt to
show that Texas bookplates really possess an artistic merit,
although not as consistent nor generally discussed as some
other forms of artistic expression.
The presumption is that all people possess the innate
desire to recognize and enjoy beauty in art as well as in
nature.
Eookplate makers attempt to satisfy such a desire
through the production of finely designed and well executed
plates embodying carefully selected familiar subjects for
motifs.
The designs give the plates value from the stand­
point of enjoyment and also because a bookplate may record
the history of mankind in his achievements, hopes, desires,
important events in his life, his successes, and his disap-
pointments.
Throughout the history of art there have been digres­
sions from the usual trend of fine erts which were celled
milestones,
thus labeled because of their importance and sig­
nificance.
Bookplates have been designated in this way be­
cause they have been not only a digression but a transition
between the traditional art fashions and the new forms.
They
have to some degree also acted as memorials to the pioneer
men and women of Texas, who by their courage, stamina, faith,
and patience have built an empire state from the heritage of
the Llontezumas.
De Tabley6 says there can be no doubt that
the character of a nation, or its people, is reflected in its
bookplates.
If one fails to like or enjoy a bookplate, there
is an indication of lack of thought about the relation of the
bookplate to humanity,
individual traits and customs, and to
general philosophy of life, which with the Texans is not very
different from the philosophy of the average American.
With
the successful achievement of a really fine bookplate not
only are the cultural features portrayed through refined
suggestion rather than through clear illustration but the
plate is largely indicative of the styles prevailing and the
progress attained in the graphic arts of the period.
Through­
8 Lord De Tabley, A Guide to The Study of Bookplates
(London: John Lane: The Bodley head, 1900) , p . 38.
7
out the development of the history of the country, civiliza­
tions have been largely measured by their production, or
lack of production, of works of art.
The ultimate aim of this study is to show that the
value of bookplates may be found in their authenticity.
Be­
cause of the lack of previous important research by the
people of Texas concerning bookplates very little available
published material can be found.
Because of this situation
the writer used personal interviews,
questionnaires, and cor­
respondence to gather the necessary data,
fifty question­
naires and six hundred letters were sent out.
The letters
were written in long hand in the anticipation that the addi­
tional personal touch would merit a more intimate reply.
Through this correspondence personal interviews,
conferences,
and visits to bookplate collections were arranged.
The
writer was thus able to combine in this study general infor­
mation of bookplate making throughout Texas.
Certain omis­
sions were necessary, as at times it was impossible to secure
data or there was doubt concerning the authenticity of in­
formation contributed.
Names of bookplate designers, the
origin of the bookplates, and the original owners have been
omitted in many cases for this reason.
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERTIS USED
Only those terms involved in the stud;/ of bookplates
6
will be defined her e, as a glossary is included for refer­
ence to minor terms.
Texas bookplates in this stuby will be used as a
blanket term to mean any bookplates owned by individuals or
included in collections anywhere within the state.
The plate
may have been made elsewhere in the United States or in a
foreign country by an artist not necessarily of Texas by
birth and not living in the state at the present time,
Llany
of the bookplates date back to an early period and many of
the later Texas artists have studied in various places and
others have become Texans by adoption.
Allegorical in art means the sketching or painting
of one thing to suggest another; that is, the representation
of an idea or object by the spaces and lines or curves that
are symbolical.
Sometimes characters symbolize ideas or
qualities such as bravery, truth, law and order, et cetera.^
An allusion to a literary character, or its complete embodi­
ment in a remote fashion, is often utilized in an allegorical
sense lor bookplate design.
Armorial comes from the word "armor," meaning a cover­
ing worn to protect the body in battle.
It denotes belonging
to armor, or to the arms or escutcheon of a family.
fensive armor" refers to a coat or suit of mail.
"Defen-
The
9 Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Edition, Vol. 3, p. 525.
Escutcheon is the shield on which the coat-of-arms is repre­
sented.^-^
Armorial designs are ancient in origin and had
their beginnings with knighthood.
Shields signify the use of
armor, and are related to the word " a m or , ” in this manner.
Not many designs of this type of contemporary date were found
in Texas coat-of-arms.
Coat-of-arms means ’’the symbol of
o n e ’s birth and dignity.
Originally," says Percival of the
coat-of-arrns, "a light weight garment worn over the armor,
often decorated with heraldic bearings; hence,
11
bearings of an individual or family.”
garded in
the heraldic
Heraldry was re­
ancient times as belonging only to the brave men
and signified honorable reward for undaunted fearlessness.
Bookplate is an ex-libris or a printed label to indi­
cate ownership of a book.
It is an ornamented piece of
paper to be pasted into a book to insure its return to the
owner.
Stone says that a bookplate is ’’more than a label to
establish ownership of a book in which it is pasted.
It is
truly a work of art as much as a fine mural painting or any
1o
product of our foremost artists.”
There are endless vari­
eties of bookplates, the style and size is determined by the
Olive Percival, a student in Heraldry, Los Angeles,
California.
Loc. cit.
IB Qrrin F. Stone, ’’Bookplate Designs,” School Arts
Magazine, December, 1934, p. 67.
10
owner, artist, or size of the book.
interchangeable.
The term "ex-libris" is
Coming from the Latin, it is a compound
phrase meaning "out of book."
would be "out of books."
The less literal translation
It is believed the phrase was ori­
ginally "Doctus ex libris," meaning "learned out of books,"
the word "Doctus" being the perfect participle passive of
"deceo," meaning "to t e a c h . R e s e a r c h regarding this term
has revealed that the word "Ex-Libris" has been universally
accepted by all countries and all bookplate makers to be the
equivalent in meaning of "bookplate."
The Latin term was
used entirely in connection with the earliest bookplates be­
cause at that time a person who could read at all read in
Latin as the books were printed in that language.
It was
also the preferable term because no name as short and as com­
prehensive had been thought of to take its place.
Ex-libris
as we have it today was not always a separate label to be
pasted into a book; it was sometimes stamped onto the cover
or printed in the book at the time the book was m a d e . ^
Canting signifies an ornament or design alluding to
the name, estate, or profession of the bearer.
Ruth Thompson
-1
-3 Mary Miner, teacher of Latin in Amarillo High School,
Amarillo, Texas.
Olive Percival, personal interview.
11
Saunders describes it as one in which the design represents
pictorially the owner’s name, a syllable of the name, or the
name as it is pronounced, not necessarily as it is spelled
This is one of the most ancient styles of bookplates and is
sometimes known as a Rebus'’ or "punning" design.
It is used
by F i s k ^ to mean a pun on the owner of the bookplate to
create humor by causing the design to represent the name of
the owner.
A man by the name of Fisher might have a book­
plate design showing a man fishing.
A lady whose name is
Mary Holly might choose for a bookplate design a wreath of
holly.
Mrs. Talbot says in her book that canting is a term
which denotes a design in which the pictorial elements are a
play upon the owner’s name, as D. Crane Maxwell has a crane
on his plate.
Modern classifications of bookplates as accepted by
most authorities on plates were made by Lord De Tabley and
Egerton C a s t l e . T h e y
list as modern plates those which
ls
Ruth Thompson Saunders, The Book of Artists’ Own
Bookplates (Claremont, California: Saunders Studio Press,
1933}, p p . 61-62.
Frances B. Fisk, A History of the Arts and Artists
of Texas (Abilene, Texas: Fisk Publishing Company,1927),p.68.
Clare Ryan Talbot, In ^.uest of the Perfect Bookplate,
(Claremont, California: Saunders Studio Press, 1933), p. 77.
Modern)
Egerton Castle, English Bookplates (Ancient and
(London: George Bell and1 Sons, 1894), p. 42.
12
were made about 1830 and since that time and include plates
of many varieties of subject matter and styles.
emphasis is placed on the portrait, pictorial,
Special
symbolical,
and library interiors; and the more recent are the profession­
al,
sports, and hobby plates.
For a long time it was con­
sidered that a bookplate ought to give some indication that
it was a bookplate and not a mere design or a picture, by
including in the design a book or book pile or book cases,
but the tendency today in Texas is to omit books and all
reference to them and instead to include other intimacies in
the life of the owner.
The traditional classification of bookplates was made
principally by Lord De Tabley and Egerton Castle as prior to
1830 and later sanctioned by most of the authors the writer
contacted on bookplates.
The most characteristic of tradi­
tional bookplates are those of armorial nature, as are the
Jacobean, Chippendale, Carolean, Wreath and Ribbon, some
portrait plates, and especially the canting or rebus, which
was the first known plate of Hans Igler of Germany and which
will be discussed at a later time.
The number of classes
were restricted, yet were always flexible and subject to
change in degree, as no classification could be made to admit
all known varieties with definite accuracy.
The early or pure armorial plates of England were first
made in the Tudor period in 1574 and were greatly used until
15
the close of the Restoration in 1700.
Armor belonged to the
nobility or to those elevated from the "common" rank to that
of a "gentleman."
It was the badge of aristocracy and was
freely flaunted by those priviledged to use it, and it was
generally understood by the educated and uneducated alike.
The people generally could not read during the early six­
teenth century,
including those who often possessed a book­
plate, but even though they were unacquainted with ortho­
graphy, they were more or less acquainted with heraldry--the
crest, quarterings, and motto— that were carried on the
shields.19
An important reason why it was necessary for heraldry
to be so well understood was that while the men were in
battle the helmet and armor completely concealed the person
so that friend and foe looked very similar.
Through the de­
signs on the shields, called armorial bearings, people
recognized each other, making the coat-of-arms a protective
measure in its usage.29
Design throughout this survey is intended to mean a
decorative unit or a pattern used to decorate something to
19 Sir Henry Hope, A Grammar of English Heraldry (New
York: G. P. Pu t n a m ’s Sons, 1913), p . 29.
29 H. Dolmetsch, Historic Styles of Ornament (English
Translation) (London: B. T. Botsford, 1905), p . 63.
14
create additional beauty.
A design means to plan and de­
lineate by drawing the outline or figure of; to sketch, as
in painting and other works of art, as for a pattern or
model.
Batchelder says of design, "to make a design one
leads from the simple, constructive use of lines and forms
under clearly defined limitations to work involving consid­
erable invention, fine feeling, and freedom of execution.
Design is the arrangement of lines or forms which make up the
plan of a work of art with special regard to the proportions,
structure, movement, and beauty of lines of the whole.
The designs of many of the bookplates in Texas were found to
be realistically pictorial or architecturally true; yet these
figures were referred to, as designs.
In this respect, the
artists of Texas are unique as they possess the gift cf
originating and combining elements of form on color, utiliz­
ing the verdure and life native to Texas, to produce an in­
teresting and unified composition.
These possess the arrange­
ment of lines which make up the plan of their design with
special consideration for the proportions, structure, and
movement essential to all designs to create an excellent
piece of fine art.
Ernest A. Batchelder, Design In Theory and Practice
(New York: The Macmillan Company, 192017 P* 67.
^
Twentieth Century Dictionary, 1935, p. 254.
15
Functionalism as used in this study refers to the
proper action of anything fulfilling a specially designated
duty.
The bookplate was made to use— to be pasted into the
cover of a book, to take the place of writing the owner’s
name in order to show possession.
O'X
W e b s t e r ^ defines func­
tionalism as "one magnitude so related to another magnitude
that to values of the latter there correspond values of the
former."
Media refers to the types of materials used in the
production of bookplates which are unlimited in scope.
Etching and engraving are usually placed on copper or zinc
plates with the design printed off with printer’s ink.
India
ink is used in most pen drawings for bookplates and a pencil
is occasionally used.
in Texas
There is a suspicion by some artists
that the use of color is a kind of violence to the
dignity of a bookplate so color reproductions are not so com­
monly used.
The effect is pleasing enough but colored plates
do not seem as appropriate as the black and white plates,
according to most bookplate owners and artists.
However, the
coloring in some plates gives them weight and importance much
^ Noah Webster, revised, New International Dictionary
(Springfield, Massachusetts: G-. and C. Merriam Company, 1925),
p. S7G.
^ Jerry Bywaters and Alexander Hague, Dallas, Texas;
Stella Heilman, Houston, Texas; Harold Bugbee, Clarendon,
Texas.
16
greater than they would have possessed had they remained in
black and white.
To color them to excess or to use too
bright colors might leave an impression of vulgarity, while
the lighter values are more acceptable.
The media used in
the making of a plate necessarily determines the type of
design made.
Amateurs overlook that point very often and the
result is not gratifying.
A motif is used to denote the dominant feature in a
design.
It is spoken of as that part which when repeated and
connected with other parts makes up the main design form.^5
When the design motifs are repeated or multiplied in an
orderly way, a pattern is produced.
in itself, becomes a decorative
A pattern complete with­
unit. It is then
the embellishment of an object so that it assumes
of ornamentation.
used for
the aspect
Motifs that unite to form a pattern and
if used in a given defined area, make up a border design.
Those that embellish the entire
object at regular
are all-over designs or surface
patterns . ^
intervals
An over use of
design motifs on bookplates lessens their value.
Symbolism is a design composed of an allusion which is
emblematic.
The design carrying the meaning should be easily
95
^ Isabelle Robinson,
T exas.
^
Loc.
cit.
college art instructor, Canyon,
17
translated.
It is usually a conventionalized design repre­
senting one ’s hobby, profession, or individual characteris­
tics.
Most bookplates contain some symbolism, but if it be­
comes too complicated, the plate is made to suffer for it.
While most plates should be symbolic representations of the
owner expressed according to the artist’s choice in agreement
with the owner, too often there has been a crowding of sym­
bols of hobbies or pursuits which has had a tendency to de­
tract from the appearance of the plate and to minimize its
place in art.
The symbolic plate is one that adapts itself
easily to its purpose as it can be sufficiently conventional
to reflect in many ways the owner’s personality, ideas, and
philosophy without resorting to realism which is not consid­
ered in the best taste for a bookplate.27
III.
ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
The remainder of this thesis is organized into nine
other chapters, a bibliography, illustrative material, and
an appendix.
ture.
plates.
Chapter Two discusses a review of the litera­
Chapter Three gives a historical background of book­
Chapter Four contains an explanation of the methods
and media used in the making of bookplates.
Their design in
27 Een Carlton Mead, artist and maker of bookplates,
Amarillo, Texas.
18
Texas is discussed in Chapter Five.
The subject matter of
the bookplates of this state is presented in Chapter Six.
In
Chapter Seven they are classified into professional book­
plates, bookplates of institutions, bookplates of authors,
ladies’ bookplates, children’s bookplates, plates of out­
standing Texans, and commercial bookplates.
Certain col­
lections of bookplates found in Texas are discussed in Chap­
ter Eight.
The outstanding bookplate designers in the state
are enumerated in Chapter Nine, and the summary and conclu­
sions for the entire study are reviewed in Chapter Ten.
The
bibliography is followed by illustrations and the appendix,
which consists of copies of correspondence, a glossary of
terms used within the study, and miscellaneous bookplates
not discussed within the thesis proper.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The source of information concerning bookplates was
found in foreign literature, much of which was translated
from French and German by the early English writers.
A cri­
tical evaluation of the contributions of various authors on
this subject includes literature on foreign bookplates, on
American, and on those used in Texas.
I.
LITERATURE OR FOREIGN BOOKPLATES
Charles Dexter Allen has been an indispensible source
of information regarding early bookplates.
One of his books,
Ex-Libris, deals primarily with foreign plates.
He began
with the origin and development of the bookplate, tracing it
from Germany into France, England, and then into America.
Its minor development in some of the other European countries
was touched upon, but in a less lengthy fashion.
He stressed
the seriousness of bookplate designs in ancient times as com­
pared with the lighter subject matter, composing the popular
designs of today in the various countries of the world where
bookplates are in use.
The style of his books is scholarly, yet easy to read.
The descriptions are very clear, covering carefully each de­
tail, so as to give complete information from both an
20
historical and historic standpoint.
The size of bookplates
was at one time a question of contention.-*-
Allen describes
the size of one of the royal designs:
Bookplates have been made in many different sizes.
The largest plate found was one belonging to an Austrian
Emperor and is almost ten inches by fourteen inches.
The center of the plate is taken up with family arms of
the noble count.
This is enclosed in ornamental frame­
work representing carved stone and in the background are
musical instruments, armor, munitions of war, graceful
garlands of roses and lion's heads and on a scroll is a
long legend in Latin explaining the office and duties
of the owner.^
The most important single volume on bookplate history
in the English language was written by Egerton Castle.3
His
research was so intense and extensive that he unearthed all
information of any merit.
As a background for the study of
bookplates in England, one of the slowest countries to accept
them, Castle studied and w?rote comprehensively on the earlier
plates and their origin.
His book includes many references
to individuals from whom he gained first-hand information.
It is detailed, well organized for use as reference material,
and often quoted by others who followed him in research.
Egerton Castle, TtA Resume of the Historical Develop­
ment of Bookplates,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition,
Vol. 3, p. 864.
^ Charles Dexter Allen, Ex-Libris (Hew York: The Ma c­
millan Company, 1903), p. 16.
3 Egerton Castle, English Bookplates (London: George
Bell and Sons, 1894), pp. iii; 7-28; 60-140.
21
Another book written in England,
giving much general
information about bookplate history is by Hardy.4
He
stressed plates in England, placing much emphasis upon the
armorial plates, their ownership, and present location.
He
disliked bookplate collectors for their vandalism and fraud,
going into detail to expose their o p e r a t i o n s . ^
Hardy, who
is a bookplate enthusiast, maintained that they are not a
luxury but a necessity, thereby preventing an owner's book
from becoming the property of a b o r r o w e r . ^
He treated in an
imoortant fashion the individual particulars of a bookplate,
the importance of engravers, and the characteristics of
ladies1 plates.
The book is well illustrated and easy to
read.
Slater7 has written a book very similar to those of
the earlier writers.
tent,
While he deserves credit for the con­
it contains much repetition,
upon other authors.
showing some dependence
He used practically the same classifica­
tion of bookplate divisions that was worked out by Lord De
Tabley and Egerton Castle.
The pure armorial plate contained
4 W. J. Hardy, Bookplates (London: Kegan Paul, French,
Trubner, and Company, Ltd., 1897), op. 114-162.
^ ibi d., pp. 1-13.
6 ibid., pp. 15-17.
^ <T. H. Slater, Bookplates and Their Value (London:
Henry Cant, 1898), 241 pp.
no decoration, according to Slater, while the Jacobean plate
that was used during the time of James I continued the stiff
armorial pattern of the earlier period.®
When Chippendale introduced a certain airy and grace­
ful manner of designing furniture and upholstery during the
early eighteenth century,
the bookplate designers at once
made use of its principles in their bookplates.
The style
of the plates was immediately greatly modified by this new
conception, and because the reproduction of Chippendale’s
work was so faithful, they were called Chippendale plates.
At once the stiffness of the Jacobean style disappeared.s
Other styles followed in rapid succession, as the "Ribbon and
Wreath or Festoon pattern, the Occasional fashion: allegori­
cal, portrait, historical plate, mottoes, and the plates of
real design made by talented artists of recent date.
An author seldom recognized by his correct name is
J. Leicester Warren, commonly known as Lord De Tabley.
His
bock1^ has been ranked by Grant*1
"1 second in importance to the
8 I b i d ., p. 107.
" Ibid., p . 27.
1(^ J. Leicester Warren, A Guide to the Study of Book­
plates (London: John Pearson, 1 8 8 0 ) ~ 2 3 6 pp.
11 J. Francis Grant, The Rise of Heraldry (London: The
J. Beaumon Press, 1937), p. 27.
23
work of Egerton Castle, previously discussed.
Lord De
Tabley who was a poet and a scholar did much to arouse an
interest in bookplates.
He is given credit for being the
first writer to associate bookplates with important or famous
people, as an encouragement to collectors to possess them.
He said a bookplate does not have to be interesting in de­
sign, nor possess any historic value, nor be noticeable on
account of any special features to be a worthy bookplate,
but it can be important simply and solely on the ground of
its being associated with great names.-*-2
Warren has also done much research in bookplate his­
tory, beginning with its origin in O-ermony and tracing its
development up to the last of the nineteenth century.
classification of bookplates is still used today.
His
The anti­
quarian plate is referred to as one which bears an early date
or infers an early date from its workmanship and records,
such as ownership by some well-known person in the past.
In
addition to the recorded name, the bookplate is beautiful be­
cause of its artistic merit, which all plates should natur­
ally possess.
Warren also recommended that bookplates be
admired for their heraldry alone and for their topography.13
The book which is very informative and well arranged for
-*-2 Warren, on. c i t . , p. 137.
13 Ibid., p. 139.
24
quick usage would be an asset to anyone's bookshelf.
II*
LITERATURE ON BOOKPLATES IN AMERICA
Comparatively few books dealing with the history and
origin of bookplates have been written in English and fewer
have been published in America.
as encyclopedias,
Some reference books, such
give general information concerning book­
plates, tracing their development down to the twentieth cen­
tury.
Most other sources have been found to be quotations
from or repetitions of the material in the well-known books
on this subject, frequently carrying only different phrasing.
Books on art which are often rich in information and material
on other fine arts, seldom contain anything different or new
regarding bookplate making.
Bowdoin reviewed the literature
on bookplates as follows:
During the past ten years much has been written about
Bookplates; a good deal of repetition, seldom anything
new; simply the often repeated tale dished up in various
styles to suit the whims and oddities of the writers.-5-^
Allen-1-^ probably has offered the greatest amount of
information of any author on bookplates in America.
His work
was used in connection with an exhibit of bookplates given by
the G-rolier Club in 1894.
The history of the earliest plates
V/. G. Bowdoin, The Rise of the Bookplate (New York:
A. V/essels Company, 19 0lT,~"p. 7.
1q
.
Charles Dexter Allen, American Bookplates (Lev; York:
The Kacmillan Company, 19 05), 437 pp.
in America was related with, specific examples and where
possible the name of the artist designer was added.
A care­
ful explanation of all designs and their dates of proauction
were given.
He said,
’The plate made for Thomas Deering is
the earliest plate dated and signed by an -iiiwri can engraver."
16
It was made by Nathaniel Hurd,
in Chippendale style.
The book included a list of signed plates and a group of
mottoes and inscriptions found on the early American book­
plates, with translations, as many of them were in Latin.
In his earlier book Allen stated that the artists in
Germany, France, and England gave much of their time and
talent to designing and engraving bookplates.17
Later he not
only repeated the statement, but advised people in America
to do likewise.
His suggestion was that the artists should
not become slaves to the roasters of the past, but should
produce their own individuality in the bookplates and through
them have a more attractive plate adapted to American condi­
tions.-*-^
Almack-*-^ wrote only twelve short chapters pertaining
to the modes of engraving and styles in bookplates.
He began
16 Ibid., p. 10b.
I? Allen, Ex-Libris, on. cit. , p. xv.
18 Allen, .merican bookplates, o p . c i t . , p. 19.
19 Edward Almack, "bookplates,tT Little Books on Art
(Cyril Davenport, general ec.it o r ; Chicago: A. C. McClurg and
Company, 1910), 171 pp.
with a synopsis oi the earliest plates and traced the devel­
opment concisely on
down through Durer, Holbein, Early Eng­
lish, French, Swedish, Italian, and American plates.
There
are forty-two very good illustrations of bookplates; other­
wise there is nothing
especially new in his effort.
B o w d o i n ^ has handled the
masterly and skillful manner.
subject of bookplates in
a
He gave a sufficient amount
of the historical background and correlated it so that his
book on this branch of fine arts is very complete within it­
self.
He has seen bookplates In an intimate fashion through­
out their existence and has pictured them since their origin
and development.
He embodied that art of portrayal in a per­
sonally interested manner, thus creating a desire on the part
of his readers to know more about bookplates and even to own
one.
He wrote from personal contact with American art and
also from experience,
as he was a maker of bookplates him­
self, he did not fill±Lis book with the fantastic side
craft art.
of the
The first fifty pages presented the introduction
by Henry Blackwell, the bibliography, some interesting in­
scriptions and notes.
The remainder of the book was composed
of a history, giving the rise of the bookplate and illustra­
tions of plates from the earliest to modern examples.
^
Bowdoin, or). cit . , 207 pp.
p1
Finchman^-4- convinced his readers that he has done a
great deal of research in the field of bookplates, as he
offered an extensive bibliography.
His book began with the
time bookplate art was introduced into England and traced
its history chronologically and accurately, according to his
opinion, up to the contemporary period in England and also
in America.
He especially stressed designs and media with
accent on designers.
Fowler’s little pamphlet is of great interest,
as it
was written in a convincing manner from the bookplate collec­
t o r ’s point of view.
He maintained that the natural affinity
between fine bookplates and fine books is well observed in
many cases. 2 £
A bookplate in which the personality of the
owner is the guiding influence in the
design used on the
plate is bound to create a close attachment for any book in
which the plate is used, as it adds a distinctive personal
mark of identification.
Any bookplate that is trite and
commonplace should not be used; however, different bookplates
may be made for different classifications of books in o n e ’s
collection.
Yet, all plates should be works of art.
Even a
worthless book will be allowed space on a shelf if it oossesse
2 1 H. W. Flnchman, Artists and Engravers of British and
American Bookplates (London: Kegen Paul, French, Grubner and
Company, 189 7") , 217 pp.
2 2 Alfred Fowler, The P rint Collectors’ Chronicle
(Kansas City: The Alfred Fowler Pr e s s , 19337 5 8 oo.
an artistic bookplate, v/hile a valuable book v:ith an extra­
ordinary bookplate is truly a treasured possession, he
stressed.
pg
Since J u n g e ^ is a collector of note, he offered a
book of benefit primarily to book collectors.
Aside from a
short introduction by Leroy Truman Goble, it contains fortyfive bookplates arranged by him.
Therefore,
it is of little
value to anyone other than a collector.
°
4-
Lewis I'!. S t a r t ^ has done the unusual in his book.
The title suggests the nature of its contents.
The material
has been handled with exceeding fidelity and skill, and the
arrangement is particularly pleasing.
The writer believes
he stands unrivaled in his originality of contribution to the
bookplate.
Many mottoes, quotations, and memory gems for use
on bookplates were his offering to fine arts.
He explains
that through bookplates one may trace very clearly the artis­
tic ideas and fashions of succeeding generations; he may make
a comparison of the work of various designers or study the
literary allusions and connotations which are to be found in
the design.
p rv
° Carl S . Lunge, Ex-Libris (New York: H. L. Lindquist,
publishers, 1935), 144 op.
Lewis H. Stark, English Literature as Reflected in
Bookplate Designs (Durham: University of New Hamoshire Press,
1936)7 104 oo.
A masterful piece of work was done by Talbot,25 even
though her book is distinctly regional in character.
Her
introduction was similar to others, yet only sufficiently
long to impart necessary information as a background for her
theme.
The author made her book so comprehensive, that her
effort is a genuine contribution to art.
She proceeded from
the earliest known plates in California to specific plates of
artists, authors, churchmen, professional men, hotels, li­
braries, hobbies, et cetera.
She treated each division of
plates separately and clarified each with adequate explana­
tion and example.
Bookplates of Talbot reflect the wonders of nature,
the flora and fauna of California, industrial and com­
mercial history, public libraries and institutions, pro­
fessions and avocations, personal tastes and pursuits.
Tany of her descriptions are accompanied by historical
biographical, and critical notes of much excellence.^5
Magazines lend themselves to occasional articles
written on bookplates, which are often editorials, although
a few are by artists or someone interested in art.
Norman K e n t ’s idea of bookplates today is that they
lend themselves to originality probably more than any other
branch of art.
Because cheaper methods of reproduction have
popularized the bookplate,
commercial producers put them out
25 Clare Ryan Talbot, Historic California in Book
Plates (Los Angeles: Graphic Press, 1936), o p . 287.
25 Ibid., introduction.
30
by millions and they are retailed in stationery shops.
How­
ever, they tend to fulfill their mission and will probably
induce the owner to eventually possess a really artistic
plate for his books, for he has learned to prize them more
highly through having, had some kind of a plate.
Kent says
there is no doubt in his mind that bookplates enhance the
love for books.
Rockwell Kent, one of the nation’s most outstanding
bookplate makers of this age and an author, compiled book­
plate information and book elates of his own making.
His
helps and comments are results of his own work and experi­
ments.
Kent gave methods and media of production, discus­
sions on design, bookplate collecting, and subject matter of
bookplates, treating his topic so as to interest both the
artist and the layman.
own plate.
He said,
’’Few people can create their
They need the art interpretation of a trained
artist; the influence of the designer and engraver. ^
Kent
is one of America’s most ardent supporters of the bookplate
art.
He is constantly gaining a following in the Buropean c
countries, as well as in America.
To own any of his book-
27 Norman Kent, ’’Bookolates and H a r k s ," Art Instruc­
t io n, 33: 26-27, Hay, 1 93 9/
28 Rockwell Kent, "Later Bookplates and Harks,*’ Art
Instruction, 3:29, June, 1937.
31
plates is to possess a masterpiece of art.
"The prospective owner’s chief concern about his own
bookplate, " according to Harding,
value first of all.
'’should be its artistic
He should acquaint himself with the r e ­
quirements of a bookplate and then find the artist best able
to execute those principles and
ideas.
Her belief is that
bookplates do not have to be rigidly individualistic, but may
treat old and interesting subjects in a new and different
way.
She has a great deal of confidence in the illustrator’s
ability to design bookplates, since they are accustomed to
working with minute details and have an ever-present aware­
ness of the principles of design.
She believes a bookplate
should enhance the interest of the book and increase the
satisfaction of the owner,
quite as much as the signature of
so
a dear friend would do. w
Christopher Horley published a picture of his own
bookplate,
created on dynamic symmetry, and explained why he
sought to make
. . . a bookplate different from the norm of such liter­
ary embellishment. . . I sought something that did not
have the usual ships, monks pouring over illuminated
initials, ranks of books, or pen or ink pot rampant.
At
the same time, I was after something that could have
29 Dorothy Sturgis Harding, ’’Contemporary Bookplates,’’
The American Ifetgazine of A r t , 25:110, October, 1932.
^
I b i d ., p. 111.
significance at least to me, and would not be too far­
fetched to be reasonable.31
The article had little value, but neither have many other
contributions on bookplates.
The belief of Bird
was that the artist tries techni­
cally to keep pace with the emotional sincerity and simplicity
of his viewpoint,
and yet to satisfy his client when he pre­
pares to make a plate.
Furthermore, he thought that practi­
cally any motif makes an attractive plate, so long as it is
kept simple.
is
Often the patriotism of our bookplate lovers
shown in bookplate designs which use the American flag
or the eagle.
eclecticism.
These are truly American and free from all
Bird has touched upon a thought, thus far not
found in any bookplate literature, when he said that the age
of the person for whom a plate is made should be one of the
determining considerations in the type and style of the de­
sign selected.33
Our attention has been called by Slater to the rela­
tionship between bookplates and book owners, when he says:
?Tould a nerson having a book from the library of
George Washington with his plate in it, think of destroy­
ing the book, even tho the book had little value alone?
Not at all; no matter how worthless the book might chance
31 Christopher liorley, "Genesis of a Bookplate," Satur­
day Review of Literature, 2:582-3, Karch 30, 1935.
32 ]_)]. b . Bird, "Bobbies and Professions Included in
Bookplates," Art Digest, 6:21, December, 1932.
33 i b i d ., p. 40.
33
to be, the fact that it was Washington’s and had his
bookplate in it is sufficient to insure it from any
harm.34
One is apt to scrutinize more carefully and become
more conscious of the value of books when bookplates are
used.
Books containing bookplates are regarded by the major
ity of people as a more intimate possession.
Better care is
taken of the book; fewer pages with turned-down corners re­
sult; less writing on the margins or other marring occurs;
and greater attention is paid to its return.05
Slater’s con
tribution is in the xiature of a warning to bookplate collec­
tors against removing valuable bookplates from rare books or
in placing bookplates in worthless books and demanding a hig
price for them.
III.
LITERATURE COlXEPXTNa TEXAS BOOKPLATES
With two exceptions, literature concerning Texas book
plates is in the form of a few magazine articles, so far as
the writer was able to
ascertain in her research.
Esse
Forrester O ’Brien36 has attempted to summarize the fine art
34 J. IT. Slater, ’’Bookplates of Value,” Saturday Re­
view of Literature, 11:561-2, March 30, 1935.
35 Ibid., p. 562.
36 Esse Forrester O ’Brien, Art and Artists of Texas
(Dallas: Tardy Publishing Company, 1935J, 203 pp.
34
accomplishments in Texas and has done a commendable piece of
work, dealing with painting, architecture, and sculpture.
However, the bookplate art was barely touched upon.
She
acknowledged she had not done any research in that field,
other than to visit one bookplate collector and to interview
two artists who design and in- ke plates.
She confessed a
growing interest in bookplates and plans to include then in
a revised edition of her
book.
37
?isk^8 offers to Texas people a very good book and one
of the first pertaining to Texas arts.
However, she does not
touch upon bookplate art in any way, except to mention r e ­
gional interests that bookplate designers use.
Sarah Chockla, a librarian of note, a lover and col­
lector of bookelates,
said:
There is humor in many bookplates designed for Texas.
Our own life and ideas are reflected in bookplates made
for natives and it is a good thing to see them.
The
heraldry, the crests and coats-of-arms, the conventional
1bookstock’ patterns, the inherited European symbols of
the Monastic scribe bowed over his chained book and of
the flaming lamp all exist but d e c r e a s i n g l y . 39
She stated her research covered only a small part of the
^
Personal interview with Esse Forrester O ’Brien.
38 Frances B. Fisk, A History of the Arts and A rtists
of Texas (Abilene, Texas: Fisk Publishing Company, 19 27),
198 pp.
Sarah Chockla, ’’One Texas Bookplates,” News N o t e s ,
31:37-38, January, 1935.
35
state.4 ^
To see many plates from various sections of Texas
is to know that heraldry in bookplates is almost unknown
there.
Chockla amends her statement by saying that many of
the alates in Texas are designed by amateurs with few quali­
fications for the art, which needs not only great technical
skill but also good taste.44
she has a small bookplate col­
lection and is now preparing another publication on book­
plates in Texas.
The Wilson Bulletin for Librarians42 has a number of
interesting, book rhymes, but only a few of them were found
on plates in Texas.
Bible,
Some of the inscriptions were from the
some from literature, and many anonymous rhymes, the
source of which the writer was unable to find.
In his short article, Richards said, "Some plates are
impracticable and probably undesirable to know, whether and
in what proportion, owner, artist, or manufacturer are re­
sponsible."4^
Besides these, many plate designs are too in­
tricate to be reproduced successfully.
There is nothing in
40 Ibid., p. 38.
44 loc » cit .
42 "Bookplate Rhymes," Wilson Bulletin for Librarians,
12:587:89, Hay", 1938.
42, H. R. Richards, "Charm of Bookplates,"
Journal, 63:584, August, 1938.
Library
36
particular in any of the magazine articles just mentioned
that lends direct help or interest to the subject of "Texas
Bookplates."
The review of the literature on bookplates just com­
pleted attempted to summarize the contributions of the most
important authors, both European and American,
stressing in­
cidentally the literature of Texas on the same subject.
Chapter Three will trace the historical background of book­
plates, treating their adoption in England, the American
colonies, and in the state of Texas.
CHAPTER III
HISTORICAL PACEGRCURD OF Tilt, BOOKPLATE
The origin of bookplates is indefinite.
Their appear-
ance in America is concurrent with the coming of the colon­
ists, and there is evidence that bookplates were known in
Texas as early as 1688.
I.
THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOOKPLATE
Bookplates were supposed to have originated in Ger­
many,
T,though an unsupported claim has been made that they
were used in Japan in the tenth century, and certain small
clay tablets were believed to have performed in Babylonia and
Assyria an office similar to that of the bookplate of today."1
Friedrich Warnecke of Berlin, who was one of the best
authorities on
bookplates, doubted an earlier elate than the
one found in the Carthusian Monastery of Buxheim, Germany.2
These were plates found in books presented by Brother Hilde­
brand Brandenburg to the monastery about 1480.
Some authori­
ties claim records show one older than it--the Johannes
^ Egerton Castle, "A Resume of the Historical Develop­
ment of Bookplates," Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition,
III, 861.
P
" Egerton Castle, English Bookplates (London: George
Bell and Cons, 1894), p. 17.
38
Knabensberg (called Hans Igler) chaplain of the family of
Schonstett.5 This plate was supposed to date about 1450,
while others date it about 1470-1480.4
Allen doubted that the plate of Johannes Knabensberg
was of an earlier date than the Carthusian Monastery or socalled Brandenburg elates, because the manuscript notes found
in the books containing the plates set forth details concern­
ing the gift of Brandenburg and the date.
Although there is
no proof, he believed the Hans Igler plate is of the same
date as the others,
since to doubt it would be to doubt an
historically true fact.
Both of these plates were wood-cuts:
the Brandenburg plate represents a shield of arms supported
by an angel and was hand-painted, while the Hans Igler plate
was of canting style.
Slater5 doubted the existence of a
bookplate of an earlier date than 1516.
Abrecht Durer made a
plate for Jerome Ebner and for Bilibald Pirckheimer about the
year 1524.5
The first bookplates of any great importance, so far
as design was concerned, were heraldic, the primary purpose
° Charles Dexter Allen, Ex-Libris (New York: The Mac ­
millan Company, 1903), p. xiii.
" Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition, III, 867.
U
Slater, Bookplates and Their Value (London:
Henry Sant, 1898) , o. 12.
5 I bi d ., a . 14.
*XQ
of which was to show ownership.
Every person of much im­
portance had his bookplate, the only method used to denote
■possession of a book.
The armorial plates, or the coat-of-arms, became very
popular.
As everyone understood the science of heraldry,
all plates were unsigned.
Jousts and tournaments furnished
n
many backgrounds for coats-of-arms.
That a man might wish
to put his crest in his books can readily be understood, for
they were individualistic and often highly pictorial and
attractive.
The German elates, being wood-cuts, were very elabor­
ate, massive, and lacking in artistic form, until Albrecht
Durer, who is sometimes called "the father of bookplates,"
gave his attention to making them works of art.
known plate was in 1516.
His earliest
Hardy explained:
Ever since Durer put his impress upon them, the orna­
mentation of bookplates has been an important feature,
and while their first purpose is to indicate the owner­
ship of the book in which they are pasted or bound, they
may by perfection of design and execution give pleasure
as works of art.^
Those people not permitted to bear the coat-of-arms
and not of the nobility began applying decorations and orna-
^ P. Neville Earnett, Pictorial Book-Plates (Sydney:
The Beacon Press, 1931), p. 6.
k T. J. Hardy, Bookplates (London: Iiegan Paul, French,
Trubner, and Company, Ltd., 1897), p. 39.
40
ments with their name for use on bookplates.
They often
omitted the Latin motto or used one familiar to everyone.
The subject matter of bookplates from this time up to the
present has offered the designer a broad scope for the exer­
cise of his genius.
France imitated Germany in the use of bookplates, but
not before the middle of the seventeenth century.
Since
they tended to over-ornament their designs, they were con­
sidered inferior to those of Germany.~
England adopted the use of armorial plates by the end
of the sixteenth century.
They showed the coat-of-arms and
the name and motto of the owner, with decorations to repre­
sent the slashed mantle of the helmet or the various styles
typical
to heraldry.
Cardinal Folsey, the prelate who
helped Kenry VIII rid himself of some of his wives, had the
first known plate in E n g l a n d . ^
The Jacobean style was heavy
and massive and bi-symmetrical in design.
However, it was
used extensively until Chippendale's new development in de­
sign furnished a graceful effect and a revolution in book­
plate art.
He used fruit, flowers, and pictorial patterns,
and thereafter all English bookplate designs were original
Cj H. Dolmetsch, Historic Styles of Ornament (London:
B. T. Eatsford, 1905), pp. 19-22.
J. Leicester Warren, A Guide to the Study of Book­
plates (London: John Pearson, 1680), p. 116.
41
and individual, thus causing a great advancement in book11
plate designing, ■
Holland and Italy also used plates but
were never very original in design and production.
Great rivalry developed between the leading countries
in bookplate production.
hurled at each other.
There were claims of eclecticism
However, according to Barnett, the
question was definitely determined that Germany was the home
of the first plate and that each country could accept the
idea and develop it according to selected methods . ^
II.
EARLY BOOKPLATES IN AMERICA
The first bookplates in America were brought over from
England by the colonists.
Today, these plates are important
as memories of the old families,
heraldic.
since they are usually pure
That type of bookplate represented the aspirations
of a class of people, conscious of the attainments of the
preceding culture under the monarchies, and it was considered
an achievement to possess the right to its u s e . ^
Allen
11 I b i d ., p. 130.
12 I b i d ., p. 171.
■LO Barnett, op_. cit ., p. 14.
14 Charles Dexter Allen, American Bookplates (New York:
The Hacmillan Company, 1905), pp. 16-24.
42
further states:
Armorial plates have long been in questionable taste
for American families and today must be.taken, on the
whole, as a simple but mediaeval relic.
It will never
be separable from the pageantry of ancient symbolism and
never again will it have the status it once had in the
European countries.15
The colonists that moved southward in America sent to
England for their bookplates, as they preferred the skilled
workmanship of their native country.
The bookplates of the
colonists who remained in the east were made by Americanborn artists, whose technical excellence soon surpassed the
abilities of the trained engravers in Europe.1^
From the eastern part of America, bookplates not only
spread to the south, but also westward, and soon became
naturalized to all parts of the United States.
The art of
engraving developed rapidly and the workmen became so skilled,
they soon supplied the demand for those who had previously
sent abroad for their plates . ^
Paul Revere stands out as
the first important engraver in America; although he made
only a few plates, his are some of the rarest specimens in
America today. 15
15 Ibid., p. 217.
16
17
Allen, op), cit. , p. 126.
Vvarren, ojp. cit.., p. 207.
Edward Almac'k, ’’Bookplates," Little Books on Art
(Chicago: A. C. 1'cClurg and Company, 1910) ,~~p. 114.
The earliest date on a known American plate by an
American engraver is 1749, which is on the Thomas Deering
plate.
It was engraved by Nathaniel Hurd, who also designed
the bookplate for Harvard College.-^
The bookplate of George
ashington is generally believed to have been made in Lngland, but some authors
doubt it, since the armorial de­
sign is imperfect from the standpoint of heraldry.
Others
believe it to have been executed by American workmen who were
not thoroughly acquainted with coats-of-arms and c r e s t s . ^
The design of the plate consists of the Washington coat-ofarms on a shell-like shield with the sprays and rose branches
of the Chippendale style surrounding it.
plate is the motto,
means,
^t the base of the
"Exitus Acta Probat," which translated
"The Result Justifies the Deed."
in script at the bottom.
His name is engraved
It was from Washington’s plate that
the national crest of the United States was made A 2
The Revolution in America retarded the development of
Ibid., pp. 114-5.
^
Allen, on. cit . , p. 62; Almack, cro. cit. , p. 109.
^ C. P. Rollins and Gilbert K. Troxell, "Bookplates
and Marks," Saturday Review of Literature, 5:1166, July 6,
1929.
Helen FA Richards, "The Charm of Bookplates,”
Library Journal, 63:587, August, 1938.
44
the bookplate art.
With its close and the restoration of
peace many books were published, so naturally bookplates
came into use again.
Most of the designs were composed of
patriotic emblems reflecting the spirit of the times.
Bookplate making in America has had its biggest growth
since 1870.
It began first as a semi-popular hobby, but as
soon as the traditional styles of using the urn, shields,
and ornate scrolls were supplanted by the newer, modern de­
signs, great interest and progress was m a d e .^
The Ex-Libris
Society was organized in London in 1890 with memberships
from all over the world and in 1913 the American Bookplate
Society was formed, with a great number joining from many
countries.
The National Society of Bookplate Collectors also
organized with the central office in Washington, D. C . ^
Through these organizations, much interest and encouragement
has been offered to bookplate lovers.
III.
B00EPL4TL3 PERTINENT TO TEXAS
Bookplate art in Texas is largely in the form of
social expression.
Most of the people have developed the
idea that art is an integral part of their life; is as im-
^ W. Or. Bowdoin, The Rise of the Bookplate (New York:
A. Vessels Company, 1901), P • 327.
Alfred Bowler, The Print Collectors* Chronicle,
Vol. I, No. 1, p. 6, (no dat~e j.
45
op
;
portant to them as their religion or e xi s t e n c e . ^
The value
of bookplates, other than the utilitarian purpose, rests in
their power to recall associations, pleasant memories, or
vital experiences.
The Texans are neither emotional nor
sentimental to excess, yet they are endowed with a keen sense
of appreciation for the natural beauty of the state and for
the close friendship existing within it.2S
The bookplate, as a cultural feature, has been of
short duration in Texas.
The earliest bookplate symbol known
is in the Castenada collection in Austin, where a plate is
0*7
believed by its owner to be dated 1 6 8 8 . This plate was
brought to Texas, supposedly long before its annexation.
It
is of Spanish origin, with a design burned on the paper
similar to a brand.
So few knew of its existence,
that its
influence on the people was unimportant.
Many heraldic plates, dated as early as the beginning
of the eighteenth century,
are in possession of Texans.
Few
heraldic plates are actually designed there, end only then
by a special commission.
One artist, preparing to do a modi­
fied armorial plate, said she had a reverence for the tradi-
20 J . Don Hughes,
collector in Texas.
S. D. Cleveland, artist, Amarillo, Texas.
27 Don Gonzales, librarian and collector, Austin, Texas.
Interview with Don Gonzales.
4-6
tionsl, but did not place much significance on it, other
than to use it as a basis from which she might judge her own
creations.^'
Several plates in collections of Texans show a
combination of borrowings from the past, yet so well adapted
to Texas, they appear localized.
The flora and fauna of the state furnish most inter­
esting designs.
The blue bonnet, which is the state flower,
is often used, but the black and white etching cannot do
justice to it, as its beauty lies largely in its coloring.
The milkweed,
sun flower, daisy, buttercup, Indian head,
cotton bloom, prickly pear, and yucca are most commonly used.
The coyote,
jack rabbit, burro, and horse are not used so
often, but lend themselves readily to purposes of design.30
Regardless of their location, bookplate designs have
undergone no radical change since their origin in Germany,
nearly five hundred years ago.
In spite of the numerous
variations in subject matter, and the return of most artists
to the traditional types for suggestions in modified forms,
Texas bookplates,
involving their own peculiarities and satu­
rated with motifs typical of the southwest, remain bookplates
QG
Mrs. 11. G. Howe, Shamrock, .Texas, designing plate
for C. G. Milner, Virginia.
zn
J. Don Hughes has incorporated into his bookplate
design a hunting scene in the timbered region of the south­
western part of the state.
47
in their truest form and continue the historically signifi­
cant principles that were established long ago.
IV.
GEOGRAPHICAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS AS AN
INFLUENCE ON BOOKPLATES IN TEXAS
Four of the seven great physiographic divisions of
the North American continent meet in Texas: the Atlantic and
Gulf of Mexico coastal plains,
the broad mid-western prair­
ies, the flat western plains, and the Rocky Mountains.
state has been called,
"a continent in miniature.
The
Here
also, the two great cultures of the two iAmericas meet: the
Latin culture of Central and South Aperies and the AngloSaxon culture of North America,
a s
a result, the state is
colorful and fascinating.
Texas is dotted with many points of historic interest:
Nacogdoches, which was often the storm center of the struggle
between the Texas colonists and Mexico, has several reminders
of events, taking place at that time; the Old Stone Fort,
once the seat of Mexican power in North Texas; Old North
Church, used continuously for over a hundred years; and many
stone markers of pioneer burial spots, especially the one of
Robert E. Lee; Gan Lacinto battle field with its monument
that towers 567 feet into the air; the Alamo; the State
^ 1. F. Gheffey, Canyon, Texas, head of the history
department, West Texas State College, in a class lecture.
Capitol in Austin, for which three million acres of land was
traded;
and Ochiltree State Park, which is the ’’Buried City”
of the prehistoric Pueblo Indians of the Panhandle, a lost
race.
These, with many other interesting features have been
influencing factors in the fine arts of Texas and are re­
flected in the bookplate designs.
The buildings, housing the historic relics, papers,
and fine arts, are located principally in San Antonio,
Austin, Houston, and Dallas.
Such places rich in these
treasured remains are the Indian Museum of Natural History,
Confederate Museum, Texas Historical Museum, Elizabeth Ney
Museum, which also contained the workshop of Mrs. Ney, one
of the w o r l d ’s foremost sculptors, Texas Memorial and Pine
Arts Museum, the 0 ’Henry Museum, constructed in memory of
the famous short story writer, and the Witte Museum.
These
are not only famous from a historical standpoint, but house
some of the wo r l d ’s most valuable masterpieces in fine arts,
including bookplate collections.
The libraries in Texas contain many rare volumes of
rl o
world renown.0**' These, too, have been the basis for many
bookplate designs and inscriptions.
The environment of the Texas artist is also colored
The Browning Collection, Waco, Texas; and 0 ’H e n r y ’s
library, Austin, Texas.
with a romantic atmosphere in the life of the Spanish peo­
ple,
including the many old Spanish Missions,
"Little Old
Mexico," and the "Old French Colony," which are visited
daily by thousands of people in San Antonio.
The review in this chapter of the historical back­
ground of the bookplate touched upon their origin in Germany,
their adoption in England, and their introduction into Amer­
ica.
The bookplates of Texas were discussed,
showing the
influence of the geographical and cultural factors of the
state.
In Chapter Four the designs of bookplates in Texas
will be introduced.
^
Oleo Moody,
journalist, Austin, Texas.
CHAPTER IV
METHODS iiND MEDIA. USED IN BOOKPLATES
By ’’methods and media” is meant the materials, tools,
and processes of production.
Various media which may be
used in the craft of bookplate making will now be enumerated,
including etching, wood-cuts, pen drawing, linoleum blocks,
lithography, blue prints, and silhouettes.
According to lunge,-*- intelligence is the primary re­
quisite of the craftsman,
since his skill is acquired only
after long years of practice.
Prom the artist’s point of
view the problem in making a small bookplate is that unless
the simplest designs are used, they will be insignificant in
the final print.
(Illustrations 67a and 67b)
The interdependence of medium and design is the first
consideration in bookplate making.
Artists still adhere to
the Greek principles in that respect:
what it can do best;
capacity;
(1) Make your medium do
(2) D o n ’t strain your medium beyond its
(3) Do not attempt with one medium what another can
do better or more easily; and (4) D o n ’t imitate one medium'
with another.^
Carl 3. lunge, Ex-Libris (New York: E. L. Lindquist,
publisher, 1935), p. 119.
^ George H. Opdyke, Art and Nature Appreciation (New
York: The Macmillan Company, 1934), o. 21.
51
There is no f,bestff medium for bookplates.
cess has its advantages and disadvantages.
Every pro­
The chosen pro­
cess of each artist can arid does divulge his mastery of the
medium.
Through experimentation artists discover the medium
which they can handle most effectively.
It is not the
medium that determines the charm of a bookplate as much as
the handling of it.
Inferior methods of modern processes of
reproduction often spoil the workmanship of the artist.
Today, with the tendency toward cheapness and economy, too
little attention is paid to the process by which designs are
produced.
The effect is poor when compared with impressions
obtained from wood-cuts and copper plates.
Etching.
Probably the most common medium used in mak­
ing bookplates is the etching.
It is well adapted for the
purpose because of its sensitivity and delicacy in dark and
light, which harmonizes with the printed page.
Copper plates
are used with the greatest success, but even they have their
limitations,
since with repeated pressure the intaglio line
becomes weakened and the value of the design lessened.
3. D.
Cleveland says that printing a bookplate is an art within it-
cz
An artist showed the writer a collection of twentynine plates made many years ago.
Three designs had been
produced in various mediums to determine the field in which
his greatest excellence lay.
self, difficult and requiring great precision.^
The copper
plates of S. D. French and 1. W. Spenceley are considered to
be the most artistic and best executed bookplates produced
in America,
However,
"they do not have much leeway on the
plates produced by Frank Klepper arid Alexander Hogue of
Dallas.” 5 A plate by Bernhardt Wall (Illustration 11) shows
etching well done.
Engraving.
A severe manifestation of the same quali­
ties found in an etching becomes an engraving.
direct method, requiring ultimate control,
a clear, clean, final result.
It is a
if it is to yield
As it is usually done on steel,
the engraver is limited by the nature of that medium.
This
type of en ravin ; is of rather recent date, as is the zinc
plate, and neither are durable.
(Illustration 59)
Fre­
quently a blur is caused by the soft engraving material.
Wood-c uts.
There is a ruggedness and freshness about
wood-cuts which cannot be exceeded.
Though similar to etch­
ing, its subtleties can be seen without difficulty.
It is
especially pertinent in books older than the middle of the
4 3. D. Cleveland, artist, Amarillo, Texas.
5 I. Don Hughes, collector, personal interview.
nineteenth century, for its charming irregularity harmonizes
with the uneven format of those early plates.
In their big­
ness and boldness and simplicity (Illustrations 72 and 73)
they are usually conventional in design and dignified in
appearance.
Hediurn-hard wood is preferable to
the soft.
Not many plates of this type were located in Texas.
E. G-.
Eisenlohr says regarding wood engraved plates, much of that
"sweetness” found elsewhere in plates is eliminated.^
Pen drawing.
Nome artists'
think pen drawings are
amateurish and do not recommend them for bookplates, however,
Fowler^ finds them suitable for that purpose.
adopted one for her use.
(Illustration 27)
Helen Anderson
After a compari­
son of media is made, it will easily be recognized that tex­
ture and surfaces fall within the range of linear expression.
The combination of precision and flexibility should determine
fineness in the pen drawing.
Since it is an art of line, it
is therefore best when supple and swift.
Being capable of
detail it combines with washes or patterned areas of dark,
giving 8 vigorous effect.
It is perhaps not so likely to fit
the design of the "type" as some of the previously mentioned
media, but it is easily produced and inexpensively so, since
k E. G. Eisenlohr, artist, Dallas, Texas.
n
S. D. Cleveland, Amarillo, Texas; Harold Bugbee,
Clarendon, Texas; Carl Svenson, Lubbock, Texas.
^ Alfred Fowler, Bookplates for Beginners (Kansas City
The Alfred Fowler Press ,”"19 35), oT 16.
^
54
it is printed in the photo-engraver's medium.
All desired effects are treated differently and de­
mand from the craftsman in line different kinds of suggestive
expressions, which can easily be attained.
Opdyke advises
one to look for three qualities in a pen drawing to obtain
the greatest enjoyment:
(1) "The representational or de­
scriptive quality of line;
(2) The decorative or aesthetic
quality; and (3) The emotional quality.""
In line drawings
of pen and ink one may see no end of form, values, movement
and even atmospheric effects.
Isabel Robinson of Canyon,
Texas, is noted for her pen drawings.
Linoleum block.
(Illustration 1C)
If in the hands of an artist of taste,
linoleum block printing retains the best qualities of the
wood-block medium.
However, the temptation it offers by its
softness to indulge in elaborate detail, must be resisted.
It has within itself something of the rough imrnediary of the
wood-block, the rather coarse printing texture and the rough
linear edge.
Linoleum blocks have been the solution for
those who wanted a less expensive plate.
They also offer a
medium the less-experienced artist can use, as it is possible
for the veriest tyro to design a simple plate and do his own
printing.
^ George K. Opayke, on. c i t . , p. 391.
55
Lithography.
In making lithography bookplates a
grease crayon is used in any desired color on a metal or
paper surface and then printed.
of all graphic arts.
It is the most direct method
The design grows so slowly, that changes
can easily be made as desired.
and mellow when printed.
The tones are broad and soft,
These plates are often retouched in
colors, but are preferable in the natural tones.
Lithograph
plates are suave and rich, and possess the most ingratiating
texture of all.
Blue print.
The primary use of blue prints is in
connection with children’s plates.
Beginners in
bookplate
designing and even children produce some attractive designs
by this method.
It is also possible to make the plate, so
that different lettering can be applied as desired.
Silhouettes.
The process dates back to the Comptroller
General of France, lionsieur Etienne, whose family name was
Silhouette.
Only those artists seeking the unusual produce
silhouette bookplates.
They
are uncommon in Texas, as
the
procedure is a tedious
one.
The real joy of this type
of
plate rests in finding
something new and self-satisfying and
not in copying a thing
which has been previously done.
The characteristics of various methods and media em­
ployed in the craft of bookplate making have been briefly
described.
The possibilities for variety have been found to
56
be endless.
The following chapter will take up the subject
of bookplate collections in Texas, both from the standpoint
of the collector and the artist.
CHAPTER V
BOOKPLATE DESIGNS IN TEXAS
Designs on bookplates cannot be appreciated without a
detailed explanation of the principles employed by the artist.
Following definitions of some technical terms, the objects of
bookplates will be enumerated.
At the close of the chapter
additional uses for bookplates will be mentioned.
Art qualities.
Bookplate designs may embody any chosen
motif, depending upon the designerfs skill and individual ap­
proach.
Many ideas adapt themselves to design more readily
than others, and under ordinary circumstances should be used
by the average draftsman.
The principles of design employed
in bookplate making are the same as those involved in other
uses of design.
There are two important divisions of design:
(1) the clastic; and (2) the chromatic.
upon light-and-shade for its effect.
The plastic depends
The chromatic division
depends uoon color and is the one applied to most bookplates
in black and white.
Subdivisions of design are classified as:
(l) Natural­
istic , which comes direct from nature, or can readily by rec­
ognized because of its similarity to the original object;
(2) Conventional, in which the natural forms are slightly re­
moved from realism, being a purposed modification which
58
transforms the original motif to produce a decorative effect;
(3)
Geometric, when the natural shapes of the motif have been
made to conform with the mathematical figure; and (4) Abstract,
the product of a fanciful imagination, wherein the artist has
used a motif which cannot be recognized.4
Designs may be used in several ways on bookplates.
The border patterns are very common, as are the radiating
lines which often form the background for borders.
over pattern is not in common usage on plates.
The all-
Balance, har­
mony , and rhythm are the three pure factors in all design
and the first consideration of all artists.~
The decoration of a bookplate refers to the ornamentarz
tion or embellishment placed upon it.
Artists are careful
to keep it subordinate to the main design of the plate.
Some
ornamentation is acceptable, but when applied there must be
a close relationship between the material purpose of its use
and the form on which it is applied, as well as the style of
the plate.4
Ornamentation is an important item when consid-
ing the reproduction of a bookplate, since the design must
Franz 3. Meyer, Handbook of Ornament (Leipsic:
Oswald Hutze, 9th edition” 19 37”)”, pp. 78-104.
O
Ben Carlton Mead, artist, Amarillo, Texas.
A. D. F. Hamlin, A History of Ornament (New York:
The Century Company, 1916), p. 5. .
4
Bessie Landers, artist and librarian, Dallas,
Texas.
59
adapt itself to the possibilities of the medium, whether an
etching, wood-cut,
engraving, pen and ink, or linoleum block.
Because of the size of a bookplate, it must be the concen­
trated essence of design.0
There is such a vast amount of
interesting detail in plates without the necessity of over­
crowding.
Howard Walker has said,
To keep it
simple, and yet to express much, to make it
detailed and not involved, to have it decoratively de­
signed without its being mannered, is to achieve no mean
accomplishment.^
Art qualities,
including space relationships, which
is one of the most important elements of design, are consid­
ered old-fashioned by some recent artists, who are followers
7
of the "isras," but the majority of artists in Texas conform
to the well-established art principles.
Functionalism.
The main object of a bookplate is
functionalism.
To perform such a duty, it must be placed in
a conveniently
conspicuous place, which is usually the lower
left-hand corner of the inside front cover of a book.
In
order that the name might be easily seen, the paper of book-
Dorothy 3. Harding, "Contemporary Bookplates,"
American ITagazine of A r t , 25:221, October, 1932.
k Howard V.hlker, quoted by Harding, loc. cit.
^ W. 3. Sparrow;, "Bookplates Designed by R. A. Bell,"
Bookplate Annual for 1925 (Kansas City: Alfred Fowler Press),
p. 23.
plates is usually white or cream in color, with block letters
on it.
The word "ex-libris” is often omitted, giving more
room for the owner’s name or for an interesting design, which
is a most important feature in bookplate art.
However, a
plate should never be so elaborately designed, nor so exten­
sively ornamented as to make the name of secondary imoortance. Hopkins says, "Bookplates are not mere ornaments but
f
adornments of the valurn.es for which they were designed.”0
From study and observation
the writer believes a plate can
be both ornamental and functional.
Esther Griffin White, who
has done research on bookplates states,
"Nany are the artis­
tic sins committed in the name of bookplates as they are
neither beautiful n o r ,useful.
Lettering bears such an important relation to a bookolate
that there is as much need for the designer of book­
plates to be skilled in the art of lettering, as there is in
his efficiency as a designer.
It, too, is an art that can be
gained only through serious study and practice.
With mastery
of form, has to come the ability to adapt letters in size,
space, and in accordance with the design.
Lettering can in­
clude as much variety and originality as the pictorial design,
o
w. F. Hopkins (Dean of Timerican Bookplate Artists),
The Saturday Review of Literature, 5:1168, July 6, 1929.
9 Esther Griffin White, Indiana Bookplates (Richmond,
Indiana: Nicholson Press, 1910), o. 5.
61
if one becomes sufficiently familiar with it.
A plate em­
bodying a simple name with the letters of a highly decora­
tive character makes as valuable a plate as one highly de­
signed.10
A reference to the personality, characteristics,
or profession of the owner isunnecessary on
plate
this type of
to make it meaningful. Some bookplate owners prefer
to have a highly ornamental plate with a blank space for the
name, into which they may write their own name.
Plates that
dispense with lettering entirely are scarcely successful as
11
bookplates.
Eugene Field once said:
Whenever I see a book which bears its owner’s plate
I
feel myself obliged to treat that book with special
consideration.
It carries with it a certificate of its
mas t er ’s love.12
To function to the fullest extent, a plate should have both
the visual and the intellectual appeal.
Additional uses for bookplate designs.
Bookplates
have been in existence for hundreds of years and have been
used for the same purpose to which they are put today.
A
very recent adaptation of their use is gaining prestige
rapidly.
Many owners of plates today are having them printed
10 Helen Anderson, artist, Corpus Christi, Texas.
11 Stella Heilman, artist, Houston, Texas.
10 K. R. Richards, '’Charm of Bookplates,” Library
Journal, 63:584, August, 1938.
62
on larger pieces of paper for framing, in order to hang them
on the wall in the same way as any finished etching.
Occa-
1 rz
sionally they are tinted with water colors, °
Stationery for
personal use may have a miniature stamp of the bookplate
placed upon it, instead of the long-used monogram.
Some
printing establishments run special advertisements,
stating
they are equipped to reproduce plates in this way.-^
Many
calling cards are decorated with a small bookplate on the
side opposite the name.
Bookplates are sometimes used for
the decorative unit on Christmas cards or may be employed
just as the personal signature would be used.l^
Bookplates
made use of in these different ways do not bear the word,
”Ex-Libris."
Hope believes,
When a plate is not too personal, it is a fine way to
use a bookplate.
For it to express o n e ’s special de­
lights or love for books and authors, or if the design
is a joy within itself, it is a good thing to do.
It
places a peculiar value on the bookplate, but it will
never become more than a fad.
The foregoing discussion of the principles of design
employed in making bookplates included an explanation of the
13
Texas art patrons: K. Dixon, Max and Evelyn Hickson,
Amarillo; and Ilary Kathryn Randall, El Paso.
Stationery establishments in Bishop and San Antonio,
T exas.
Anna Drought and Pearl Zimmerman, San Antonio, Texas.
^
C. J. Hope, artist, Texas.
63
plastic and chromatic art qualities, together with their
subdivisions.
Both functionalism and attractive lettering
were considered of importance in increasing the value of
bookplates.
Some additional uses for them mentioned were
greeting and calling cards.
The following chapter will pre­
sent the subject matter upon which the Texan designs are
based.
CHAPTER VI
SUBJECT MATTER OF TE^CAS BOOKPLATES
Historic Texas has produced an endless variety of
subject matter in bookplates, the nature of which may be:
allegorical, symbolical, armorial, heraldic, historical,
geographical, pictorial,
emotional, humorous, architectural
avocational, athletic,, or philosophical.
Following a de­
scription of these various types of bookplates, the chapter
will present some bookplate rhymes and inscriptions.
Bookplates have informational merit, as well as an
element of permanent human interest, because the life and
ideas of the natives are reflected in thou.
Magonigle says
"Art is a positive index of the character of races, nations
individuals, and epochs."
Since their designs cover such a
broad scope of subject matter meaningful to Texans, book­
plates will help preserve for posterity the most colorful
and interesting incidents and possessions of Texas.
Allegorical and symbolical.
Two of the favorite
forms of bookplate designs, which are successfully used by
many artists are the allegorical and symbolical.
These
C. E. Magonigle, The Na t u r e , Practice, and History
of Art (Mew York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1924), p. 95.
plates are a natural development of the Jacobean and Chip­
pendale styles, where cherubs, angels, mermaids,
satyrs,
Pan, or figures of women were used to break up the previous
dignified and stiff designs.
Classical literature and myth­
ology also furnished additional figures, as Don Quixote,
Shakespearean characters, Neptune, Diana, Apollo, Mercury,
and other legendary figures.
Sometimes the entire design is
composed of the literary characters or occasionally they are
only alluded to through the portrayal of a literary incident.
There may not be more than a phrase from some masterpiece
appearing on the bookplate, as a motto, or the whole design
of the plate may illustrate a quotation.
In either case,
p
the literary connotation is definitely established.
Often
these literary allusions are used individually or in combina­
tion with entirely different motifs.
The allegorical plate
covers a wide range of ideas with definitely original treat­
ment.
In some cases, the only inference to literature would
be a design of a pile of books.
The allegorical plate is the
least definite of all the styles.
It includes a large number
of inconsistent designs of disorderly bookpiles or manuscript
or maybe the portrait of an author.
The bookstack was es­
pecially popular with the early Americans and is often used
^ Lewis M. Stark, English Literature as Reflected in
Bookplate Designs (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press,
1936 J, p . 4.
by the Texans today.
Bowdoin thinks,
"The allegorical plate
has a certain blandishment, but it is often weighed in the
3
balance and found wanting.”
A plate rich in literary al­
lusions appears in Illustration 3.
Symbolism offers another field of exploration and one
that is probably used more than any other style of bookplate
in Texas.
It is distinguished by a figurative design, in
which the principal subject is disclosed by another subject
resembling it in its properties and circumstances.
"Book­
plates can be carried to the highest plane with all its im­
agery of intricate details, its classic, ecclesiastic or
artistic suggestions or made as simple and direct as de­
sired .
The effectiveness of symbolism is shown in Illus­
tration 4.
The owner of the plate is the publisher of a
newspaper called The Torch.
A symbolic plate possesses an
interest beyond that of mere design or ownership.
Armorial and heraldic.
The first generally adopted
style of bookplates were armorial and heraldic.
They have
been in common usage in European countries since the day of
their origin in Germany until recent years.
They are still
^ W. G. Bowdoin, The Rise of the Bookplate (New York:
A. Wessels Company, 1901), p . 40.
^ Charles Dexter Allen, School Arts Book (New York:
A. Wessels Company, 1905), p. 201.
67
used in a modified degree and with a changed pattern.
Since
1870 the mode has been to portray certain personal traits
and characteristics, which it is impossible to do in armor
and heraldry.
With few exceptions, the bookplate collectors
in Texas are possibly the only ones who study this type of
design, most of them acquiring only a rudimentary knowledge
of the art of heraldry.
As the Latin mottoes on heraldic
plates are not understood by the majority of Texans, a large
part of the enjoyment is missed, making it objectionable as
a design.
Where a revived interest is displayed in heraldry,
chivalry, the armored knight and the steed, bookplates are
largely responsible.
If a suggestion of true heraldry is
used, it is made subordinate to the general scheme.
It be­
comes merely an item, rather than a central and conspicuous
feature, as shown in Illustration 5.
Historical and geographical.
The modern bookplate is
often an index to the character of its possessor, usually in­
dicating his main interests and through them his own person­
ality and surroundings.
Many bookplates in Texas are purely
regional in character, as seen in Illustrations 6 and 7.
Representative designs symbolic of pioneer Texas are the
5
J. A. Phelan and Son, collectors of Beaumont, Texas.
68
cactus, bleached steer skulls, branding irons, and men on
horseback.
Here the natural characteristics and settings
are important factors in the designs.
Plates of this type
appeal through their personal, historical, and geographical
association, as exemplified in Illustrations 8 and 9.
asks,
Mainer
"Is a bookplate a v^ork of art or a piece of history?
In spite of all that skilled designers and cunning workers
in metals may say, the majority of people will probably value
most what for want of a better name may be called the histori
cal aspect.”
plates.
Illustrations 8 and 9 belong to this group of
The Mexican influence is most noticeable through the
use of the missions and occasionally the "sombrero” and
"zarape.”
Pictorial and emotional.
is the pictorial or emotional.
A most popular type of plate
For them the artist creates
a design that is sufficient in itself, without the necessity
for reading into it a further meaning.
Many of these plates
are mere pictures, pretty, even distinctly pleasing.
They
seem easy to design, as many artists have an aptitude for
pictorial expression.
Often they have no real connection
with their use in books as distinguishing marks of personal
ownership.
Sometimes their subjects are real and sometimes
r*
° C. J. Walner, "Nature of Bookplates,” International
Studio, 86:74, January, 1927.
69
imaginary or elaborate, as may be seen in Illustrations 10
and 11.
In bookplates, fantasies are accepted as commonplace;
so in this type "Art reveals Nature by interpreting its
intentions and formulating its desires."^
Moore says,
Bernice Starr
"Pictorial bookplates have an aesthetic value and
even tho we may be unconscious of the fact, beautiful things
have a refining influence upon the mind."®
The plates which
are emotional and sentimental seem to reflect some of the
predominant characteristics of Texas people.
"Some bookplates
show sentimentality and emotionalism, combined with sophisti­
cation of design, which makes it both charming and dramatic."^
Two plates the writer collected, belonging to this type and
deserving mention for their designs, are shown in Illustra­
tions IS and 13.
Canting .
in design.
style.
The canting type of plate is often humorous
One of the first bookplates made was of this
The slogan read, "Hans Igler das dich ein Igel Eus,"
7
Helen E. Richards, "Charm of Bookplates," Library
Journal, 63:584, August, 1938.
p
Bernice Starr Moore, People and Art (New York: Allyn,
Bacon and Company, 1932), p. iii.
J E. B. Bird, "Hobbies and Professions Included in
Bookplates," Art Digest, 6:21, December, 1932.
which was a play upon the o wner’s n a m e .
As "Igler” means
hedgehog in German, Igler designed a pictorial hedgehog as a
motif for the p l a t e . Some canting plates use the profes­
sion of the owner in design to produce a humorous effect.
If
done in a pictorial manner, they are not always as easily in­
terpreted as Igler*s.
A distasteful canting plate, such as
the one shown in Illustration 14, should be avoided.
A de­
sign can express the owner in a variety of ways just as
oleasingly as those seen in Illustrations 15 and 16.
Architectural.
Probably the most dignified type of
design for a man is an architectural plate.
The representa­
tion of the o w ner’s home, his university, or perhaps a library
exterior is a plate that one feels at once is at home in the
books of the owner and nov/here else.
Illustrations 17, 18,
and 19 impart an air of masculinity that the pictorial plate
cannot give.
After the passing of the pure armorial period
in bookplate history, architects influenced and made many
bookplates.
Among the most important of them are: Chambers,
Adam Brothers, Wedgwood, Hepplewhite, Chippendale, and
Sheraton.
Architectural plates, not only show a mastery of
Egerton Castle, "A Resume of the Historical Develop­
ment of Bookplates,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition,
III, 861.
71
skill, but are pleasing and distinctive.H
Hobbies.
Bookplates which illustrate hobbies can be
quite as interesting as those vhich depict symbolism or any
other of the main types.
The examination of a rather repre­
sentative group of "Hobby” plates revealed that the designs
reflect no little ingenuity and artistic ability.
The best
examples of this type of plate, not only showed the hobby
graphically and distinctly, but in a manner designed to add
artistic and aesthetic value to a specific type of entertain­
ment, such as shown in Illustrations 20 and 21.
The same
may be said of the bookplate in Illustration 22, in which
the stage, music, and literature are represented.
Sports,
as
a motif for bookplate designs, sport is
certainly one type of art expression where inspiration and
appeal, rather than imitation is used today.
These designs
depict art as a human activity and because of this, they
readily engage the attention of large groups of people.
The
topography of Texas is such that the mountains, streams,
deep forests, and animal life provide many types of sports,
which lend themselves readily to bookplate designs.
Illus­
tration 23 shows a plate referring to a hunter plodding
through a wooded section, while Illustration 25 depicts the
^ R. C. Morgan, an editorial, Bookplate Annual for
1922 (Kansas City: The Alfred Fowler P r e s s ), p. 87.
72
fisherman.
They are familiar forms of relaxation and com­
pensation of the tired business man or the professional per­
son, whose daytime hours might be mundane;
but whose leisure
acquires special value through close association with nature.
Philosophical.
picture of its owner.
A bookplate may be a philosophical
Y'ebb says that bookplates are an ex­
tension of personalities into other times.
After death many
are soon forgotten, but the bookplate lives on.
Collectors
know through their bookplates the entire lives and history
of many people.
In this respect the bookplate is a memorial
that displays o n e ’s inner outlet and should be treasured most
for the things of eternal value in it.-1-^
Editors of a volume
on bookplates state:
A happy future is dawning for the bookplate and the
time must quickly come when no lover, worthy the name,
can deny himself a work of art to link him with his book,
long after his eyes shall read and his hands embrace it
no more. . . . It should not be a picture of the master1s
crest, or his coat, his portrait, his house or his
library, but a line between his own personality and the
treasure it adorns— a sign for other eyes, by which the
one in possession will hold forever a sort of a spiritual
respect^and recognize in it the characteristics of the
owner.
An individual may possess more than one plate, in
lames Y/ebb, artist and bookplate engraver, Los
Angeles, California.
Bookplates by Frangwyn, edited by Edin Phillpott
and E. II. Hubbard, p. 7.
which is embodied some teaching to pass on to humanity.
There is no more reason why all bookplates should be the
same in all books than that all the books in one library
should be bound a l i k e . T h a t
the successful bookplate
should possess an interest beyond one of mere design or
ownership has been definitely determined throughout this re­
search.
Some bookplate rhymes and inscriptions.
Mottoes or
inscriptions on bookplates in Texas were usually subordinate
to the main design.
The length of the motto determined the
size of the letters to be used and the proper method of har­
monizing it with the general scheme of the plate.
In Illus­
tration 24 the artist used forceful individuality,
represen­
tative of the ownership which symbolized him in an unique way.
The motto on the plate referred to the owner’s name, which
was reinforced with a central design further stressing it.
The slightly rectangular border design tied the unit together
in a pleasing manner.
The writer regards the plate in Illus­
tration 26 as one of the finest examples of this "motto"
type of plate, a combination of artistic design and skillful
execution.
The design is heraldic in nature, the motto being
entirely subordinate to the coat-of-arms and acanthus leaf
R. Niles Graham, Austin, Texas; possessor of several
plates, and he says, "For a very good reason at that."
74
design.
Another plate, in which the inscription is a part
of the design, appears in Illustration 27.
The interior of
the library, which is done in line drawing, has the same thin
line letters as the texture of line used in the design.
For
a long period of time ships have been a favorite type of de­
sign for bookplates.
Not unusual at all, yet artistic and
highly decorative, is the "ship" plate in Illustration 28.
The interest of the plate lies in its decorative motto, name
of the owner, and in its rope and riband margin.
scription,
The in­
"There is no Frigate like a book to take us
leagues away," is the setting for the entire design of a
ship with hoisted sails.
The inscription may be the key to the design, as is
evident in Illustration 29, showing a plate on heraldry.
The coat-of-arms at the center top enclosed with the
oak-leaf and acorns, symbolic of strength, is representa­
tive of Scottish ancestry.
The lower right-hand plate,
upright on an open book and the lower left-hand armour
enclosed with the burning torches are immediate coatsof-arms.
The slogan on the riband reads, "Lux sunma,
lex nostra," interpreted means, "The highest light is our
love." The margin of oak leaves further supports the
'heraldic1 idea which offers the motif for the plate.15
This design is an illustration of a bookplate used by a man
and his wife, bearing different names.
Other examples of inscriptions on bookplates in Texas
Dr. I. A. Armstrong, university professor in Waco,
Texas.
are Illustrations 13, 16, 20, 30, and 31.
Some rhymes and
inscriptions found on plates for which no illustrations are
given follow.
INSCRIPTION
COLLECTION
"My Book and Heart
Shall never part."
Plate of J. Wayne Sawyer,
Et. Worth, Texas.
"That is a good book which
is opened with expectation
and closed with profit."
--Alcott
William Kust's Collection,
Larado, Texas.
"While you converse with
lords and dukes,
I have their betters here
my books."
Mrs. Ralph D. Knight,
Sweetwater, Texas.
"A good book is the best
friend I have.
Don*t take it from me."
Bert McLean,
Galveston, Texas.
"I want to be wise and cunning
I want to be stern, not
funning
When I say--this is my book."
"I love my books as drinkers
love their wine:
The more I drink, the more
they seem divine."
Frank Klepper,
Dallas, Texas.
"The love of Books, the
Orolden Key
That opens the Enchanted
Do o r ."
— Long,
Mrs. Margaret Scriber,
Higgins, Texas.
"If you beg, borrow;, or
steal my books,
Return them NOW.
Lara McVeigh,
Ft. Worth, Texas.
INSCRIPTION
COLLECTION
"But whether it be worth or
looks,
We gently love all of our
b o ok s."
Robert Field,
Borger, Texas.
"0 for a Booke and a
shadie nooke."
Leslie Reed,
Dallas, Texas.
"Steal not this book, my
honest friend,
For fear the gallows be
thine end."
Mrs. Lady Bate
Houston, Texas.
"Steal not this book for
fear of shame
For it is in the owner’s
name. Read I "
Mrs. William Kirk,
Plainview, Texas.
"This book is not on a jour­
ney.
It belongs
to ME!"
Mrs. Louis D. Smedley
Dumas, Texas.
"Books are ships which pass
through the vast seas of
time."
— Bacon
T. Hoag,
J.
Pecos, Texas.
"The virtue of books is to
be readable."
— Emerson
J. A. Wells,
Houston, Texas.
"This book belongs to the
library of ______________ ."
J. A. Armstrong,
Waco, Texas.
"My book may look well on
your shelf but it looks bet­
ter on mine."
Mrs. Julia Williamson
Colorado, Texas.
"Books are a guide in youth
Austin Brooks,
and an entertainment for age."Ranger, Texas.
— Jeremy Collier
"Who, without books, essays
Charles Lunceford,
to learn,
Silver City, Texas.
Draws water in a leaky urn."
— Dobson
77
INSCRIPTION
COLLECTION
"Tear not, soil not:
Read all— spoil not."
Collection at Our Lady of
the Lake College,
San Antonio, Texas.
"Books are the most mannerly
of companions.
I cannot live without mine."
Harris Holmes,
Denton, Texas.
"Without meaning offense
But without pretense-I keep my books."
William Hamilton,
P a n p a , Te xa s .
"My books are my friends.
I want to keep them."
Dr. M. D. McBrion,
Lubbock, Texas.
"Books are not fickle
neither am I.
When I want my books,
No need to ask me why."
R. D.Strong,
Beaumont, Texas.
"Some books are to be tasted,
others to be swallowed, and
some few to be chewed and
digested."
--Bacon
Joseph K e r n ’s plate,
Roscoe, Texas.
"A jolly goode booke,
Whereon to looke,
Is better to me than golde."
Prank Klepper’s collection
Dallas, Texas.
"How welcome I am to lend,
Will you be anxious to send
it back again?”
Dorothy Knoblock’s plate,
Beaumont, Texas.
"There is no past, so long
as books shall live."
--Bulwer Lytton
Inez Bowman’s collection,
Cleveland, Texas.
"There is no book so bad,"
said the bachelor, "but some­
thing good may be found in
it."
--Cervantes
Dr. E. W. Hardman,
Don, Texas.
"Is your purse full of money:
Your cupboard full of honey:
Your library ---- my books?"
J. P. P h e l a n ’s collection,
San Antonio, Texas.
,
78
"Dear little child,this
little book
Is less a primer than
it l o oks."
Opal Hinerman’s collec­
tion,
Waco, Texas.
"The love of books is a love
which requires neither jus­
tification, apology, nor
defense."
— Langford.
James Otts,
Clarendon, Texas.
"Borrow
Lend,
R e a d , ------ Send I "
Collection, Dallas Public
Library.
"I bought this book,
I paid for it-I t ’s m i n e ."
Mr s . Mami e Rogers,
Canyon, Texas.
"Books are sepulchres of
thought."
Arthur Birdman,
P 1ainview, Texas.
"Pray thee, take care,
I t ’s my book or your hair!"
J. P. Phelan,
San Antonio, Texas.
"Read anything five hours
a day,
And you will soon be
learned."
--Samuel Johnson
David Lawrence,
Panhandle, T exas.
"My pipe and my books are my
companions:
I need them both."
Charles Everham,
Dallas, Texas.
"This book is not loaned."
— Matthew xxv:9
"The wicked borroweth and re
turneth not."
— Bible
CHAPTER VII
CLASSES OF BOOKPLATES IN TEXAS
The preceding chapter discussed the subject matter
upon which Texas bookplates are based and offered illustra­
tions of the various types.
A new division of bookplates in
Texas will now be made, according to the class of people by
whom they are used.
The groups embrace bookplates of pro­
fessional persons, of institutions, authors, ladies, children,
outstanding Texans, and commercial plates.
Professional plates.
Medicine and law are the profes­
sions most frequently represented in this group.
The plate
of Curtice Rosser, prominent surgeon of Dallas, belongs to
this class.
(Illustration 31)
The design which is dignified
in appearance, depicts the doctor in his laboratory with a
book in his hands and rows of books on shelves as a back­
ground on the one side and a window on the other.
On the
left side and bottom is a riband with the name and the motto,
"A Light Unto My Path."
On the right side and top are
acanthus leaves, comoleting the border of the ribands.
At
the center top is an eagle with outspread wings, the symbol
here of "search."
In contrast to the above plate is another, whose owner
and designer is Milton H. Glover, a practicing physician in
80
Tfichita Falls, Texas.
(Illustration 6 2 )
There is a note of
humor attached to the design that detracts from its uncanny
appearance.
The traditional symbol of the medical profes­
sion is the staff with a serpent entwined, which represents
Aesculapius,
the god of medicine.
in popular use 011 bookplates.
In ancient times it was
However, later medical book­
plate designs were often a microscope or an apothecary’s jar
and spatula.-*'
A lawyer, Harrell Samon Hayden, has chosen for his
bookplate design the "hand of the lav;,” clutching the scales
of justice.
(Illustration 33)
five-pointed star,
I11 the background is the
significant of Texas, the lone-star state.
The circular design has a margin around the five-pointed star
with its light rays, keys, bats, and hinges.
The signifi­
cance is that the knowledge of the law is the key that un­
locks the closed door to justice, with which comes hope, de­
picted through the rays of light.
The lawyer acts as the
hinge or point on which knowledge and justice operate to
bring hope to the client.
The bat is representative of the
hopelessness of a client without the aid of a lawyer.
A plate of another lawyer^ depicts the effectiveness
of symbolism combined with hobbies and soorts.
(Illustration
^ Dr. Gathing Howe, physician, Borger, Texas.
^ George If. Ritchie, lawyer, Mineral F e l l s , Texas.
81
34)
The judge is the center of interest with his athletic
prowess expressed in the upper left-hand corner and his hobby,
boating, pictured opposite, and in balance with it.
The crys­
tal lights on either side of the open book create perfect
symmetry in the design.
They symbolize the all-seeing eye
as practiced in fortune telling.
The lower margin is made up
of thistles and shamrock leaves, typifying Scottish and Irish
birth.
An architect and bookplate designer^ included in his
plate the keyhole and escutcheon of a doorlock, as a center
of interest.
Around the keyhole and in distinct spaces ap­
pear the map of Texas, longhorn steer, cacti, which are sym­
bolic of pioneer Texas, a caricature of the sun, and archi­
tectural implements.
(Illustration 35)
An oil man, Dan Aynesworth, combined his profession
and hobbies in his plate.
sports, m d
(Illustration 37)
interests in learning,
His Alma Mater,
conveyed by the display of
the bookpile and cap with the diploma, form the pattern for
the design.
Towering over all are the oil derricks, showing
the height of his interests.
The bookplate of a clergyman4 is in canting style,
^ Carl Lars Svensen, architect and designer of many
bookplates, Lubbock, Texas.
4 Eugene Cecil Seaman, Amarillo, Texas; arthur Howard,
artist, Sewanee, Tennessee.
This design was made the official
seal of the Missionary District (Episcopal), North Texas, 1934.
using the owner’s name.
(Illustration 36)
The Trinity is
expressed in the fish, anchor, and the cross.
ground is emblematic of purity and truth.
The blue back­
It is interesting
and attractive in its simplicity.
Bookplates of institutions.
The bookplate for a pub­
lic or college library is usually nothing more than an offi­
cial label, which is to be deplored, as an artistic plate
would have a desirable influence upon the public and students
in their repeated contacts with it.
Some libraries, however,
provide a special bookplate for gifts to the institution,
in
order to honor the donor and to encourage other contributions.
(Illustration 6)
cally true.
One such design is significant and histori­
The branding iron is highly magnified and occu­
pies a prominent place on the olate, because of a very spe­
cial request from the institution using the plate, as a com­
pliment to the donor of a valuable gift to the college.
The
entire design is flavored very pleasingly with the spirit of
the Southwest and so typical of Texas.
5
To this division also
belongs a plate that is strictly in the style of contemporary
designers.
The composition is the essence of simplicity, yet
pleasing because of its historic and geographical interest.
(Illustration 46)
^ Librarian, Our Lady of the Lake College, San Anton-
83
The El Paso Library selected that portion of the map
of Texas, including El Paso and its vicinity,
showing the
travel routes of some early explorers and its nearness to her
neighbor, Old Mexico.
Two pictorial symbols are evident,
one of an armored knight-head and one of a priest blessing
two kneeling Indians.
In the lower left-hand corner is a
compass, a needed instrument in travel,
the Spanish explorers.
characteristic of
The narrow margin line of broken bars
is in harmony with the line drawing of the design.0
Baylor University employs an allegorical design com­
bined with the seal of the school.
The figure represents
"light," which guides the way to a higher life.
The seal of
the University is in the upper right-hand corner and is tied
significantly to the rest of the design by the rod.^
Texas University has no distinctly designed bookplate
for the general library, so the university seal is used in
lieu thereof.
(Illustration 40)
The decorative letters on
the labels, combined with simplicity, make this type of plate
ideal for a library.
It has been described as
. . . within a circle gules, a disk azure, with the motto
"Disciplina Praesidium Civitatis" surrounding a shield
terme, bearing a mullet within a wreath of olive and
0
Maud D. Sullivan, librarian, El Paso, Texas.
7
Charles D. Johnson,
Taco, Texas.
instructor, Baylor University,
84
live oak branches argent; on a chief of the last an open
book proper.s
The allegorical design used by the Houston Public
Library is interesting in its adaptation of the famous his­
torical figure with the shaped palm on either side.
The
Homan coin back of her head forms a halo and the library seal
attached to a scroll contains the words,
Texas."
"City of Houston,
The margin is unusual in its formation of entwined
thorny rose stems, elongated from clusters of roses in the
top-most corners of the plate.
Clusters of oak leaves and
acorns, with vertical and knotted roots attached, reinforce
the side margins and act as space fillers in the design.
(Illustration 47)
Rice Institute in Houston uses the seal of the school
in combination with an architectural sketch of the entrance
to the administration building.
(Illustration 48)
A touch
of landscape and the tree foliage characterizes the geographi
cal location of the school.
The most extraordinary bookplate in the entire collec­
tion is one designed for a memorial collection in Southern
liethodist University in Dallas.
(Illustration 49)
The original copy of the bookplate was executed by
Henry C. Pitz, probably the best known among illustra­
tors in the Old English field.
It represents Alfred the
G-reat, seated at a table, translating from Latin into
English those masterpieces which are the chief remains
of Old English prose.
The face of Alfred is copied from
one of his own silver pennies.
Symbolically, his sword
and crown are laid aside while he devotes himself to
85
education and literature.
The top-center shows the
Alfred jewel which the great king wore around his neck.
The essential facts are given in old lettering around
the frame of the picture.0
Bookplates of authors.
Nothing especially distinctive
has been found by the writer in her acquaintance with the
bookplates of authors.
They neither manifested personality
nor radiated sincerity to a greater degree than the plates
of others.
One planned by the author, himself,-1-0 portrays a
dream castle nestled among foamy clouds, the landscape carry­
ing the eye into the distance and the writer enjoying his
book under the trees.
(Illustration 50)
The serene calm and
quiet are pleasingly contrasted with the staccato accents of
light and shadow.
Henry Van D y k e ’s plate (Illustration 51) combines a
variety of tastes.
(Illustration 51)
The reading figure
which is fishing in a leisurely manner and the coat-of-arms
dominate the design.
The Latin inscription on the riband,
which is entwined among the treetops, reads,
f,Lux Summa, Lex
Ilea,” showing it is a plate of the traditional type.
The
personal message and initial signature enhance the value of
0 Letter from Dr. John 0. Beaty, head of English De­
partment of Southern Methodist University, to Miss Amann,
October 19, 1938.
Y.r. H. Collum, author; George E. Lambert Junior,
artist engraver.
86
Van Dyke's plate tremendously.
A typical Texas ranch scene is depicted on a plate
belonging to J. Svetts Esley.
(Illustration 52)
was sketched by Harold Bugbee of Clarendon.
His remuda
The border is
historical in its buffaloes, long-horn cattle, skeletons,
and brands.
The workmanship is delicate and sensitive, yet
it has no claim to being outstanding.
In the next plate (Illustration 53) it was the aim of
the artist to typify the spirit of the author by using his
every-day interests:
the bookstack and the open book, not too
well arranged, the candle and the ink pot with its quill.
The glimpse of stylized mountains and the "powerful" oak lend
rhythm to the composition and help to frame the design.
The
columns on either side enclose a tympanum, having for its desicgn motif, the sun.
At the bottom of the plate and under
the name of the owner is placed a hapr, one of artistsT
lesser interests.
1p
Joseph Benjamin Oakleaf selected a canting plate in
the wreath and ribbon pattern for his books.
(Illustration
54)
Eugene Field's plate is composed of the family coat-
J. A. Phelan and Son, collectors, Beaumont, Texas.
Villiam Perry Bentley, writer, Dallas, Texas.
87
of-arms.
His is one of the simpler designs of heraldry.
The sheath of wheat on the top-most part makes the plate
semi-canting m
style.
1 rz
The design is unusually small, but
outstanding in its strong simplicity.
(Illustration 55)
A partial map of Old Mexico with a tip of the United
States shown in the design was selected by one author.
(Illustration 58)
For a student in Mexico City and a writer
on Mexican subjects, the design is very fitting with its
sombrero, pottery, and books in a heap.
The margin is also
a Mexican design in its use of zarapes end to end, with
pottery corner designs.
In the opinion of the writer, the
design is well-chosen and sufficiently well executed.
Ladies ’ bookplates.
were different in design.
At first m e n ’s and w o m e n ’s plates
During the days of heraldry a
single woman would bear her paternal arms on a lozenge.
A
married woman impaled hers with those of her husband on a
shield.^
But few instances are known of ladies’ bookplates
1p;
being handed down through the ages.
Their plates are gen­
erally thought of by the public as being of less importance
than a m a n ’s.
13
There is a general opinion that with women
8 . D. Cleveland, artist, Amarillo, Texas.
14
.
/
Horne. nabouchere, Ladies Bookplates (London: George
Bell and Sons, 1895), p. 102.
15
Ibid., p. 33.
88
bookplates were only a fashionable luxury, possessing a
potential commercial value.
Some expressed the opinion that women believed a
great deal of prestige was attached to their ownership and
bookplate discussions at club meetings promised notoriety
for the owner.
1 ft
Traditional plate designs were difficult to
adapt, but today women own many plates.
They use designs in­
terchangeably with men and to a pleasing advantage.
few women would care for a naval design.
However,
It is unlikely that
a woman would wish to use a m a n ’s portrait on her plate, al­
though men often use a lady’s portrait on theirs,
Many
w o me n’s plates are oval in pattern, and fantastic allegorical
designs are most popular with t h e m . ^
Children’s bookplates.
Looking at a collection of
bookplates for children reminds one of a fairytale book.
Their special mission is to arouse an interest in books and
to develop the protective instinct, yet at the same time to
1p
amuse the owner.
A child’s plate has more appeal if it is
16
G a t h m g Howe, physician, Borger, Texas; K. D. Dixon,
art patron; and J. A. Phelan, bookplate collector, Beaumont,
T exas.
17
ho mention of names due to request at the time of
the interview/, S u p r a , p. 7.
Til bur liacey Stone, Some Children ’s Bookplates
(Gouverneur, New York: Brothers of the Book, 1901).
89
pictorial.
Childish figures, pets, and toys make the best
design motifs for their plates.
Some children prefer books to toys and they should
have a bookish plate, using perhaps in the design well-known
characters from favorite stories.
A humorous note lends in­
terest for the child and a small plate is more desirable than
a large one.
Research in the field of children's plates
offered the widest range of interest experienced.
One of the best examples of a boy's plate (Illustra­
tion 56) has in its design the sign of the zodiac, indicative
of the child's birth month.
As a border, fish, air bubbles,
moons, and rhythmic lines are combined in an unusually satis­
fying manner.
A combination of interests of a brother and
sister may be used.
(Illustration 57)
signed by Frank Klepper of Dallas.
Such a plate was de­
The love of nature, hunt­
ing, riding, and reading with a conventional landscape as a
setting is one of exceptional interest.
The pictorial plate
of ’'Billy" (Illustration 59) is not well executed, but func­
tions as a bookplate sufficiently well to create an interest
for the child in books.
The design of a plate (Illustration 5) may have his­
torical significance,
such as the one whose owner was born on
Columbus Day.
The main idea is represented by the Santa ilaria, ex­
pressive of Progress, Perseverance, Faith, exemplified
90
further by the motto, ’’Sail on.
Sail on and on," taken
from Columbus Ode. . . . Appropriately the central draw­
ing in enclosed by a rope of the ship, encircling the
date of the discovery of America, the motto and three
symbols indicating movement, and transportation.
The
topmast is the lone star of Texas.
"Westward," the star
of empire takes on the left, shows the crusader cross
crosslet for an Austin forbear, and that on the right is
the maternal wheel from +^e crest of the Carter family,
. . . the K i n g ’s Carter.
It is both interesting in design and outstanding, because of
the dominance of black.
Rockwell Kent designed the minute plate lor the chil­
dren of Neiman Marcus of Dallas.
The pile of books with the
cherub, reaching toward the five-pointed lone star of Texas,
is a complete scheme of compactness and orderliness.
tration 60)
(Illus­
Breaking away from the conventional use of
white or cream paper,
the artist, lerry Bywaters,
chose blue
for the background of the musical bookplate design for his
daughter.
(Illustration 61)
The fringe on the scarf, or
riband, and the tail of the bird represent the piano key­
board.
Other children’s plates are those in Illustrations
1 and 16.
S. D. Cleveland said he enjoyed designing this
type of bookplate more than any, as it was a test of his in­
genuity .
Bookplates of outstanding Texans.
To represent the
Description given in a letter from Mrs. Hally Bryan
Perry, Houston, Texas.
91
outstanding Texans, a group was selected which included the
state Governor, Colonel Edward IT. House, ex-secretary of War,
a banker, an oil magnate, a philanthropist, and an artist.
The Girl Scouts of Wichita Falls designed a plate for
the governor, James V. Allred.
(Illustration 63)
These are
Indian symbols which have been fashioned so artistically to
represent our chief interests: music, art, and law.
The
symbol signifies music, as it resembles a note.
The stair
po
steps are symbolical of law.
The design, though histori­
cal in motif, is not a contribution to the field of art.
The bookplate of Colonel House (Illustration 64) is
composed of two divisions.
The circle at the top, enclosed
by an acanthus leaf, is a true sketch of the corner of his
living room.
design.
The fireplace lends a touch of warmth to the
The bookshelves
with Plato, Cicero, and others
nify his interest in culture.
At the top of the circle
rounded by a continuation of the acanthus.
sig­
sur­
In it is a pic­
torial scene of pioneer days in Texas with the saddled horse,
tent,
campfire, and dog.
A towering range of Texas hills
forms an interesting background.
The two sections of the
plate are tied together by the pioneer’s guns and powder
horn.
The writer places
plates in Texas, because
this plate near the top rank of all
of its artistic perfection.
20 Mrs. James V. Allred, Houston, Texas (letter).
92
The chosen design planned by a banker for his private
library has a shield in the background, which acts as a sup­
port for two Grecian figures, who seem to have ribands
around them, extending to form a portion of the shield.
them is a quotation from Cicero.
On
The male figure hoists re­
presentative interests of the banker,
cotton farms, rock quarrying, and oil.
such as ranching,
The female figure,
with uplifted finger pointing to a star, represents the guid­
ing hand or all-sufficient helpmeet in the bankerfs life.
The coins at the bottom symbolize his numismatic hobby.
The
open book is characteristic of the home library and his love
for books.21
(Illustration 30)
A map of the United States with its industrial regions
pictorially marked, belongs to a prominent oil magnate.
(Illustration 65)
Transportation,
natural tree growths are noted.
industries, and some
The waters bounding the map
have conventional ships, sea horses, compass, and mythologi­
cal figures dotted irregularly throughout.
The name is small
and is surrounded by designs of hobbies, such as golf clubs,
books, and flowers.
"courage."
The rising sun with its rays means
The waterlily border is suggestive of the owner's
W. A. Philpott, Junior, art patron, Dallas, Texas;
Ralph Fletcher Saynour, artist.
93
lily pond.22
The bookpile supporting the musician as he plays and
the stylized cat and birds in rhythmic harmony make the
plate of Mr. Rosengren extraordinarily fresh and charming.
The tall grasses, goldenrod, and cactus are all symbolic of
Texas.
It is classed by the collector as a meritorious
plate and a distinct contribution to fine arts.
(Illustra­
tion 66)
Mythology lends itself favorably to bookplate design­
ing, as used by the artist, Frank Klepper,
olate.
(Illustration 3)
for his personal
Pan is playing by the moonlight in
his mountainous rendezvous, while hilarious figures make
merry.
A grapevine forms the border.
Over the vine and its
clusters of grapes is folded a ribbon with a quotation,
broken at the top by the word "ex-libris."
name is at the bottom.
The artist owner’s
The outstanding hobby of collecting
miniature goats accounts for the two in the lower corners of
the plate.23
Commercial bookplates.
■ II I ■ 11■■ ■ I II
■
M
— ..■HI .1I
■ ■■
■■ ■■■ ■—
I
The high cost of reproduction
—
in former days resulted in the use of commercial bookplates.
The expense of a hand-engraved plate and hand-blocking on
22 E. R. Brown, Houston, Texas,
interview.
23 Frank Klepper, Dallas, Texas, personal interview.
94
good paper made it impossible for the person of average
means to possess a bookplate.
The engraving shops employed
mechanical draftsmen, trained in the technical art of produC'
tion, but not in art principles.
So, when they began to
make bookplates and place them on the market at a minimum
cost, they had little or nothing in the way of artistic ex­
cellence to recommend them.
Plates were produced in whole­
sale quantities with little variety in patterns and sold in
packages at stationery counters in cheap department stores.
At the present time engraving shops are employing
artistically-trained workmen who possess a keen sense of the
principles of fine art.
are quite creditable.
Therefore, the plates they produce
Today there is an eager demand for
bookplates of the better variety.
quiring the skill.
Artists are steadily ac­
They often sell the printer well-de­
signed plates to be used in multiple production.
While
plates of this type cannot be as greatly appreciated as the
hand-printed ones, they are not unattractive in a book.
The
main objection to commercial plates is that they do not con­
tain the personal element.
People, generally, are requiring
a much higher type of bookplate than they did half a century
P 4a g o .^
24 Russell Stationery and Engraving Company, manager,
Amarillo, Texas.
This chapter has covered briefly a classification of
Texas bookplates, grouped according to the types of people
possessing them.
Complete descriptions were given of plates
designed for doctors, lawyers, authors, oil magnates,
clergy­
men, universities, libraries, ladies, children, and outstand­
ing Texans.
Many of them are illustrated in Appendix A.
The
growing demand for commercial bookplates was also touched
upon.
In Chapter Eight some bookplate collections in Texas
will be discussed.
CHAPTER VIII
SOI,IE BOOKPLATE COLLECTIONS IN TEXAS
Today bookplate collecting has become popular through­
out the world.
It is similar to collecting prints or first
editions in that it keeps the interest keen and alive and of­
fers a decided education as well.
The numerous subdivisions
of bookplate collections include: those with famous names;
those with old dates; those of economic value; and those of
technical excellence.
This chapter will also contrast the
viewpoint of the general and discriminating collector.
I.
COLLECTIONS FR01I THE STANDPOINT OF THE COLLECTOR
The first bookplate collection on record was in Bath,
England, in 1820, where five thousand examples were assem­
bled.1
There is a charm about collecting bookplates which
is unknown to the uninitiated.^
Perseverance and patience
are learned along with bookkeeping, filing, and indexing.
Lord de Tabley’s Guide to the Study of Bookplates has been
an influencing factor in bookplate collecting and arranging.
However, each collector usually plans his own method of cata­
loging plates which changes as the collection grows.
J. H. Slater, Bookplates and Their Value (London:
Henry Gant, 1898), o. 16.
^ J k i d . , p . 18.
Collectors are often highly criticised, for vandalism.
Many plates are stolen from volumes or purposely removed,
either marring the book or decreasing its value.
sometimes resorted to in bookplate collecting.
be dated in an untruthful manner.
Fraud is
Plates may
Fairly valuable plates
may be pasted into cheap books, in order to command a higher
price, or designs of famous people may be copied and sold as
originals.3
Hov.’ever, bookplate collecting is now legitimate,
with the result that collections are recognized as having a
definite educational value for both the collector and the
artist.
Thus, they make it possible for the artist to better
understand the traditional trends.
In this way they act as
somewhat of a foundation upon which he can build.
Collections with emphasis on famous na mes.
The his­
tory of bookplates is replete with famous names and a plate
made for such a person is in great demand.
At one time only
those plates pertaining to heraldry were of importance.
Since then historians, explorers, politicians,
scientists,
authors, and artists have become internationally famous be­
cause of some achievement.
So their plates have a high remun­
erative value and a coveted position in a collection.4
Sought
3 Interview with R. R. Gaines, Houston, Texas.
4 Plates of such people as George Washington, Richard
E. Bird, Colonel House, Peter Stuyvesant, Madam Curie, Robert
Louis Stevenson, or Joshua Reynolds.
98
also are bookplates of those in the state who have gained
notoriety and fame, such as the governor, writers, artists,
people of immense wealth, or philanthropists.
Plates of
children are sometimes included in this group, if for any
reason their name was given a great deal of publicity.
Col­
lecting from the standpoint of famous names is a more common
practice than for any
The age of the
other reason.
plate as a basis of collecting. Be­
cause of inaccuracy the task of collecting bookplates upon
the basis of their age becomes a difficult one.
The date
placed on a plate may
be the date of o n e ’s birth, the date
of an important event
in o n e ’s life, the date on which the
library collection was begun, or a fictitious date placed
there by a dishonest salesman to entice the collector to pur­
chase the plate, not to mention misrepresentation by the col­
lector
himself.
The only true date is the one used in wood-block or
any relief printing, when the date is engraved on the block
at the time the design was made.
Usually the date applied
immediately after the artist’s name is authentic, having been
placed there by the artist at the time the plate was made.5
(Illustration 50)
5
Leona B. Harlin,
collector.
99
Economic value.
To many collectors the economic
value of bookplates is of secondary importance, but some de­
pend upon it as an investment.
Collecting from this angle
removes much pleasure experienced by some and creates a ten­
sion between the collector and his clients that is unpleas­
ant .
Bookplate values vary according to: the name of the
original owner; the date the plate was made; the artist; the
technique used in its production; and the country in which
the plate was made.
Some plates worth collecting can be
bought for fifty cents, while others are sold for several
hundred dollars.
II.
COLLECTING FROM THE STANDPOINT OF
THE INDIVIDUAL ARTIST
Some collectors specialize in plates of artists.
They
are not interested in the rarity of a plate, or those that
have become important through the ownerTs accomplishments, or
even the age of plates unless rendered by an artist.
A collection of artists’ plates is usually one of
which to be proud, since the variety of design is limitless
and pleasing beyond description.
The subjects may vary from
a zigzag mark made by a baby, a sketch of the first pair of
shoes, or the thumb-print of a grandfather too old to write,
to those involving patriotism, history,
industry, allegory,
100
and hobbies.
Some collectors refuse to include plates too
modern in design with the more refined motifs, using a separate album labeled,
"Moderns."
The more famous the artist
the more desirous the collector is to secure his plate.
Methods and media of production.
The interests of
some collectors are stimulated by the methods and media used
in making bookplates.
They are impressed with admiration at
the exceptional uses of various media in securing effects.
Such collections are classified according to media and may
be labeled as,
"Excellent Etching," "Poor Etching," "Good
Wood-block,” et cetera.
Technical excellence.
In only one instance was tech­
nical excellence noticed by the writer as a basis for collect­
ing bookplates.
The collector, who is a Texas artist of
much fame, excludes all plates of inferior quality, regard­
less of the designer.
He believes he is acquiring a collec­
tion that will be the foundation for all future bookplate de­
signs, when "this mad craze for modern design has run its
7
course."
The fame of an artist or designer is no require­
ment with a collector of this type for including plates in
his group.
° Personal interview' with Leona B. Harlin.
^ Name withheld at the collector’s request.
101
I I I .
THE GENERAL COLLECTOR
Collecting as a hobby.
With several Texans the popu­
lar pursuit of collecting bookplates is a hobby which gives
them delight and pleasure,
as
mere numbers appeals to them,
they are glad to accept for their collection any type of
plate, whether it be valuable as a work of art or not.
Some
people capable of making bookplates take advantage of this
type of collector.
They indulge in the rapid production of
an enormous quantity of Ex-Libris that are worthless in de­
sign, badly reproduced and deceiving to the general public,
in order to sell them to
such collectors.
As a result of
this practice the demand
for good bookplates by those who
are
discriminating is probably decreased.
Collecting for educational v a lu e .
cording of personal characteristics in
Along with the re­
bookplates, there is
the recording of heraldry, historical events, types of archi­
tecture, and many literary allusions.
The person of leisure
will become interested in learning the facts suggested by the
designs and will spend the necessary time in doing research
to gain this information.
terest the collector, so
Artist's names on plates also in­
that in this way he is led to a
study of artists, the type of work they do, and why such de­
signs were produced.
If for no other reason, bookplate col­
lecting would be considered a worthy pursuit.
Employment for the disabled.
The person incapacitated
for work can have full-time employment in bookplate collect­
ing.
Besides the necessary correspondence involved, there
is the planning for recording the plates, assorting, label­
ing, and evaluating to be done.
For this to be properly ac­
complished, many phases of the art should be studied.
The
history of engraving and the art of illustration can be traced
through a well-collected group of bookplates, making it pos­
sible to ascertain approximate dates.
Naturally, every type
of bookplate has a place in so comprehensive a collection.
The chapter just completed has touched upon many of
the incentives for collecting bookplates, such as the educa­
tional value, the economic value, or just as a hobby.
Some
discriminating collectors limit their plates to the work of
artists, to those of technical excellence, or to those of a
given period, while the general collector desires to acquire
as many as possible.
modity,
Just as in purchasing any other com­
fraud and misrepresentation hoodwind the unsuspecting
collector.
Chapter Nine will mention some of the outstand­
ing bookplate designers in Texas.
CHAPTER IX
SOME OUTSTANDING BOOKPLATE DESIGNERS IN TEXAS
The selection of the outstanding bookplate designers
in Texas, whose work will be mentioned in this chapter, was
made upon the basis of their professional reputation for
superiority in this particular branch, of fine arts.
True mastery in bookplate making lies in the artist's
ability to portray a complete story of the characteristics
of the owner, or to create a masterpiece as an end in itself,
in a small space without giving it a crowded appearance.
An
artist wants his plate to be as nearly perfect technically
as possible, at the same time satisfying the desires of the
owner, who may wish to incorporate too much into the design
for a successful plate.
TIThe artist is constantly driven to
strive for the individual, for the beautiful, and the appro­
priate medium in a dignified way.T,l
The fault of many bookplates is that they embody the
personality of the designer and not of the owner.^
plate is affected by three personalities:
A book­
(1 ) the artist;
(2 ) the owner; and (3) that of the book in which it is placed.
Only one with the most refined judgment can select wisely
Helen Anderson, artist, Corpus Christi, Texas.
^ I. Hamilton, collector.
104
enough to satisfy without discrimination.3
Artists graciously accept suggestions from an owner
of a plate, but they want the matter of the manner in which
a plate is designed to be left to their trained judgment.
One artist explained that many a rt principles were of neces­
sity often abused, because of the owner’s wishes in regard
to designs.
"True orchestration of lightness and heaviness
is too often neglected.
Too often a ship design is as light
and airy as a cloud and the clouds as heavy as stones."^
Host Texas artists find lack of public appreciation
for bookplates and consequently small financial returns are
prohibitive to their production on a large scale.
However,
some artists have done splendid things in the last few years
in this branch of fine arts.
Alexander Hogue of Dallas de­
signed a plate for the Texas University Club Library.
On it
is a cowboy with his sombrero pushed back as he has settled
himself on a rock to read.
To one side his paint pony, reins
drooped to the ground, looks off into a conyon.
All details,
such as the bleached steer’s skull on which the cowboy has
laid his cigarette, the mesquites, cacti, the suggestion of
plateaus and buttes continuing further than vision carries
3 II. G. Seymour, artist.
^ Ann Weathers, artist.
105
o n e ’s eye, are all typical of Texas.
The same artist de­
signed a plate for Janet Mize of Texarkana, in which a child
sits reading at a table.
Through an open window is shown
another familiar Texas scene.
The farmhouse and windmill in
the distance are silhouetted against a partially clouded sky
with the sun streaks, so well known to Texans, peering
through.
Alexander Hogue has achieved top-ranking designs
and workmanship in many of his plates.
He is also one of
the So ut h’s most prominent mural and landscape painters with
galleries throughout Europe and the United States.
native of Texas,
He is a
but has studied and painted in many coun­
tries .
One of the foremost contemporary wood-cut artists is
J. J. Lankes, whose cuts are very strong in their simplicity.
He has a very sure sense of composition, and never overtells
his story.
A plate he made for Gertrude Morgan Hawley is
partially retouched in colors for the less important books
and is left unpainted for the others.
"The plate shows com­
plete freedom of imagination and a looseness not given by
Durer in his plates.
Lankes has illustrated a number of
books, but takes great delight in occasionally running off a
R
bookplate, of which he has made dozens.”
The symbolical plate made by A. Mack of San Antonio
^ Personal interview with J. Don Hughes.
106
for a college professor shows the oft-repeated view of a
scribe in his attic study.
The cob-web fulfills two pur­
poses; namely, that of tradition and that of space filling.
On the shelf are the wine bottles and an arrangement of books.
The pipe and expression on the face lend the impression of
jest, instead of the usual seriousness.
complete the composition.
The candle and quill
(Illustration 6 6 )
The same artist
has made many plates, all of vdiich he tinges with humor.
lie
is also a portrait painter of note with a studio in San
Antonio, Texas.
Bernhardt Wall excels in etching.
In his printing
establishment he combines bookplate designing with commercial
art.
The plate (Illustration 11) used a neighborhood pet for
the main motif, giving it an emotional appeal with pictorial
characteristics.
The personal plate of the artist is typi­
cal of the ranch country in Texas, and also has the aspect
of an advertisement.
(Illustration 69)
Another ex-libris, whose subject is dear to Texas, is
one made by the eminent artist, Bertha Landers, of Dallas.
The pictorial design with the cotton motif is the plate of a
Dallas business man.
The border for the design,
composed of
cotton leaves combined with a bur, plays a subordinate part
in the design.
She is a librarian by profession and designs
bookplates as a hobby.
(Illustrations 35 and 56)
107
Gome excellent designers of bookplates in Texas today
began as little more than expert amateurs.
(Illustration 71)
A linoleum line drawing in white on the black background was
the first offering of Rudolph Fuchs, who today has gained
fame throughout the South as a designer.
He is head of Art
in one of the colleges in Texas and makes many contributions
to the field of fine arts.
Architects are often excellent designers of bookplates.
Alfred C. Finn was architect for the San Jacinto Monument and
had also made many bookplates for Texans.
(Illustration 17)
This plate represents an illuminated bookcover with its hinge
binding and opening.
He is famous for the originality of his
designs.
It is estimated that most of the designs of bookplates
In Texas are the contribution of Stella Heilman of Houston.^
(Illustrations 9 and 25)
The topography of Texas with its
flora and fauna and the sports associated with them are the
subjects of many of them.
She is also director of a school
in fine arts.
In this chapter a brief survey has been made of the
work of outstanding bookplate designers in Texas.
Several
others with merited reputations could be added to the list
which would then include: Jerry Bywater, Frank Klepper,
^ J. Hynn Nolan, artist.
108
E. G. Eisenlohr, Rudolph Euchs, Ben Carlton Mead, Eleanor
Onderdouk, J. Wynn Rolan, Isabel Robinson, and others.
There is at present a renewed interest in fine arts
which has accompanied the period of enforced leisure.
Many
people are now studying bookplate designing, which should re­
sult in a new impetus for their use.
CHAPTER X
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Summary.
plates was
The source of information concerning book­
found in foreign literature, much of which was
translated from Drench and German by the early English writ­
ers.
Bookplates were used by the American colonists, and
recently an interest in them has been revived.
Designs on bookplates cannot be appreciated without a
knowledge of the principles employed by the artist.
Both
functionalism and attractive lettering are considered of im­
portance in increasing the value of bookplates.
Historic Texas has produced an endless variety of sub
ject matter in bookplates, the nature of which may be; alle­
gorical,
symbolical, armorial, heraldic, historical, geogra­
phical, pictorial, emotional, humorous, architectural, avoca
tional, athletic, or philosophical.
I’
.Iany classes of people delight in the possession of
bookplates, among them: professional persons, doctors,
lawyers, authors,
clergymen, oil magnates, and institutions.
The demand for commercial plates is increasing and two novel
uses for them are greeting cards and calling cards.
Various media used in the craft of bookplate
aaking
include: etching, wood-cuts, pen drawings, linoleum blocks,
110
lithography, blue prints, and silhouettes.
There is an end­
less possibility of variety for individual expression.
Today bookplate collecting has become popular through­
out the world.
It is similar to collecting prints or first
editions, in that it keeps the interest keen and alive and
offers an education as well.
Other incentives for collecting
may be of an economic nature or purely as a hobby.
Bookplates present forever a history of mankind,
since
his achievements, hopes, desires, and even his disappoint­
ments are stamped indelibly upon them.
Conclusions.
It was found that much more has been ac­
complished in Texas in the field of bookplate art than is
generally conceded, because Texans have been slow to recog­
nize and to appreciate the art of making bookplates.
How­
ever, they are no longer considered as unnecessary rarities,
but possess both an artistic and general interest.
In fact,
there is an eager demand now in Texas for carefully designed
and executed plates.
Recently, Texan artists have shown great progress in
the development of individual bookplates.
Many of them have
earned a national reputation for the excellence of their
bookplate designs, which offer sufficient scope for the ex­
ercise of their genius.
Ill
In their designs bookplates in Texas show little ef­
fect of any foreign influence or of the proximity of the
state to Mexico.
Neither are the historical heraldry designs
employed to any extent.
The popular bookplate designs principally reflect the
historical and geographical background of Texas, showing the
influence of such factors as climate and
topography.
Some
local subjects used for motifs are: the cowboy, the branding
iron, the coyote and jack-rabbit, the milkweed, the bluebonnet, and the prickly pear cactus.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Allen, Charles Dexter, Ex-Lib ri s.
and Company, 1896.
157 pp.
, American Bookplates.
1905.
457 pp.
, School Arts Book.
1905.
137 pp.
London: Lamson, Wolffe,
London: George Bell and Sons
New York: A Wessels Company,
Almack, Edward, ’’Bookplates," Little Books on A r t . General
editor, Cyril Davenport; Chicago: A. C. McClurg and
Company, 1910.
171 pp.
Barnett, P. Neville, Pictorial Bookplates.
Beacon Press, 1931.
143 pp.
Batchelder, Ernest A., Design In Theory
York: The Macmillan Company, 1920.
Sydney: The
and Practice. New
501 pp.
Biblio-Graphica. London: Kegan Paul, French, Trubner and
Company, Ltd., 1896.
503 pp.
Bowdoin, W. G . , The Rise of the Bookplate. New
Wessels Company, 1901.
407 pp.
York: A.
Burgess, Fred W . , Old Prints and. Engravings. New York:
Tudor Publishing Company, 1937.
pp. 162-85.
Capon, C. R. , Selection of Bookplates.
Brown and Company, 1932.
223 pp.
Boston: Little,
Castle, Egerton, English Bookplates (Ancient and Modern).
London: George Bell and Sons, 1894.
352 pp.
Christie, Archibald H . , Methods of Pattern Designing.
Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 19 29.
289 pp.
Craven, Thomas, Men of Art.
1931.
524 pp.
New York: Simon and Schuster,
DeForest, Julia B., A Short History of Art (Revised and
largely written by Charles II. Caff in)~. New York:
Dodd
Mead and Company, 1927.
pp. 1-118.
114
De Garno, Charles and Leon L. Winslow, Essentials of Design.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1927.
255 pp.
Dobson, Margaret, Art Appreciation.
and Sons, 1932.
p. 186 i'f.
New York: Isaac Pitman
Dolmetsch, H . , Historic Styles of Ornament (English transla­
tion).
London: E. T. Eatsford, 1905.
214 do.
Finchman, H. H . , Artists and Engravers of British and Ameri­
can Bookplates. London: Kegan Paul, French, Grubner and
Company, Ltd., 1897.
217 pp.
Fisk, Frances B . , A History of the Arts and Artists of Texas.
Abilene, Texas: Fisk Publishing Company, 1927.
198 op.
Fowler, Alfred, Bookplates for Beginners.
Alfred Fowler Press, 1935.
163 op.
Gayley, C. M . , The Classic Myths.
1911.
287 pp.
Kansas City: The
Dallas: Ginn and Company,
Goldstein, Harriet and Vetta, Art in Everyday Li fe .
York: The Macmillan Company, 1927.
pp. 9-74.
Goodyear, W. H . , Renaissance and Modern A r t .
Macmillan Company, 1913.
321 pp.
New
New York: The
Grant, Francis J., The Rise of Heraldry. London: The J.
Beaumon Press, 1937.
411 pp~I
(Revised)
Hamlin, A. D. F., A History of Ornament (Ancient and Medieval).
New York: The Century Company, 1916.
406 pp.
Hamilton, Y,:alter, Ex-Libris (5 vols.) Part I, dated book­
plates before 1700: Part II, dated bookplates of the
16th century; Part III, bookplates of the 19th century.
London: A. and C. Black, 1895.
124 p p ; 225 pp; 199 pp.
Hardy, W. J., Bookplates. London: Kegan Paul, French,
Trubner and Company, Ltd., 1697.
240 pp.
Harper, Henry H . , Book-Lovers, Bibliomaniacs and Book Clubs.
Privately printed, 1904.
96 pp.
Hitchcock, Henry Russell Jr., and Philip Johnson, The International Styles of Architecture. New York: W. H. Norton
and Company, Inc., 1932.
240 pp.
115
Hone, Sir Henry St. John, A Grammar of English Heraldry.
New York: G. P. Putnam Sons, 1915.
127 no.
Ivins, v.Tilliam M. Jr., Notes on Pri nt s .
tan Museum, 1930.
pp. 221.
Vol. 17.
Jackson, Frank G., Lessons on Decorative Design.
Chapman Hall, Ltd., 1950.
173 pp.
Jones, Owen, The Grammar of Ornament.
Ouaritch, 1928.
128 pp.
Metropoli­
London:
London: Bernard
Junge, Carl S., Ex-Libris. New York: II. L. Lindquist, pub­
lishers, 1935.
14-4 pp.
Keppel, F. P., and R. L. Duffus, The Arts in American Life.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1933.
219 pp.
Labouchere, Norna, Ladies Bookplates.
and Sons, 1895.
358 pp.
London: George Bell
Leland, Charles G . , Wood-Carving. New7 York: Sir Isaac P i t ­
man and Sons, Ltd., 1931.
152 pp.
Magonigle, C. E., The Nature, P ra c t i c e , and History of A r t .
New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1924.
297 pp.
Meyer, Franz S., Handbook of Ornament.
Mutze, 9th edition, 1937.
516 pp.
Moore, Bernice Starr, People and A r t .
and Company, 1932.
211 pp.
Leipsic: Oswald
New7 York: Allyn, Bacon
Morgan, P. C., A History of Architecture.New York:
Scribner’s Sons, 1931.
1033 pp.
O ’Brien, Esse Forrester, Art and Artists of Texas.
Tardy Publishing Company, 1935.
203 pp.
Opdyke, George H., Art and Nature
The Macmillan Company, 1934.
Charles
Dallas:
Appreciation. New7York:
560 pp.
Pennell, Joseph, Etchers and Etchings.
millan Company, 1936.
543 pp.
New? York: The Ma c­
Philpott, Eden and E. H. Hubbard, editors, Bookplates by
Frank Brangwyn.
(no publisher)
70 op.
116
Poulet-Navessis, A., Les Er-Libris (francais).
P. Rouquette, 1675.
79 pp.
Ross, Denman W. , A Theory of Pure Design.
Smith, 1935.
201 pp.
Paris:
New York: Peter
Rowe, Eleanor, Practical Wood-Carving. Milwaukee: The Bruce
Publishing Company, 1930. Part~"ll, 112 pp.
Sanford, Frank G., The Art Crafts For Beginners.
The Century Company, 1904.
270 pp.
New York:
Saunders, Ruth Thomson, The Book of A rtists* Own Bookplates.
Claremont, California: Saunders Studio Press, 1933.
201 p p .
Slater, J. H., Book Plates and Their Va l u e .
G a n t , 1898.
241 p p .
London: Henry
Smith, Goldie Capers, The Creative Arts in T ex as .
Cokesbury Press, 1926.
204 pp.
Dallas:
Spelz, Alexander, The Styles of Ornament. New York: Brunno
Hessling (revised and edited by R. Phene Spiers), 1928.
646 pp.
Stark, Lewis,I!., English Literature as Reflected in Book­
plates . Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 1936.
1 0 4 1p p .
Stone, Wilbur Hacey, Some Children *s Bookplates . Gouverneur
New Yprk: Brothers of the Book, 1901.
(pages unnumbered)
_______ , Lankes , His Wood-cut Bookplates.
by Frank 1. Lankes, 19 22. 49 pp.
New7 York: Published
Steel, Kenneth, Students Book of Line Engraving.
Pitman Publishing Corporation, 1938.
57 pp.
New York:
Talbot, Clare Ryan, In Q,uest of the Perfect Bookplate.
Claremont, California: Saunders Studio Press, 1935.
________ , Historic California in Bookplates.
Graphic Press, 1936.
287 pp.
73 pp.
Los Angeles:
Ward, H. P., Some American College Bookplates.
Ohio: The Champ1in Press, 1915.
483 pp.
Columbus,
117
Warnecke, Die deutschen Bucherzeichen (The Ex-Libris of the
15-16th centuries.
A review of Durer, H. Burgmair,
H. 3. Behan, Virgil Solis, and lost Amman)
Leipzig:
Gedruckt Bei Poeschel and Trepte, 1890. 162 pp.
Warren, 1. Leicester (Lord de Tabley), A Guide to the Study
of Bookplates. London: John Pearson, 1880.
238 pp.
White, Esther Griffin, Indiana. Bookplates.
Nicholson Press, 1910.
108 pp.
Vyer, Malcolm G . , Bookplates in Iowa.
Torch Press, 1914.
56 pp.
B.
Richmond:
Cedar Rapids: The
PERIODICAL LITERATURE
Bird, E. B., "Hobbies and Professions Included in Book­
plates," Art Digest, 6:21, December, 1932.
Boswell, Peyton (Article on m a n ’s mad rush in life), ArtDirest, 11:3, May, 1937.
Chockla, Sarah, "On Texas Bookplates," News Notes (Bulletin
of the Texas Library Association), 31:27, January, 1935.
Davis, Lavinia, "Collecting Bookplates," St. Nicholss For
Boys and G i r l s , 61:37, November, 1933.
Harding, Dorothy S., "Contemporary Bookplates," The American
Magazine of Art, 25:110, October, 1932.
Hopki n s , V . n • (Dean of American Bookplate Artists), editor­
ial, The Saturday Review of Literature, 5:1168, July 6 ,
19 29.
Hutchins, Mable Reagh, "Making Your Own Bookplates," American
Home Magaz in e, 3:215-6, December, 1930.
Johnson, Helen Lossing, "A Bookplate Design for a Library,"
Library Journal, 59:316, April 1, 1934.
Kent, Norman, "Bookplates and Marks," Art Instruction, 33:26,
May, 1939.
Kent, Rockwell, "Later Bookplates and Marks," Art Instruction,
3:29, June, 1937.
Morley, Christopher, "Genius of a Bookplate," Saturday Re­
view of Literature, 2:562, March 30, 1935.
Ranger, Tyler A., "Genesis of a Bookplate,” Saturday Review
of Literature, 11:582, March 30, 1935.
Richards, Helen R., "The Charm of Bookplates," The Library
Journal, 63:584, August, 1938.
Rollins, C. P., and Gilbert M. Troxell, "Bookplates and
Marks," Saturday Review’ of Literature, 5:1168, July 6 ,
19 29.
Slater, J. H., "Bookplates of Value," Saturday Review of
Literature, 11:561-2, March 30, 1955.
Starrett, Vincent, "Bookplates and Their Vanities," The
Independent, 119:603, December 17, 1927.
Vainer, C. J., "Nature of Bookplates," Connoisseur, 82:74,
January, 1927.
Wilson Bulletin for Librarians,
May, 1938.
C.
"Booknlate Rhymes," 12^587-9,
ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES
Castle, Egerton, "A Resume of the Plistorical Development of
Bookulates,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition, III,
861-76.
American Dictionary of Printing and Bookbinding, p. 301.
The New International Encyclopedia, 2nd edition, III, 525-6.
Twentieth Century Dictionary.
Publishing Company, 1935.
New7 York: The World Syndicate
Pp. 1295 (p. 195).
The World Book Encyclopedia, II, 851 pp.
D.
BULLETINS AND PAMPHLETS
The Book of Bookplates (published quarterly).
and Norgate, 1900-1901.
London: William
119
The Bookplate Annual for the years: 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924,
and 1925.
Edited by Alfred Fowler; Kansas City: Alfred
Fowler Press.
Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. Edited by A. H. K. Aright;
London: A. and C. Black, 1903.
(only one found)
The Print Collectors 1 Chronicle, editor, Alfred Fowler.
Kansas City: Alfred Fowler Press.
Wilson Bulletin for Librarians.
1936, 1937.
The II. W. Wilson Cornuany,
W h o 1 s T.‘ho in American A r t , Vol. I, 1936, 1957.
D. C.: The American Federation of Arts.
Washington,
Year B o o k , 1932, The American Society of Bookplate Collectors
and Designers. Washington, B. C.: 1955.
E.
NEWSPAPERS
Article on exhibit of bookplates in Dallas News, March 23,
1935.
Comment on Texas artists making bookplates, Dallas N e w s ,
April 3, 1954.
Morning N e w s , March 23, 1933, Amarillo, Texas.
Los Angeles Ti m es , Sunday Magazine Section, April 8 , 1954,
p . 18.
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
Allred, Mrs. James V., art patron, Houston, Texas.
Allen, Winnie, archivist, Austin, Texas.
Anderson, Helen, artist, Corpus Christi, Texas.
Armstrong, Dr. J. A., professor, Waco University.
Bugbee, Harold, artist, Clarendon, Texas.
Eywaters, Terry, artist, Dallas, Texas.
Cleveland, S. D., artist, Amarillo, Texas.
Dobie, J. Frank, historian, Austin, Texas.
Eisenlohr, E. G., artist, Dallas, Texas.
Finn, Albert C., artist and architect, Houston, Texas.
Gathings, H. IT., pioneer, Roxcoe, Texas.
Gongales, Don, librarian, Texas University, Austin, Texas.
Haley, I. Evetts, historian and journalist, Canyon, Texas.
Heilman, Stella, artist and instructor, Houston, Texas.
Howe, Dr. II. G . , physician and art critic, Borger, Texas.
Klepper, Frank, artist and bookplate collector, Dallas, Texas.
Kelly, Geraldine, bookplate collector, Los Angeles, California
Landers, Bessie, artist and collector, Dallas, Texas.
Mead, Ben Carlton, artist and instructor, Amarillo, Texas.
Our Lady of the Lake College, librarian and art instructor,
San Antonio, Texas.
Percival, Olive, student in heraldry, Los Angeles, California.
Phelan, I. A., and son, collectors, Beaumont, Texas.
Philpott, W. A. Lr., artist and collector, Dallas, Texas.
Prewitt, C. L., pioneer, Brownwood, Texas.
Ratchford, Fannie, University librarian, Austin, Texas.
Robinson, Isabelle, artist and bookplate collector, Canyon,
Texas.
Rowell, Clara IT., Geneology Department, Los Angeles City,
Library.
Russell Stationery Company, Amarillo, Texas.
Seewald, Margaret, artist, Amarillo, Texas.
Svenson, Carl Lars, artist and architect, Lubbock, Texas.
Van Dale, Earl, rare book collector, Amarillo, Texas.
Webb, Lames, etcher, designer, painter, Los Angeles, Californi
Many additional.interviews were held with other artists
whose names were not included at their request.
The writer
wishes to acknowledge these interview's and is grateful for the
valuable information received.
ILLU
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129
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THE ESSENCE AND QUINTESSENCE OE THEIR LIVES
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73
APPENDIX A
CORRESPONDENCE
Letters and questionnaires sent o u t ..................... 619
Letters r e c e i v e d - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ..........................426
Colleges and universities
..........................
23
............................................
7
Chambers of C o m m e r c e .................................
7
Collectors
Individuals, not previously mentioned
.............
296
Individuals, publishing companies and institutions
not in T e x a s ........................................ 18
Libraries and librarians
............................
13
M u s e u m s ..............................................
9
Professional artists
.................................
39
....................
7
Public and private institutions
Public high school instructors and art supervisors .
7
(COPY)
1713 Jackson Street
Amarillo, Texas
January 1, 1939
:r.
Dear ____
:
I am attempting to collect sufficient information and
material to justify a thesis for an II. A. Degree in Pine
Arts on "Bookplates in Texas." Since you probably have some
information that would be of value to me I am writing to
you with the hope you will be kind enough to help me in any
way possible.
I am a resident of Texas and know of very little pub­
lished material on bookplates in the state.
If you have a
bookplate, I shall be glad to have three copies of it as it
is necessary that I include plates in my thesis for illustra­
tive purposes.
If the design on your olate has any special
significance will you tell me what it is, who designed it
for you, where and when?
Do you know of others having plates to whom I might
write?
Can you tell me of any bookplate collections or
collectors? Ylhy do you think the people in Texas are so in­
different to bookplates?
Do you think a bookplate mars or
decorates a book? Do you think bookplates are usually inter­
esting and should be classed with other fine arts?
Will you please be frank in your answers as I will use
this information as a basis in formulating my paper.
If you
have any objection to my using your name or quoting you,
please let me know.
Thanking you for your trouble and any assistance,
I am, Sincerely yours,
(Signed) Mrs.
Kate G. Turner
(COPY)
Lubbock, Texas
February 11, 1939
Mrs. Kate Q-. Turner
Amarillo, Texas
Dear Mrs. Turner:
Me are glad to know you are doing some research on a
subject that is greatly neglected with, us in Texas.
I know
01 nothing that has been written on it so you will likely
be the first, for which you should be proud. Perhaps you
will be interested in having it published in book form when
it is completed, as I believe you can collect sufficient
data to merit publishing.
I have been interested in bookplates for a number of
years and have designed a great number of then. Some I have
copies of and others I fail to locate but the ones I am
enclosing are the ones I like best.
I do not object to your
mentioning my name but I had rather not be bothered by re­
ceiving letter for my plates as I am very busy right now, but
you use your own discretion in the matter.
I certainly think bookplates are decidedly a branch of
the fine arts and rightfully so.
I shall be in Amarillo
Thursday and will be glad to talk to you regarding your sub­
ject.
Let me know of a suitable time and place to see you,
if you care to do so.
Yours truly,
(Signed) Carl L. Svenson
(C O P Y )
1763 Euclid Street, N. W.
V.'ashingt o n , D . C .
January 19, 1939
My dear Mrs. Turner:
I fm afraid I can not give you much assistance in writing
your thesis.
There are no bookplate collectors in Texas ap­
parently and few in the entire South.
In the Book "A Census of Bookplate Collections in Public,
College and University Libraries," there are two collections
indicated.
Those of the Library University of Texas at
Austin and the Public Library at Houston so it is entirely
probable that the Librarians at those places can give you
some assistance.
I know of no designers, engravers or
etchers of bookplates within your state.
After an experi­
ence of about thirty years collecting books and bookplates,
it has always been a great mystery to me to find actually
little or no interest in bookplates in the Southern States.
I should judge the library of the University of Texas would
contain many plates of state interest and probably many of
Spanish or Mexican origin.
Thanking you for your letter, I am
Yours sincerely,
(Signed) Carlyle S. Baer
Secretary, the American Society of
Bookplate Collectors and Designers.
(COPY)
THE LIBRARY OP THE UNIVERSITY OP TEXAS
Austin, Texas
Rare Books Collections
January 23, 1939
Hr s. Kate G. Turner
1713 Jackson Street
Amarillo, Texas
Dear Mrs. Turner,
Your inquiry concerning Texas bookplates moves me to ask ques­
tions in return: For what purpose are you writing your thesis?
Under whose direction?
It is ray own judgment, based on a fairly comprehensive knowledge
of the Texas book world, that there is not enough material to
be had to suggest a Mast er ’s thesis.
I doubt if there are a
hundred bookplates in Texas, aside from the dull, official mark­
ers of state libraries.
The few I know have no artistic worth.
The official bookplate for the University of Texas is the Uni­
versity of Texas seal (circular) printed on an oblong piece of
paper.
The V.’renn library plate, and the several Garcia plates-Texas only by adoption— are interesting and artistic, but no
copies are available to send you. Mr. Aitken had no bookplate.
The Stark plate is an armorial design beautifully drawn and
executed.
I cannot send out a copy without Mr. Stark’s per­
mission .
I have, for my own pleasure, gathered a few real Texas bookplates,
which I shall be glad for you to see if you come to Austin.
I
shall even be glad to send t h e m for your inspection, if you
wish, but I warn you they have little interest and no artistic
merit.
Mrs. Nancy Taylor, 1108 Pennsylvania Avenue, Ft. Forth, may'be
able to give you useful information on your subject.
She has a
lovely bookplate of her own.
Mr. Raymond Everett, University of Texas, and Bubi and Wolff
Jessen, 110 E. 9th Street, Austin, design and draw bookplates,
but do not execute them.
I suggest that you write them, asking
for a list of the bookplates they have done.
I doubt if we ever had a governor or "statesman" who owned a
bookplate.
I do not remember seeing or hearing of such an
article.
(CO P Y )
Letter from The Library of the University of Texas to M r s . Turner
(continued)
A am glad to give you such help as I can, but I do not believe
that it is possible to make your subject justify a Ma s t e r 1s
thesis.
Sincerely
(Signed) Fannie Patchford
(C O P Y )
Rice Hotel
Houston, Texas
February 11, 1939
Hr s. Kate G. ‘
T urner
Amarillo, Texas
Dear Mrs. Turner:
I am sorry I am unable to get to my bookplates but I re­
cently stored my household goods as I Tm spending the next
year in Scotland.
I think you have lots of courage to
attempt a thesis on bookplates when I d o n Tt believe there
are fifty people in Texas having them.
When I had mine made
I could hardly find an artist to do it.
I am fond of them
myself and we have had our family plate since 1883. Mine is
different of course.
I wish you great luck in your difficult undertaking and when
you have finished I hope you will have it published as I be­
lieve it might stimulate an interest for them.
If you do,
notify my friend, Mabel Enn of f, in Houston, please.
I will tell my friends of your research and maybe some of
them can help you.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) Dorothy Drouthett O'Brien
(C O P Y }
San Marcus, Texas
March 25, 1939
Mrs. Kate G. Turner
1713 Jackson Street
Amarillo, Texas
Dear Mrs. Turner:
Thank you for your interesting letter of recent date.
I regret that I do not have a bookplate of my own. While I
have a rather large private library, I have never taken time
to secure a worthy bookplate. When I do insert one I want
it to be truly flavored with the spirit of the Southwest.
I am unable to assist you in your interesting work.
However,
I suggest that you write Miss Winnie Allen, archivist of the
Library of the University of Texas.
She gives a bit of at­
tention to bookplates.
Just at present she is trying to
work out a very interesting plate for the collection belong­
ing to Captain P. W. Aldrich of Austin.
It seems to me that your Interesting undertaking is a diffi­
cult one.
Should you succeed, and I hope you do, I should
like to see you put out something in a little booklet.
Are you acquainted with my good friend Ben Carlton Mead?
I understand that he Is now connected with the Art Department
of one of your local colleges.
Very sincerely yours,
(Signe d)Dudley R. Dobie
(COPY)
Dallas, Texas
March 24, 1939
Mrs. Kate G. Turner
Amarillo, Texas
Dear Mrs. Turner:
Replying to your recent letter:
So far as I remember
1 have made only two Bookplates and of neither have I any
prints.
I believe Mrs. Bently has forwarded some to you.
The other one was for party now passed away.
My idea is that a bookplate should refer to the tastes
interests or calling of the one for whom it is made.
The
manner of using this information is the designers problem.
Imagination and craftsmanship should go far toward determin­
ing its value as an art production.
Yours truly,
(Signed) E. G. Eisenlohr
Note: Mr. Eisenlohr is one of 'Texas’ most prominent landscape
painters.
This letter is an answer to the author’s question
as to his opinion of the nature of bookplates in Texas.
n
M« V
.T•
rn
jI •
(COPY)
Dallas, Texas
Tune 1 , 1959
Mrs. Kate G. Turner,
1713 Jackson Street,
Amarillo, Texas.
Dear Mrs. Turner:
As per request in your letter of May 51st, I am send­
ing you herewith three of my book plates.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) E. R. Brown
Chairman of Board,
Magnolia Petroleum Company
GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED
Abstract.
To express a quality apart from any subject
as abstract design.4
A quatint, one variety of etching.5
Canting, an ornament or design alluding to the name
of owner.3
Colophon, a device or printer's name, place or publi­
cation date, formerly put at the conclusion of a bo o k .4
Chippendale, 18th century designer of great influence.5
Conventional, not consistent with true f o r m .5
Composition.
on a page.
The pleasing arrangement of art objects
Still life composition.
n
Crest, as in ancient armor, the plume or tuft affixed
to the top of the helmet; hence, the helmet itself.8
4 W. T. Harris, editor, Webster's New International
Dictionary of the English Language, p. 17.
2 Ibid.> ?• 93 •
g
c Twentieth Century Dictionary, p. 301.
4 Ibid., p . 289.
° Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th edition, p. 870.
6 I b i d ., p. 683.
7
p
Graphic A r t s , p. 246.
Finchman, II. W . , Artists and Engravers of British
and American Bookplates, p. 31.
167
Design, to plan and delineate by drawing the outline
or figure of: the sketch, as in painting or other works of
art, as for a pattern or model.^
Engrave, to cut, as metal, stones or other hard sub­
stance with a chisel or graver.
Enclosed Ornament.
A design which fits exactly into
a bounded space.
Fillet, in heraldry, a fold or band crossing a shield
at the height of the lower edge of the
c h i e f. T 2
Heraldry, or heraldic is composed of the science of
the art of armorial bearings.
In antiquity an officer whose
business was to denounce, to proclaim war, to challenge to
battle, to bear messages .^
H o b b y , any favorite pursuit, topic, or object: that
which a person persistently pursues with zeal or delight.^-4
Jacobean, which includes the heavy decorative manner
of the Restoration,
Cueen Anne, and early Georgian days.-^
9 Twentieth Century Dictionary, p. 491.
10 Ibid., p. 513.
bl Ernest A. Batchelder, Design In Theory and Practice.
12 Ibid., p. 131.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, p. 693.
14 Ibid., p. 715.
15 Ibid., p. 769.
168
Line Engraving.
The process of incising lines in a
metal plate from which it is intended to take an impression
or p r i n t . ^
Lithograph, prints made by lithography— an oil paint,
usually in stick form.I''7
Mantling.
In heraldry, the representation of a mantle
or the drapery of a .coat-of-arns.
Medium.
The liquid with which dry pigments are ground
and made ready for the artist1s use.-^
Monogram, two or three letters, the initials of a
n a m e .20
v
Ornament, that which embellishes something which if
91
added to another thing renders it more beautiful to the eye.wJPan, an allegorical character, part animal and part
man, and who is m u s i c a l . ^
Pictorial, representing with the vividness of a pic­
ture .
I® Meyer, Eranz S., A Handbook of Ornament, p. 157.
Graphic Arts, p. 192.
Is Meyer, o£. c i t ., p. 160.
Twentieth Century Dictionary, p. 681.
Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Edition, p. 901.
21 Ibid., p. 968.
22 m i d - . ?• 1 0 2 7 .
23 Ibid., p. 1061.
169
Riband, a representation of a strip of fabric or
ribbon commonly seen on crests.
P4-
Schematic, a drawing which represents in outline the
PR
main characteristics of the object.""0
Shield, a metal protection for the b o d y . 26
S c r ib e, one who keeps records m
a monastery.
07
Spiral b an d, a curved circular line running freely
between two bars. 25
S ty le , a particular mode, form, or manner of expres­
sing an idea.
Manner or form of execution.
interpretation.
A method of
90
Symbolism, the regarding of outward things as having
an inner and symbolic meaning.33
Typographical, the art of or pertaining to p r i n t i n g . 31
Wood-c u t , a reproductive process.
A craft rather than
an art.
24 Ib id ., p. 992.
25 Graphic A r t s , p. 9.
Twentieth Century Dictionary, p. 503.
27 Ibid.. p. 718.
25 p. 3 . Meyer, Handbook of Ornament, p. 153.
29 Loc.
cit., p. 559.
33 Charles De Garmo, Essentials of Design, p. 107.
31 Graphic A r t s , p. 187.
32 Ibid. , p. 208.
appendix
IIISCELIa NEOUS
bookplates
c
not discussed
in t h e
thesis
These plates were selected for inclusion in this
thesis as they represent varied media and subject matter.
Several were the contribution of special friends of the
writer who lent special support in the collection of material
that made this study possible.
171
Designer- Bernhardt
Wall-etching import­
ant because of its
decorative lettering
Designer- Jerry B y ­
waters etching-"Child­
ren's” group
EtttERG.DEttOUTEL
Designer- Unknown
Line Drawing- classed
under "Symbolism" plates
1
Designer- Bertha Landers etchinginitial plate. Glassed under "pictorial"
group
173
G IF T TO
\
THE U 8 R A R Y \
OF THE TEXAS1
technological ^
COLLEGE
^ ▲ IN MEMORY
OF
KATHRYN
SOWDER
WHATLEY/.
W
W
Ww
B
,
h
Designer- Carl
Lars Svenson,
artist and arch­
itect,
Grouped
under "Institution"
plates
Designer- Lucille Riehhart engraved- personal
signature of owner on his first musical com­
position. "professional" plates
Designer- unknown- etching- classed
under "Allegorical"
Designer- lucille Riohhart
Engraving- "Heraldic" plate
KflNStr
IsACcT)
Designer- unknown
Pen and ink. Grouped
under "Children"
JUBAL RICHARD PARTEN
TJN/X
Designer- unknown
Plate of a college professor
classed under "Silhouettes"
176
tagssMBgggseas
Designer- Isobel Robinson
an etching- classed under
’’professional1’ group.
The
owner is interested in travel
and education
1!!!!!!!!■!!!!i!!!!5!H!S!!!!■!!!!!!!!!!
©tie Bouse of Fronabarger
Commercial plate for a family library given
by friends to the owners.
”Institutional” group
177
Designer- Lucille Hichhart
Engraving- "Sports" plate
Designer-Stella Heilman
etching "professional"
plate
®XS &
I)es igne r-Unknown
i3tching-,,Sports" plate
179
s
Designer-Jerry
Bywaters # An
islngraving* *'Childm ' s " plate
Designer-Isabel
Robinson etchingowner* college
professor classed
under *fprof ess ional"
ennie
180
Designer-Bernhardt Wall
"Heraldic" design-etching
HENRY R DROUGHT.
Designer-Bernhardt Wall
Colored etching-owner is
a direct descendant of a
victim of the massacre at
the Alamo-Classed under
"hmot ional"
'mr r r
EMMETT or EMMET
T h is surnam e is d erived fro m the w ord
the Gaelic language “ the q u ic k r iv e r .’ ’
“ E im o t,”
Coat of Arms.
A z u re , a fess engrailed
caboosed proper.
C re s t:
is s u a n t p ro p e r.”
erm ine between
O u t of
three b u lls ’ heads
three
coronet o r a bull
Derivation:
•
The h e ra ld ry significance o f th e b u ll’s head dates back to
W illia m the C onqueror who gave one o f h is fo llo w e rs the
estate of a Saxon lo a n in g h im a thousand soldiers w ith w hom
to d riv e o ff the owners. The ow ner called in his n eighbors
to help defend h is p ro p e rty , and la c k in g horses th e y m ounted
bulls, and rode pell m e ll to the a tta c k o f th e ir invaders, who
e ith e r fled o r were tra m p le d to death. In a d m ira tio n o f the
ow ner, W illia m the C onqueror named h im ‘ B u ls tro d e ,’ who
a d o p te d . th e b u ll’ s head fo r a coat of arm s.
T h is coat of a rm s was b ro u g h t to A m e ric a b y C h ris to p h e r
E m m e t, M . D ., o f T ip p e ra ry , Ire la n d , who was b orn in 1701.
T h is B O O K belongs to C H R IS T O P H E R E M M E T T , 335 M e l­
rose
D riv e ,
San
A n to n io ,
Te xa s,
and
is
VO LUM E
Jesigner-Unknown
Heraldic Plate
o*-\
LIBRARY
OF
SUL ROSS
CDernom Iralion S ch o o l
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE
o f the
C M .o rtk ^ e x a s S ta le
te a c h e rs Cotleqe
A Group of Customary Institutional Plates
183
HOW ARD MEMORIAL
LIBRARY
ftlSAllLAS'fr
In Memory of
DR. H. P. HO W ARD
and
MAJOR GEORGE T. H OW ARD
From the Gift of
WILLIAM E. HOW ARD
M . D., F . A. C. S.
CARNEGIE BRANCH
HOUSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY
HOUSTON, T E X A S
Customary Institutional Plates
~*yrt
REXTON H .
LEXANDER
Designer unknown- engraving
classed under "profession&l"
plates
184
s-Ji
,
a te ^ ’ u ,
' V
-7
-
’
- .
rsjt '^-;::W -!;?•
.: M
' . ' y'‘
',.•
...
.
7- ' - ' .
VJ...C - i . V .
r'*x*i•'■,r
^
V!;
-?■ -
-..
;•■
"•: r - --3?!*
••••,
r*.-‘L,vir - ' r £ f __'1-J1
7?•
, . " ' -'W, V> -•:,
I .a
* t-vt
r
r-i
-,•
v
v.n
^
...*f;
1
- 2 * U v * :v
;-;sv
5*<-", ■
->
'
.r - «
. l/fi.- ,-
;■
V T V T ' jf e f ■ %
^
. y
*
\ V
Ad
v. .’v-.
?:-.
■(J?
*
'■ ■'•''' = 1
1
■i
:-v v.,;-'.
:.
ij^a-jTr.*''"-V.'Af!L-f■■■■ .-r’.V-1* ’"J" ’*/
w"'
*-■
:■V 1
Designer-Earriet P. brandstaff
iingraving-Plat e for Jev/ish
Rabbi "Professional" group
W . V - A - X J - f jj
.?vim 1
J - O .V ^ . ^
J - V^» J -
ftirittYr.iTi h iV
J
V
M
«» J . W J . X
, d ■ ■ 71 - -
5
-A j L
}~
'uj& Signer-Unknown
II * Wood-cut- "Children" group
but it is also a symbolical
. .\i - ' V :
,#.* X V - i v
« - r ’t .1
-
,
^
•
"
•
■>'i
-:
^
£*~>k
h e s igne r-Unknown
Engraving-classed under
"Childrens" group
*yg^|
■
^vvvyv\uv
n a 'D
tONFIRHW
J IM M Y and LO TTIE
NORTH
'' V-V-
^
t
^ v
•§
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