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A study of migratory Mexican peapickers in Imperial Valley

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A STUDY OF MIGRATORY
MEXICAN PEA-PICKERS
IN IMPERIAL VALLEY
A T h e sis
P r e s e n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e School o f E d u c a tio n
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R eq u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e in E d u c a tio n
by
R o g e r M. V, W a lt o n
A u g u s t 1940
UMI Number: EP54147
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54147
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Ann Arbor, Ml 4 81 0 6- 1346
This thesis, written under the direction of the
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance C omm ittee
and a p p r o v e d by all members of the Committee,
has been presented to and accep ted by the Faculty
of the Sc hool of Education in partial fulfillment
of the requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
D a te ..J ™ e .J .A .W 4:l.....................
Dean
Guidance Committee
D. Weity Lefever
Chairman
M. M. Thompson
C. C. Crawford
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................
1
The p r o b l e m ............................................................................
2
S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m .........................................
2
A n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o b l e m ..........................................
2
J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m ...............................
4
D e fin itio n s
.............................................................................
M ig ra n t, m ig ra to r y w o rk e r
....................................
4
T r a n s i e n t a n d r e s i d e n t ..............................................
7
M e x i c a n .......................................................................
.
8
s t u d y ..................................................................
10
S o u r c e s o f d a t a .............................................................
10
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s i s ..............................................
10
RELATION TO OTHER S T U D I E S ..............................................
12
A c c o u n t s b a s e d on i n s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s .
13
M e th o d s o f
II.
4
S hort v i s i t s ;
p re c o n c e iv e d id e a s
.....................
A c c u ra te , b u t p r e s e n t i n g o n ly one s id e
L ittle
.
13
. .
14
o r no i n f o r m a t i o n ..........................................
15
B ia se d a c c o u n ts
.
........................................................
16
.
.........................................
16
The M e x i c a n ........................................................................
17
M ig ra to ry w o rk e rs
.
E d i t o r i a l s and s i m i l a r a r t i c l e s
..........................
18
G e n e r a l ..................................................................................
18
iv
CHAPTER
PACE
S c h o o l p ro b le m s
S o lu tio n s
S c ie n tific
........................................................
...................................
s tu d ie s
.
. ♦ .
19
.
19
S e a s o n a l e m p lo y m e n t ...................................................
21
S trik e s
22
.............................................................................
The r e f u g e e s t r e a m i n t o
th e w e s t—
p a t t e r n s o f m i g r a t i o n .........................................
23
..............................................
25
H e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s .........................................................
25
M e x i c a n s .............................................................................
26
E d u c a t i o n — M e x ic a n s ...................................................
28
E d u c a tio n and p r o g r e s s o f m ig r a n ts
.
29
.........................................................
31
..................................................................................
32
B ac k g ro u n d m a t e r i a l
B e h a v io r a s p e c ts
Summary
III.
19
........................................................
G en eral s tu d ie s o f th e m ig ra n t
18
.
.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIGRATORY LABOR IN
C A L I F O R N I A .............................................................................
34
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e C a lif o r n ia la n d
s y s t e m ..................................................................................
34
L a rg e h o l d i n g s d a t e from e a r l y
.
34
s m a l l h o l d i n g s .....................
34
tim e s
.
A m e r ic a n p e r i o d — i n c r e a s e o f v e r y
l a r g e and v e ry
M id d le - s iz e d farm s d e c r e a s in g
.....................
36
L a r g e g r o w e r s s p e c i a l i z e .....................................
38
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
G ro w e r-b u sin e ss-ra e n a r e th e l a r g e
e m p lo y e rs o f farm l a b o r
...............................
G r o w e rs c o n t r o l d i s t r i b u t i o n .............
C lim a te and a s u c c e s s io n o f c ro p s
38
40
. . . . .
42
S e a so n s f o r c ro p s le n g th e n e d to
p r o d u c e c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y ...............................
42
S u c c e s s i o n o f c r o p s m akes m i g r a t o r y l a b o r
p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y
S hort jo b s ,
....................................
44
.........................................
45
..................................................................
45
..............................................
47
t h e n move
Time l o s t
E f f e c t o f w e a th e r .
F rom c a t t l e - r a n c h e s
to t r u c k fa rm s . . . .
47
..............................................................
49
..................................................................................
49
C a ttle ra is in g
W h eat
D e v elo p m en t o f i r r i g a t i o n
F ru it
...............................
50
............................... ' ...............................................
50
Sugar b e e ts
..................................................................
P o t a t o e s ................................................................
54
54
V e g e t a b l e s .............................................
55
C o t t o n .....................................................................
55
R e c a p itu la tio n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . .
From flb i n d l e - s t i f f s rt t o
Bo k i e s ff
.....................
The b l a n k e t - m e n o f t h e w h e a t h a r v e s t s
T he C h i n e s e
57
64
. .
67
...................................................................
68
vi
CHAPTER
PACE
T h e J a p a n e s e ...................................................................
69
S o u th E u r o p e a n s .............................................................
72
E a s t I n d ia n s , P u e r to R ic a n s and
F ilip in o s
...................................................................
72
M e x i c a n s ............................................................................
74
The d r o u g h t r e f u g e e s a n d l a b o r
m i g r a n t s ........................................................................
78
The m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r t o d a y ....................................
84
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a m i g r a n t .............................
84
Number o f m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s ...............................
84
Age o f m i g r a n t s ..............................................................
85
S i z e o f f a m i l i e s ........................................................
87
B r o k e n h o m e s ...................................................................
87
Why a m i g r a n t ? .............................................................
89
T r a n s i t i o n t o m i g r a t o r y l i f e .............................
90
Num bers o f m oves p e r y e a r .....................................
92
R o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n .........................................................
93
C r o p s f o l l o w e d ..............................................................
93
M i g r a t i o n b y c h a n c e ...................................................
98
F o l l o w i n g t h e c r o p s ...................................................
98
A n n u a l m i g r a t i o n ..............................
100
E m plo ym en t a g e n c i e s ...................................................
100
Summary o f r o u t e s .
.................................
103
L a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s ..............................................................
103
.
..
v ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
T h e i r m e t h o d s ..............................................................
103
A d v e r tis in g to g e t o v e r -s u p p ly o f
l a . b o r .............................................................................
105
W ages an d a n o v e r s u p p l y o f l a b o r .....................
1 05
S u r p l u s o f l a b o r ........................................................
105
W ages an d e a r n i n g s ...................................................
107
Tim e w o r k e d ...................................................................
110
O t h e r e x p e n s e s .............................................................
Ill
C h ild l a b o r
.
C auses o f c h ild
la b o r
.
.........................................
C h ild la b o r on s c h o o l day i l l e g a l
.
. .
11 2
112
113
C h i l d l a b o r e x i s t s ....................................................
11 4
W h at t o do a b o u t c h i l d
115
e x p lo ita tio n
C h i l d r e n an e c o n o m ic a s s e t ?
. .
..........................
116
S u m m a r y ..................................................................................
117
C a l i f o r n i a l a n d s y s t e m .........................................
117
S u c c e s s i o n o f c r o p s ...............................................
117
Changes i n
118
ty p e s o f c ro p s r a i s e d
. . . .
C hanges i n s o u r c e s o f l a b o r su p p ly .
. .
118
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m ig ra to ry w o rk ers
. .
119
M i g r a t i o n r o u t e s .........................................................
121
L a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s ...................................................
1 21
W a g e s ..................................................................................
122
C h i l d l a b o r ...................................................................
122
v iii
CHAPTER
IV .
PAGE
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEA-GROWING IN
IMPERIAL VALLE!
......................................................................
G e o g ra p h ic a l c o n s id e r a tio n s
123
.......................................
123
D e s c rip tio n o f Im p e ria l V a lle y . . . . .
123
T e m p e r a t u r e a n d c r o p s ................................... .....
125
The p e a - g r o w i n g a r e a .......................................
126
L o c a t i o n i n v a l l e y — two c r o p s ........
126
H a z a r d s t o c r o p ............................................
129
The c l i m a t e a n d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s
. .
.
132
O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r g ro w in g , h a r v e s t i n g
a n d m a r k e t i n g .................................................
B e g in n in g s o f p e a - r a i s i n g
133
.......................................
C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p ...................
133
M e th o d s o f m a r k e t i n g ..................................
135
S e c tio n -w id e o r g a n iz a tio n
133
.......................................
L a b o r su p p ly and w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s
.
.
.
136
140
P e r is h a b l e cro p and f l u c t u a t i n g
m arket
................................................................................
L arg e o v e r-s u p p ly e x i s t s
every y e a r
.
.
140
14 1
R e l a t i o n o f p e a s and c o t t o n i n th e
V a lle y
.................................................................
142
W o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ...........................................................
143
A t t i t u d e o f g ro w e rs to w ard p i c k e r s —
c h ild
l a b o r .......................................................
148
ix
CHAPTER
PAGE
L arg e g ro w ers ta k e p a t e r n a l i s t i c
a ttitu d e
..................................................................
148
C h i l d l a b o r ..................................................................
149
S u m m a r y .................................................................................
152
V. THE PEA-PICKERS--BACKGROUND....................................
155
R a c ia l groups
..................................................................
155
P o l i c y o f g r o w e r s ...................................................
155
R a c ia l d i s t r i b u t i o n
156
..............................................
M e x ic a n s r e t u r n y e a r a f t e r y e a r
m o re t h a n w h i t e s ....................................................
158
R o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n ....................................................
161
L a s t p l a c e w orked b e f o r e p i c k i n g p e a s .
161
A nnounced d e s t i n a t i o n on l e a v i n g
I m p e ria l V a lle y
...............................................
M ig ra n ts r e - e n t e r i n g C a l i f o r n i a
.
• •
M i g r a t o r y p a t t e r n s ..............................................
161
168
169
Time o f r e - e n t e r i n g C a l i f o r n i a a s
an i n d i c a t i o n o f k in d o f c ro p
f o l l o w e d ...................................................................
175
■m "
B i r t h p l a c e o f m in o r a s an i n d i c a t i o n
o f e x t e n t o f m i g r a t i o n ...............................
M e x ic a n p e a - p i c k e r s
175
...............................................
179
How t h e y h a p p e n e d t o c o m e .....................
179
T y p e o f M e x ic a n s p i c k i n g p e a s
180
. .
.
X
CHAPTER
PAG-E
A d a p t a t i o n t o m i g r a t o r y l i f e .............................
183
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e M e x ic a n a s
...................................................
187
M e x ic a n s d i s a p p e a r i n g ..............................................
188
a w o rker
Summary
.................................................................................
189
P e a -p ic k e rs in th e p ro c e ss of
c h a n g i n g ........................................................................
V I.
M ig r a to r y cam ps,
189
t h e n a n d n o w ....................................
191
H i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d ...................................................
191
E a r l y a t t i t u d e ..............................................................
191
U n im p ro v e d cam ps
..............................................................
191
S q u a t t e r cam ps
.............................................................
191
i m p r o v e d cam p s ...................................................
195
L a b o r c o n t r a c t o r ' s c a m p s ....................................
195
P r i v a t e p a y c a m p s .........................................................
196
P a rtly
I m p r o v e d cam ps
...................................................................
Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n cam ps
.
197
c a m p s ..............................................................
199
I m p r o v e m e n t s s t i l l n e e d e d ...... .....................................
200
C am p ers n e e d e d u c a t i o n ..............................................
200
D e s i r a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s ......... .....................................
200
G ro w ers'
Summary
. .
197
..................................................................................
Camps h a v e shown m a r k e d im p r o v e m e n t .
. .
201
201
xi
CHAPTER
V II.
PAGE
HOMES AND FAMILY L I F E ..............................................
203
A p p e a r a n c e o f h o m e ..............................................
203
C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e h o m e ..........................
203
F u rn itu re
..............................................................
203
No v e r m i n
.............................................................
206
A p p e a r a n c e o f c a m p .........................................
206
L i g h t a n d f u e l ....................................................
207
F am ily l i f e
..............................................................
208
L a r g e f a m i l i e s ...................................................
208
B i r t h r a t e ..............................................................
210
R e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s i n th e
V III.
f a m i l y c i r c l e ....................................................
212
F o o d .............................................................................
213
R e c r e a t i o n .............................................................
214
F o l k w ay s
.............................................................
217
R e l i g e o n ...................................................................
218
S u m m a r y .............................................................................
218
SOCIAL FACTORS AND A T T I T U D E S ..........................
220
R a c ia l c h a r a c t e r is t i c s
....................................
220
E f f e c t o f m o b i l i t y ...............................................
221
D o m ic ilia r y and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n
. . .
224
..............................................
226
M e x ic a n s a n d s c h o o l s .........................................
231
P a re n t-c h ild c o n flic ts
232
M o re s v s la w
.
.
....................................
x ii
CHAPTER
PAGE
C o u r ts h ip and m a r r ia g e
D iv o r c e and d e s e r t i o n
IX .
.
........................
234
.............................
235
THE HEALTH OF THE MIGRANT MEXICAN . . . .
In c id e n c e o f d is e a s e
257
.........................................
237
P h y sic a l d e fe c ts
...................................................
238
In fa n t m o rta lity
r a t e .........................................
240
C ause o f p o o r h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s
. . . .
242
M e th o d s u s e d i n i m p r o v i n g h e a l t h
c o n d itio n s
..............................................
242
Work y e t t o b e d o n e ..............................................
245
.......................................................................
246
Summary
X.
RELIEF AND THE MEXICAN M I G R A N T ....................
247
N um ber o f M e x ic a n s o n r e l i e f .....................
A ttitu d e s of r e l ie f
247
a u th o ritie s
t o w a r d M e x ic a n s .....................................................
A t t i t u d e o f M e x ic a n s t o w a r d r e l i e f
252
.
.
253
.
.
2 53
O f f r e l i e f t o w o r k ..............................................
255
Types o f r e l i e f
...............................
256
R e l i e f i n o f f - s e a s o n s o f em p lo y m e n t . .
258
A t t i t u d e o f g r o w e rs to w ard r e l i e f
.
.
E f f e c t o f u s i n g r e l i e f a s an
u n e m p lo y m e n t c u s h i o n ............ .............................
263
R e l i e f a n d v o t i n g ....................................................
264
A lte r n a tiv e s to r e l i e f . • • . • • • •
2 64
x iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
.....................
265
........................................................................
266
STRIKES AND THE P E A -P IC K E R S ...............................
268
Why a s t r i k e ? .............................................................
268
A t t i t u d e o f g r o w e r s ..............................................
269
O u tlin e o f s tr i k e s
.
271
Summary
........................................................................
278
EDUCATION
.......................................................................
280
R e l i e f and s e h o o l a tte n d a n c e
Summary
X I.
X II.
in Im p e ria l V a lle y
The p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n
.........................................
280
Number o f m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n i n
s c h o o l s ...................................................................
280
A tte n d a n c e o f m ig ra to ry c h i l d r e n a t
s c h o o l ...................................................................
280
A t t i t u d e o f s c h o o l s to w a r d c o m p u l s o r y
a t t e n d a n c e o f m i g r a n t s ..........................
282
M i g r a t i o n m ak es s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e
d iffic u lt
.........................................................
School p ro g re ss
A b ility
283
...................................................
286
t o do s c h o o l w o r k ..........................
291
A t t i t u d e to w ard s c h o o l
................................
294
How d o e s t h e c o m in g o f t h e m i g r a n t s
a f f e c t t h e s c h o o l s ? .....................................
T ra n sp o rta tio n ,
294
l u n c h e s ...............................
300
T e a c h e r s ...................................................................
300
x iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
s c h o o l d a y .............................
301
......................................................................
302
A d ju s tm e n ts o f th e
S e g re g a tio n
C u r r ic u lu m and o t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s
p ra c tic e d
......................................................................
305
A d ju s tm e n ts n e e d e d to im p ro v e t h e
s itu a tio n
...........................................................................
305
E nsure e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n i t i e s f o r
a ll
....................................................................................
307
E d u c a tio n a lly j u s t i f i a b l e b u ild in g s
a n d e q u i p m e n t .................................................................
S m a lle r c la s s e s
307
to p e r m it i n d i v i d u a l
i n s t r u c t i o n ..............................................................
308
L o n g e r s c h o o l d a y ...................................................
308
S p e c ia lly
309
tra in e d
C h an g e a t t i t u d e
teach ers
..........................
to w a rd p e a - p i c k e r s
. •
309
g r o u p s ........................................................................
310
D isre g a rd g ra d e s,
e m p h a s iz e w o r k i n g
A d ju s t w ork to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f
a c co m p lish m en t
...........................................................
C r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ..............................................
310
3 12
E m p h a s is on s p e e c h ......................................................
P l a n w o r k w i t h c h i l d r e n ....................................
A c c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d s to f o llo w
c h ild
312
3 12
th e
................................................................................
313
XV
CHAPTER
PAGE
P h y s i c a l n e e d s .............................................................
313
C o s t o f i m p r o v e d p r o g r a m ....................................
313
The p r o b l e m o f f i n a n c e o f s c h o o l s
f o r m i g r a n t s ..............................................................
316
P o l i c y o f S t a t e D ep artm en t o f
E d u c a t i o n ..............................................................
316
A t t i t u d e s o f c o m m u n ity t o w a r d
e d u c a t i o n f o r m i g r a n t s ...............................
317
E f f o r t s o f c o m m u n ity t o p r o v i d e a
b e t t e r p r o g r a m ....................................................
318
E m erg en cy s c h o o l s o p e r a t e d b y t h e
co u n ty s u p e r in te n d e n t
...............................
321
The s t a t e a s a s o u r c e o f a d d i t i o n a l
m o n e y ........................................................................
323
F e d e r a l a i d t h e a n s w e r ....................................
3 24
S u m m a r y .............................................................................
326
The s i t u a t i o n
t o d a y .........................................
I m p r o v e m e n ts n e e d e d
X III.
326
.........................................
327
The p r o b l e m o f f i n a n c e ....................................
328
the r e l a t io n s h ip
o f c r o p s and s c h o o l
ENROLLMENT IN IMPERIAL VALLEY
. . . .
329
C r o p s d e m a n d in g s e a s o n a l l a b o r . . . .
329
A r e a s w h e r e c r o p s a r e r a i s e d .....................
332
C y c l e s o f c r o p s ....................................................
336
xvl
CHAPTER
PAG-E
P o p u la tio n fo llo tv s v e g e ta b le
h a rv e sts
..............................................................
P o p u la tio n s h if t s
337
th ro u g h th e
y e a r f ro m o n e c r o p t o a n o t h e r
. .
•
341
M e x ic a n s m o re m o b i l e i n 1 9 2 9 - 3 0
. .
.
346
W h i t e s now b e c o m i n g m ore m o b i l e
• .
•
350
S h i f t i n g o f J a p a n e s e and F i l i p i n o s
i n t o N i l a n d t o m a t o a r e a ..........................
355
C r o p s c r e a t e f i v e m a in e n r o l l m e n t
t y p e s .......................................................................
A n a ly s is o f e n ro llm e n t c u rv e s
. . . .
P r e d i c t i n g e n r o l l m e n t fro m c u r v e s
XIV.
357
367
. .
375
S u m m a r y .............................................................................
375
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.........................................
378
S u m m a r y .............................................................................
378
B a s is o f C a l i f o r n i a ’ s m ig ra to ry
l a b o r s y s t e m .........................................................
378
S o u r c e s o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r ..........................
378
L iv in g and w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s f o r
t h e l a b o r e r s .........................................................
379
W o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s ..............................................
381
R o u t e s a n d c r o p s ...................................................
381
H e a lth ,
..........................
381
E d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s .........................................
382
re lie f
and s t r i k e s
x v ii
CHAPTER
PAG-E
M ig ra to ry p a t t e r n w ith in I m p e r ia l
V a l l e y .......................................................................
384
C o n c lu sio n s— th e f u tu r e of th e
m ig ra to ry fa m ily
...................................................
I s a m ig ra to ry p o p u la tio n n e c e ssa ry ?
385
385
M o st a r e a s c a n n o t s u p p o r t t h e
needed s e a s o n a l la b o r th ro u g h o u t
t h e y e a r .......................................................................
385
R e l i e f c r e a t e s m o re p r o b l e m s t h a n i t
s o l v e s ............................................................................
385
F u t u r e o f a g r i c u l t u r e ..............................................
386
F u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f m ach in e
f a r m i n g ............................................................................
W i l l t h e " O k i e s " c o n t i n u e t o come?
S e ttle m e n t p la n s
The s i t u a t i o n
.
387
388
........................................................
in Im p e ria l
D iv e r s if ic a tio n o f crops
V a lle y
.
.
388
390
. . . . . . .
391
A d j u s t m e n t s t o make m i g r a t i o n e a s i e r .
391
F u t u r e o f t h e M e x ic a n p e a - p i c k e r
393
P ro b le m s y e t to b e s o lv e d
.
.
...............................
393
B IB L IO G R A P H Y ...........................................................................................
396
APPENDIX A.
Case
o f S a n to s B ra c a m o n te
APPENDIX B.
Case
o f R u th M e s a ........................
APPENDIX C.
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s f r o m W h i t e
H ouse C o n fe re n c e R e p o r t
.
.
.
412
415
.
418
x v iii
APPENDIX D.
wR e l i e f P r o g r a m R a p p e d t o
A id U.
S. I v l i g r a n t s ....................
419
x ix
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
R e l a t i v e R o l e o f Farm S i z e G r o u p s i n
C a l i f o r n i a A c c o r d i n g t o A c r e a g e Owned,
1 9 2 0 - 1 9 3 0 ......................................................................................
II*
P e r c e n t a g e s o f L a r g e - S c a l e F a rm s o f
V a r i o u s K i n d s F o u n d i n C a l i f o r n i a ............................
III.
43
D u r a t i o n o f J o b s H e l d b y Two H u n d r e d
A g r i c u l t u r a l W o rk ers,
V.
39
H a r v e s t P e r i o d s o f C e r t a i n C rops i n
C a l i f o r n i a a n d W e s t e r n S t a t e s .....................................
IV .
37
1 9 3 3 - 3 4 .....................................
A v e r a g e Time S p e n t i n E m p lo y m en t,
M ig ra tio n ,
46
in
an d i n O f f - S e a s o n P e r i o d s
f o r Two H u n d r e d M i g r a t o r y A g r i c u l t u r a l
W o rk ers,
V I.
1 9 3 3 - 3 4 ...................................
A v e r a g e Number o f D ays A v a i l a b l e f o r F i e l d
Work i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
V II.
by M o n t h s ............................... .....
E n te rp rise s,
1850-1930. . . .
51
A creage and P r o d u c tio n o f C o tto n i n
C a l i f o r n i a and A riz o n a ,
1919 a n d 1 9 2 9 .
A creage o f C e r ta in C a l i f o r n i a C o u n tie s
IX .
48
I n c r e a s e i n A r e a o f I m p e r i a l F arm L and an d
in I r r i g a t i o n
V III.
46
. . .
56
C o m p arativ e V alu e o f C rops R a is e d i n
C a lifo rn ia ,
1909,
1 9 1 9 , an d 1 9 2 9 ,
in
P e r c e n t a g e s o f T o t a l V a l u e o f C r o p s ........
58
XX
TABLE
X,
PAG-E
Seasonal F lu c tu a tio n
i n E m ploym ent i n a l l
P u r s u i t s an d S e l e c t e d P u r s u i t s o f Two
H undred A g r i c u l t u r a l W o rk e rs,
X I.
1933-34 . . .
61
S e a so n a l L abor R eq u irem en ts f o r S p e c if ie d
C r o p s b y M o n th s — C a l i f o r n i a .......................................
X II.
C a l i f o r n i a C o u n tie s H av in g L a r g e s t A nnual
S e a so n a l L abor R e q u ire m e n ts
X III.
62
...............................
66
M i g r a n t s ” i n Need o f M a n u a l E m p lo y m e n t”
E n t e r i n g C a l i f o r n i a b y M o to r V e h i c l e ,
by S t a t e s , J u l y 1 ,
XIV.
1938
.
.
79
S ta te d B ir th p la c e o f P u p ils in T u la re
C o u n ty S c h o o l s
XV.
1 9 3 5 — M arch 3 1 ,
...................................................................
81
S c h o o ls W ith F iv e P e r C e n t o r O v er o f
A v e r a g e D a i l y A t t e n d a n c e f ro m M i g r a n t s
Coming S i n c e 1930 ..............................................................
X V I.
Age o f E c o n o m ic H e a d s o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s
and F a m i l i e s i n G e n e r a l P o p u l a t i o n
X V II.
. . . .
. . . . . . .
.....................
88
Movement o f M e x ic a n s b y M o to r V e h i c l e O v e r
t h e R id g e R o u te by S em i-m o n th ly P e r i o d s
XX.
88
C o m p o sitio n o f M ig r a to r y F a m ilie s B e fo re
an d D u r i n g M i g r a t i o n ................................
X IX.
86
S i z e o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s an d F a m i l i e s i n
G eneral P o p u la tio n
X V III.
83
.
.
97
.
.
1 08
A v e r a g e P r o d u c t i o n p e r P e r s o n a n d Wage i n
C e r t a i n T ruck C rops i n I m p e r i a l V a lle y
xxi
TABLE
XXI.
PAG-E
D a i l y E a r n i n g s E s t i m a t e d b y S .R .A .
L a b o r C o o r d i n a t o r i n 19 35 .........................................
X X II.
P e rc e n ta g e o f N a tio n a litie s in
M i g r a t o r y L a b o r Camps o f C a l i f o r n i a . . . .
X X III.
1 20
M a rk e tin g Season f o r P eas T h ro u g h o u t
th e U n ite d S ta te s ,
XXIV.
108
1928-1932
130
S i z e a n d V a l u e o f P e a C ro p i n S i x
W e s t e r n S t a t e s an d i n C a l i f o r n i a b y
C o u n tie s,
XXV.
1929
............................... * .............................
137
Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E i g h t H u n d r e d
T h i r t y - t h r e e M i n o r s L e g a l l y E m p lo y ed
P i c k i n g P e a s i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
1931-1939
XXVI.
an d 1 9 3 9 ................................................... .....
157
Number o f Y e a r s F a m i l i e s h a v e b e e n P i c k i n g
P e a s i n N i l a n d - C a l i p a t r i a A r e a ..........................
X X V I II .
151
R a c ia l C o m p o sitio n o f P ea-eam p P o p u l a t i o n ,
1 931-1938,
X X V II.
.............................................................................
159
L a s t S c h o o l A t t e n d e d by P e a - p i c k e r s 1
C h i l d r e n B e f o r e C om ing t o I m p e r i a l
V a lle y ,
XXIX.
1931-1939
162-4
M a j o r R a c e G-roups o f M i g r a n t s R e - e n t e r i n g
C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e 1 6 — D ecem b er 1 5 ,
XXX.
1935
.
.
170
1938.
.
172-3
H i s t o r y o f M ig r a t io n and E a rn in g s o f
Juan A rg u ile z , J u ly ,
1935— J a n u a r y ,
x x ii
TABLE
XXXI.
XXXII.
PAG-E
The Work H i s t o r y o f A p o l o n i o P a t r o n ......................
R e tu rn in g C a lif o rn ia n s
174
" i n N eed o f
M a n u a l E m p loy m ent" E n t e r i n g
C a l i f o r n i a b y M o n th s i n 1 9 3 7 ...............................
X X X I II .
B i r t h p l a c e o f M e x ic a n M i g r a t o r y
C h ild re n ,
N ilan d and C a l i p a t r i a ,
1931-1939
XXXIV.
178
S t a t e s fro m W hich M e x ic a n s Came t o t h e
M id d l e W e s t .............................................................................
XXXV.
181
S t a t e s f r o m W hich M e x ic a n s Came t o
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ...................................................................
XXXVI.
176
1 82
Number o f C h i l d r e n O v e r F i v e Y e a r s i n
F a m i l i e s i n P e a Camps i n I m p e r i a l
C o u n ty ,
XXXVII.
1 9 3 1 - 1 9 3 9 ..............................................................
A v e r a g e S i z e o f F a m i l y Among One H u n d re d
S e v e n t y - s e v e n M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r s ..........................
XXXVIII*
209
211
A g r i c u l tu r a l W o rk ers1 F a m ilie s C l a s s if ie d
a s t o Number o f F a m i l y M embers n o t a b l e t o
Work i n t h e F i e l d s .........................................................
XXXIX.
I n f a n t M o r t a l i t y R a t e Among M i g r a n t s , Among
R e lie f C lie n ts,
a n d Among t h e G e n e r a l
P o p u la tio n , by R aces
XL*
211
....................................................
241
R e l a t i o n o f P r o p o r t i o n o f M e x ic a n s Among
W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t C a s e s a n d M e x ic a n s
i n T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n .........................................................
248
x x iii
TABLE
X L I.
PAG-E
P r o p o r t i o n o f V a r i o u s R a c e s on R e l i e f
R o lls o f S ta te R e lie f A d m in is tra tio n
i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
F eb ru ary 14,
C om pared w i t h t h e P r o p o r t i o n i n
1940,
th e
G e n e r a l P o p u l a t i o n ................................................................
X L II.
249
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty E s t i m a t e d P o p u l a t i o n
I n c r e a s e a n d C h an g e i n P r o p o r t i o n ............................ 2 5 1
X L III.
R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C rops and R e l i e f i n
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
XLIV.
1 9 3 6 - 1 9 5 7 ..........................................
G ra d e C o m p l e t e d b y M i g r a t o r y C h i l d r e n
Q u i t t i n g S c h o o l t o go t o Work i n
P e a s i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
XLV.
260-1
th e
1 9 3 1 - 1 9 3 9 .....................
287
R e t a r d a t i o n among M e x ic a n s a n d M i g r a n t s
i n C a l i f o r n i a ........................................................................290
XLVI.
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s o f F r e s n o C o n f e r e n c e o n t h e
E d u c a tio n o f C h ild r e n o f S e a s o n a l
W orkers
X L V II.
A b ility
. . . » .................................................................. 3 1 4 - 5
and E f f o r t i n S u p p o r tin g S c h o o ls
i n P e a - g r o w i n g A r e a .........................................................319
X L V III.
Seasons,
K in d s a n d Amount o f Work on
V a r i o u s C r o p s , I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ...............................
XLIX.
330-1
Y e a rly A verage D a ily A tte n d a n c e i n
M a g n o lia S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ,
C o u n ty ,
Im p e ria l
1 9 2 3 - 1 9 3 9 ..... ..............................................................
338
XXIV
TABLE
PAG-E
L.
D e s t i n a t i o n o f One H u n d r e d T h i r t y - f o u r
M e x ic a n C h i l d r e n T r a n s f e r r e d f ro m
B raw ley ,
L I.
F e b r u a r y 5 t o M arch 4 ,
1940 . . . .
342-3
D e s t i n a t i o n o f F i v e H u n d re d F o u r t e e n
C h ild r e n L e av in g F o u r I m p e r ia l V a lle y
C itie s,
L II.
A p ril,
19 4 0
344-5
T r a n s f e r s W ith in I m p e r i a l C o u n ty , A p r i l ,
1 9 4 0 , b y S c h o o l R e c e i v i n g C h i l d — Show­
i n g M i g r a t i o n t o M e lo n a n d T o m a t o - g r o w i n g
A r e a s ............................................................. ..............................
L III.
347
S e a s o n a l M o b i l i t y — M e x ic a n C h i l d r e n i n
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s o f I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
C a lifo rn ia ,
1 9 2 9-30 and 1 9 3 8 -3 9 .
M o n th ly E n r o l l m e n t o f E ach G roup i n
T erm s o f i t s
L IV .
own T o t a l A n n u a l E n r o l l m e n t
. •
3 48
C o m p a r is o n o f F l u c t u a t i o n i n E n r o l l m e n t o f
M e x ic a n a n d n o n - M e x i c a n C h i l d r e n i n
a ll
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s o f I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
C a lifo rn ia ,
LV.
and 1938-39.
.
351-3
C h an ge i n R a c i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n a t N i l a n d
S c h o o l,
L V I.
1 9 2 9 -3 0 ,1 9 3 4 -3 5 ,
1935-1939
..............................................................
356
F l u c t u a t i o n s i n E n r o l l m e n t o f M e x ic a n
C h ild r e n i n E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls o f
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
in S e le c te d Y ears
C a lifo rn ia ,
by M o n th s ,
.....................................
.....................
358-64
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.
PAGE
I n c r e a s e i n A r e a o f I m p r o v e d Farm a n d i n
Irrig a tio n
2.
E n te rp rise s,
1850-1930
1909, 1919,
1929 i n P e r c e n t ­
a g e s o f T o t a l V alu e o f C rops
M o st N um erous T yp e o f F a rm , 1 9 3 0 ,
....................................
...................................................................
S o u th e a ste rn C a lif o r n ia ,
S h o w in g L o c a t i o n o f Camps...............................
139
P i c k i n g P e a s ..............................................
144
10.
H a rv e s tin g C a rro ts in Im p e ria l V a lle y
11.
P e a - g r o w i n g A r e a s i n t h e W e s t, w i t h R o u t e s
12.
127
V a l u e o f P e a C ro p i n S i x W e s t e r n S t a t e s ,
1929
9.
124
P r i n c i p a l P e a -g ro w in g A reas in I m p e r ia l
V a lle y ,
8.
96
S h o w in g t h e L o c a t i o n
o f I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ...................................................................
7.
95
P a t t e r n s o f M ig ra tio n W ith in C a l i f o r n i a W h i t e F a m i l i e s .............................................................................
6.
65
P a t t e r n s o f M ig ra tio n W ith in C a l i f o r n i a M e x ic a n F a m i l i e s
5.
59
S h o w in g
L o c a t i o n o f A r e a s o f H eavy L a b o r R e q u i r e m e n t s .
4.
52
C o m p arativ e V a lu e o f C ro p s R a is e d i n
C a lifo rn ia ,
3.
. . . . . .
......................
147
of
M i g r a t i o n o f t h e P i c k e r s ....................................................
165
M e x ic a n M i g r a n t s J u s t A r r i v i n g ...........................................
167
xxvi
FIGURE
13.
PA&E
R a c ia l T ypes,
S h o w in g V a r y i n g P r o p o r t i o n s o f
I n d i a n B l o o d .................................................................................
184
14.
R a c ia l Types .
. , ..............................................................................
185
15.
S q u a t t e r G a m p ...................................................................................
192
16.
Women an d C h i l d r e n i n t h e H o m e ..........................................
204
17.
D i n n e r a t t h e G a r c i a 1 s ..............................................................
215
18.
R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C rops an d R e l i e f i n I m p e r i a l
........................................................................
262
19.
N i l a n d E m e rg e n c y S c h o o l—P r i m a r y G r a d e s ......................
296
20.
N i l a n d E m erg en cy S c h o o l — M id d l e G r a d e s ......................
297
21.
N i l a n d E m erg en cy S c h o o l — U p p e r G r a d e s
298
22.
A F a irly
C o u n ty ,
1936-37
S a tisfa c to ry
......................
E d u c a t i o n a l E n v iro n m en t
P r o v i d e d i n a n E m e rg e n c y S c h o o l
. . . . . . .
23.
C ro p s i n I m p e r i a l V a lle y i n 1939-40
24.
Y e a r ly A verage D a ily A tte n d a n c e i n M a g n o lia
School D i s t r i c t ,
25.
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ,
306
334-5
1923-1939.
.
339
............................................................................................
349
C o m p a r a t i v e M o b i l i t y o f M e x ic a n s a n d n o n M e x ic a n s i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty S c h o o l s i n
1929-30
26.
E n r o l l m e n t o f C h i l d r e n i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
S c h o o l s b y R a c e s i n T erm s o f P e r c e n t a g e s o f
T o t a l M o n th l y E n r o l l m e n t ,
27.
1929-30 and 1 9 3 8 -3 9 .
354
C o m p o s i t e F l u c t u a t i o n s o f M e x ic a n E n r o l l m e n t i n
S c h o o ls H av in g F a l l and W in te r P e a h s ,
1929-30.
368
x x v ii
FIGURE
28*
PAGE
C o m p o s i te F l u c t u a t i o n s o f M e x ic a n E n r o l l m e n t
i n S c h o o ls H a v in g S p r in g P eak s and i n
S ch o o ls w ith S ta b le E n ro llm e n t,
29.
......................................................................................
370
E n ro llm e n t F l u c t u a t i o n s i n N ila n d S c h o o l,
1938-39
31.
369
E n ro llm e n t F l u c t u a t i o n s i n C a l i p a t r i a S c h o o ls
1938-39
30.
1929-30 . . . .
............................................................................................
371
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y S c h o o l G ro u p in g s A c c o r d in g to
E n r o l l m e n t T y p e ................................................................................
372-3
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Much a t t e n t i o n h a s f o c u s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s o n t h e
p l i g h t o f th e d ro u g h t r e fu g e e s in t h e i r a tte m p ts to f in d
new hom es i n C a l i f o r n i a .
lite ra tu re
F i r s t th e c u r r e n t p e r i o d ic a l
made t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a w a r e s o m e t h i n g w as
w r o n g and r e c e n t l y
th e e lo q u e n t p e n s o f S te in b e c k ^ and
M c W illia m s ^ h a v e p l a c e d t h e p r o b l e m s q u a r e l y b e f o r e t h e
n a tio n .
fie ld ,
Many c a r e f u l s t u d i e s h a v e a l s o b e e n made i n t h i s
b o t h f r o m a s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m ic v i e w p o i n t .
seem t h a t t h e r e i s
little
I t w o u ld
m ore t o b e s a i d upon t h e s e p h a s e s
o f th e s u b je c t.
T h ere i s ,
h a s re c e iv e d le s s
m ig ra to ry n a tu r e .
a te d C a lif o r n ia 's
how ever,
a n o t h e r m i g r a t o r y g ro u p w h ich
a t t e n t i o n fro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f i t s
T h is i s
t h e M e x ic a n m i g r a n t , who d o m in ­
se a so n a l la b o r m arket f o r about f i f t e e n
y e a r s an d now i s b e i n g c ro w d e d o u t o f t h e p i c t u r e by t h e
1 J o h n S t e i n b e c k , The G r a p e s o f W r a th (New Y ork j
T h e V i k i n g P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 3 9 ) , 619 p p . ; T h e i r B l o o d i s
S t r o n g (S a n F r a n c i s c o : S im on J . L u b i n S o c i e t y o f C a l i f ­
o r n i a , I n c . , 1 9 3 8 ) , 35 p p .
2 C a r e y M c W illia m s , F a c t o r i e s i n t h e F i e l d .
The
S to r .y o f M i g r a t o r y Farm L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a I New Y o rk :
L i t t l e , Brown a n d Company, 1 9 3 9 J , 3 3 4 p p .
2
n a t i v e A m erican s t o c k fro m t h e w e s t - s o u t h - c e n t r a l s t a t e s .
Many s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n made o f M e x i c a n s , c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s ,
b u t one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r l i v e s - - t h e
fa c t of
t h e i r fo llo w in g c e r t a i n cro p s in p e r io d ic c y c le s — h as been
v ir tu a lly n e g le c te d .
I t i s t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n upon one o f
t h e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g g ro u p s o f t h e s e M e x ic a n s, t h a t t h i s
s tu d y i s m ade.
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m .
T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s
d i r e c t e d to w ard f i n d i n g th e an sw ers to t h r e e q u e s ti o n s :
(1)
How do t h e m i g r a t o r y M e x ic a n p e a - p i c k e r s l i v e a n d w o r k ?
(2)
W hat a r e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s u c h a m i g r a t o r y
p o p u la tio n ?
(3 ) W hat t r e n d s i n d i c a t e t h e p r o b a b l e f u t u r e o f
t h i s group and o f m ig ra to r y l a b o r in g e n e r a l?
A n a ly s is o f p ro b le m .
T h e s e t h r e e m a in q u e s t i o n s may
be f u r t h e r a n a ly z e d in to th e fo llo w in g te n g ro u p s:
1.
la b o re rs?
Why d o e s C a l i f o r n i a h a v e a n arm y o f m i g r a t o r y
K in d s o f c r o p s r e q u i r i n g s e a s o n a l w o r k e r s ?
S e a s o n a l d em an d f o r l a b o r ?
2.
W hat a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a m i g r a n t ?
v /h a t r a c e s a r e t h e y ?
m a rrie d ?
3.
la b o re rs ?
Of w h a t a g e s a r e t h e y ?
S iz e o f fa m ilie s ?
Of
S in g le o r
Why m i g r a t o r y ?
W hat a r e t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r m i g r a t o r y
L e n g th o f jo b ?
Pay?
Time l o s t ?
K i n d s o f w o rk
3
done?
Do women a n d c h i l d r e n w ork?
4.
W h at r o u t e s do t h e w o r k e r s f o l l o w i n m i g r a t i n g ?
Do t h e y p i c k t h e same c r o p s a l l y e a r o r d i f f e r e n t o n e s ?
How do t h e y know w h e r e t o go n e x t ?
5.
w o rk ers?
W h at a r e t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s among m i g r a t o r y
K i n d s o f h om es?
W hat n e c e s s i t i e s ,
c o m fo rts o r
c o n v e n i e n c e s o f l i v i n g do t h e y h a v e ?
6.
I n w h a t w a y s a r e t h e M e x ic a n p e a - p i c k e r s
d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e o t h e r m ig ra n ts ?
How a r e t h e y t h e same?
W h a t a t t i t u d e do o t h e r g r o u p s t a k e t o w a r d them ?
t h e i r fa m ily l i f e
How i s
d i f f e r e n t f ro m t h a t o f m i d d l e - c l a s s
A m e ric a n s?
7.
W hat p r o b l e m s do t h e m i g r a n t s ,
p a rtic u la rly
th e
M e x ic a n p e a - p i c k e r s , p r e s e n t f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f h e a l t h ?
F ro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s ?
W hat a r e t h e i r
r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r e m p lo y e rs?
8.
W hat e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s do t h e m i g r a t o r y
c h ild re n p re se n t?
a d e q u a te ?
A re t h e p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s
W h at i m p r o v e m e n t s s h o u l d b e made?
Why a r e c o n ­
d i t i o n s n o t im p r o v e d ?
9.
Is
th e r e a m ig ra to ry p a tte r n w ith in Im p e ria l
V a lle y s i m i l a r to
w e st?
W hat i s
th e l a r g e r p a t t e r n f o r th e s t a t e and th e
th e e f f e c t o f i n t r a - c o u n t y m i g r a t i o n on
l o c a l sc h o o ls?
10.
Is
a so lu tio n
to th e p ro b le m o f m ig r a to r y l a b o r i n
4
s ig h t?
W hat t r e n d s i n d i c a t e t h e p r o b a b l e f u t u r e o f m i g r a t o r y
l a b o r a n d o f t h e M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s ?
Ju stific a tio n
o f th e p ro b le m .
F o r a w h o le g e n e r a t i o n
th e g roup h e re s tu d ie d have l i v e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
and f o r a l a r g e p o r ti o n o f each y e a r , in I m p e r ia l V a lle y .
Many o f t h e h e a d s o f f a m i l i e s o f t h e g r o u p now w o r k i n g a r e
A m erican b o r n .
group a p a r t ,
I n s p i t e o f t h i s , h o w ev er, th e y re m a in a
as a lie n as th e ir fa th e rs .
no l o n g e r l i k e
They a r e , h o w e v e r,
th e n a t i v e M e x ic a n s; in d e e d , th e y a r e a lm o s t
a s f a r rem oved fro m t h e n a t i v e s a s t h e y a r e fro m t h e A n g lo A m erican s.
In th e U n ite d S t a t e s , b u t n o t o f i t ,
b u ilt a life
th e y have
f o r th e m s e lv e s , v e ry d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e
o f l i v i n g w h ic h i s a c c e p te d i n A m e ric a .
sta n d a rd
The p r o b l e m o f
a s s i m i l a t i n g t h i s grou p i s c l o s e l y bound w ith th e f u t u r e o f
C a lifo rn ia .
It
is
a tru is m t h a t e d u c a tio n i s concerned w ith th e
w h o le c h i l d a n d i t s
purpose i s
t o h e l p h im t o do b e t t e r
t h o s e u s e f u l a n d s o c i a l l y w o r th - w h ile t h i n g s w h ich h e w i l l
do a n y h o w .
It
i s th e purpose o f t h i s p ap er to d is c o v e r
w hat t h i s g ro u p i s d o in g and i s
l i k e l y t o do i n t h e f u t u r e
a n d e x a m in e t h e w ay s i n w h i c h C a l i f o r n i a ’ s e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m
i s h e l p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e g r o u p t o do th e m b e t t e r .
II.
DEFINITIONS
M ig ra n t, m ig ra to ry w o rk e r.
Much c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s i n
5
th e u s e o f te rm s su ch a s
fm i g r a n t f a n d M i g r a t o r y . 1
g i v e s t h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s w h ic h a r e h e r e p e r t i n e n t .
th e re i s
th e in c lu s iv e
ch an g in g o f h a b i t a t .
*z
F irst
s e n s e o f t h e w o rd , i n v o l v i n g t h e m ere
In th is
s e n s e a n y p e r s o n who m oves f r o m
one h o u s e t o a n o t h e r w i t h i n a c i t y ,
from th e d ro u g h t o r c o t t o n s t a t e s
th is
W eb ster
is
o r who com es t o C a l i f o r n i a
a m ig ra n t.
It
is not in
s e n s e t h a t t h e t e r m w i l l b e com m only u s e d i n t h i s p a p e r .
The “ d u s t b o w l" g r o u p w i l l b e t e r m e d
‘t r a n s i e n t s 1 o r ‘re fu g e e s 1
u n t i l th e y have a c t u a l l y e s ta b lis h e d a p a t t e r n o f cro p fo llo w in g .
A m o re s p e c i f i c u s e o f t h e w o r d i s a l s o f o u n d i n
th e d ic tio n a r y ;
3.. je. t h e s e n s e o f w a n d e r i n g w i t h o u t a n y
p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e i n t h e way t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d “ h o b o ” o r
“ tr a m p " d o e s .
The w o r d ‘ t r a n s i e n t *
is
so m etim es u s e d t o
d e s c r i b e b o th t h i s and th e f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n .
In th is
s t u d y t h e w o r d ‘m i g r a t e * w i l l b e u s e d i n a
s t r i c t e r s e n s e o f “m o v in g p e r i o d i c a l l y f r o m o n e r e g i o n o r
c lim a te to a n o th e r”^ as m ig ra to ry b ir d s do.
t h e w o rd ‘m i g r a t o r y *
In th is
sense
I s a l m o s t sy n o n y m o u s w i t h n o m a d i c , a l ­
th o u g h t h i s w ord c a r r i e s
some o f t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f t h e
seco n d d e f i n i t i o n above*
3 W i l l i a m A l l a n H e i l s o n , e t . a l . , e d i t o r s , W e b s te r * s
Hew I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y o f tK e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e , s e c o n d
e d i t i o n u n a b r i d g e d ( S p r i n g f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The G. a n d
C. M e r r i a m Com pany, 1 9 3 5 )
4 Loc. c i t .
6
An a d d i t i o n t o t h e w o r d a s com m only u s e d h e r e i s
g i v e n b y Webb,® who d e s c r i b e s m i g r a n t s a s t h o s e “ h a v i n g a
m i g r a t o r y - w o r k p a t t e r n ’1;® t h a t i s ,
jo b t o a n o t h e r .
t h e y move a b o u t f r o m o n e
T h is p a p e r w i l l be c o n c e rn e d w ith o n ly
t h o s e who s p e n d a l a r g e s h a r e o f t h e i r t i m e i n a g r i c u l t u r e .
O t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e v a r i e d som ew h at i n t h e i r u s e
of th is
te rm .
Dawe? u s e d i t
t o c o v e r b o t h t h o s e who w e r e
n o t d e f i n i t e l y l o c a t e d , “ t o u r i s t s , M so t o
“ known t o b e i t i n e r a n t l a b o r e r s . A
speak and th o s e
m ig ra n t fa m ily i s na
f a m ily g ro u p o f one o r b o t h p a r e n t s , a c co m p an ied b y c h i l d r e n ,
w h o se r e s i d e n c e h a s n o t b e e n s t a t i o n a r y f o r a p e r i o d o f a t
l e a s t a y e a r , ” a c c o r d i n g t o Mauze*,^ who i n c l u d e d i n h e r
d e f i n i t i o n “ b o t h t h e f a m i l y t h a t w as m i g r a n t f o r t h e m a j o r
p o r t i o n o f t h e y e a r b u t h a b i t u a l l y w i n t e r s i n t h e same
r e g i o n an d t h e f a m i l y t h a t w as m ig r a n t d u r in g t h e tw e lv e
5 J o h n N. W ebb, The M i g r a t o r y - C a s u a l W o r k e r
( W a s h i n g t o n D. C .s U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1 9 3 7 ) , 12 8 p p .
6 Loc.
c it.
7 D. T h e o d o r e Dawe, “ A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y C h i l d r e n i n
K e r n C o u n ty f o r t h e S c h o o l Y e a r 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 , “ S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l
N ew s, 3 4 : 1 2 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 , p . 3 8 .
8 Loc.
c it.
9 P r a n c e t t e Mauze7, “ A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s i n
t h e S a n J o a q u i n V a l l e y , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , T he
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 5 .
7
m o n t h s o f t h e y e a r , "10
in
I n t h i s s h e f o l l o w e d H a th w a y , 1 1 who,
a d d i t i o n to i n c l u d i n g th e f a m ily i d e a o f e i t h e r o r b o th
p a r e n t s , w hen a c c o m p a n i e d b y c h i l d r e n ,
of
in tro d u c e d th e id e a
"tw o o r m o re m i g r a t i o n s d u r i n g o n e c a l e n d a r y e a r i n t h e
c o u r s e o f t h e c h i e f w a g e - e a r n e r 1s e m p l o y m e n t . " 1 ^
T hese
l a s t tw o , p l a c e t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e m ere f a c t o f c h a n g e o f
re sid e n c e ,
a lth o u g h th e l a t t e r a lso in c lu d e s th e id e a o f
e m p lo y m e n t.
T h i s s t u d y w i l l e m p h a s i z e t h e i d e a o f a p a t t e r n or*’
tra c k ,
f o l l o w e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f e m p lo y m e n t, i n w h i c h t h e
i n d i v i d u a l a p p e a rs a t v a r io u s p la c e s a lo n g h i s r o u te w ith
c o m p a ra tiv e r e g u l a r i t y .
T r a n s ie n t and r e s i d e n t .
io n
"m ig ra n t"
I n a d d i t i o n to th e e x p r e s s ­
t h e w o rd " t r a n s i e n t "
is
so m etim es u s e d .
I t is
h e r e used in th e sense o f th e S ta te R e lie f A d m in istra tio n
d e f i n i t i o n a s " a l l p e r s o n s a n d t h e i r d e p e n d a n t s who h a v e
been p re se n t in
th e s t a t e f o r le s s
t h a n a y e a r . n1^ U n a t t a c h e d
m i n o r s w h o se p a r e n t s a r e n o t r e s i d e n t s c o n t i n u e t h e i r
10 I b i d . , p . 2 4 .
11 H a th w a y , M a r i o n , The M i g r a t o r y W o rk e r a n d F a m ily
L i f e ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) ,
240 pp.
12 I b i d . , p .
222.
13 C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S o c i a l
S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n M a n u a l. R e v i s e d a s o f A u g u s t 1 8 , 1 9 3 8 .
C h a p t e r 1 , S e c t i o n D. CSan F r a n c i s c o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , 63 p p .
8
t r a n s i e n t s t a t u s f o r one y e a r a f t e r t h e i r t w e n t y - f i r s t
b irth d a y .
”T r a n s ie n t, ” th e n , i s u se d in c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n
to “r e s i d e n t .”
The 1 9 4 0 l e g i s l a t u r e , h o w e v e r , h a s r a i s e d
th e tim e r e q u i r e d to a t t a i n
it
re sid e n c e to th re e y e a rs -^
so
i s l i k e l y t h a t th e d e f i n i t i o n o f a t r a n s i e n t w i l l be
c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y c h a n g e d b y t h e S .R * A .
u n d e r t h e same l e g i s l a t i v e
R esid e n c e i s
lo st,
a c t by rem o v al fro m th e s t a t e
f o r one c o n tin u o u s y e a r . ^
M ex ic an *
The t e r m M e x ic a n i s h e r e u s e d t o d e n o t e " ^
r a c i a l d e s c e n t and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n a t i o n a l i t y *
t h e s e n s e i t w as u s e d b y t h e 193 0
c e n s u s ,
T h is i s
16 a n d i s
in
a c c o r d w i t h t h e A m e r ic a n s t a n d a r d o f c o u n t i n g a s w h i t e
o n l y t h o s e who h a v e n o c o l o r e d b l o o d , w h e t h e r N e g r o , I n d i a n ,
o r O rie n ta l*
T h is i s
i n c o n t r a s t w ith th e L a tin -A m e ric a n
c u sto m o f c l a s s i f y i n g a s w h ite a l l p e r s o n s h a v in g any
a p p re c ia b le d eg ree o f w h ite b lo o d .
The d i v i s i o n , b y t h e C e n s u s B u r e a u , o f p e r s o n s o f
M e x ic a n b i r t h o r p a r e n t a g e i n t o
“w h i t e ” f o r t h o s e d e f i n i t e l y
w h i t e a n d “ M e x ic a n ” f o r a l l o t h e r s e x c e p t N e g r o e s a n d
14 C a l i f o r n i a S t a t u t e s o f 1 9 4 0 , C h a p t e r 1 2 , S e c t i o n 9 .
15 Loc * c i t *
16 B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s , F i f t e e n t h C e n s u s o f t h e
S t a t e s ; 1930.
P o p u l a t i o n "VoT* 1 1 p . 2 7 1 ( V / a s h i n g t o n ,
1). C . : t l n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 3 )
U n ite d
9
O r i e n t a l s , h a s c au sed c o n s id e r a b le c o n fu s io n and i s n o t a
very s a tis f a c to r y
sta n d a rd .
By i t
&
th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
!* M ex ican u f a i l e d t o i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e who a r e com m only
t h o u g h t o f a s M e x ic a n b y a b o u t 6 5 , 0 0 0 , ^ b u t a t l e a s t i t
g e t s away f r o m t h e f a l l a c i o u s c l a s s i f y i n g a s w h i t e o f
p e r s o n s who a r e a s b r o w n a s a w a l n u t t a b l e .
No s a t i s f a c t o r y t e r m s h a v e b e e n d e v i s e d i n t h i s
c o u n try to d e s c r ib e th e d i f f e r e n t c o l o r , and to a g r e a t
e x t e n t , s o c i a l g r a d a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n M e x ic o .
g r o u p , w h ic h i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s
Among t h e
s tu d y , th e te rm h u e ra
i s u s e d f o r t h o s e o f l i g h t e r c o l o r an d m o ren a f o r t h e
d a r k e r sk in n e d o n e s .
In c e r t a i n p a r ts of th e U n ite d S ta te s , n o ta b ly in
New M e x ic o , t h e t e r m s u s e d a r e A n g l o - A m e r i c a n s a n d S p a n i s h A m erican s an d i t
i s n o t c o n s id e r e d good fo rm t o u s e th e
te r m w h ite i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e w o rd M e x ic a n .
C a l i f o r n i a , how ever, su ch i s n o t th e c a s e .
In
In th e c la s s ­
i f i c a t i o n b y r a c e s , u s e d on t h e M o n th ly A t t e n d a n c e R e p o r t s
i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty , t h e g ro u p s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o
o t h e r th a n M e x ic a n ,
( 2 ) M e x ic a n ,
(3)
Japanese,
(l)
w h ite ,
(4) o t h e r ,
w h ich i s u s u a l l y e i t h e r I n d i a n , E a s t I n d i a n , F i l i p i n o o r
C h in e se .
The d i s t i n c t i o n o f M e x ic a n a n d w h i t e i s f u r t h e r
s tre n g th e n e d by i t s
17 L o c .
c it.
common u s e b y b o t h o f t h e g r o u p s .
I n d e e d , th e se c o n d and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n o f th e g ro u p h e r e
^
s t u d i e d a r e m ore l i k e l y t o s a y M e x ic a n s a n d w h i t e s t h a n
M e x ic a n s a n d A m e r i c a n s .
T h e i r A m e r ic a n b i r t h
is
a much
s m a l l e r f a c t o r i n t h e i r l i v e s t h a n t h e i r M e x ic a n d e s c e n t , a s
w i l l b e shown l a t e r . ^
III.
S ources o f d a t a .
METHODS OP STUDY
T he n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m i n d i c a t e s
th e s e v e r a l so u rc e s o f d a ta .
( 1 ) The r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e w as
s t u d i e d and fo rm s t h e b a c k g r o u n d u p o n w h ich t h e
p a r t i c u l a r g roup w i l l be f o c u s e d .
s tu d y o f th e
(2) I n d i v i d u a l c a s e
r e c o r d s a n d o t h e r o f f i c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o r d s w ere
g a th e re d or c o n s u lte d .
(3)
I n d i v i d u a l s h a v in g k n o w led g e o f
c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f th e p ro b le m w ere i n t e r v i e w e d .
(4) O b se rv a ­
t i o n , p e r s o n a l e x p e rie n c e s and f i e l d n o te s , c o v e rin g a p e r io d
o f n i n e y e a r s , h a v e b e e n draw n u p o n .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f t h e s i s .
The v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e
p r o b l e m w i l l b e e x a m in e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e q u e n c e :
I,
I n tr o d u c t i o n ; C h a p te r I I ,
C h a p te r
R e la tio n to o th e r s t u d i e s ;
C h a p t e r I I I , The d e v e l o p m e n t o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a ;
C h a p t e r I V , The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e a - g r o w i n g i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ;
C h a p t e r V , The p e a - p i c k e r s - - b a c k g r o u n d ; C h a p t e r V I , M i g r a t o r y
cam ps a n d t h e i r i m p r o v e m e n t ; C h a p t e r V I I , Homes a n d f a m i l y
18 I n f r a ,
C h a p t e r V I I I , p . 2 20
K
life ;
C h a p te r V I I I , S o c ia l f a c t o r s and a t t i t u d e s ;
C h a p te r
I X , The h e a l t h o f t h e m i g r a n t M e x ic a n ; C h a p t e r X , R e l i e f a n d
t h e M e x ic a n m i g r a n t ; C h a p t e r X I , S t r i k e s a n d t h e p e a - p i c k e r s
C h a p te r X I I , E d u c a tio n , in c lu d in g p r e s e n t o f f e r i n g s , needed
im p ro v e m e n ts a n d t h e p ro b le m o f f i n a n c e ;
C h a p t e r X I I I , The
r e l a t i o n o f cro p s and sc h o o l e n ro llm e n t in I m p e ria l V a lle y ;
a n d C h a p t e r X IV , Summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s #
CHAPTER I I
RELATION TO OTHER STUDIES
P r o b le m s I n v o l v i n g p r o f i t s o n t h e o n e h a n d a n d human
r i g h t s on t h e o t h e r a r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t ,
approach e n t i r e l y
o b je c tiv e ly .
i f n o t im p o ssib le to
F u rth e rm o re , th e r e i s a
t e n d e n c y , w hen d e a l i n g w i t h a s u b j e c t a b o u t w h i c h o n e h a s
p re c o n c e iv e d id e a s ,
( a n d who d o e s n f t o n t h i s t o p i c ? )
r e a d i n t o a s i t u a t i o n w hat one e x p e c ts to f i n d .
r e a s o n much o f t h e m o re i n t e r e s t i n g
is
lite ra tu re
For th is
on m i g r a n t s
so c o l o r e d a s t o a m o u n t t o a d i s t o r t i o n o f f a c t .
f a m ilia r ity w ith a s u b je c t b rin g s i t s
little
k n o w le d g e i s
p re ju d ic e s
o f te n a dangerous th in g .
to
Long
ju s t as a
W ith t h i s
in
m in d t h e s u r v e y o r o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e m u s t b e c o n s t a n t l y
a l e r t in se p a ra tin g f a c ts ,
i f a n y , fro m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .
W r i t i n g s o n t h e m i g r a t o r y o r M e x ic a n p r o b l e m may b e
s e p a ra te d in to f iv e g e n e ra l c a te g o r ie s :
on i n s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n ,
( 1 ) a c c o u n ts b a se d
(2) b i a s e d a c c o u n t s ,
(3 )
e d i t o r i a l s o r s i m i l a r a r t i c l e s , b u t re a s o n a b ly f a i r and
a c c u ra te ,
(4)
s c ie n tific
s t u d i e s o f o n e o r m ore p h a s e s o f
t h e p r o b l e m a n d b a s e d on o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e o r l o n g
e x p e r ie n c e , and (5 ) o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s .
It
i s w ith g roup
f o u r t h a t t h i s c h a p te r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n cern ed , a lth o u g h
g r o u p s o n e , tw o a n d t h r e e m u s t b e e x a m i n e d , s i n c e m o s t o f
13
th e
a c c o u n ts f a l l in to
I.
th e se c a te g o rie s*
ACCOUNTS BASED ON INSUFFICIENT OBSERVATION
S hort v i s i t s : p re c o n c e iv e d id e a s *
Many w e l l - m e a n i n g
p e r s o n s b a s e t h e i r w r i t i n g s on h a s t y t r i p s o f a few w e e k s
o r l e s s an d t h e p i c t u r e p r e s e n t e d ,
a ttitu d e ,
th e
is
fa r-fro m a c c u ra te .
c o l o r e d by a s e n t i m e n t a l
L o w ry , f o r e x a m p le ,
made
fo llo w in g sta te m e n t:
F o r a d u l t s a lo n e to f e e d , c l o t h e and c a r e f o r a
fa m ily o f e ig h t o r te n c h ild r e n how ever in a d e q u a te ly a t
t h e low v/age s t a n d a r d s o f m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s , i s w e l l n ig h im p o ssib le .
T h e r e f o r e , t o t h e f i e l d s a l l who c a n
w o rk m u s t g o .
As t h e p r e s e n t c h i l d l a b o r l a w s do n o t
p r o t e c t c h i l d r e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , m o re t h a n t w i c e a s
many c h i l d w o r k e r s a r e I n v o l v e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e t h a n i n
a l l o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s c o m b i n e d .^
F o u r i n a c c u r a c i e s make t h i s
le a d in g .
The m e d ia n s i z e
s ta t e m e n t c o m p le te ly m is­
f a m i l y among m i g r a n t s i s
t h e U nem plo ym en t R e l i e f C e n s u s t o b e 3 . 1 ^ p e r s o n s ,
th a n th a t o f th e g e n e ra l p o p u la tio n as
of
1 9 3 0 .3
f o u n d by
sm a lle r
shown b y t h e c e n s u s
W ages e a r n e d a r e n o t a l w a y s lo w .
D a ily w ages in
1 E d i t h E. Low ry, The.v S t a r v e T h a t We May E a t (New
Y o r k : C o u n c i l o f Women f o r Home M i s s i o n s an d M i s s i o n a r y
E d u c a t i o n M ov em en t, 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 2 3 .
2 [ D o ro th y S w a in e Thomas], U n em p lo y m en t R e l i e f C e n s u s .
O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 3 . V o l . I ( W a s h i n g t o n D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s
G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 4 -3 5 ), p . 36.
3 B u reau o f C e n s u s ,-F i f t e e n t h C ensus o f th e U n ite d
S t a t e s ; 1930.
P o p u l a t i o n V o l . I l l , ( W a s h i n g t o n D. C . :
U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 9 .
14
th e peas in Im p e ria l V a lle y o f te n ra n as h ig h as th r e e
d o l l a r s ^ and c h i l d l a b o r d u rin g s c h o o l h o u rs i s i l l e g a l
c
u n d e r th e age o f s ix te e n y e a r s ,
The p r e s e n t S t a t e L a b o r
C o m m i s s i o n e r , H, C, C a r r a s c o ,
s ta t e d t h a t s t r e e t o c c u p a tio n s
i n v o l v e d m o re c h i l d r e n i n C a l i f o r n i a t h a n a n y o t h e r o c c u p a tio n .
A c c u r a te , b u t p r e s e n tin g o n ly one s i d e .
P enny® , a n d L ow ry^ i n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e ,
p la n , b u t succeeded in g e ttin g
re a so n a b ly a c c u ra te m a te r ia l,
K id n ey
and
f o l l o w e d t h e same
some v e r y d r a m a t i c a n d
so f a r a s th e y w e n t.
Penny
a n d Low ry t o l d t h e c o m p l e t e s t o r y o f s m a l l b u t i m p o r t a n t
in c id e n ts in m ig ra to ry lif e *
of p u ttin g r e l ie f c lie n ts
K id n ey d e s c r i b e d t h e p ro b le m
t o w ork i n a s p e c i f i c
in sta n c e .
A ll of th e s e , ta k e n a lo n e , d i s t o r t c e r ta in u n d e s ira b le
4
i* * f r a , P* 1 0 8 .
5 [ R o b e r t A , G a r d i n e r , C o m p il e r ] L a b o r Code o f C a l i f o m i a , 1937 (S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
13357, S e c s. 1290, p , 43; 1394, p , 49.
6 H, C, C a r r a s c o , !lC h i l d L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a . 11
(u n p u b lis h e d p a p e r r e a d b e f o r e C e n tr a l L ab o r C o u n c il o f
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y a t E l C e n t r o , C a l i f o r n i a , N o vem b er 2 3 , 1 9 2 9 )
7 D a n i e l M, K i d n e y , “ H a r v e s t a n d R e l i e f , ” S u r v e y G r a p h ic , 2 4 :4 2 1 , S ep tem b er, 1935,
8 L u c r e t i a P e n n y , wP e a - p i c k e r ! s C h i l d , ”
G ra p h ic , 2 4 :3 5 2 -5 3 , J u l y , 1935,
S urvey-
9 E d i t h E , L o w ry , “ N o t e s on M i g r a n t W o r k , ” The
M i s s i o n a r y R ev iew o f t h e W o r l d ,
6 0 :1 0 0 , F e b ru a ry , 1937,
15
p h a s e s o f migratory l i f e ,
l e a v i n g a w ro n g i m p r e s s i o n *
L i t t l e o r no i n f o r m a t i o n *
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e
a re l i t e r a l l y h u n dreds o f a r t i c l e s w r i tt e n in a p o p u la r v e in ,
s u c h a s G r o p p e r f s f,G ypsy L a b o r , d e s c r i b i n g
a s itu a tio n
t h a t e v e r y o n e o u t s i d e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s know s a b o u t a n d b a s e d
f r e q u e n t l y o n some o ne e l s e f s c a r e l e s s l y - w r i t t e n a r t i c l e
on l i m i t e d o b s e r v a t i o n .
re p o rte r s ty le
and i t s
T h i s i s m o re o r l e s s
or
th e new spaper
s o le purpose i s e n te r ta in m e n t.
Some a u t h o r s seem t o h a v e g a t h e r e d a l l
t h e i r in fo rm ­
a t i o n f r o m o ne s o u r c e a n d t h e n d ra w n u n w a r r a n t e d c o n c l u s i o n s .
A c a s e i n p o i n t i s G o r d o n , * ^ who e v i d e n t l y b a s e d h i s e n t i r e
a rtic le
on t h e e x t e n s i v e s t u d y b y t h e S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s ­
tra tio n ,^
and p ro c e e d e d to
s e r m o n i z e on t h e f i n d i n g s o f
a n o th e r w ith o u t in d ic a tin g h is so u rce o f d a ta .
A r t i c l e s o f th e s e above ty p e s a re v a lu a b le and s e rv e
th e im p o rta n t p u rp o se o f k e e p in g th e p u b lic in fo rm e d , o r
m i s i n f o r m e d , a s t h e c a s e may b e .
10 W i l l i a m G r o p p e r , “ G yp sy L a b o r , ”
1 4 5 :3 2 1 , S ep tem b er 2 5 , 1937.
The N a t i o n ,
11 L e s l i e 0 . G o r d o n , “B r e e d i n g G r o u n d s f o r S o c i a l
U n r e s t . ” The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , 5 7 : 2 3 - 2 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 7 .
12 [Max H. L e w i s , e d i t o r ) , M i g r a t o r y L a b o r i n
C a l i f o r n i a (San F r a n c i s c o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P e l i e f T d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 ) , 224 p p .
16
II.
BIASED ACCOUNTS
M ig ra to ry w o rk e rs .
W henever t h e m i g r a t o r y p ro b le m
i s b ro u g h t u p , th e f i r s t rem ark l i k e l y
a r e f e r e n c e t o The C r a p e s o f Wr a t h , o r
F ie ld . ^
to be h e a rd w i l l be
F a c to r ie s in th e
T h e s e w r i t e r s , l i k e U p to n S i n c l a i r , h a v e s e r v e d
a u s e f u l p u rp o se by c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to i n e q u a l i t i e s and
In ju s tic e s.
The G r a p e s o f W r a t h a n d M c W Illia m ’ s " W h a t ’ s
B e i n g Done A b o u t t h e J o a d s " - ^ p r e s e n t t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e
" O k ie s ” fro m a v e ry s y m p a th e tic p o i n t o f v ie w .
Of c o u r s e
th e b e t e s n o i r a r e t h e l a r g e l a n d ow ners and th e b a n k s .
F a c t o r i e s i n th e F i e l d ,o n th e o t h e r h a n d , d e a ls w ith th e
same g e n e r a l p r o b l e m b u t t r a c e s
t u r a l s p e c i a l iz in g and I t s
th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f a g r i c u l ­
acco m p an y in g m i g r a t o r y l a b o r .
The b u r d e n o f M c W i l l i a m s 1 s o n g i s
a ls o th e o p p re ssio n o f th e
poor by th e r ic h .
The o t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t o r y a n d a n e a r e r a p p r o x i m a ­
tio n to
th e t r u t h i s
s e e n i n " C a l i f o r n i a ’ s G rap es o f W rath ”
13 J o h n S t e i n b e c k . T he G r a p e s o f W r a th (New Y o r k : The
V ik in g P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 3 9 ), 6 T 9 p p .
14 C a r e y M c W i ll i a m s , F a c t o r i e s I n t h e F i e l d . The S t o r y
M i g r a t o r y F arm L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a T5ew Yorlk: " L i t t l e ,
Brown and Company, lS>39) , 3 3 4 p p .
Joads?"
15 C a r e y M c W i ll i a m s , " W h a t ’ s B e i n g Done A b o u t t h e
The New B e p u b l i c , 1 0 0 : 1 7 8 - 8 0 , S e p t e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 3 9 .
17
by P rank T a y lo r . 6
T h is w e ll-k n o w n w r i t e r t a k e s u p e a c h o f
th e p o in ts o f S te in b e c k and r e f u t e s i t w ith e v id e n c e to back
up h is
s ta te m e n ts *
“ H o o v e r to w n ” i s
S t e i n b e c k 1s s p e c t a c u l a r b u r n i n g o f
e x p la in e d by T a y lo r as a h e a l t h m easu re,
d o n e o n l y a f t e r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s w e r e m oved i n t o B a k e r s f i e l d .
The M e x i c a n .
Two b o o k s on t h e l i v e s
o f M e x ic a n s m u s t
be p la c e d in th e c a te g o ry o f b ia s e d a c c o u n ts .
T o r t i l l a F l a t ,-*-*''
a n e a r l i e r S t e i n b e c k o p u s , a n d F rom O v e r t h e B o r d e r -*-^ b y
McCombs p r e s e n t t h e tw o s i d e s o f M e x ic a n l i f e .
W here
S t e i n b e c k h a s h i s c h a r a c t e r s d r u n k a n d o n l y w o r k i n g w hen i t
s u i t e d t h e i r f a n c y , McCombs e m p h a s i z e s t h e r e l i g e o u s n a t u r e
an d d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f th e M e x ic a n s.
B o th a g r e e on h o s p i t a l i t y ,
e x p lo s iv e te m p eram en t, p h y s ic a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s and c la n n is h n e s s
a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 5 b u t S t e i n b e c k 1s c h a r a c t e r s a r e a s c o m p l e t e l y
w i t h o u t m o r a l s a s r a b b i t s w h e r e a s McCombs f i n d s a r a t h e r h i g h
s t a n d a r d o f m o r a l i t y , th o u g h d i f f e r e n t fro m t h e A m erican
s ta n d a rd , to be s u re .
16 F r a n k J . T a y l o r , “ C a l i f o r n i a 1s C r a p e s o f W r a t h , ”
F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y ,
1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 9 .
17 J o h n S t e i n b e c k , T o r t i l l a F l a t
F r i e d e , 1 9 3 7 ) , 317 p p .
(New Y o r k , C o v i c i ,
18 V e r n o n M. McCombs, F rom O v er t h e B o r d e r , A S t u d y
o f t h e M e x ic a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Hew Y o r k : C o u n c i l o f
Women f o r Home M i s s i o n s a n d M i s s i o n a r y E d u c a t i o n M ovement o f
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a , 1 9 2 5 ) , 192 p p .
18
III.
EDITORIALS AND SIMILAR ARTICLES
G e n e ra l,
The m i g r a t o r y camp i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l
d is c u s s e d by B e a ls ,
19
who c o m b i n e s a p o p u l a r s t y l e w i t h
a c c u r a c y a s d o e s t h e e d i t o r i a l nW hat We Do” ^
f o r th e
e n tir e m ig ra to ry f i e l d .
School p ro b le m s.
fa c ilitie s
se v e ra l.
P r o b le m s i n a d j u s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l
to th e need s o f th e m ig ra n t a re d is c u s s e d by
K rohn
21
i s m a in ly c o n c e rn e d w ith e d u c a tin g th e
op
m i g r a n t t o u s e b e t t e r a n d m o re v a r i e d f o o d s .
P o tte r
d i s c u s s e s t h e a d a p t a t i o n t o l a r g e n u m b e r s w h i l e Walton**®
i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p ro b le m o f a d ju s tm e n t o f o v e r - a g e
p u p ils.
Law*^ f i n d s t h e p r o b l e m o f a d j u s t i n g a h i g h s c h o o l
pro g ram t o th e n e e d s o f m ig r a n ts a lm o s t i m p o s s ib le .
19 C a r l e t o n B e a l s , ” M ig s — A m e r i c a 1s S h a n t y t o w n on
W h e e l s , 11 F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y , 9 9 : 1 0 - 1 5 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 .
2 0 ’’W hat We Do” ( e d i t o r i a l ) , S u r v e y - G r a p h i c , 2 2 : 1 8 ,
Jan u ary , 1933.
2 1 M i l d r e d K r o h n , ’’M i g r a t o r y Home, U n i t e d E f f o r t s t o
F i n d a New Way o f L iv in g ,* * S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l News, 3 4 : 2 2 ,
N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 8 .
22 J e w e l l P o t t e r , **Teacher a n d M i g r a n t , * ’ S i e r r a E du­
c a t i o n a l N ew s, 3 4 : 2 6 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 .
2 3 R o g e r W a l t o n , ’’E d u c a t i n g t h e A s p h a l t A r a b , ”
N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s ,
1 9 :3 4 , A p r il, 1937.
2 4 W i l l i a m Law, ” P r o b le m s o f t h e M i g r a t o r y S t u d e n t , ”
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t io n , 1 4 :1 7 0 , M arch ,
T3ZT.--------------------------------------------------------------------
19
S o lu tio n s.
S ta n d a r d s f o r em ergency s c h o o l s ,
as w e ll
a s an e x c e l l e n t re v ie w o f th e e n t i r e m ig r a to r y p ro b le m a r e
g i v e n by H e f f e r n a n , 2 5 w h i l e G-ladys P o t t e r 2 6 g i v e s s u g g e s t i o n s
f o r im p ro v in g th e te a c h in g in th e s c h o o ls .
The m o s t c o m p l e t e
s u g g e s t i o n s from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f c h i l d w e l f a r e a r e p r e ­
s e n t e d i n t h e W h i t e H o u s e r e p o r t on C h i l d L a b o r . 2 7
th re e c ita tio n s ,
when t a k e n w i t h M c W i l l i a m s 12& s u g g e s t i o n s
f o r a t t a c k i n g t h e m a in p r o b l e m o f f i t t i n g
s u p p l y an d r e g u l a r e m p lo y m e n t t o g e t h e r ,
c o n s tru c tiv e
th in k in g on s o l u t i o n s to
IV .
a d e q u a te la b o r
c o n ta in th e b e s t
t h e p ro b le m .
SCIENTIFIC STUDIES
G e n e ra l s tu d ie s o f th e m ig ra n t.
S everal e x c e lle n t
s t u d i e s o f t h e m ig r a to r y p ro b le m i n a l l t h e p h a s e s ,
re stric te d
These
alth o u g h
to a r a t h e r l i m i t e d l o c a l i t y , a r e a lr e a d y a v a i l a b l e
25 H e l e n H e f f e r n a n , " R e p o r t o f C o n f e r e n c e o n E d u c a ­
t i o n o f S e a s o n a l W o r k e r s - F r e s n o S t a t e C o l l e g e , D e cem b er
9 - 1 0 , 1 9 3 8 , " C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta r .v E d u c a t i o n .
7 :1 8 1 -1 9 1 , F e b ru a ry , 1939.
26 G l a d y s L. P o t t e r , " S p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n E m e rg e n c y S c h o o l s , " C a l i f ­
o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E lem en tary E d u c a tio n . 7 :1 3 8 -4 8 , F e b ru a ry ,
1939.
27 W h i t e H o u se C o n f e r e n c e o n C h i l d H e a l t h a n d
P r o t e c t i o n , C h i l d L a b o r (New Y o rk : The C e n t u r y Com pany,
1 9 3 2 ) , 592 p p .
28 C a r e y M c W illi a m s ,
Joads?" op. c i t .
"W h at1s B e i n g Done A b o u t t h e
20
b u t t h e o n l y o n e c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s W eb b * s,
pQ
i n w h ich r o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n , v a r i o u s w o r k - p a t t e r n s and m o st
o f th e o th e r p h ases o f th e l i f e
cussed#
o f s e a s o n a l w o rk ers i s d i s ­
He i s , h o w e v e r , som ew h at g e n e r a l a n d n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y
c o n cern ed w ith th e e d u c a tio n a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c ts#
A g r i c u l tu r a l la b o r e r s a re o n ly p a r t o f h i s
s t u d y , w h ic h a l s o ^
i n c l u d e s i n d u s t r i a l c a s u a l - m i g r a n t s , a n d h e h a s no s e p a r a t e
d a t a o n M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s #
W a s h i n g to n b y H a th w a y ,
/•
V a l l e y b y M auze.
*2 *1
fo r th e ir re sp e c tiv e
30
A c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y w as made i n
a n d a n o t h e r o n e i n t h e S an J o a q u i n
B o t h o f t h e s e c o n t a i n a b o u t t h e same d a t a
s e c t i o n s , b u t H a th w a y e m p h a s i z e s t h e
s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d Mauze" t h e h e a l t h a n d e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f
th e m ig ra n t! s l i f e .
How m i g r a n t s w o r k a n d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l
b ack g ro u n d a r e n o t to u c h e d by e i t h e r , n o r i s a s e p a r a te
t r e a t m e n t o f t h e M e x ic a n a s a f a c t o r i n m i g r a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n
e ith e r#
The e c o n o m ic a s p e c t s o m i t t e d b y t h e tw o a b o v e a r e
th o ro u g h ly c o v e re d by th e S t a t e R e l i e f A d m in is tr a tio n s tu d y
29 J o h n N# W ebb, The M i g r a t o r y - C a s u a l W o rk e r ( W a s h in g ­
t o n , D# C#: U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g C f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ) ,
128 pp#
L ife
30 M a r i o n H a th w a y , The M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r a n d F a m i l y
( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , ~ T $ 3 4 ) , 2 4 0 p p .
31 F r a n c e t t e M a u z e , MA S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s i n
t h e S a n J o a q u i n V a l l e y ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s . The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 4 0 ), 247 p p .
21
e d i t e d “by Lewi s . ^
and l i t t l e
H e , h o w e v e r , h a s n o t h i n g o n M e x ic a n s
on e d u c a t i o n .
The p r i n c i p a l v a l u e t o t h e g e n e r a l
r e a d e r o f t h i s w ork i s t h a t i t
te lls
d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y w hat i s
c o v e r e d m o re c o l o r f u l l y i n F a c t o r i e s i n t h e F i e l d .
T o g e th e r,
t h e ab o v e f o u r b o o k s h a v e b e e n t h e m ost h e l p f u l fro m th e
s ta n d p o in t o f a s tu d y o f m ig r a tio n .
Of l e s s v a l u e i n t h i s
on c e r t a i n p h a s e s o f t h i s
s t u d y , b u t t h r o w i n g some l i g h t
in v e stig a tio n ,
i s th e
stu d y o f
C r o s s a n d C r o s s ' ^ a n d two o t h e r v o lu m e s b y W ebb, o n e d e a l i n g
w ith t r a n s i e n t s in g le m e n ^ and th e o th e r , w r i tt e n in e o lla b >55
o r a t i o n w i t h B ro w n , d e a l s w i t h t r a n s i e n t f a m i l i e s ,
Mr* a n d
M r s , C r o s s c o n f i n e m o s t o f t h e i r v o lu m e t o a s t u d y o f t h e w o rk
o f th e fo rm er R e s e ttle m e n t A d m in is tra tio n in e s ta b li s h i n g
t r a n s i e n t cam ps, b u t t h e i r c o n c lu s io n s a r e a p p l i c a b l e to a l l
m ig ra to ry s i t u a t i o n s .
S e a s o n a l e m p lo y m e n t,
N e a r l y a l l t h e w r i t e r s who d e a l t
32 0 £ . c i t .
33 W i l l i a m T . C r o s s a n d D o r o t h y E . C r o s s , N ewcom ers
a n d Nomads i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a :
S t a n f o r d D n T v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , 149 p p .
34 J o h n N. Webb, T he T r a n s i e n t U n e m p lo y e d , A D es­
c r i p t i o n and A n a ly s is o f t h e T r a n s i e n t R e l i e f P o p u T a tfo n
( W a s h i n g t o n , £>." CV: t l n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1 9 3 5 ) , 132 p p .
35 J o h n N. Webb a n d M a lc o lm B ro w n , M i g r a n t F a m i l i e s
( W a s h i n g t o n D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1 9 3 8 ) , 192 p p .
22
w ith th e
e c o n o m ic p h a s e h a d d a t a on e m p lo y m e n t.
h ow ever,
made a s t u d y w h ic h c o v e r e d o n l y t h i s o ne f i e l d .
F r e e ,
36
U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r th e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p a p e r ^ t h e d a t a w as
fo r
th e e n t i r e U n ite d S t a t e s and o n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y g ave i n ­
f o r m a t i o n a p p l i c a b l e to th e p r e s e n t p ro b le m .
S trik e s.
M c W i l l i a m s , 3 ? Lew is3Q a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r s ,
i n c lu d e d c h a p te r s on a g r i c u l t u r a l s t r i k e s
and t h e c u r r e n t
l i t e r a t u r e i n 1 9 3 4 an d 1935 w a s f u l l o f a r t i c l e s ,
m o s t o f them w e r e i n
s u c h m a g a z i n e s a s T he New R e p u b l i c o r
The N a t i o n a n d w e r e s t r i c t l y
la b o re rs.
f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h e
M in i3 9 a n d W i l l i a m s 4 0 t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h e
f r o m t h i s p o i n t o f v ie w v e r y w e l l a n d ,
g iv e s
a lth o u g h
s trik e
i n a d d itio n , W illia m s
e x c e rp s fro m th e L e o n a rd -L u b in -F re n c h r e p o r t .
A n o th er
c o m m e n ta r y a l o n g t h e same l i n e s com es f r o m M c W illia m s 4 -*- a n d
a n o th e r,
i n a s o m ew h at m ore d e t a c h e d a n d o b j e c t i v e v e i n ,
fro m
36 B e n j a m i n J . F r e e , S e a s o n a l E m p lo y m en t i n A g r i c u l ­
t u r e ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C .: W orks P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 2 8 ) ,
58 p p .
37 C a r e y M c W illia m s , F a c t o r i e s i n t h e F i e l d .
The
S t o r y o f M i g r a t o r y Farm L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a , o p . c i t .
3 8 / L e w i sj o p .
c it.
39 Norman M i n i , flT h a t C a l i f o r n i a D i c t a t o r s h i p , " The
N a t i o n . 1 4 0 :2 2 4 , F e b ru a ry 20, 1935.
40 C h e s t e r S. W i l l i a m s , " I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e p a r e s f o r
W a r , " W o rld T o m o rro w . 1 7 : 1 9 9 - 2 0 1 , A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 .
41 C a r e y M c W illia m s , "T he F a r m e r s G et T o u g h ," The
A m e ric a n M ercu ry , 3 3 :2 4 1 -4 5 , O c to b e r, 1934.
23
th e p r o li f i c
p e n o f P a u l T a y l o r *42
T h is l a t t e r a r t i c l e , w ith
t h e F e d e r a l I n v e s t i g a t i n g C o m m itte e r e p o r t ^
re p o rt^
and th e G la s s f o rd
a re th e l e a s t p r e ju d ic e d ac c o u n ts o f th e s tr ik e s *
The p o i n t o f v ie w o f V a l l e y r e s i d e n t s i s f o u n d i n t h e l o c a l
n e w s p a p e r s o f w h i c h tw o a r e h e r e q u o t e d * ^
S ta tistic s
on
num ber and k in d s o f s t r i k e s I n a g r i c u l t u r e a r e g iv e n by
P eterso n * 4 6
The r e f u g e e s t r e a m i n t o
th e w e st— p a t t e r n s o f m ig r a tio n .
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r a t h e r p o p u l a r a r t i c l e s o n t h e c o m in g o f
th e ” d u s t- b o w l” t r a n s i e n t s , an e n t i r e
s e rie s,
in s p ir e d and in
p a r t w r i tt e n by P au l T a y lo r , h as a n a ly z e d th e gro u p s e n te r in g
C a l i f o r n i a t h r o u g h t h e Yuma a n d o t h e r g a t e w a y s a n d g i v e n
n e a r l y a l l t h e f a c t s a v a i l a b l e o n w h e r e t h e y come f r o m a n d
w hat th e y a re lik e *
F a rm s ,”
The f i r s t
t o a p p e a r w as T a y l o r ’ s ’’A g a i n
42 P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d C l a r k K e r r , ’’U p r i s i n g s on t h e
Survey- G ra p h ic , 2 4 :1 9 -2 2 , J a n u a ry , 1935.
43 W i l l i a m s , l o c * c l t *
44 T he I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e s s ,
J u n e 2 7 , 1 $ $ $ . ----------------------------------
(E l C e n tro , C a l i f o r n i a ) ,
4 5 B r a w l e y ( C a l i f o r n i a ) Mews, J a n u a r y 2 5 , 1 9 3 4 a n d The
( E l C e n t r o 7 C a l i f o m i a ) M o rn in g P o s t , F e b r u a r y 4 , 1934*
46 F l o r e n c e P e t e r s o n , S t r i k e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,
1 8 8 0 - 1 9 3 6 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D* C . : t J n i t e d S t a t e s (g o v ern m en t P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , 1 9 3 8 ) , 183 pp*
24
t h e C o v e r e d W agon , 11^
f o l l o w e d s i x m o n th s l a t e r b y " D r o u g h t
R efugee and L abor M ig r a tio n to C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 5 ." ^ ®
Ju n e t o D ecem ber,
The y e a r s 1 9 3 6 a n d 1 9 3 7 a r e s u m m a r iz e d i n s i m i l a r
a n d t h e same s t r e a m o f i m m i g r a n t s i s a n a l y z e d a s
50
e n t e r s O re g o n b y H offm an*
A new s e r i e s b y M c E n t i r e a n d
a r tic le s ,^
it
W h e tte n
h a s b e e n s t a r t e d r e c e n t l y , w h ich i s
stu d y in g th e
s i t u a t i o n among t h e m i g r a n t s i n t h e i r new h o m e s , b u t p a r ­
tic u la rly
a s t o w here i n C a l i f o r n i a and o t h e r w e s t e r n s t a t e s
th e y have s e t t l e d
i n t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e rs *
The m i g r a t i o n w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t h e
M e x ic a n w o r k e r a s h e m o v es i n t o
t h e San J o a q u in V a l l e y and
back has been s tu d ie d by T a y l o r , ^
and, as a r e s u lt of t h is
a n d t h e p r e v i o u s g r o u p o f s t u d i e s , h e h a s p r o d u c e d two
47 P a u l S . T a y l o r , " A g a i n t h e C o v e r e d W ag o n ," S u r v e y G ra p h ic , 2 4 :3 4 8 -5 1 , J u l y , 1935.
4 8 P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d Tom V a s e y , ffD r o u g h t R e f u g e e a n d
L a b o r M ig r a tio n t o C a l i f o r n i a , Ju n e t o D ecem ber, 1 9 3 5 ,"
M o n th l y L a b o r R e v i e w , 4 2 : 3 1 2 - 1 8 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 .
4 9 E d w ard J . R o w e l l , nD r o u g h t R e f u g e e a n d L a b o r M i g r a ­
t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a i n 1 9 3 6 , ” M o n th l y L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 3 : 1 3 5 5 6 3 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 6 ; P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d E d w a rd J . P o w e l l ,
R e f u g e e L a b o r M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 , M M o n th l y L a b o r
R e v ie w , 4 7 : 2 4 0 - 5 0 , A u g u s t , 1 9 3 8 .
50 C h a r l e s S . H o f f m a n , " D r o u g h t a n d D e p r e s s i o n M ig r a ­
t i o n i n t o O r e g o n , n M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 6 : 2 7 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 .
51 D a v i s M c E n t i r e a n d N. L . W h e t t e n , "'The M i g r a n t s ,
I . R e c e n t M i g r a t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , 11 L a n d P o l i c y
R e v ie w , 2 : 7 - 1 7 , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 9 .
52 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s ; M i g r a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s , I ITT ( B e r k e le y , U a l T f o r n i a :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n ia P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ) , 2 2 p p .
25
m a p s ^ s h o w in g r o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n o f "both w h i t e s a n d
M e x ic a n s t h r o u g h o u t C a l i f o r n i a . ^
g e n e r a l n a tu r e by Punke,
A n o t h e r s t u d y o f a m o re
p a r t i c u l a r l y e m p h a s iz e s th e c i t y -
r u r a l in te r c h a n g e and a tte m p ts to g e t a t th e c a u s e s o f m ig ra ­
tio n .
B ackground m a t e r i a l .
T a y l o r h a s c o n t r i b u t e d two o t h e r
a r t i c l e s w h ic h h e l p t o c l a r i f y
l a b o r 5^
^
th e p i c t u r e o f farm m ig ra to ry
and w h ic h m ig h t a lm o s t h av e b e e n i n c l u d e d w i t h
th e g e n e ra l a r t i c l e s ,
ex cep t t h a t th e y p o r tr a y e s p e c ia lly
th e b a s ic farm s i t u a t i o n ,
r a t h e r th a n th e l i v e s o f t h e
m ig ra n ts.
H e a lth c o n d itio n s .
The m a t e r i a l o n h e a l t h i s
v o lu m in o u s a s to w a r r a n t a s e p a r a t e s t u d y .
w ere l a r g e l y c o n s u lte d i n t h i s
53
in f r a , pp.
so
O n ly tw o s t u d i e s
r e s p e c t , t h e s t u d y o f one
95, 96.
54 P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d E d w ard J . H o w e l l , 11P a t t e r n s o f
A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r M i g r a t i o n w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a , ” M o n th l y
L a b o r H e v ie w , 4 7 : 4 8 0 - 9 0 , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 8 .
55 H a r o l d H. P u n k e , “ E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a
M o b il e P o p u l a t i o n , ” E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 3 3 : 5 1 4 - 2 6 ,
M arch , 1 9 3 3 .
56 P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d Tom V a s e y , “ C o n t e m p o r a r y B a c k ­
g r o u n d o f C a l i f o r n i a F arm L a b o r , ” R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 3 1 : 4 1 6 - 1 7 ,
D ecem ber, 1 9 3 6 .
57 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , “ M i g r a t o r y F a rm L a b o r i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s , ” M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 4 : 5 4 0 , M a r c h , 1 9 3 7 .
26
t h o u s a n d m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d b y Faverman®® a n d
D i c k i e * s r e p o r t o f t h e y e a r * s w o rk t o h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n ­
iz a tio n .* ^
M e x ic a n s .
As h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d ,
th is
s tu d y , in
f o c u s i n g o n M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s i n t h e p e a i n d u s t r y , d r a w s i t s
s o u r c e s fro m t h r e e m ain d i r e c t i o n s ;
M e x ic a n s a n d d a t a o n p e a s .
la rly
d a t a o n m i g r a n t s , d a t a on
I n th e s tu d y o f M e x ic a n s, p a r t i c u ­
th o s e w h ic h a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s
s tu d y , th e s tu d e n t
m u s t a g a i n t u r n t o P a u l T a y l o r w h o se m o n u m e n ta l M e x ic a n L a b o r
fin
in th e U n ite d S ta te s
c o v e r s t h e e c o n o m ic a s p e c t s c o m p l e t e l y .
The r e p o r t o f G -o vern or Y o u n g f s F a c t - f i n d i n g C o m m itte e
61
is
a lso
v e r y h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g b o t h t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e com­
i n g o f t h e M e x ic a n s a n d a l s o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n
in C a lifo rn ia
58 A n i t a E . F a v e r m a n , M. D . , ” A S t u d y o f t h e H e a l t h o f
One t h o u s a n d C h i l d r e n o f M i g r a t o r y A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r e r s i n
C a l i f o r n i a , ” R ep o rt o f M ig ra to ry D e m o n s tr a tio n , J u l y , 1956—
J u n e , 1937 ( m im e o g r a p E e d . S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b lic H e a l t h , 1 9 3 7 ) , 42 p p .
59 W a l t e r M. D i c k i e , M. D . , " H e a l t h o f t h e M i g r a n t , ”
J o u r n a l o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 1 1 :7 6 3 - 6 5 ,
■IugusT“2T7 1 3 3 8 ;-------------------------------------------------60 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , V o l . I , T he I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , 4 5 7 p p .
61 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g ! s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g Com­
m i t t e e , M e x ic a n s i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 3 3 6 ) , 21 4 p p .
27
to d a y •
B ogardus
£5.0
a n d Gamio
/ '• z
have s t u d i e d th e s o c i a l and
s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f M e x ic a n l i f e
th e s u b je c t;
and a r e a u t h o r i t i e s on
t h e f o r m e r h a v i n g d o n e h i s r e s e a r c h i n Los
A n g e l e s a n d t h e l a t t e r p r i n c i p a l l y i n New M ex ico w h e r e c o n ­
d i t i o n s a r e som ew hat d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e i n r u r a l C a l i f o r n i a .
T h o m p s o n 1 s 5^ w o rk o n t h e M e x ic a n a s h e i s i n M ex ic o p r e ­
s e n te d a s t i l l d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v iew .
Two M a s t e r 1s t h e s e s h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d f a m i l y l i f e
and
t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d b y M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n i n a d j u s t i n g t o
tw o w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d p h i l o s o p h i e s o f l i f e .
iz e s
i n home c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e L yon
C u lp 6 5 s p e c i a l -
e m p h a siz e s s c h o o l
a d ju stm e n ts*
62 Em ory S . B o g a r d u s , The M e x ic a n i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s (L o s A n g e l e s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a
P r e s s , " 1 9 3 4 ) , 12 6 p p .
63 M a n u e l G am io , M e x ic a n I m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f 'C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 § 3 0 T ,
262 p p .
64 W a l l a c e T h o m p so n , The M e x ic a n M in d , A S t u d y o f
N a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y (B o s t o n : L i t t l e / B ro w n a n d Com pany,
T S 2 5 T r2 9 3 ~ p p .
65 A l i c e B e s s i e C u l p , nA C a s e S t u d y o f t h e L i v i n g ^
C o n d i t i o n s o f T h i r t y - f i v e M e x ic a n F a m i l i e s o f L os A n g e l e s ,
w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o M e x ic a n C h i l d r e n ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s
A n g e le s, 1 9 2 1 ), 66 p p .
6 6 L a u r a L u c i l l e L y o n , 11I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m ^
f o r A d j u s t m e n t o f M e x ic a n G i r l s t o t h e H ig h S c h o o l s o f t h e
S a n F e r n a n d o V a l l e y ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , 74 p p .
28
E d u c a tio n — M e x ic a n s.
E d u c a tio n a l p r a c tic e s w ith
M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h o u t s e v e r a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s o f t h e
s o u th w e s t w ere s t u d i e d b y L e i s . ^
M erto n H i l l ,^ ® T r e f f ^
and H o g a n ^ s tu d ie d l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s to d e te rm in e t h e i r
e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s s o f a r a s M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n w e r e
concerned.
H ill is
th e m ost c o m p le te a s w e ll a s e a r l i e s t .
He r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g
such as a t r a v e l in g
in n o v a tio n s in t h i s
school fo r a d u lts .
fie ld
T r e f f c o n d u c te d a
s u r v e y - t y p e s t u d y a s d i d H o g a n , t h e f o r m e r s p e n d i n g m o re
t i m e on t h e home b a c k g r o u n d a n d i d e a l t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s
w h ile th e l a t t e r a n a ly z e d t e s t r e s u lts *
S e v e ra l s tu d ie s of th e a b i l i t y
o f M e x ic a n a n d m i g r a ­
t o r y c h i l d r e n a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h s o - c a l l e d 11n o r m a l 11 c h i l d r e n
67 W ard W i l l i a m L e i s , "T h e S t a t u s o f E d u c a t i o n f o r
M e x ic a n C h i l d r e n i n P o u r B o r d e r S t a t e s 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s ,
1 9 3 1 ) , 78 p p .
6 8 M e r t o n E . H i l l , The D e v e lo p m e n t o f a n A m e r i c a n i z a ­
t i o n P r o g r a m ( O n t a r i o , C a l i f o r n i a ! : rf3ae B oarcT"of T r u s t e e s
o f t h e O n a ffe y U n io n H ig h S c h o o l a n d t h e C h a ffe y J u n i o r
C o l l e g e , 1 9 2 8 ) , 1 19 p p .
69 Sim on L u d w ig T r e f f , "T he E d u c a t i o n o f M e x ic a n
C h i l d r e n i n O ra n g e C o u n ty 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 ) ,
144 p p .
7 0 M ilo A r t h u r Van Norm an H o g a n , WA S t u d y o f t h e
S c h o o l P r o g r e s s o f M e x ic a n C h i l d r e n i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty "
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 ) , 94 p p .
29
have b een c o n su lte d *
D rake,
71
P a s c h a l and S u lliv a n
72
and
H u n te r an d S o ra m e rm ie r^ a l l a g r e e t h a t I n d ia n b lo o d i s a
s o u r c e o f h a n d i c a p t o M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n i n a c h i e v e m e n t o n
m e n ta l t e s t s ,
q u i t e a s i d e fro m t h e la n g u a g e h a n d i c a p .
G a r r e t s o n ^ a l s o b e l i e v e d th e m t o b e o f l o w e r m e n t a l
a b ility .
E d u c a tio n and p ro g re s s o f m ig r a n ts .
In a s tu d y o f
t r a n s i e n t b o y s , O u tlan d and M a r t i n ^ fo u n d t h a t th e e f f e c t ­
i v e n e s s o f t h e l o c a l s c h o o l f r o m w h i c h t h e y came c o u l d b e
m easu red by th e d i s t a n c e th e bo y s had ad v an ced i n s c h o o l;
7 1 R o l l e n H. D r a k e , 11A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e
M e n t a l i t y a n d A c h i e v e m e n t o f M e x ic a n a n d W h i te C h i l d r e n ”
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 2 7 ) , 72 p p .
72 F r a n k l i n C. P a s c h a l a n d L o u i s R. S u l l i v a n , “ R a c i a l
I n f l u e n c e s I n t h e M e n t a l a n d P h y s i c a l D e v e lo p m e n t o f M e x ic a n
C h i l d r e n , ” C o m p a ra tiv e P s y c h o lo g y M o nographs, 3 : 1 - 7 6 ,
O c to b e r, 1923.
7 3 W. S . H u n t e r a n d E l o i s e S o m m e rm ie r, “ The R e l a t i o n
o f D eg ree o f I n d ia n B lo o d t o S c o re on t h e O tis I n t e l l i g e n c e
T e st,
J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r a t i v e P s 7/- c h o lo g y , 2 : 2 5 7 - 7 7 , J u n e ,
1922.
74 0 . K. G a r r e t s o n , lfA S t u d y o f t h e C a u s e s o f Re­
t a r d a t i o n among M e x ic a n S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n a S m a l l P u b l i c
S c h o o l S y s t e m I n A r i z o n a , ” The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l
P s y c h o lo g y , 1 9 : 3 1 - 4 0 , M arch , 1 9 2 6 .
75 G e o r g e E . O u t l a n d a n d C . K. M a r t i n , J r . ,
“ T r a n s i e n c y a n d F e d e r a l A id t o E d u c a t i o n , ” S c h o o l a n d
S o c ie t y , 4 6 : 1 2 6 - 2 8 , J u l y , 1 9 3 7 .
30
t h a t i s , th e p o o r e s t s t a t e s ,e d u c a t i o n a l l y , p ro duced th e
7 fi
g re a te st re ta rd a tio n .
T h i s w as f u r t h e r b o r n e o u t b y Dawe/V
who i n K e r n C o u n ty f o u n d m i g r a n t s d e f i n i t e l y b e l o w b o t h t h e
a ch iev em en t and a b i l i t y
o f th e “ r e g u l a r s . ”
S p e n c e r ^ fou nd
th e m a l m o s t a y e a r r e t a r d e d a n d b e l o w t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e
lo c a l stu d e n ts .
rto
C o b b ' 0 s t u d i e d r e t a r d a t i o n among m i g r a n t s
on b o t h th e a g e - g r a d e s c a l e and a l s o a s t o e d u c a t i o n a l age
a n d h i s f i n d i n g s a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same a s t h e r e s t .
R ey n o ld s
79
r e p o r t e d m i g r a to r y c h i l d r e n s lo w e r i n s c h o o l and
l e s s c o o p e r a tiv e on th e g ro u n d s .
L i l l i a n B . H i l l ® ^ m ade a s t u d y o f c o n d i t i o n s b e f o r e
a n d a f t e r t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e M i g r a t o r y S c h o o l Law w h ic h
i n d i c a t e s w hat can b e a c c o m p lish e d i n a s h o r t tim e i f fu n d s
are a v a ila b le .
76 D. T h e o d o r e Dawe, “ A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y C h i l d r e n
i n K e r n C o u n ty f o r t h e S c h o o l Y e a r 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 , ” S i e r r a E d u c a ­
t i o n a l N ew s, 3 4 : 1 2 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 .
77 C l a r e n c e S p e n c e r , "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f a n Age
C r o u p w i t h a C r a d e G ro u p o f P u p i l s
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s ,
1 9 3 9 ) , 100 p p .
78 W i l b u r K i r k p a t r i c k C o b b , “ R e t a r d a t i o n i n E le m e n ­
t a r y S c h o o ls o f C h ild re n o f M ig ra to ry L a b o re rs in V en tu ra
C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i ­
v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , 110 p p .
79 E v e l y n D o l o r e s R e y n o l d s , ”A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y
F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g E d u c a tio n i n N o r th K ern C o u n ty ” (unpub­
l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
1 9 3 2 ) , 96 p p .
80 L i l l i a n B . H i l l , A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n
C a l i f o r n i a , May 1 , 1 9 3 0 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n } , 1 9 3 0 ) , 8 6 p p .
31
C a rp e n te r and C apps,
PI
in t h e i r s tu d y in S p r in g f ie ld ,
M is s o u ri, p o in t o u t th e i m p o s s ib ility o f s o lv in g th e m ig ra n t
p ro b le m w i t h o u t f e d e r a l a id *
Qp
S c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e s t u d i e s w e r e m ade b y H o l l i d a y
and
C o m p t o n ; ^ t h e l a t t e r h a v i n g some m i g r a t o r y M e x ic a n s a n d t h e
f o r m e r r e p o r t i n g a s c h o o l a l m o s t e n t i r e l y co m p o se d o f t h e m .
B o th w ere i n a g re e m e n t t h a t t h i s g ro u p a t t e n d e d s c h o o l p o o r l y ,
b u t Compton b l a m e d i t p r i n c i p a l l y on t h e f a c t o f m i g r a t i o n
w h ile H o llid a y b e lie v e d i t
to be cau sed p r in c ip a lly by s o c ia l
f a c t o r s an d a p o o r e n v iro n m e n t.
B e h a v io r a s p e c t s .
Beach and B each
s tu d i e d a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s
84
88
and S eagoe0
among m i g r a n t s .
The
f o m n e r s t u d y c o v e r e d s e v e r a l e c o n o m ic l e v e l s a n d s e v e r a l
81 W. W. C a r p e n t e r a n d A . G . C a p p s , “U n c l e Sam a n d
h i s C h i l d r e n , “ S ch o o l E x e c u t iv e s 1 M ag azin e, 5 4 :7 0 -7 1 ,
N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 4 .
82 J a y N ew ton H o l l i d a y , "A S t u d y o f N o n - A t t e n d a n c e i n
M ig u e l H i d a l g o S c h o o l o f B r a w l e y , C a l i f o r n i a " ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os
A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , 76 p p .
8 3 J o h n L e o n a r d C o m p to n , "A S t u d y o f N o n - A t t e n d a n c e
i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls o f B a k e r s f i e l d , C a l i f o r n i a " (un­
p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f ­
o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 2 9 ) , 14 0 p p .
84 A. W. B e a c h a n d W. G. B e a c h , “ F a m i l y M i g r a t i o n s
and C h ild B e h a v io r," S o c io lo g y and S o c ia l R e s e a rc h , 2 1 :5 0 3 23, J u ly , 1937.
85 May V. S e a g o e , " T h e T r a n s i e n t C h i l d , "
J u v e n ile R e s e a rc h , 1 6 :2 5 1 -5 7 , J u ly , 1932.
Jo u rn al of
32
l o c a l i t i e s w h ile th e l a t t e r i n v e s tig a t e d p r i n c i p a l l y th e
,fd u s t - b o w l ,f t r a n s i e n t s i n a s i n g l e
s c h o o l sy ste m .
B o th a r e
i n a g re e m e n t, how ever, t h a t th e m ig ra n ts p r e s e n t q u i t e
d iffe re n t a ttitu d e s
to w ard l i f e
V.
The l i t e r a t u r e
( 1 ) th e a r t i c l e
s itu a tio n s .
SUMMARY
in th is f ie ld
i s o f f o u r m ain t y p e s ,
o f w h ic h t h e a u t h o r d i d n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t
f a c ts to w rite a c c u r a te ly ,
( 2 ) a c c o u n t s t h a t seem t o b e
c o lo r e d by th e a u th o r * s f e e l i n g s on th e s u b j e c t ,
(3) d i s ­
c u s s i o n s o f a n e d i t o r i a l n a t u r e , c o m m e n tin g o n e x i s t i n g
i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c i t i n g new m a t e r i a l ,
(4) c a r e f u l l y
p r e p a r e d a r t i c l e s b a s e d o n s t u d i e s m ade o r e x p e r i e n c e , a n d
(5) o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s .
T hese l a s t a r e n o t re v ie w e d i n t h i s
c h a p te r.
Of t h e s c i e n t i f i c
s t u d i e s t h e b o o k s b y W ebb , £ 6
L e w i s , ^ H athw ay^® a n d C r o s s a n d C r o s s ^ a n d t h e t h e s i s b y
M a u z e , ^ i n t h e f i e l d o f t h e m i g r a n t w h i l e t h e v o lu m e s o f
8 6 The M i g r a t o r y - C a s u a l W o r k e r ,
87 [ L e w i s ! OP* c i t .
8 8 H a th w a y ,
op. c i t .
89 C r o s s a n d C r o s s , 0 £ . c i t .
90 M au ze, 0 £ . c i t .
op. c i t .
53
P a u l T a y l o r , ^ G a m io ,^ and B o g a r d u s ^ and th e th e s e s o f C u l p ^
a n d L yon
th is
QC
i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e M e x ic a n m o s t n e a r l y r e l a t e
to
stu d y .
P au l T a y lo r ’ s stu d y o f m ig ra to ry p a t t e r n s ^
and G lad y s
P o t t e r * s ^ an d H e f f e r n a n * e d u c a t i o n a l re c o m m en d atio n s a r e
c lo s e ly r e la te d to t h i s
s tu d y .
The l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s a r e many a n d v a r i e d a n d a l l m o s t
p e rtin e n t.
of th is
No s i n g l e •work, h o w e v e r , e n c o m p a s s e s t h e s c o p e
s t u d y o n t h e o n e h a n d o r , on t h e o t h e r ,
sm a ll group h e re s tu d ie d .
ex am in es t h e
C e rta in s t a t i s t i c a l m a te ria l w ill
b e p r e s e n t e d w h ic h h a s n o t b e e n c o m p ile d b e f o r e .
91 P a u l
S t a t e s , V o l. I ,
S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n
Labor in th e U n ite d
The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ,
op. c i t .
92 G am io , o p . c i t .
93 B o g a r d u s , o £ . c i t .
94 C u l p ,
o£. c i t .
95 L y o n ,* o p . cmmm
immtmrn.rn
a id b
96 T a y l o r a n d R o w e l l , HP a t t e r n s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r
M i g r a t i o n W i t h i n C a l i f o m i a , 11 o p . c i t .
97 G l a d y s L . P o t t e r ,
0£ .
98 H e f f e r n a n , o £ . c i t .
c it.
CHAPTER I I I
THE DEVELOPMENT OP MIGRATORY LABOR IN CALIFORNIA
B e fo re t u r n i n g to th e s tu d y o f th e g ro u p w h ich i s
th e p a r t i c u l a r to p ic o f t h i s p a p e r i t w i l l he w e ll to
e x a m in e t h e l a r g e r p i c t u r e o f C a l i f o r n i a m i g r a t o r y a g r i ­
c u l t u r a l em p lo y m en t, n o t o n ly t o g e t t h e s e t t i n g
i n t o w h ic h
t h e p ro b le m f i t s , b u t a l s o i n o r d e r t h a t c e r t a i n d i v e r g e n c i e s
a n d c o n t r a s t s a s w e l l a s l i k e n e s s e s may b e shown i n t h e l a t e r
co u rse o f th e
I.
s tu d y .
CHARACTERISTICS OP THE CALIFORNIA LAND SYSTEM
L arg e h o ld in g s d a t e fro m e a r l y t i m e s .
Prom t h e v e r y
b e g in n in g C a lif o r n ia a g r i c u l tu r e h as been c h a r a c te r iz e d by
la rg e h o ld in g s.
The h u g e S p a n i s h a n d M e x ic a n l a n d g r a n t s
a re f a m il i a r to every s tu d e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a ^ h i s t o r y .
The
m i s s i o n s , t o o , h a d e n o rm o u s h o l d i n g s w h i c h p a s s e d i n t o
p r iv a te hands w ith s e c u la r iz a tio n .
A l l S p a n i s h a n d M e x ic a n
g r a n t s w ere r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e t r e a t y o f G u ad alu p e H id a lg o
a n d so t h e t i t l e
to a la rg e p a r t o f C a lif o rn ia r e a l e s ta te
i s b a s e d on one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e s e g r a n t s .
A m erican p e r i o d — i n c r e a s e o f v e r y l a r g e a n d v e r y s m a ll
h o ld in g s.
W i t h t h e c o m in g o f t h e A m e r i c a n s many o f t h e s e
h o l d i n g s , l e g a l l y o r o t h e r w i s e , c h a n g e d h a n d s , b u t few w ere
35
broken up in to
s m a ll farm s#
The l a n d - h u n g r y s q u a t t e r s w e r e ,
i n t h e m a in , e v i c t e d an d re m a in e d l a n d l e s s ;
b o u g h t sm a ll t r a c t s
i n d e e d many who
i n good f a i t h foun d t h e i r t i t l e s
th ro v m
i n d o u b t b y t h e F e d e r a l L a n d C o m m is sio n a n d i n t h e e n d l o s t
th e ir h o m e s .T h e
f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w as e q u a l l y l a v i s h i n
g i v i n g away C a l i f o r n i a l a n d t o t h e r a i l r o a d s .
f i f t e e n m i l l i o n a c r e s w as t h u s g r a n t e d . ^
A to ta l of
In a d d itio n to t h i s ,
m uch o f t h e n i n e m i l l i o n a c r e s g r a n t e d t o t h e s t a t e
fo r
s c h o o l and o t h e r p u rp o s e s u l t i m a t e l y p a s s e d i n t o th e h an d s
of la rg e o w n e r s I t
w as e s t i m a t e d i n 1 9 1 6 t h a t h a l f o f t h e
a v a i l a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w as h e l d b y o n e f i v e - h u n d r e d t h
o f th e p o p u la tio n .^
By m a n i p u l a t i o n o f a s s e s s m e n t v a l u a t i o n s t h e o w n e r s
l a r g e l y ev ad ed th e paym ent o f t h e i r f a i r s h a re o f t a x e s and
th e y k ep t t h e i r la rg e h o ld in g s by e i th e r re fu s in g a lto g e th e r
to
s e l l o r b y p u t t i n g t h e p r i c e so h i g h t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e b u y c
e r s c o u ld p u rc h a se o n ly sm a ll a c r e a g e s .
Even i n a r e a s o r i g i n a l l y s e t t l e d i n s m a l l e r a c r e a g e s ,
1 R o b e r t C l a s s C l e l a n d , A H i s t o r y o f C a l i f o r n i a : The
A m e r ic a n P e r i o d (Hew Y o r k : The M a c m il l a n Com pany, 1 9 2 3 ) ,
F r u r : ------------------
2 I b id . , p . 413.
3 Lo c . c i t .
4 I b id . , p. 414.
5 Loc. c i t .
36
s u c h a s I m p e r i a l V a l l e y o r t h e Yuma P r o j e c t , t h e p o l i c y o f
l e a s in g o r b u y in g la r g e a c re a g e s h a s b e e n th e te n d e n c y .
M id d le - s i z e d fa rm s d e c r e a s i n g .
C o n c o m ita n t w ith th e
i n c r e a s e i n l a r g e a c r e a g e s h a s b e e n t h e d ev e lo p m e n t o f s m a ll
a c r e a g e s , on w h i c h a man a n d h i s f a m i l y a l o n e c a n e a r n a
liv in g by p r a c tic in g in te n s iv e a g r ic u ltu r e .
T h is i n c r e a s e
h as been v e ry r a p id in l a t e y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y around th e
la r g e r m e tro p o lita n a re a s .
C o n v e rse ly , th e r e has b een a
t e n d e n c y f o r m edium s i z e d a c r e a g e s t o d e c r e a s e i n n u m b e r ,
b e in g e i t h e r s u b d iv id e d o r so ld to th e l a r g e r la n d -o w n e rs.
T h u s , a s may b e s e e n i n T a b l e I , w h i l e f a r m s o f b e t w e e n
f i v e h u n d re d and one th o u s a n d a c r e s h av e d e c r e a s e d b o t h i n
num ber and i n p r o p o r t i o n to th e t o t a l a r e a i n farm s b y 3 .8
p e r c e n t , t h e num ber o f fa rm s o f o v e r a th o u s a n d a c r e s h a s
i n c r e a s e d t h r e e p e r c e n t and th e p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e farm s
to th e t o t a l a r e a in farm s h a s in c r e a s e d 9 .7 p e r c e n t .
In
th e fa c e o f th e ra p id in c re a se of C a lif o r n ia ’s p o p u la tio n
b e t w e e n 19 2 0 a n d 19 3 0 t h e s e I n c r e a s e s o f l a r g e h o l d i n g s a r e
e v e n m o re s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e s i n d i c a t e .
b r e a k i n g u p o f m edium s i z e d h o l d i n g s i n t o
e q u a lly s t a r t l i n g .
The
sm a ll a c re a g e s i s
T h u s, r a n c h e s o f fro m one h u n d re d t o
f iv e hundred a c r e s d e c re a s e d by a b o u t o n e - e ig h th and th o s e
o f l e s s th a n tw e n ty a c r e s in c r e a s e d by n e a r ly o n e - h a l f .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f l a r g e h o l d i n g s a s a f a c t o r i n t h e
37
TABLE I
RELATIVE ROLE OF FARM SIZE GROUPS
IN CALIFORNIA ACCORDING TO
ACREAGE OmED, 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 3 0 a
S iz e o f g ro u p s
P e rc e n ta g e
change in
num ber o f
farm s
P e rc e n ta g e
change in
am ount o f
a l l la n d
i n farm s
U n d er 20 a c r e s
-j- 4 9 . 5
H- 3 5 . 0
20-49 a c r e s
+ 1 0 .2
H-
50-99 a c r e s
+-
8 .9
— 1 0 .9
100-174 a c r e s
— 1 2 .5
— 1 4 .1
175-499 a c r e s
— 1 2 .6
— 1 3 .3
500-999 a c r e s
00
a c r e s and o v e r
•
to
1000
8 .5
—
3 .8
“b" 3 . 0
■+-
9 .7
a.
A d a p t e d f r o m [Max H. L e w i s , e d i t o r | , M i g r a t o r y
L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a (San F r a n c i s c o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e R e l i e f
A d m in is tra tio n , 1 936), p . 14.
38
s t u d y o f t h e m i g r a t o r y p r o b l e m was s e e n b y G r o s s a n d C r o s s ,
who i n c o m p a r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a w i t h t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s a s a w h o l e f o u n d t h a t t h e G o ld e n S t a t e h a s t h r e e
a s many l a r g e f a r m s
tim e s
( o n e t h o u s a n d a c r e s o r m o re ) a n d tw o a n d
a h a l f t i m e s a 3 many s m a l l f a r m s ( t w e n t y a c r e s o r l e s s )
as
t h e c o u n t r y a s a w h o le
L arg e g ro w e rs s p e c i a l i z e .
T a b le I I
show s t h e k i n d s
o f farm s t o w h ic h l a r g e a c r e a g e s a r e d e v o te d .
seen in P a rt I I of th i s
As w i l l b e
C h a p te r, th e u s e s o f th e la n d In th e
la r g e h o ld in g s h as v a r ie d th ro u g h th e y e a rs as v a rio u s cro p s
b e c a m e m ore o r l e s s p r o f i t a b l e , a n d a s m o re l a n d c o u l d b e
m ade a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p ­
m ent o f w a te r r e s o u rc e s .
T hus, i n C a l i f o r n i a a r e found
t h i r t y - s e v e n p e r c<gnt o f a l l t h e r e a l l y p r o s p e r o u s f a r m s i n
th e n a tio n ; t h i r t y p e r c e n t of a l l la r g e - s c a le
c o tto n farm s,
and s i x t y p e r c e n t o f a l l l a r g e - s c a l e f r u i t fa rm s ,
G r o w e r - b u s i n e s s - men a r e t h e l a r g e
la b o r.
e m p lo y e rs o f fa rm
The l a r g e g r o w e r s make no e f f o r t t o f a r m t h e i r
a c r e a g e s i n t h e u s u a l s e n s e o f t h e w o r d b u t h a v e made a
b u s in e s s of a g r ic u ltu r e .
Many o f t h e m - l i v e i n l a r g e c i t i e s
6 W i l l i a m T , C r o s s a n d D o r o t h y E , C r o s s , Newcom ers
a n d Nomads i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a :
S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y A r e a 's , 1 9 3 7 ) , p , 2 2 .
7 V iz . i n f r a , C h a p te r IV ,
39
TABLE I I
PERCENTAGES OP LARGE-SCALE FARMS OP
VARIOUS KINDS POUND IN CALIFORNIA.a
Per cent of
U n ite d S t a t e s 1
t o t a l found in
C a lifo rn ia
K in d s o f f a rm s
A l l f a r m s w h o se p r o d u c t i s
v a lu e d a t $ 3 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r
37
L a r g e - s c a le c o tto n farm s
30
L a r g e - s c a le d a i r y farm s
41
L a r g e - s c a le g e n e r a l farm s
44
L a r g e - s c a le p o u l t r y farm s
53
L a r g e - s c a le f r u i t farm s
60
a . jl^ewisfs o p . c i t . , p .
"IT
40
a n d e m p lo y a g r o u p o f r a n c h f o r e m e n .
. . . The o l d f a s h i o n e d f a r m e r h a s b e e n s u p p l a n t e d
b y a t y p e t o w h i c h t h e t e r m c a n no l o n g e r b e a p p l i e d
w ith ac c u ra c y .
The new f a r m e r i s a g r o w e r .
He i s
o n ly s e m i - r u r a l .
O fte n he r e g a rd s h i s fa rm a s a
b u s in e s s and has i t in c o r p o ra te d .
He b e l o n g s t o a
n u m b e r o f w e a l t h y p r o d u c e e x c h a n g e s . . . He e m p lo y s a
b o o k k e e p e r, a n d , in n o b le t r u t h , he lo o k s r a t h e r l i k e
a b a n k e r . . .&
C a l i f o r n i a has th e l a r g e s t r u r a l w a g e -e a rn in g c l a s s
o f any s t a t e .
Of t h e t h r e e h u n d r e d f i f t y
la b o r e rs in th e n a tio n ,
th o u s a n d farm
o n e - h a l f a r e i n C a l i f o r n i a , ^ w here
t h e y a r e e m p lo y e d l a r g e l y b y t h e l a r g e g r o w e r s w ho , o w n in g
o n ly tw e lv e p e r c e n t o f th e farm s o f th e s t a t e ,
e m p lo y
s e v e n ty - e ig h t p e r c e n t o f th e farm l a b o r . ^
G r o w e rs c o n t r o l d i s t r i b u t i o n .
M o st f a r m e r s a r e
p ro d u c e rs o f c ro p s and le a v e th e d i s t r i b u t i o n to a n o th e r
g ro u p .
N ot so t h e C a l i f o r n i a g r o w e r s , who c o n t r o l t h e
c o m p lete d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i r c ro p s th ro u g h a s e r i e s o f
c o o p e ra tiv e a s s o c ia tio n s , p a r tic u la r ly
in th e f r u i t c ro p s,
a n d b y m eans o f p r o - r a t e s ,
s u p p ly and p e rm it
c o n tro l th e
o n ly enough o f t h e i r c ro p to re a c h th e m ark et to keep th e
8 C a r e y M c W i l l i a m s , !fThe F a r m e r s G e t T o u g h . ”
A m erican M e rc u ry , 3 3 : 2 4 1 - 4 5 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 4 .
The
9 L e s l i e 0 . G ordon, ^ B re e d in g G rounds f o r S o c i a l
U n r e s t , 11 The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , 5 7 : 2 3 - 2 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 7 .
10
[L ew is]
0£ .
c i t . , p . 11.
41
p ric e a t a p ro fita b le
le v e l.
T h is, a t l e a s t ,
is
th e th e o ry .
The d e c e a s e d p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r i n l a r g e c e n t e r s h a s o n many
o c c a s io n s l e f t th e g ro w e r w i t h a c r o p w h ich he c o u ld n o t
m a rk e t.
tim e s.
it
is
V a rio u s d e v ic e s have b een r e s o r t e d to i n such
I f th e crop i s n o t p e r is h a b le ,
such as g r a p e f r u i t ,
s t o r e d o r l e f t h a n g in g on th e t r e e s u n t i l th e p r i c e
im p r o v e s *
W here t h i s
cannot be done, p a r t o f th e crop i s
d e s tr o y e d , a s i n th e c a s e o f th e o ra n g e s i n 1938-39 and th e
le ttu c e
i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1939 i n I m p e r i a l a n d Yuma V a l l e y s ,
w hen e v e r y t h i r d row o f l e t t u c e w as d i s k e d i n t o t h e s o i l .
The r a i s i n g
one,
of fru its
and v e g e t a b l e s i s a h ig h ly h a z a rd o u s
( s e e C h a p t e r IV ) a n d r e q u i r e s t h e i n v e s t m e n t o f t r e ­
m en d o u s sums o f m oney b e f o r e p r o f i t s c a n b e t a k e n .
“ T im e ly an d u n i n t e r r u p t e d h a n d l i n g o f t h e s e p e r i s h ­
a b l e s m ean s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a $ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
y e a r l y in c o m e a n d a m u l t i m i l l i o n e x p e n s e f o r i n t e n s i v e
p la n tin g , c u ltiv a tin g , i r r i g a t i n g , sp ra y in g , th in n in g ,
and h a r v e s t i n g . ”
M. • . i t c o s t s a s much t o d e l i v e r
t h e f o o d s t u f f s t o th e m [ t h e c o n s u m e rs ] i n g o o d c o n d i ­
t i o n as i t does to b a t t l e th e p e r e n n ia l d ro u g h ts , th e
i n s e c t s , th e v a g a r ie s o f s o i l and a tm o sp h e re in th e
s t r u g g l e t o g ro w t h e c r o p s . ” 1 -*When c o n d i t i o n s a r e
ju s t r ig h t th e p r o f i t s
a re very la r g e ,
t o o , b u t f r e q u e n t l y t h e g r o w e r f i n d s h i m s e l f 11i n t h e r e d ”
a t th e end o f th e y e a r .
He m u s t t h e n e i t h e r s e l l o u t t o a
11 P r a n k J . T a y l o r , “ C a l i f o r n i a 1s !C r a p e s o f W r a t h , ,M
F orum a n d C e n t u r y * 1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 9 .
42
l a r g e r g r o w e r o r c o m b in e o r r e f i n a n c e t h r o u g h t h e b a n k o r
e l s e w h e r e a n d so t h e p r o c e s s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n g o e s o n .
,fThe a n n u a l t a k e f r o m t h e s o i l t o t a l s a r o u n d § 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
and i s
t h e S t a t e d m a i n l i v e l i h o o d . ” *^
II.
CLIMATE AND A SUCCESSION OP CHOPS
S easons f o r c ro p s le n g th e n e d to p ro d u ce c o n tin u o u s
su p p ly .
Onoe t h e y h a d d e v e l o p e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r d i s t r i ­
b u t i n g a g i v e n c r o p , i t w as n a t u r a l f o r t h e g r o w e r s t o c a s t
a b o u t f o r w ay s o f k e e p i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n i n g a t
a l l tim e s.
I n m o st p a r t s o f t h e w o r ld t h i s w o u ld b e im pos­
s ib le b u t b ecau se o f th e p e c u lia r c o n f ig u ra tio n o f th e w e st,
p a rtic u la rly C a lifo rn ia ,
it
i s p o s s ib le to produce a
s u c c e s s io n o f c r o p s w h ic h p ro lo n g s th e s e a s o n th ro u g h o u t th e
y ear,
i n some c a s e s , a s w i l l b e s e e n i n T a b l e I I I .
and l a t e
v a r i e t i e s a ls o le n g th e n th e se a so n .
The p l a n t i n g
o f t h e same v a r i e t y i n v a r i o u s c l i m a t i c a r e a s i s
by th e le ttu c e
c ro p , w h ic h i s
E a rly
illu stra te d
s p e c ia liz e d in th re e a re a s.
The w i n t e r a n d e a r l y s p r i n g l e t t u c e m a i n l y com es f r o m I m p e r i a l
a n d Yuma V a l l e y s ;
th e l a t e
s p r i n g a n d e a r l y summer c r o p i s
f o u n d i n t h e c o o l e r S a l i n a s V a l l e y ; m id su m m er l e t t u c e i s
u s u a lly " l o c a l ” ( r a is e d n e a r th e c i t i e s )
q u a lity ; and h ig h e r a l t i t u d e
and o f p o o re r
a n d a s h o r t e r s e a s o n c o m b in e
t o make t h e S a l t R i v e r V a l l e y o f A r i z o n a t h e c e n t e r f o r
12 Loc* c i t .
43
TABLE I I I
HARVEST PERIODS OF CERTAIN CROPS IN CALIFORNIA AND WESTERN STATES0,
M onth
Peas
Jan u ary
Im p e ria l
F eb ru ary
Im p e ria l
M a rc h
A p ril
May
June
Ju ly
A ugust
Im p e ria l
C e n tra lC oast
Im p e ria l
Cen. C o a s t
B ay a r e a
B ay a r e a
S a lin a s V.
C en. C o a st
B ay a r e a
Cen* C o a s t
W a s h in g to n
W a s h in g to n
O re g o n
Idaho
U ta h
Id aho
O regon
O th e r S t a t e s
So* B a y a r e a
_ ,
C rops, by a re a s
L e ttu c e
C o tto n
Im p e ria l
Yuma
K ern
P h o e n ix
A riz o n a
Im p e ria l!
P h o e n ix
K ern
A riz o n a
S a lin a s
Im p e ria l
K ern
S a lin a s
P h o e n ix
S a lin a s
P h o en ix
S a lin a s
P h o e n ix
O th e r C a lif*
S a lin a s
O th e r C a lif*
O th e r C a lif #
O th e r C a lif #
F resno
M e lo n s
Im p e ria l
So* C a l i f *
C e n tra l C a lif*
Im p e ria l
So. C a lif#
C e n tr a l C a lif*
Im p e ria l
So, C a l i f .
C e n tra l C a lif*
So. C a lif*
Im p e ria l
C e n tra l C a lif .
Im p e ria l
So, C a l i f .
No* C a l i f .
Im p e ria l
N o. C a l i f #
So. C a l i f .
N o, C a l i f .
Im p e ria l
So* C a l i f ,
No. C a l i f *
So. C a lif*
K ern
T u la re
P h o e n ix
F resn o
Im p e ria l
O th er C a lif#
A riz o n a
K ern
So* B a y a r e a
T u la re
Idah o
O c to b e r
S a n J o a q u i n Yuma
A riz o n a
C en, C o a st
P h o e n ix
Im p e ria l
K ern
T u la re
Im p e ria l
P h o en ix
K ern
A riz o n a
So. C a lif*
Yuma
N ovem ber
C e n tra l C a lif ,
F resno
A riz o n a
Im p e ria l
Im p e ria l
K ern
Yuma
A riz o n a
So. C a lif #
Im p e ria l
Im p e ria l
D ecem ber
Im p e ria l
C e n tra l C a lif .
P h o e n ix
al
D ata f o r t h i s t a b l e a r e - ta k e n fro m m o n th ly r e p o r t s o f
t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l C o m m i s s i o n e r o f I m p e r i a l C o u n ty t o t h e B o a r d o f
S u p e r v i s o r s , fro m th e U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,
A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 3 9 , a n d f r o m P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d E d w a rd
J* H o w e l l , “ P a t t e r n s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r M i g r a t i o n w i t h i n C a l i f ­
o r n i a , ” M o n th l y L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 7 : 9 8 0 - 9 0 , N o v e m b e r, 1938*
S ep tem b er
44
f a ll le ttu c e .
F o r some c r o p s i t
i s n e c e s s a r y t o go f a r t h e r a f i e l d
to f in d a r e a s c a p a b le o f p ro d u c in g a c o n tin u o u s su p p ly .
The e a r l i e s t s t r a w b e r r i e s i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y a r e - u s u a l l y
p ic k e d ab o u t F eb ru ary 1 .
The c r o p i s o v e r b y A p r i l 15
w hen many a r e a s n e a r L o s A n g e l e s a r e i n f u l l p r o d u c t i o n .
The s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a c r o p i s p i c k e d b y J u l y 1 , w hen t h e
O re g o n c r o p i s w e l l u n d e r w a y .
The l a s t
o f th e W a sh in g to n
b e r r i e s a r e p i c k e d b y A u g u s t 15 a n d t h e f a l l c r o p s o f t h e
h ig h e r a r e a s a r e w e ll u n d e r w ay.
is
By O c t o b e r 15 t h e s e a s o n
o v e r u n t i l th e o p en in g o f th e e a r l y c ro p i n I m p e r ia l
V a lle y . 13
S u c c e s s io n o f c r o p s m akes m i g r a t o r y l a b o r p o s s i b l e
and n e c e s s a ry .
N o t o n l y do t h e i n d i v i d u a l c r o p s t e n d t o
r ip e n i n a r e g u la r s u c c e s s io n b u t th e e n t i r e
seaso n te n d s
t o p r o g r e s s f r o m s o u t h t o n o r t h , a n d , o f c o u r s e , some c r o p s
r ip e n in th e s p rin g , e .
e. g .,
c o tto n .
g . , t o m a t o e s , a n d some i n t h e f a l l ,
L arg e q u a n t i t i e s o f l a b o r a r e n eed ed d u rin g
h a r v e s t s e a s o n a n d a t no o t h e r t i m e f o r c e r t a i n c r o p s .
“M o st o f C a l i f o r n i a c r o p s a r e s o e x t r e m e l y p e r i s h a b l e
t h a t t h e y m u s t b e h a r v e s t e d on t h e d a y o f r i p e n i n g - - n o t
a day e a r l i e r o r a day l a t e r .
T h is i s t r u e o f f r e s h
fru its • •
“I t i s tru e a lso of f i e l d c ro p s , lik e
l e t t u c e , to m a to e s , m e lo n s. A sp arag u s i s a c t u a l l y h a r ­
v e s t e d t w i c e a d a y . “ 14
13 S e e T a b l e X , p . 6 1 .
14 F r a n k T a y l o r , o p . c i t .
45
S h o r t J o b s , t h e n m ove#
P ic k in g such p e r is h a b le cro p s
m eans t h a t a s u p p ly o f l a b o r m u st b e on h an d t h e v e r y d ay i t
i s n e e d e d , a n d w hen t h e c r o p i s p i c k e d t h e r e w i l l b e n o m o re
w ork i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c r o p u n t i l t h e n e x t y e a r . - ^
The
w o r k e r s m u s t p e r f o r c e go t o some o t h e r c r o p , e i t h e r w i t h i n
d r i v i n g d i s t a n c e o f t h e i r hom es, i f
such cro p s a re a v a i l a b l e ,
o r t r a v e l some d i s t a n c e t o some o t h e r a r e a w h e r e c r o p s a r e
rip e n in g .
As c a n b e s e e n f r o m T a b l e IV t h e u s u a l l e n g t h o f
d u r a t i o n o f a j o b w as a b o u t tw o m o n t h s .
Pew l a s t e d a s l o n g
a s s i x m o n th s, a n d , i n 1934, o v e r o n e - f o u r t h o f th e
l a s t e d l e s s t h a n a m o n th .
T hese s h o r t
jo b s
j o b s m ean m o re
d i f f e r e n t ones each y e a r ; an av erag e o f s ix p e r y e a r i f th e
w orker i s
to keep busy a l l th e tim e .
Tim e l o s t .
w id e ly s c a tte r e d
next
H o w e v e r, w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s i n
s e c t i o n s , t i m e m u s t b e t a k e n t o go t o t h e
jo b a n d t h e n , t o o , i t
g e t to th e
i s u n l i k e l y t h a t th e p ic k e r s w i l l
j o b on t h e v e r y d a y p i c k i n g s t a r t s .
At b e s t ,
t h e y m u s t l o s e a d a y i n s e t t i n g u p camp a n d a t w o r s t t h e y
may w a i t f o r w e e k s f o r t h e c r o p t o r i p e n .
T h is l o s s o f tim e
i s w e l l show n b y T a b l e V i n w h ic h o n l y a b o u t f o r t y - t h r e e p e r
c e n t o f t h e m i g r a n t f s tim e i s
s p e n t in a c t u a l l y w o rk in g ,
15 J o h n N, W ebb, The M i g r a t o r y - C a s u a l W o r k e r ,
( W a s h i n g t o n , D. c , : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t
O ffic e , 1937), p . x v i i .
46
TABLE IV
DURATION OF JOBS HELD BY TWO HUNDRED
AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 a
D u r a tio n o f jo b s
“
~~Fer c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n
1933 - 4 8 6 j o b s
19 5 4 - 4 7 1 .jobs
A ll jo b s
L ess th a n 8 days
8-15 days
1 5-30 days
1 - 2 m o n th s
2 - 3 m o n th s
3 - 4 m o n th s
4 - 6 m o n th s
6 m o n th s a n d m ore
100
6
6
4
34
23
13
M’e d i a n d u r a t i o n o f j o b s
h e l d i n w e e k s *3
100
11
9
7
27
10
20
11
12
4
3
8 .7
8*1
TABLE V
AVERAGE TIME SPENT IN EMPLOYMENT, IN MIGRATION
AND IN OFF-SEASON PERIODS FOR TWO HUNDRED
MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, 1933 - 3 4 c
D iv isio n of t
T o ta l
E m p lo y m en t
M ig ra tin g
O ff-seaso n
i
m
e
Ti me s p e n t i n w e e k s
19 33
52
23
16
13
I§34
52
22
17
13
a.
A d a p t e d f r o m J o h n N . ’ W ebb, The M i g r a t o r y - C a s u a l
W orker, p . 55.
b.
M e d ia n s c o m p u te d f o r m o n th s a n d c o n v e r t e d i n t o
w e e k s on t h e b a s i s o f 4 . 3 3 w e e k s p e r m o n t h .
C om puted d u r a ­
t i o n o f j o b s i n c l u d e s h o l i d a y s a n d t i m e l o s t on j o b s .
c.
I b i d . , p . 64.
47
w h ile o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e i r tim e i s
sp en t w a itin g f o r
j o b s , - 1-6
and n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d i n t r a v e l i n g fro m p la c e to p l a c e .
E f f e c t o f w e a th e r.
th e w e a th e r*
A n o th er c a u s e o f l o s s o f tim e i s
F o rtu n a te ly th is
i s n o t so l a r g e a f a c t o r i n
sunny C a lif o r n ia a s e ls e w h e re , b u t even h e r e , in th e w in te r
m o n t h s , i t m u s t b e r e c k o n e d w i t h . 17
R a i n n o t o n l y m ak es
w o rk i m p o s s i b l e , b u t a l s o m ak es l i v i n g v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r
3P
p e o p l e who a r e c a m p in g o u t a n d n o t p r e p a r e d f o r i t . -1*0
The
c u t t i n g dow n, a s show n i n T a b l e V I , o f t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e
f o r w ork, i s
a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p r o d u c i n g t h e low
e c o n o m ic s t a t u s o f t h e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s *
III.
FROM CATTLE-RANCHES TO TRUCK FARMS
C a lifo rn ia , lik e a l l areas in p ro cess of s e ttle m e n t,
h as u n d erg o n e an e v o lu tio n a r y p ro c e s s i n th e ty p e s o f c ro p s
ra ise d .
As m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i m p r o v e d , c r o p s h e r e t o ­
f o r e n o t m a r k e t a b le becam e s t a p l e s and a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n
i n c r e a s e d t h e l o c a l m a r k e t made s t i l l o t h e r c r o p s p o s s i b l e .
16 S e e a l s o E d i t h E . L o w ry , T h e y S t a r v e T h a t We May
E a t (New Y o r k : C o u n c i l o f Women f o r Home M i s s i o n s , 1 9 3 H ) ,
p. 24.
17
* C h a p te r IV , p .
18 C f . C h a p t e r I V , p .
48
TABLE VI
AVERAGE NUMBER OP DAYS AVAILABLE FOR
FIELD WORK IN CALIFORNIA BY MONTHS8
M onth
A v a ila b le
d a y s 13
Jan u ary
19
F eb ru ary
21
M a rc h
22
A p ril
23
May
24
June
25
Ju ly
26
A ugust
26
S ep tem b er
26
O cto b er
24
N ovem ber
23
D ecem ber
T o ta l
19
278
a.
R. L . A dam s, S e a s o n a l L a b o r R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
C a l i f o r n i a C r o p s (B e r k e l e v , C a l i f o r n i a : The U n i v e r s i t y
o f d a lif o r n ia P re s s , 19 38), p . 21.
b.
I n c lu d e s Sundays and h o l i d a y s .
49
C a ttle -ra is in g .
T he a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s o f t h e s t a t e
a r e s t i l l known a s t h e wcow c o u n t i e s tf h u t t h e d a y o n c e w as
when t h i s a p p e l l a t i o n was m ore f i t t i n g
t h a n now .
i n t h e n a t u r a l s t a t e was a d m i r a b l y a d a p t e d t o
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t ,
w h ich c a t t l e
to
ju stify
C a lifo rn ia ,
th is in d u stry .
i t w as t h e n e e d f o r a l a r g e a r e a o n
c o u l d g r a z e t h a t w as u s e d b y t h e e a r l y r a n c h e r o s
t h e i r la rg e h o ld in g s
W h e a t.
W i th t h e s l o w i n g - u p o f m i n i n g many n e w l y -
a r r i v e d A m erican s t u r n e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e
i n th e S acram en to
V a l l e y , w h e r e a f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e a n d s o i l made t h e r a i s i n g
o f w heat v ery p r o f i t a b l e .
The c r o p g re w w i t h a minimum o f
c u l t i v a t i o n a n d a v a r i e t y w as f o u n d w h i c h w as a d a p t a b l e t o
tr a n s p o r t a t io n lo n g d is ta n c e s by w a te r .
The s h i p p i n g
c o m p a n ie s w ere g l a d t o g e t r e t u r n c a r g o e s a f t e r b r i n g i n g
p e o p le an d goods fro m th e e a s t an d so gave f a v o r a b l e r a t e s .
T h e n , i n 1 8 6 4 , came t h e g r e a t d r o u g h t w h i c h s o u n d e d t h e d e a t h
PO
k n e ll of c a ttle - r a is in g . v
The c a t t l e
ran ch ers tu rn e d to
w h e a t an d so o n t h e g r e a t v a l l e y and t h e c o a s t l a n d s fro m
B o d eg a t o S a n D ie g o w e r e o n e g r e a t g r a i n f i e l d .
p e a k o f t h r e e m i l l i o n , tw o h u n d r e d f i f t y
had been reach ed .
By 1885 a
th o u sa n d a c r e s
I t w as i n t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f g r a i n t h a t
th e f i r s t m ig r a t o r y l a b o r e r s w ere u s e d , u n l e s s th e w a n d e rin g
19 ££•
20
a u P r a » j P* 3 4 .
C le la n d , o£. c i t . , p . 308.
50
vagueros o f th e c a t t l e
d a y s c o u l d h e so te r m e d *
The w h e a t -
f i e l d m i g r a n t s w e r e s i n g l e men who s p e n t t h e i r sum m ers i n
th e h a r v e s ts and t h e i r w in te r s in th e c i t i e s *
D e v e lo p m e n t o f i r r i g a t i o n .
P rom m i s s i o n d a y s s m a l l
i r r i g a t e d p l o t s i n r i v e r v a l l e y s w ere fo u n d i n C a l i f o r n i a .
A lo n g w i t h t h e r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t o f g r a i n f a r m i n g i n t h e
s e v e n tie s
01
came a s l o w e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f i r r i g a t i o n .
w ere l e d i n t o th e f i e l d s *
S trea m s
L a t e r , w e l l s w ere d e v e lo p e d and
m uch o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , a s w e l l a s t h e l o w e r S a n J o a q u i n
V a lle y ,
i s now i r r i g a t e d i n t h i s m a n n e r .
S t i l l l a t e r came
t h e b u i l d i n g o f dams f o r d i v e r s i o n a n d s t o r a g e p u r p o s e s a n d
to
s p r e a d t h e w i n t e r r u n - o f f t h r o u g h o u t t h e d r y summer
th ro u g h u n d erg ro u n d c h a n n e ls .
p ro je c ts of recen t y e a rs;
The tw o g r e a t i r r i g a t i o n
t h e B o u l d e r Dam a n d A l l - A m e r i c a n
C anal and th e C e n tr a l V a lle y P r o j e c t , i l l u s t r a t e m an’s i n ­
g e n u i t y i n b r i n g i n g w a t e r fro m w here i t
needed.
is,
t o w here i t
is
E v e n i n 1930 t h e i r r i g a t e d l a n d c o n s t i t u t e d o v e r
o n e - t h i r d o f t h e im p ro v ed farm l a n d o f t h e s t a t e , a s T a b le
V II show s.
F ru it.
m ate t o
The a d a p t a b i l i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ’ s s o i l a n d c l i ­
t h e r a i s i n g o f f r u i t w as e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e
m issio n f a t h e r s .
W illia m W o lf s k ill i n th e f i f t i e s
21 C f . T a b l e V I I .
began th e
51
TABLE V I I
INCREASE IN AREA OP IMPROVED FARM LAND
AND IN IRRIGATION ENTERPRISES, 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 3 0 a
(in m illio n s of acres)
A rea o f
A rea o f im p ro v ed
S ta te
farm la n d
Y ear
1850
1860
18 70
18 80
18 9 0
1900
1910
1920
1 93 0
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
9 9 .6
_b
2 .5
6 .3
1 0 .7
1 2 .2
1 2 .0
1 1 .4
1 1 .9
_b
A rea i r r i g a t i o n
e n t e r p r i s e s w ere
c a p a b le o f s u p p ly ­
in g w ith w a te r
Irrig a te d
area
_b
_b
.2
.1
.2
.4
1 .8
.7
2 .3
1 .0
2 .8
1 .4
2 .7
4 .2
4 .7
3 .6
5 .9
6 .8
a.
The d a t a f o r T a b l e V I I w as t a k e n f r o m U n i t e d
S t a t e s C e n s u s R e p o r t s , V o lu m e s o n A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e
W estern S t a t e s , f o r t h e T h i r t e e n t h , F o u r t e e n t h , and
F i f t e e n t h C ensuses*
b.
No d a t a .
52
hr*.*.
la-n
E h+ev-prises
Co.|»at|t oj ■So^p|i||-^
INCREASE IN AREA OF IMPROVED FARM LAND
AND IN IRRIGATION ENTERPRISES, 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 3 0 a
(in m illio n s of a c re s)
a # The d a t a f o r F i g u r e I ( T a b l e V I I ) w as t a k e n f r o m
U n i t e d S t a t e s C e n s u s R e p o r t s , V o lu m es o n A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e
W e ste rn S t a t e s , f o r th e t h i r t e e n t h , F o u r te e n th , and F i f t e e n ­
th C ensuses.
53
r a i s i n g o f oranges*
fa v o ra b le
OQ
The r a i s i n g o f g r a p e s d e v e l o p e d i n
s p o t s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t b y 186 0 a m i l l i o n p o u n d s
w ere b e in g s h ip p e d a n n u a l l y fro m San P e d r o .
23
As t h e d e ­
v e lo p m e n t o f i r r i g a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d an d t h e r a i l r o a d s b ro u g h t
e a s t e r n m a rk e ts n e a r e r , th e la n d u s e changed r a p i d l y to th e
m ore i n t e n s i v e c r o p s *
Soon t h e r a i s i n
in d u stry brought
g r e a t e r in c r e a s e s in th e a r e a d e v o te d to th e r a i s i n g o f
grapes*
F re s n o becam e t h e c e n t e r o f t h i s d e v e lo p m e n t*
C i t r u s g r o w i n g b ecam e c e n t e r e d i n S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , a l ­
th o u g h a l a r g e a r e a i n t h e San J o a q u in V a lle y an d a n o t h e r i n
th e S acram en to V a lle y a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t .
d a te s i t s
T h is in d u s tr y
p r i n c i p a l g ro w th from th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f th e
N a v e l o ra n g e w h ic h , r i p e n i n g a t a d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n , fro m
t h e t r a d i t i o n a l V a l e n c i a , m akes p o s s i b l e a c o n t in u o u s c r o p
th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r .
area.
W a ln u ts a l s o becam e i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s
The d e c i d u o u s f r u i t a n d a lm o n d i n d u s t r y c e n t e r e d i n
t h e S ac ra m e n to a n d S a n ta C la r a V a l l e y s an d b r o u g h t a s t i l l
g r e a t e r ex p a n sio n o f i r r i g a t i o n .
The e n t i r e f r u i t i n d u s t r y
i s d e p e n d e n t o n tw o i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s o u t s i d e o f s o i l a n d
w a te r.
These a r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and m ig r a to r y l a b o r .
a s , p re v io u s to
th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f r u i t - r a i s i n g
22 C l e l a n d , o p . c i t . , p . 3 0 9 .
23 L o c . c i t .
W h ere­
t h e r e was
54
some m i g r a t o r y l a b o r ,
th e s t a t e .
t h i s in d u s tr y f ix e d th e p a t t e r n upon
C h eap l a b o r i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s b e c a m e e s s e n t i a l
a n d t h e g r o w e r s f o u n d w ays o f s e c u r i n g i t . ^ 4
Sugar b e e ts .
J u s t as a d ro u g h t ended th e c a t t l e
i n d u s t r y , s o a n o t h e r i n 189 8 n e a r l y f i n i s h e d f r u i t - r a i s i n g .
I t w as a g g r a v a t e d b y a n o v e r - e x p a n s i o n o f t h e a c r e a g e a n d
l a b o r t r o u b l e s r e s u l t i n g fro m th e C h in e se e x c lu s io n .
The
i n t r o d u c t i o n o f th e r a i s i n g o f s u g a r b e e t s a t t h i s tim e
fille d
a d e fin ite need.
I t w as n o t l o n g b e f o r e t h i s
t o o , becam e a d a p te d t o m i g r a t o r y l a b o r .
crop,
I n G erm any a n d o t h e r
a r e a s w here th e c ro p i s w id e ly r a i s e d s m a ll farm s a r e t h e
r u l e and th e h a r v e s t i n g i s done by th e fa rm e r and h i s f a m ily ,
b u t i n C a l i f o r n i a an d o t h e r w e s te r n s t a t e s w here l a r g e a c r e ­
ages a r e th e r u l e ,
th e c u l t i v a t i o n i s
l a r g e l y by m ach in ery
an d o n ly a t h a r v e s t tim e a r e l a r g e num ber o f l a b o r e r s n e e d e d .
Thus a n o t h e r c r o p p r o v id e s w ork f o r m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s .
P o ta to e s.
In th e r ic h d e l t a la n d s o f th e C e n tra l
V a l l e y a s w e l l a s i n t h e m o re a r i d a r e a s o f K e r n C o u n ty t h e
i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e new B u r b a n k a n d o t h e r i m p r o v e d p o t a t o e s
p ro v id e d a c ro p t h a t i s h a r v e s te d i n th e f a l l and t h i s
le n g th e n e d th e w o rk in g s e a s o n .
O n ly o n e t h i n g w as now
n e e d e d t o make a y e a r - r o u n d c y c l e o f e m p lo y m e n t p o s s i b l e -
24 C f . , S e c t i o n IV o f t h i s
C h a p te r, p . 6 4 f f
55
w in te r cro p s.
V e g e ta b le s.
The r a i s i n g o f v e g e t a b l e s h a s b e e n
c a r r i e d on i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r a lo n g t im e .
I t w as i n t r o d u c e d
b y t h e C h i n e s e , who w e r e e x p e r t s i n t h e t y p e o f l a n d - w o r k
and i n t e n s i v e i r r i g a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r such c r o p s .
L a te r
th e J a p a n e se to o k o v e r th e b u s in e s s o f s u p p ly in g th e r a p i d ly
g ro w in g c i t i e s w i t h p r o d u c e .
cro p s,
When i t b ecam e e v i d e n t t h a t
su c h a s to m a to e s , c a r r o t s , l e t t u c e and p e a s ,
co u ld be
so r a i s e d a s t o m a t u r e m o n th s b e f o r e t h e e a s t e r n m a r k e t s
w e r e s u p p l i e d w i t h l o c a l v e g e t a b l e s a n d w hen t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r
c a r s , d e v e l o p e d b y t h e f r u i t i n d u s t r y , becam e p e r f e c t e d t h e
s t a g e w as s e t f o r t h a t r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f t r u c k g r o w i n g
w h i c h h a s made t h e l o w e r S a l i n a s V a l l e y t h e !,n a t i o n f s s a l a d
b o w l ” a n d I m p e r i a l V a l l e y t h e “w i n t e r g a r d e n o f A m e r i c a . ”
A t l a s t c r o p s h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d w h i c h m ade t h e m i g r a t o r y
c y c l e c o m p le te *
C o tto n .
C o tto n h a s b een r a i s e d i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r a
c o m p a ra tiv e ly s h o rt tim e .
ris e
in re c e n t y e a rs .
T a b le V I I I i n d i c a t e s i t s
ra p id
The a r t i f i c a l s t i m u l u s t o t h e p r i c e
o f c o t t o n b r o u g h t o n b y t h e F i r s t W o rld War e n c o u r a g e d e x ­
p e rim e n tin g w ith th e c ro p .
Some c o t t o n h a d b e e n r a i s e d on
t h e C a l i f o r n i a s i d e o f t h e r i v e r i n t h e Yuma P r o j e c t f o r
m any y e a r s so t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o I m p e r i a l V a l l e y a n d t h e n t o
t h e S a n J o a q u i n w as r e a d i l y m a d e .
C o t t o n w as I m p e r i a l
56
TABLE V III
ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF COTTON IN CALIFORNIA
AND ARIZONA, 1919 AND 1 9 2 9 . ACREAGE OF
CERTAIN CALIFORNIA COUNTIES.a
S ta te o r
c o u n ty
A riz o n a
C a lifo rn ia
19 19
A cres
B a le s
1 0 1 ,0 8 0
5 6 ,5 6 7
2 1 0 ,4 7 5
1 4 8 ,8 8 1
8 3 ,9 6 3
4 4 ,6 8 1
2 9 2 ,7 4 7
2 5 0 ,3 9 1
5 1 ,4 1 9
4 3 ,7 0 5
5 ,4 8 4
F resno
Im p e ria l
K ern
1929
A cres
B a le s
__b
5 4 ,6 8 8
— b
2 1 ,9 3 0
1 1 ,5 3 6
1 ,1 9 1
— b
6 5 ,1 9 4
5 9 ,7 2 8
9
—b
6 2 ,4 5 1
5 9 ,8 9 8
T u la re
a.
B u reau o f th e C e n su s, F i f t e e n t h C ensus o f th e
U n ite d S t a t e s : 1950.
I r r i g a t i o n o f A g r ic u ltu r a l Lands
( W a s h i n g t o n , D. S '.V '" U n ite d S t a t e s S n V e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g
O f fic e , 1 933), pp. 33 , 3 5 4-59.
b.
No d a t a .
57
V a l l e y ’ s f i r s t m oney c r o p a n d p r e c e d e d v e g e t a b l e s .
When t h e
p r i c e came p l u m m e ti n g down i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e s t h e c r o p
s u f f e r e d a s e t- b a c k i n I m p e r ia l V a lle y fro m w h ich i t h a s
n e v e r r e c o v e r e d , b u t e lse w h e re i n C a l i f o r n i a and p a r t i c u l a r l y
i n K e r n C o u n ty t h e a c r e a g e a n d t h e y i e l d p e r a c r e h a s b e e n
c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g u n t i l e v e n w i t h t h e low p r i c e a n d t h e
r e l a t i v e l y h ig h c o s t o f p ro d u c tio n t h i s a re a has been a b le to
c o m p e te s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d c o t t o n - r a i s i n g
areas.
T h i s c r o p , b y p r o v i d i n g y e t a n o t h e r l a r g e dem and f o r
s e a s o n a l l a b o r h a s c o n t r i b u t e d m a t e r i a l l y t o th e m ig r a t o r y
p ic tu re in C a lifo rn ia .
In d is c u s s in g c o tto n and m ig ra tio n th e fu n c tio n o f
c o t t o n i n d ra w in g th e r e c e n t im m ig ra tio n from t h e S o u th m ust
not be lo s t s ig h t o f.
T he k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e w as m o re
c o t t o n t o p i c k i n t h e to w n j u s t a h e a d h a s b e e n a n i m p o r t a n t
f a c t o r i n d r a w i n g t h i s g r o u p i n t o w e s t T e x a s a n d New M e x ic o ,
t h e n t o t h e S a l t R i v e r V a l l e y a n d Yuma V a l l e y a n d f i n a l l y t o
C a lif o r n ia ’ s c o tto n a c re s .
R e c a p itu la tio n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
The h i s t o r y o f
C a l i f o r n i a a g r i c u l t u r e h a s b e e n one o f a change to c r o p s r e ­
q u i r i n g m o re a n d m o re h a n d w o rk o f a s e a s o n a l n a t u r e a s
shown i n T a b l e I X .
Even t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n o f m a c h in e ry h a s
i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o b l e m u p t o t h e l a s t fe w y e a r s , ^ 5 i n m a k in g
25 C f . ,
C h a p t e r XIV
58
TABLE IX
COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS RAISED
IN CALIFORNIA 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 2 9
IN PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL VALUE OF CROPSa
C ro p
P e r c e n t of t o t a l v a lu e
1919
1909
19 29
3 3 .3
46
7 .5
8
1 3 .5
C e re a ls , g ra in s
and seed s
2 3 .7
25
1 3 .5
Hay a n d f o r a g e
2 7 .5
1 6 .5
1 2 .5
O th e rs
8 .0
4 .5
5 .5
F r u i t an d n u t s
V e g e ta b le s
55
NOTE:
T h i s T a b l e , s h o w in g t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e t y p e s o f
a g r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r i n g h a n d l a b o r a n d s e a s o n a l e m p lo y m e n t, i s
a p a r t i a l e x p la n a tio n o f th e r a p id ex p a n sio n o f m ig ra to ry
lab o r*
a . A d a p t e d f ro m C r o s s a n d C r o s s ,
op. c i t . , p.
26.
m?
1111
101
C t Yt'tk!%
|/e.^ e la i/e s GvafV>3
6 e .e .c is
tyu F js
F r y if s
F y V.1-f S ^
Hat\
"1 \
C e.r e a l s, G r a n l s;
aiv><j( S je .e .o l'b
V u -Hs,
a)
F o r o g e.
F»r«i
C, t r e t 1 syG va;-t)4
F y u i -F £.
M ats
P ^Y
-Sc-e-of-s
C>&^-vi-h
0
M «</j
”7“o~Fdl
FoTratjtt,
1
O tKev-
O
V a / we~
F I GrURE 2
COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS RAISED
IN CALIFORNIA 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 2 9 IN
PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL VALUE OF CR0PSa
NOTE:
T h i s F i g u r e , s h o w in g t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e t y p e s o f
a g r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r i n g h a n d l a b o r a n d s e a s o n a l e m p lo y m e n t,
a p a r t i a l e x p la n a tio n o f th e r a p i d ex p a n sio n o f m ig ra to ry
la b o r*
a . A d a p t e d f ro m C r o s s a n d C r o s s ,
op. c i t . ,
p.
26
60
p o ssib le a l l
s t a g e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e b y m e c h a n iz e d m eth o d s
except h a rv e stin g .
The f a c t t h a t t h e s e a s o n a l d em an ds f o r
l a b o r v a ry fro m c ro p to c ro p and from r e g i o n to r e g io n h as
m ade p o s s i b l e a n d n e c e s s a r y a m i g r a t o r y l a b o r i n g c l a s s .
T a b le X show s, t h e r e i s
As
a r e g u la r s u c c e s s io n o f c ro p s to be
h a r v e s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r w i t h a g r e a t e r o r l e s s am ount
o f e m p lo y m e n t i n e a c h c r o p .
P rom c o t t o n i n t h e f a l l a n d
e a r l y w i n t e r m o n th s t o e a r l y t r u c k c r o p s i n t h e w i n t e r a n d
s p r in g and th e n i n t o f r u i t o r g r a in o r s u g a r b e e ts i s a r e ­
g u l a r p r o c e d u r e , a s w i l l b e s e e n i n S e c t i o n IV o f t h i s
C h a p te r.
W ith in th e v e g e ta b le group i s fo u n d a s i m i l a r
s u c c e s s i o n o f p e a k s o f l a b o r dem and.
d a ta in t h i s
For th is
reaso n th e
c o lu m n ( T a b l e X) a r e so m ew h at m i s l e a d i n g ,
s i n c e t h e p e a k o f l a b o r dem and i s a c o m p o s i t e o f a l l
v e g e ta b le s and n o t t y p i c a l o f any one c r o p , and w h ereas
t h e f r u i t c u r v e s c a n b e c o m b in e d r e a s o n a b l y w e l l , a l t h o u g h
c i t r u s and d e c id u o u s f r u i t s
show d i f f e r e n t p e a k s o f e m p lo y ­
m e n t ; v e g e t a b l e s show t o o m uch v a r i a t i o n a n d h e n c e p r o d u c e
a s e r ie s o f d a ta th a t a re n o t v ery d e s c r ip tiv e .
T he d a t a
f o r f o u r m a in v e g e t a b l e s r a i s e d i n t h e f a l l a n d w i n t e r i n
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y a r e show n i n T a b l e X I ^ 6 a n d t h e d a t a f o r
c o t t o n a r e i n c l u d e d t o m ake c o m p a r i s o n w i t h T a b l e X e a s i e r .
26 p p . 6 1 , 62
61
TABLE X
SEASONAL FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT IN ALL PURSUITS AND SELECTED
PURSUITS OF TWO HUNDRED AGRICULTURAL WORKERS, 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 a
M onth
and
year
A ll
P ur­
s u its
1933
Jan u ary
F eb ru ary
M arch
A p ril
May
June
J u ly
A ugust
S ep tem b er
O cto b er
N ovem ber
D ecem b er
162
184
208
263
397
460
519
527
55 5
461
328
18 6
Man -w e e k s o f e m p lo y m e n t
S e le c te d p u rs u its
S u g ar G en.
C o tto n F r u i t b e e ts a g r i c u l ­ V e g e ta b le s B e r r ie s
tu re
41
40
39
49
55
46
52
56
110
127
118
58
26
39
35
39
60
86
110
95
76
68
4
4
9
15
100
104
102
88
98
37
68
12
21
4
35
35
27
46
49
49
78
103
97
53
32
16
4
9
13
30
30
37
52
65
56
30
39
32
24
26
18
26
29
13
20
23
26
31
24
55
41
41
32
13
17
58
50
44
38
35
17
11
9
2
-
1934
Jan u ary
F eb ru ary
Mar c h
A p ril
May
June
J u ly
A ugust
S ep tem b er
O cto b er
Novem ber
D ec e m b e r
a*
p . 115.
216
240
2 70
304
420
439
4 81
4 59
465
358
1 89
64
48
36
43
47
35
30
43
53
88
101
65
22
101
52
58
75
80
71
52
32
25
16
74
11
21
9
18
14
17
30
35
38
28
11
6
111
108
100
104
35
56
37
11
4
30
42
73
67
59
19
11
4
2
J o h n N . Webb, T he M i g r a t o r y C a s u a l W o r k e r , p p . c i t * ,
62
TABLE XI
SEASONAL LABOR REQUIREMENTS FOR
SPECIFIED CROPS BY MONTHS— CALIFORNIA*
(ex p ressed in p e r c e n ts of t o t a l ann ual re q u ire m e n ts)
P er c e n t of t o t a l a n n u a l re q u ire m e n t
Jan. .F e b .
M a r, A p r .
May J u n e
C ro p
C a rro ts
C o tto n
L e ttu c e
T o m a to e s
Peas
1 0 .2
7 .5
7 .9
5 .2
6 .2
9 .4
0 .2
0 .8
7 .8
9 .3
7 .1
0 .9
7 .8
1 .3
8 .7
A ug.
S e p t. O c t.
Ju ly
C a rro ts
C o tto n
L e ttu c e
T o m a to e s
Peas
5 .2
4 .1
2 .3
1 .5
7 .4 1 1 .2
8 .5 1 1 .3
2 .8
5 .2
a . Adams, 0 £ .
3 .9
3 .5
8 .9
2 3 .8
4 .0
c i t ..
1 1 .8
0 .9
8 .5
3 .9
1 3 .5
6 .3
3 3 .4
9 .9
2 7 .5
p . 17*
6 .6
1 5 .7
3 .5
1 0 .3
1 2 .0
2 0 .1
1 1 .0
3 .0
8 .5
7 .6
8 .5
Nov. D ec.
8 .8
9 .1
1 2 .3
4 .1
3 .1
0 .0
6 .6
6 .9
8 .1
2 4 .6
T o ta l
man h r s .
per
1 ,0 0 0
acres
2 2 ,1 1 7
7 ,3 0 2
8 ,3 8 9
9 ,7 2 4
9 .4 0 4
63
T h u s , i n t h e g r o u p s t u d i e d b y W ebb, O c t o b e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e
m o n th o f g r e a t e s t e m p l o y m e n t , i n c o t t o n - p i c k i n g , v a r y i n g
f r o m 101 t o 127 m a n -w e e k s*
T h is a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n te d ab o u t
o n e - th ir d o f a l l th e la b o r needed f o r t h i s
th e year*
cro p th ro u g h o u t
S i m i l a r l y , t h e p e a k o f e m p lo y m e n t f o r c a r r o t s f o r
C a lifo rn ia is
i n May, f o r l e t t u c e
i n May a n d A u g u s t , f o r
t o m a t o e s i n O c t o b e r a n d f o r p e a s i n May*
o f co urse f o r th e e n tir e
T hese f i g u r e s a r e ,
s t a t e and f o r any one a r e a ,
such as
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y , t h e p e a k s w o u l d come a t a d i f f e r e n t t i m e
a n d t h e s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n w o u ld b e many t i m e s m a g n i f i e d *
I t w o u ld b e s u r p r i s i n g I f t h e s e a s o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s
e x a c t l y s u p p l e m e n t e d e a c h o t h e r so t h a t t h e dem and f o r l a b o r
th ro u g h o u t th e
s t a t e a t o n e p l a c e o r a n o t h e r w as u n i f o r m .
T h is w o u ld b e i d e a l , b e c a u s e t h e n t h e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s
w o u ld n e e d o n l y t o f i n d t h e r i g h t p l a c e a n d k e e p w o rk in g a l l
th e tim e , b u t such i s n o t th e c a s e .* ^
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t
t h e f l u c t u a t i o n i n dem and i s c o n s i d e r a b l e .
A dam s1 f i g u r e s
show a v a r i a t i o n i n dem and f r o m 4 8 , 1 7 3 p e r s o n s i n M arch t o
1 4 4 , 7 2 0 i n S e p t e m b e r .^ ®
F ree e s tim a te d th a t in th e tru c k -
g r o w i n g a r e a s t h e dem and r a n g e s f r o m 1 4 4 , 7 0 0 w o r k e r s i n
OQ
S e p te m b e r t o 4 8 ,0 0 0 i n M arch.
The i n f e r e n c e fro m t h e s e
27 V i z * , T a b l e V , p . 46*
28 A dam s, o£* c i t * , p . 2 2 .
2 9 B e n j a m i n J* F r e e , S e a s o n a l E m p lo y m en t i n A g r i c u l ­
tu re
( W a s h i n g t o n D. C# : W orks P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 2 8 ) ,
p . 33*
64
fig u re s is
c le a r.
Some m e a n s m u s t b e p r o v i d e d t o t a k e u p t h e
s la c k in o f f se a so n s, i f th e c y c le i s
to c o n tin u e .
C rops a r e s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c o u n t i e s w here
t h e y a r e t h e m o s t p r o f i t a b l e a n d w h e r e c l i m a t e f a c t o r s make
t h e i r g ro w th p o s s i b l e .
F ig u re I I I
show s, f o r e x a m p le , t h e
tr u c k g a rd e n in g a r e a s to be c o n c e n tr a te d in th e Im p e ria l
a n d S a l i n a s V a l l e y s a n d i n S an M ateo C o u n t y .
H en ce i t
i s to
b e e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e dem and f o r s e a s o n a l l a b o r w i l l v a r y
a c c o r d i n g l y a n d a s T a b l e X I I ( p . 66) s h o w s , s u c h i s
I t is
to th e s e f i f t e e n
c o u n tie s t h a t th e stre a m o f m ig ra to ry
l a b o r f l o w s s t r o n g e s t . Some c o u n t i e s ,
I n y o , u s e no m i g r a t o r y
IV .
th e c a s e .
s u c h a s H u m b o ld t
and
la b o r a t a ll*
FROM “ BINDLE-STIFFS** TO “ OKIES1*
M ig ra to ry la b o r
h a s b e e n u s e d fro m th e b e g in n in g o f
C a lifo rn ia a g ric u ltu re .
Indeed i t
can bet r u l y
s a id a t
p r e s e n t t h a t t h e r e c o u l d b e no C a l i f o r n i a a g r i c u l t u r e a s i t
i s com m only c o n s i d e r e d — t h e r a i s i n g o f f r u i t s
w ith o u t m ig ra to ry la b o r .
and v e g e ta b le s —
Many r a c i a l g r o u p s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d
to th e p ic tu r e o f m ig ra to ry la b o r in C a lif o r n ia and th e n
p a sse d o f f th e s ta g e .
C a lifo rn ia n s are w itn e ssin g
th e l a t e s t
c h a n g e i n t h e r a c i a l p i c t u r e w i t h t h e co m in g o f t h e w h i t e s
from th e w e s t - s o u t h - c e n t r a l r e g io n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
The c y c l e i s c o m p l e t e .
F ro m w h i t e l a b o r i n t h e b e g i n n i n g ,
gro w ers have r e tu r n e d to w h ite la b o r*
65
CALIFORNIA
s c a Le o f m i l e s
0 20 40 60
T ruck
D a iry
C o tto n
F ru it
C ro p s p e c ­
ia ltie s
No c r o p
S e lfs u ffic ie n c y
FIGURE
3
MOST NUMEROUS TYPE OF FARM, 1930
SHOWING LOCATION OF AREAS OF HEAVY LABOR REQUIREMENTS.®
a.
(jjp. c i t
B e n j a m i n J . F r e e , S e a s o n a l E m p lo y m e n t i n A g r i c u l t u r e .
♦ 8.
H SiU iSSKZS
66
TABLE X II
CALIFORNIA COUNTIES HAVING LARGEST
ANNUAL SEASONAL LABOR REQUIREMENTS8,
( i n o r d e r o f n u m b er o f m a n - h o u r s p e r y e a r )
1.
F resn o
2 ,1 5 1 ,6 5 8
man h o u r s .
2.
D e l t a la n d s * 5
1 ,7 8 4 ,7 7 6
man h o u r s .
3.
T u la re
1 ,6 6 0 ,4 7 2
man h o u r s .
4.
L os A n g e l e s
1 ,3 7 7 ,0 3 2
man h o u r s .
5.
S a n ta C la ra
1 ,0 2 1 ,5 7 1
man h o u r s .
6.
Im p e ria l
8 3 3 ,7 0 4
man h o u r s .
7.
San J o a q u in 0
8 1 9 ,7 2 2
man h o u r s .
8.
M o n te re y
8 1 1 ,9 7 5
man h o u r s .
9.
K ern
8 0 7 ,1 5 4
man h o u r s .
10.
O range
7 8 1 ,8 1 7
man h o u r s .
11.
S ta n isla u s
7 3 3 ,3 9 8
man h o u r s •
12.
V e n tu ra
6 6 6 ,2 9 7
man h o u r s .
13.
S an B e r n a r d i n o
6 6 2 ,5 3 8
man h o u r s .
14.
R iv e rsid e
6 4 0 ,9 6 8
man h o u r s .
15.
M e rc e d
6 2 3 ,3 7 9
man h o u r s .
a*
Adam s, 0 £ .
c it.,
p p . 12-13•
b.
I n c lu d e s p a r t s o f C o n tra C o s ta , S a c ra m e n to , San
J o a q u i n , S o l a n o a n d Y o lo C o u n t i e s *
c.
D e l t a l a n d s n o t i n c l u d e d - - t h i s f i g u r e much t o o
sm a ll f o r t h i s c o u n ty .
67
The MB l a n k e t - m e n u o f t h e w h e a t h a r v e s t s .
The f i r s t
m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s w e r e e m p lo y e d i n h a r v e s t i n g t h e e n o rm o u s
w heat a c re a g e s o f th e s e v e n tie s .
men a b o u t whom l i t t l e
i s known.
T hese w ere m o s tly s i n g l e
T h e y w e r e com m only c a l l e d
" b i n d l e - s t i f f s M o r wb l a n k e t - m e n w f r o m t h e i r c u s to m o f p u t t i n g
a l l t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s i n t o a b l a n k e t a n d m a k in g a b u n d l e o f
th e m .^
They f o ll o w e d th e c r o p s on f o o t , d r i f t i n g
ran ch to a n o th e r,
f r o m one
s l e e p i n g i n b a m s o r s t r a w - s t a c k s and
c o o k i n g o v e r a camp f i r e .
T h e r e w as l i t t l e
to d is tin g u is h
th e m f r o m t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l “ h o b o 11 a n d , n o d o u b t , t h e r e w e r e
m any o f t h i s l a t t e r g r o u p i n c l u d e d i n t h e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r i n g
r a n k s from tim e t o tim e .
The Hb i n d l e - s t i f f 11 s e t t h e p a t t e r n f o r l a t e r m i g r a n t s
by ta k in g c a re o f h im s e lf , a s k in g n o th in g b u t a l i t t l e
a t lo w w a g e s a n d m o v in g o n w hen t h e w o rk w as d o n e .
31
w o rk
In th e
w in te r s th e d iv e s and cheap b o a rd in g h o u se s o f th e la r g e
c i t i e s w e r e f i l l e d w i t h t h i s g r o u p w a i t i n g f o r sum m er.
I n t h e m ain t h e s e f i r s t m i g r a n t s w ere w h i t e , a lt h o u g h
t h e r e w e r e some I n d i a n s among t h e m , a n d , i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s
o f th e w heat e r a , C h in e se .
30 C a r e y M c W i ll i a m s , F a c t o r i e s i n t h e F i e l d
L i t t l e , Brow n a n d C om pany, 1 9 $ $ ) , p p . 5 5 -5 3 ".
31
[L e w is ] 0 £ .
c i t . , p . 14.
(New Y o rk s
The C h i n e s e ,
In th e l a t e
s ix tie s
th e C h in e se , th e
f i r s t o f t h e f o r e i g n g r o u p s b ecam e i m p o r t a n t i n a g r i c u l t u r e .
B r o u g h t t o C a l i f o r n i a a s c o n t r a c t l a b o r e r s b y t h e S i x Com­
p a n i e s , t h e y f i r s t w e n t t o t h e m i n e s , a n d l a t e r w e r e e m p lo y e d
by th e r a ilro a d s #
I n 1861 t h e r e w ere 2 0 ,0 0 0 w o rk in g i n th e
m i n e s , a n d b y 1 8 6 9 , 1 0 , 0 0 0 w e r e e m p lo y e d b y t h e C e n t r a l
P a c ific
R ailw ay a s s e c t i o n hands#
32
When t h e r a i l r o a d w as b u i l t a n d t h e m i n e s b e c a m e l e s s
p r o f i t a b l e th e C h in e se tu r n e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e .
in th e l a t e
s i x t i e s . The c e n s u s o f
o f th e farm l a b o r e r s
to b e C h in ese#
Some s t a r t e d
1 8 7 0 sh o w ed t e n p e r c e n t
By 188 6 i t w as e s t i ­
m ated t h a t th e y c o n s t i t u t e d s e v e n - e i g h t s o f t h e fa rm l a b o r e r s
o f t h e s t a t e . 33
When t h e d e c l i n e o f s e a - b o r n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d t h e
c o n c o m ita n t in c r e a s e
in th e c o s t o f s h ip p in g f o rc e d a change
fro m th e ch eap w h eat
to th e h ig h - p r ic e d f r u i t fa rm in g th e
C h i n e s e made t h e c h a n g e p o s s i b l e b y f u r n i s h i n g a s u p p l y o f
v e r y lo w c o s t l a b o r w h i c h k e p t t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n down
a n d c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h e g a i n s made b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f
m e c h a n iz e d m eth o d s i n w h e a t f a r m i n g .
As f a s t a s h e c o u l d s a v e e n o u g h t o do s o , t h e C h i n e s e
32 I r a B . C r o s s , A H i s t o r y o f t h e L a b o r M ovement i n
C a lif o r n ia (B e rk e le y , C a lif o r n ia : T h e ^ tfn iv e rsity o f C a lif o rn ia P re s s , 1935), p . 317.
33
^ e w isj op. c i t . ,
p . 16.
69
s t a r t e d a sm a ll ra n c h f o r h im se lf*
The l a n d a v a i l a b l e w as
th e l e f t - o v e r , u n d e s i r e d la n d w h ich c o u ld be c h e a p ly b o u g h t*
T h r o u g h h i s n a t u r a l t a l e n t a s a n a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t h e w as a b l e
to re c la im th e d e l t a la n d s , f e r t i l i z e
and im prove a r e a s o f
p o o r s o i l an d p ro d u c e c r o p s w here none h a d b e e n r a i s e d b e f o r e .
The f i r s t t r u c k f a r m s i n C a l i f o m i a w e r e s t a r t e d b y C h i n e s e .
T h is v e ry t h r i f t and in d u s tr y proved t h e i r u n d o in g .
I n t h e h a r d tim e s o f th e s e v e n t i e s A m erican l a b o r e r s an d
s m a l l f a r m e r s , t h e tw o g r o u p s s u f f e r i n g f r o m t h e c o m p e t i t i o n ,
f o r c e d th e e x c lu s io n a c t o f 1879.
'ZA
The s u p p l y c u t o f f ,
t h o s e a l r e a d y h e r e d r i f t e d t o t h e c i t i e s , w here t h e y o u n g e r
g e n e r a t i o n c o u l d f i n d w o r k w h i c h p a i d e n o u g h t o e n a b l e th e m
to en jo y th e h ig h e r s ta n d a rd o f l i v i n g
th e y had le a r n e d in
A m e ric a *
By t h e t i m e o f t h e a n t i - a l i e n
l a n d la w o f 19 1 3 t h e
C h i n e s e w e r e no l o n g e r a f a c t o r .
The J a p a n e s e .
c itie s
As t h e d r i f t o f t h e C h i n e s e t o t h e
l e f t a d e a r th o f cheap a g r i c u l t u r a l la b o r th e Japanese
b e c a m e a t t r a c t e d a n d s t a r t e d c o m in g i n l a r g e n u m b e r s , b o t h
fro m t h e h o m elan d and a l s o fro m H a w a ii and B r i t i s h C o lu m b ia .
P rom t h e p e r i o d 19 11 u n t i l 1924 w hen a l l a l i e n s i n e l i g i b l e
c i t i z e n s h i p w ere b a r r e d th e y a v e ra g e d a lm o st 5 ,9 0 0 a y e a r .
34 I b i d . , p . 1 7 .
35 I b i d . , p .
19.
to
35
70
T hey, t o o , w ere b r o u g h t by l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s , m o s tly
J a p a n e s e , and to o k th e p la c e o f th e C h in e se i n f r u i t and
t r u c k farm s#
They w ere th e f i r s t
la b o r group u s e d in th e
n e w ly e x p a n d i n g s u g a r b e e t a n d b e r r y i n d u s t r i e s #
i n V a c a v i l l e i n 1890
rXTt
S ta rtin g
th e y sp re a d a l l o v e r th e s t a t e ,
d is­
p l a c i n g th e C h in e s e i n t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y b y 1 8 9 5 , and
e v e r y w h e r e i n t h e s t a t e b y 1904#
They w ere a l s o
th e f i r s t
f o r e i g n w o rk e rs i n th e c i t r u s crop#
T a k i n g c a r e o f t h e i r own h o u s i n g ,
such a s i t w as,
a n d m o v in g on when t h e c r o p s w e r e h a r v e s t e d ,
th e p a t t e r n a lr e a d y
th e y fo llo w e d
s e t u p o f f i r s t w o rk in g f o r v e r y s m a ll
w a g e s a n d t h e n e i t h e r g e t t i n g m o re o r s e t t i n g u p s m a l l f a r m s
o f t h e i r own#
B ein g b e t t e r s u i t e d t o o r g a n i z i n g , th e y fo rm ed
A s s o c i a t i o n s and i f b e t t e r w ages and w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s w ere
n o t p r o v id e d th e y w a lk e d o u t a t h a r v e s t t i m e ,
th u s s e t t i n g a
p r e c e d e n t w h ich w as to b e v e r y c o s t l y t o C a l i f o r n i a a g r i c u l tu re in th e f u tu r e .
38
By 1 9 1 5 s o s t r o n g l y i n t r e n c h e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e w e r e
th e y th a t th ey c o n tr o lle d s ix ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t o f th e b e e t-
3 6 M c W i ll i a m s , 0 |># c i t #, p .
105#
37 I b i d , p# 106#
by
3 8 C f . , C a l i f o r n i a F r u i t G r o w e rs P r o c e e d i n g s , q u o t e d
[Lewis] , o£# c i t # , p . 22#
71
r a i s i n g and e ig h ty - e ig h t p e r c e n t o f b e r r y - r a i s i n g
t o l a r g e s e c t i o n s o f o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . ^9
la n d and th u s in c r e a s in g i t s
in a d d itio n
By i m p r o v i n g t h e
p r i c e , as d id th e C h in e se , th e y
i n c u r r e d t h e en m ity o f th e s m a ll f a r m e r s .
T h ey i n t r o d u c e d
r i c e and p o t a to - g r o w in g i n t h e d e l t a r e g i o n and r e c l a i m e d
p o o r la n d s e lse w h e re .^ 0
In Im p e ria l V a lle y th e y in tro d u c e d
to m a to -g ro w in g and g r e a t l y ex p an d ed th e c a n ta lo u p e i n d u s t r y .
S tro n g a n ti- J a p a n e s e f e e l i n g le d to th e C e n tle m e n f s
A g r e e m e n t , w h e r e b y e m i g r a t i o n d i r e c t l y f r o m J a p a n b e c a m e im­
p o s s i b l e b u t l a r g e n u m b e r s c o n t i n u e d t o come v i a H a w a i i .
The
f e e l i n g c o n t i n u e d a n d b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e A l i e n L a n d Law o f
1 9 1 3 .^
T h i s w as c i r c u m v e n t e d b y k e e p i n g t h e l e a s e o r d e e d
i n t h e name o f a m i n o r c h i l d .
C o n tin u ed p r e s s u r e b r o u g h t
about th e f i n a l e x c lu s io n o f a l l a lie n s i n e l i g i b l e
ze n sh ip in 1 9 2 4 .^
for c i t i ­
The s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n i s f i n i s h i n g
th e
c y c l e b y m o v in g t o t h e c i t i e s w h e r e a b e t t e r s t a n d a r d o f
liv in g is p o ssib le .
39
[Lew is]
op. c i t . , p. 24.
40 M c W i lli a m s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 0 9 .
41 I r a B. C r o s s ,
ojd.
c i t .,
p. 266.
42 L o c . c i t .
43
[Lewis]
o p . c i t . , pp. 23-24.
72
S o u th E u ro p e a n s ,
c e iv e d i t s
For a sh o rt p e rio d C a lifo rn ia re ­
f i r s t im p o r ta n t w h ite im m ig ra n t g ro u p ; I t a l i a n s ,
S p a n i s h a n d P o r t u g u e s e , who s t a r t e d c o m in g a b o u t t h e t u r n o f
th e c e n tu r y and o c c u p ie d a m in o r p la c e a s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r ­
e r s f o r a fe w y e a r s .
p re n e u rs .^
By 1 9 1 8 , t h e s e , t o o , h a d b eco m e e n t r e ­
A r m e n i a n s came a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e a n d s o o n
to o k o v er th e r a i s i n
in d u s tr y around F re sn o . °
E a s t I n d i a n s , P u e rto R ic a n s , and F i l i p i n o s .
S ta rtin g
a b o u t 1907 a n d c o n t i n u i n g i n s m a l l n u m b e r s u n t i l 1927 w o r k e r s
fro m n o r th w e s t I n d i a s u p p li e d f o r a tim e a m in o r e le m e n t i n
th e m ig ra to ry p o p u la tio n .
N e v e r o v e r 3 0 , 0 0 0 a n d now n u m b e r ­
in g a b o u t 1 ,8 0 0 th e y w ere im p o r ta n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f
Im p e ria l V a lle y a g r ic u ltu r e in th a t
firs t
th e y h e lp e d p ic k th e
im p o rta n t c o tto n crop in 1 9 1 0 .^
Now f a r m e r s , m a r r i e d
t o M e x i c a n , w h i t e o r J a p a n e s e women, t h e y f o r m a n i n t e r e s t i n g
p a r t o f th e a g r i c u l t u r a l p ic tu r e
in th is
one a r e a .
Commonly
c a l l e d f* H i n d u s , n t h e m a j o r i t y a r e e i t h e r S i k h s o r Mohammedans
a n d r e s e n t t h e a p p e l a t i o n MH i n d u . ”
D u r i n g t h e W o r ld W ar, w hen t h e l a b o r s u p p l y b ecam e
44 I b i d , p . 2 5 .
45 M cW illia m s, o p . c i t . , p p . 1 2 0 -1 2 1 .
46 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , V o l . I , The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 6 .
73
s c a r c e , a s m a l l n u m b e r o f P u e r t o R i c a n s f o u n d t h e i r way i n t o
a g ric u ltu re *
T h e s e s o o n m i n g l e d w i t h t h e M e x ic a n s a n d f o r m e d
a p a r t o f t h e m i g r a t o r y group*
T h ey h a v e i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h
M e x ic a n s a n d , e x c e p t f o r t h e e v i d e n t N e g ro s t r a i n
in th e ir
f e a t u r e s and th e G a s t e l l a n a fo rm o f S p a n is h , c a n n o t be t o l d
fro m M e x ic a n s.
A l t h o u g h a fe w F i l i p i n o s w e r e e n g a g e d i n m i g r a t o r y
la b o r as e a r ly as 1916,
f a c t o r o n ly re c e n tly *
47
t h e y h a v e b eco m e a n i m p o r t a n t
S ta rtin g
i n 1 9 2 3 , w hen 2 , 4 2 6 c a m e ,
t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e u n t i l i n 1929 o v e r t w i c e t h i s
num ber w ere a d m it te d .
48
T h ey h a v e u n d e r c u t w a g e s i n t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l way a n d a r e f o l l o w i n g t h e r e g u l a r p a t t e r n o f
b e c o m i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r s o r m o v in g t o t h e
c itie s.
B o th t h i s
and th e p r e c e d in g g ro u p p r e s e n t a s o c i a l p ro b le m i n t h e l a c k
o f women o f t h e i r r a c e s i n
t h i s c o u n try *
N in e ty -th re e p er
c e n t o f th e F i l i p i n o s a r e m a le ; e i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t a r e
under th irty ;
and s e v e n ty -s e v e n p e r c e n t a r e s i n g l e . 4 ^
L ik e
t h e E a s t I n d i a n t h e y h a v e s o u g h t t h e i r w i v e s among t h e w h i t e
r a c e a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , among M e x i c a n s . ^
young and v ig o ro u s and good w o r k e rs .
p a id o f a l l th e
[Lew iJ
They a r e th e lo w e s t-
r a c i a l g ro u p s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , ^ w o rk in g i n
47 I b i d . , p . 7 .
48
They a r e
ojd.
c i t . . p. 33.
49 I b i d . , p* 3 4 .
50 T a y l o r , o p * c l t *, p* 7 .
51 |L ew i^ o p * c i t * , p . 3 6 .
74
g a n g s a t a c o n t r a c t p r i c e , 5^ a n d i t may b e f o r t h i s
t h a t th e y a re p r e f e r r e d by la rg e g ro w ers.
r e p re s e n te d s ix t e e n p e r c e n t o f th e
reaso n
E v e n i n 19 3 0 t h e y
e m p l o y e e s o f t h i s g r o u p . 55
The p a t t e r n s e t f o r o t h e r r a c e s i s b e i n g f o l l o w e d .
A n t i - F i l i p i n o a g i t a t i o n b eg an e a r l y and w ith th e p a s sa g e o f
t h e I n d e p e n d e n c e A ct I n 1934 t h e F i l i p i n o f e l l u n d e r t h e
e x c lu sio n a c t o f 1924.
I n 19 3 5 a l a w p r o v i d e d w h a t a m o u n te d
to v o lu n ta ry d e p o r ta tio n f o r any F i l i p i n o d e s ir in g i t
and
g r e a t p r e s s u r e i s b e i n g b r o u g h t t o g e t th e m t o g o . 5 ^
M e x ic a n s .
Some s o - c a l l e d M e x ic a n s h a v e b e e n i n
C a l i f o r n i a e v e r s i n c e i t w as a s t a t e .
The p a i s a n o s , so
v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e d b y S t e i n b e c k 55 a r e ,
to a l l i n t e n t s and
p u r p o s e s , M e x ic a n s.
W h i l e some o f t h e o l d f a m i l i e s w e r e o f
p r i n c i p a l l y S p a n ish b lo o d ,
th e m a j o r i t y w ere m e s t i z o s o r
M e x ic a n s a s t h e y a r e com m only known i n C a l i f o r n i a .
As a f a c t o r i n C a l i f o m i a a g r i c u l t u r e M e x ic a n s b e c a m e
i m p o r t a n t a b o u t 1917 w hen
t h e y w ere im p o rte d i n l a r g e
n u m b e r s . 5®
u l t i m a t e l y f i n d i n g t h e i r way i n t o
Many o f t h e s e
C a l i f o r n i a w e r e f i r s t b r o u g h t t o n o r t h e r n M e x ic o f r o m t h e
L ife
52 M a r i o n H a th w a y , The M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r a n d F a m i l y
( C h i c a g o ; The U n i v e r s T t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 9 2 .
53 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g 1s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g Com­
m i t t e e , M e x ic a n s i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , T 9 3 0 ) , p . 1&3.
54 M c W i lli a m s , ojo. c i t . , p . 1 3 2 .
55 J o h n S t e i n b e c k , T o r t i l l a F l a t (hew Y o r k : C o v i c i ,
F r i e d e , 1 9 3 7 ) , 317 p p .
56 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , o £ . c i t . , p . 1 7 .
75
p l a t e a u s t a t e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r t o w o rk i n m i n e s a n d o n t h e
r a ilr o a d s about 1909.
C
17
'
A t t r a c t e d b y th e b e t t e r w ages on
t h e A m e r ic a n s i d e o f t h e b o r d e r , t h e y came i n l a r g e n u m b e rs
a n d w e r e w e lc o m e d b y t h e S o u t h e r n P a c i f i c a n d S a n t a P e R a i l ­
r o a d s w h i c h s o o n w e r e e m p l o y i n g th e m e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e
s e c t i o n s , p a y in g one d o l l a r a day i n s t e a d o f t h e one d o l l a r
and f o r t y - f i v e
c e n ts p re v io u sly
p
a
i d
.
p POm t h e r a i l r o a d s
t h e y w en t t o w o rk in g i n t h e s u g a r b e e t s a n d so t o o t h e r c r o p s .
L a rg e num bers a l s o d r i f t e d a c r o s s th e l i n e ;
about
2 0 0 .0 0 0 c a m e ,w ith o u t th e f o r m a l i t y o f p a y in g th e e i g h t d o l l a r
head t a x , ^
p a rtic u la rly
i n t o I m p e r i a l V a l l e y , 60
O th e rs w ere
b r o u g h t i n f r o m t h e c o t t o n f i e l d s o f A r i z o n a , 63- o r f r o m t h e
w e s t c o a s t o f M e x ic o t o t h e c o t t o n f i e l d s o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a
and th e n c e o v e r th e l i n e by d r i f t i n g .
T a y lo r e s tim a te d t h a t
a t l e a s t 8 , 5 0 0 came i n t h i s l a s t m a n n e r .
ap
A p p ro x im a te ly
7 6 . 0 0 0 came t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m 1919 t o 1 9 2 8 . ^
57
|Lewis|
op c i t . ,
p. 26.
58 L o c . c i t .
59 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g ’ s M e x ic a n P a c t - f i n d i n g
C o m m ittee, £ £ . c i t . , p . 1 8 .
60 T a y l o r , o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 .
63- k o c . c i t .
62 I b i d . ,
p . 18.
63 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g ’ s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g
C o m m i t t e e , o]D. c i t . , p . 2 5 .
F o rty -
76
o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l a l i e n i m m i g r a n t s c o m in g t o C a l i f o r n i a i n
th e p e r i o d 1 9 2 5 -1 9 2 8 w ere
M e x i c a n .
64
I t w as e s t i m a t e d t h a t
i n 19 3 0 f r o m 2 2 4 , 0 0 0 t o 2 6 3 , 0 0 0 ®$ o r p e r h a p s a s many a s
3 6 8 , 0 0 0 ^ w ere i n C a l i f o r n i a .
Of t h e s e a t l e a s t 2 8 , 0 0 0 w e r e
i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y ; i t h a v i n g t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t M e x ic a n
p o p u la tio n o f any co u n ty in t h e
S ta te .
67
By 19 0 9 o n e o u t o f s i x s u g a r - b e e t w o r k e r s i n
C a l i f o r n i a ,
w as a M e x ic a n a n d a b o u t 1 91 0 t h e y b ecam e i m p o r t a n t a s g r a p e
p i c k e r s a r o u n d F r e s n o , T u l a r e a n d V i s a l i a . 69
o f th e head ta x , l i t e r a c y
The r e s c i n d i n g
t e s t an d c o n t r a c t l a b o r la w s g r e a t l y
s t i m u l a t e d t h e c o m in g o f M e x ic a n s a n d t h e c o t t o n boom I n
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y was t h e o c c a s i o n f o r a g r e a t i n f l u x .
70
In
1 9 2 0 , f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e l a b o r camp p o p u l a t i o n w as
M e x ic a n , b y 1928 i t h a d d o u b le d , an d by 1 9 3 3 -3 4 t h e p e r c e n t ­
age had r is e n to 3 2 . 5 ^
T h ey w e r e p r e f e r r e d b y t h e l a r g e
64 I b i d . , p . 2 6 .
65 I b i d . , p p . 4 3 - 4 6 .
66 Mauze^, o p . c i t . , p . 2 1 .
67 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g f s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g Com­
m itte e , og. c i t . , p. 46.
68
|L ew i^
o£.
c it.,
p. 26.
hoc. c i t .
70 T a y l o r , 0 |>. c i t . , p . 1 9 .
71
|Lewis|
op. c i t . , p . 29.
68
77
g r o w e r s ^ to any o th e r k in d o f h e lp f o r th e fo llo w in g
reasons:
73
1.
T h ey s t a y w i t h t h e
2.
T hey a r e s t e a d y , d e p e n d a b l e a n d r e l i a b l e .
3.
They a r e good w o r k e r s — w i l l i n g
4.
T h e y c a n a n d w i l l do s t o o p l a b o r #
5.
T h ey w o rk c h e a p e r a n d move o f f when n o t
needed.
6.
T h ey b o a r d a n d h o u s e t h e m s e l v e s .
7.
T h e y w i l l w o rk b y c o n t r a c t a n d a r e e a s i l y
sa tis fie d .
8.
T h ey c a n s t a n d t h e h e a t .
C e rta in p hases o f th e p a t t e r n
jo b .
to w ork.
s e t by e a r l i e r r a c i a l groups
hav e n o t b e e n f o llo w e d b y t h e M e x ic a n s.
They s t a r t e d
i n by
u n d e r - c u t t i n g w ages a n d , a s t h e i r s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g r o s e ,
a s k i n g f o r i n c r e a s e s , b u t few h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o f a r m f o r
t h e m s e l v e s , ^ a n d many o f t h o s e g o i n g t o t h e c i t i e s
a g ric u ltu re p a r t of th e y e a r.
w o rk i n
Even th e se c o n d g e n e r a t i o n
seem s w i l l i n g t o b e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s a n d , a s w i l l b e s e e n
b e l o w , ^ th e y a re w e ll-a d a p te d to th e l i f e .
The n e e d s o f
72 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g f s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g
C o m m i t t e e , og* c i t . , p . 1 6 5 .
73 I b i d . ,
p . 166.
74 T a y l o r , o|>* c i t . , p . 7 0 .
75 C h a p t e r V, p .
155
78
b o t h t h e M e x ic a n s a n d C a l i f o r n i a f s c r o p s s e e m e d w e l l s u p p l i e d a n d a n e q u i l i b r i u m w as r e a c h e d .
slo w ly l i f t e d ,
n o t s to p p e d .
Wages w e r e b e i n g
a l t h o u g h t h e f l o w o f l a b o r f r o m M ex ic o h a d
And t h e n came t h e d e p r e s s i o n a n d t h e d r o u g h t .
The d r o u g h t r e f u g e e s a n d l a b o r m i g r a n t s .
Up t o 1 9 2 9 ,
e a c h s u c c e s s i v e r a c i a l g r o u p m e r e l y r e p l a c e d o n e t h a t w as
le a v in g th e f i e l d o f m ig ra to ry la b o r .
"O k ie s” i s
B u t t h e c o m in g o f t h e
c r o w d i n g t h e M e x ic a n f r o m a f i e l d
n e a r l y a m o n o p o ly .
The f i n a l r e s u l t o f t h i s
i n w h ic h he had
c o m p e titio n r e ­
m ain s t o b e s e e n .
S in c e 1930, a s th e d ro u g h t s tr u c k th e " d u s t- b o w l,"
l a r g e n u m b e r s o f w h i t e s h a v e come f r o m t h e s e s t a t e s *
"In
t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e m o n th s f r o m J u l y , 19 35 t o M a rc h 1 9 3 8 ,
2 4 1 ,9 3 0 o f t h e s e r e f u g e e s have e n t e r e d C a l i f o r n i a . " ^
y e a r i n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s t h e y com e, a n d a r e f i l l i n g
Each
th e
r a n k s o f t r u e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r a s w e l l a s s e t t l i n g down i n
c e r ta in a re a s in th e s ta te
t h e i r la c k o f m eans.
in a la rm in g n u m b ers, c o n s id e rin g
As T a b l e X I I I s h o w s , O klahom a l e a d s
th e l i s t w ith n e a rly o n e -fo u rth of a l l th e group.
Many o f
t h e l a r g e num ber fro m A r iz o n a on th e T a b le a r e , a s a m a t t e r
76 P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d E d w a rd J . R o w e l l , " R e f u g e e
L a b o r M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 , " M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v ie w ,
4 7 :2 4 0 -2 5 0 , A u g u st, 1938.
79
TABLE X I I I
MIGRANTS " IN NEED OP MANUAL EMPLOYMENT11
ENTERING CALIFORNIA BY MOTOR VEHICIE, BY STATES,
JULY 1 , 1 9 3 5 - “MARCH 3 1 , 1 9 3 8 a
S ta te or re g io n
of o rig in
A ll s ta te s except C a lifo rn ia
D rought s t a t e s
O klahom a
A riz o n a ®
T exas
A rkansas
M is so u ri
K ansas
C o lo rad o
N ebraska
New M ex ico
Idaho ®
Io w a
M o n ta n a
U ta h b
S o u th D a k o ta
O th er d ro u g h t s t a t e s
P a c ific s ta te s
Oregon®
W a s h i n g to n ^
In d u s tria l s ta te s
S o u th e rn s t a t e s
New E n g l a n d s t a t e s
Number e n t e r i n g C a l i f o r n i a
Number
Per cent
2 4 1 ,9 3 0
2 0 5 ,4 7 7
5 8 ,1 5 3
2 5 ,0 1 8
2 4 ,5 5 9
1 9 ,2 0 4
1 6 ,2 0 5
1 1 ,1 2 8
8 ,3 9 3
7 ,6 5 1
7 ,6 1 6
5 ,2 5 8
3 ,3 6 8
3 ,0 3 8
3 ,0 2 7
2 ,8 2 4
1 0 ,0 3 5
2 2 ,4 7 6
1 4 ,3 0 5
8 ,1 7 1
8 ,8 9 1
4 ,4 9 2
594
100.
8 4 .9
2 4 .0
10 . 3
1 0 .1
7 .9
6 .7
4 .6
3 .5
3 .1
3 .1
2 .1
1 .4
1 .3
1 .3
1 .2
4 .3
9 .3
5 .9
3 .4
3 .7
1 .9
0 .2
a* A d a p t e d f r o m P a u l S . T a y l o r an d E d w ard J . R o w e l l ,
" R e f u g e e L a b o r M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 , " M o n th l y L a b o r
R e v i e w , 4 7 : 2 4 0 - 5 0 , A u g u s t , 1938 *
b . May b e r e t u r n i n g m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s #
80
of fa c t,
re s id e n t in th a t s ta te
l e s s th a n a y e a r b u t have
w i n t e r e d t h e r e a n d so a c q u i r e d A r i z o n a l i c e n s e p l a t e s .
It
may b e n o t e d t h a t e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o u p i n
T a b le X I I I w ere w h i t e s .
A c o m p a r i s o n o f T a b l e XIV w i t h
T a b l e X I I I w i l l show t h e s t a t e
o f b i r t h and r e g i s t r a t i o n o f
a u to m o b ile s to fo llo w e x a c tly f o r th e s t a t e s
s h o w in g s i g ­
n i f i c a n t n u m b e rs w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f A r i z o n a , a s p r e v i o u s l y
e x p la in e d .
V a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s h a v e b e e n made a s t o t h e n u m b e r o f
t h i s g r o u p who h a v e co m e.
P rank T a y l o r ^
3 0 0 , 0 0 0 h a d come s i n c e 1 9 2 5 .
h ig h e r.
e s tim a te d th a t
M a u z e ’ s e s t i m a t e w as e v e n
S he a s s e r t e d t h a t 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 came i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 3 0 -
19 39 a n d t h a t
t h e r e w e r e now 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n C a l i f o r n i a
The r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r c o m in g d o e s n o t f a l l w i t h i n t h e
sc o p e o f t h i s p a p e r , b u t w here t h e y a r e
s e ttlin g ,
if at a ll,
an d w h e th e r t h e y a r e s t i l l c o m in g , h a s a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g
on t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e M e x ic a n m i g r a n t .
M c E n t i r e a n d Whet t e n
b e lie v e t h a t th e i n f l u x i s f a l l i n g o f f ,
t h e p e a k c o m in g i n
1 9 3 7 , when 9 0 , 7 6 1 e n t e r e d C a l i f o r n i a . ^
The B u r e a u o f
77 P r a n k J . T a y l o r ’C a l i f o r n i a ’ s G r a p e s o f W r a t h , ”
P oru m a n d C e n t u r y , 1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 9 .
78 M auze, o p . c i t . f p . 2 1 .
^ 79 D a v i s M c E n t i r e a n d N. L . W het t e n , 11The M i g r a n t s ,
P art I .
R e c e n t M i g r a t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , ” L an d
P o l i c y R e v ie w , 2 : 7 - 1 7 , S e p t e m b e r — O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 9 .
81
TABLE XIV
STATED BIRTH OP PUPILS IN
TULARE COUNTY SCHOOLSa
B irth p la c e of p u p ils
M ex ico
C a lifo rn ia
O klahom a
Texas
A rkansas
M isso u ri
A riz o n a
K ansas
New M exico
C o lo ra d o
N ebraska
W a sh in g to n
Illin o is
O re g o n
In d ia n a
T ennessee
K e n tu c k y
Wyoming
M ic h i g a n
Io w a
N evada
F lo rid a
Number
6
1 ,0 1 4
336
103
92
71
38
36
28
18
16
12
8
6
6
5
5
5
3
3
3
3
Per cent of t o t a l
.3
5 4 .9
1 8 .2
5 *5
4 .9
3 .8
2 .1
1 .9
1 .5
1 .0
.9
.6
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
a.
A d a p t e d f r o m C l a r e n c e S p e n c e r , ”A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y
o f a n Age G roup w i t h a G ra d e G rou p o f P u p i l s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r f s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s
A n g e le s, 1 9 3 9 ), p . 23.
82
A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m ics, i n a r e c e n t s tu d y o f th e e n t i r e
P a c i f i c C o a s t fo u n d t h a t th e c h i l d r e n w ere s c a t t e r e d a b o u t
e v e n ly in th e s c h o o ls , a c c o rd in g to th e g e n e r a l p o p u la tio n o f
th e w est b u t w ith o n e - f o u r th o f th e C a lif o r n ia group in r u r a l
co m m u n itie s and o n e - t h i r d i n l a r g e c i t i e s .
s i x t y p e r c e n t a r e i n Los A n g e l e s .
Of t h e s e l a t t e r ,
N e a rly a t h i r d o f th e
s c h o o ls o f C a l i f o r n i a a re r e l a t i v e l y u n to u c h e d by th e m ig ra ­
tio n .
I n o n l y o n e h u n d r e d e i g h t y - o n e s c h o o l s w as t h e l o c a l
p o p u l a t i o n swamped t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e m i g r a n t s r e p r e s e n t e d
fifty
p e r c e n t o r m o re o f t h e
sc h o o l!s p o p u la tio n .
one h u n d re d e i g h t y - o n e s c h o o l s ,
c ity ,
s i x t e e n a r e i n L os A n g e l e s
t h i r t y - f i v e a r e in a l l S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a and f o r t y -
f o u r a r e i n t h e f o u r s o u t h e r n c o u n t i e s o f t h e S an J o a q u i n
V alley * ® ^
T h is tre m e n d o u s p e rm a n e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o t t o n
c o u n tie s w i l l have th e e f f e c t o f d is lo c a tin g th e m ig ra to ry
c y c l e , a s id e fro m th e g ro u p t h a t h a s
jo in e d t h e ra n k s o f th e
m ig ra to ry la b o r e r s .
The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e f u g e e w h i t e s a r e r e p l a c i n g
t h e M e x ic a n s i n t h e r a n k s o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r i s
shown i n a
s t u d y b y L a w e , ^ who i n a c o u n t o f 14 0 6 K e r n C o u n ty s c h o o l
p u p ils fo u nd t h a t w hereas o f th e r e g u l a r group e ig h ty -o n e
p e r c e n t w ere w h i t e , 8 6 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e c h i l d r e n o f
80 S e e T a b l e XV, p . 83
81 Dawe, o £ . c i t .
83
TABLE XV
SCHOOLS WITH FIVE PER CENT OR OVER OF
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE FROM
MIGRANTS COMING SINCE 1 9 3 0 * a
S e c tio n s
Number o f S c h o o l s
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a ( e ig h t
so u th e rn c o u n tie s )
(35)
N ot i n c l u d i n g Los A n g e le s
19
L os A n g e l e s
16
S an J o a q u i n V a l l e y an d S o u t h e r n
S ie rra s
(63)
F r e s n o t o K ern i n c l u s i v e
44
M ad era t o Amador i n c l u s i v e
19
S acram en to V a l l e y and N o r th e rn
S ie rra s
(58)
F r u it c o u n tie s
42
O th er
16
(20)
I T S 6"
C oast C o u n tie s
T o ta l
a* M c E n t i r e a n d W h e t t e n , l o c .
c it.
h . The c o u n t w as made f r o m d o t s on a s m a l l m ap; h e n c e
t h e d i s c r e p a n c y w i t h t h e 18 1 q u o t e d o n p . 8 2 .
84
m ig ra n ts w ere w h ite .
C o n v e r s e l y , t h e m i g r a t o r y M e x ic a n s
r e p r e s e n t e d o n ly 9 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l w h ile th e
M e x ic a n s w e r e 1 4 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e
school p o p u la tio n .
re g u la r
In
T u l a r e C o u n ty t h e p e r c e n t a g e f o u n d b y S p e n c e r w e r e m uch t h e
same.®^
V.
THE MIGRATORY- WORKER TODAY
C h a ra c te ris tic s o f a m ig ra n t.
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
a m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r a r e summed u p b y M c W illia m s :
They h a v e no h a b i t a t ; t h e y a r e p e rm a n e n t m i g r a n t s ,
w i t h t h e i r own t r a v e l i n g e q u i p m e n t , p o s s e s s i n g a n i n t i ­
m a te k n o w l e d g e o f t h e ebb a n d f l o w o f t h e c r o p h a r v e s t s .
T hey r e q u i r e n o b u l l e t i n s f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e .
T h e y know
i n s t i n c t i v e l y , f o r e x a m p l e , w h en c h e r r i e s a r e r i p e i n t h e
S a n J o a q u i n a n d w hen t h e p e a c h h a r v e s t s t a r t s i n t h e
S a c ra m e n to V a l l e y . V /ith o u t a f i x e d p l a c e o f ab ode t h e s e
w o rk e rs a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s C a l i f o r n i a n s .^ 3
Num ber o f M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r s .
Webb a n d Brown e s t i ­
m ated i n 1938 t h a t a b o u t o n e - f i f t h o f th e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n
now m o v in g f r o m o n e p l a c e t o a n o t h e r a r e m i g r a t o r y
That t h i s
r e p r e s e n t s a v e r y l a r g e num ber i s
la b o r e r s .
shown b y t h e f a c t
t h a t C a l i f o r n i a p a id an a v e ra g e o f one th o u sa n d f o u r h u n d red
t h i r t y - e i g h t d o l l a r s p e r farm f o r l a b o r in 1930, a f ig u r e
fo u r tim e s th e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . P a r t
82 S p e n c e r , o £ .
of th is d iffe re n c e ,
c i t . , p . 61.
83 M c W i l l i a m s , o p . c i t . , p p . 3 0 7 - 8 .
84 Webb a n d B ro w n , o £ .
c i t . , p . xxv.
85 C r o s s a n d C r o s s , o p . c i t . , p . 2 2 .
85
no d o u b t, i s
e x p l a i n e d b y C a l i f o r n i a 1s g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f
l a r g e farm s® ^ b u t t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t C a l i f o r n i a h a s a
l a r g e r m ig r a to r y l a b o r i n g p o p u l a t i o n th a n p r o b a b ly any o t h e r
s ta te .
The S im on J . l u b i n S o c i e t y e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e
2 5 0 ,0 0 0 m ig r a n ts i n C a l i f o r n i a and o f t h i s g r o u p , 3 0 ,0 0 0 a r e
c h ild re n of school a g e . ^
A n o th e r e s t i m a t e p l a c e d t h e num ber
o f m i g r a t o r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 .^ ®
Age o f m i g r a n t s .
T he m i g r a t o r y - c a s u a l w o r k e r s a r e
o l d e r a s a g ro u p th a n th e t r a n s i e n t f a m i l i e s fro m th e nd u s tb o w l a n d e l s e w h e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o W ebb,
in h is
Of t h e l a t t e r g r o u p ,
s t u d y , t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g m em bers
w ere l e s s
th a n tw e n ty y e a r s o ld and t e n p e r c e n t w ere l e s s
th a n f i f t e e n y e a rs o ld .
th irty y e a r s . « p h e
The m e d i a n a g e f o r t h i s g r o u p w as
e c o n o m ic h e a d s o f r e l i e f f a m i l i e s ,
as
show n o n T a b l e X V I, h a d a m e d i a n a g e o f 3 5 . 3 y e a r s a s c o n ­
t r a s t e d w i t h t h e m ed ian ag e o f 4 2 .3 y e a r s f o r th e g e n e r a l
86 V i z . , P a r t I o f t h i s C h a p t e r , p p . 3 3 f f .
87 H e l e n H e f f e m a n , “ R e p o r t o f C o n f e r e n c e o n E d u c a t i o n
o f C h ild re n o f S easo n al W o rk ers--P resn o S ta te C o lle g e ,
D e c e m b e r 9 - 1 0 , 1 9 3 6 , ,f C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u­
c a t i o n , 7 :1 8 1 -9 1 , P ebru a r y , 1939.
88 W i l l i a m Law, “ P r o b le m s o f t h e M i g r a t o r y S t u d e n t , n
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t io n , 1 4 :1 7 0 , M arch,
1939.
89 Webb a n d B ro w n , o p . c i t . , p . 9 8 .
86
TABLE XVI
AGE OP ECONOMIC HEADS OF
MIGRATORY FAMILIES AND FAMILIES
IN GENERAL POPULATION
Age
T o ta l
E c o n o m ic h e a d s a
of re lie f
f a m i l i e s , 1933
H eads o f f a m i l i e s
in general
p o p u l a t i o n , 1930
54 80
2 6 ,0 9 3 ,4 1 6
100
100
18-24 y e a r s
13
5
25-34 y e a rs
36
23
35-44 y e a rs
29
27
45-54 y e a rs
15
22
5 5-64 y e a r s
6
14
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r
1
9
3 5 .3
4 2 .3
Per cent t o ta l
M e d ia n a g e
a . T h o m a s , U n em p lo y m en t R e l i e f C e n s u s , O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 3 ,
N o, 3 . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , 1 9 3 5 , p . 36*
b . B u reau o f C e n su s, F i f t e e n t h C ensus o f th e U n ite d
S t a t e s , 1 9 3 0 , V o l . V I , P o p u l a t i o n , pT 15^
87
p o p u la tio n .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e c a s u a l - m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s
h a d fe w u n d e r t w e n t y y e a r s o r o v e r s i x t y - f i v e y e a r s a n d t h e
m e d i a n a g e w as 3 6 . 4 y e a r s .
T w e n ty -n in e p e r c e n t o f t h i s
g ro u p w ere o v e r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s .
S iz e o f f a m il i e s #
M i g r a t i o n t e n d s t o c u t down t h e
s iz e o f f a m i l i e s , a t l e a s t d u rin g th e e a r l y y e a r s o f m ig ra ­
tio n .
T a b l e XVII show s m i g r a t i n g f a m i l i e s t o h a v e a m e d ia n
s i z e o f 3 . 1 , a s com pared w ith 3 .6 f o r th e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .
H o w e v e r , among t h e g r o u p s t u d i e d i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y t h e
m e d i a n n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n o v e r f i v e y e a r s o f a g e w as 3 * 3 f o r
t h e e n t i r e g r o u p s t u d i e d , 3 . 8 f o r t h e M e x ic a n f a m i l i e s a n d
2 .8 f o r th e w h i t e s . ^
Among a g r o u p o f n i n e G yp sy f a m i l i e s
i n c l u d e d i n t h e g r o u p , t h e a v e r a g e w as 2 . 1 c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l
age p e r f a m ily .
B roken hom es*
M i g r a t i o n seem s t o h a v e a t e n d e n c y t o
re d u c e b o t h th e num ber o f c h i l d r e n and a l s o
b ro k e n hom es.
norm al f a m il i e s
As i s
th e num ber o f
s e e n i n T a b le X V III, b o th th e num ber o f
in c r e a s e d d u rin g m ig ra tio n and a ls o th e
num ber o f f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f h u sb an d and w if e o n ly .
i s borne o ut by th e d a ta g a th e re d f o r Im p e ria l V a lle y .
two h u n d r e d f i f t y - n i n e
T h is
Of
c h i l d r e n b e tw e e n tw e lv e and e i g h t e e n
90 C f . T a b l e XXXVI, p . 2 0 9 .
88
TABLE XVII
SIZE OP MIGRATORY FAMILIES AND
FAMILIES IN GENERAL POPULATION
M ig r a to r y f a m i l i e s , 1933^
d u rin g
b efo re
m ig ra tio n
m ig ra tio n
S iz e o f
fa m ily
T o ta l
Per cent
2 persons
3 p ersons
4 persons
5 persons
6 persons
7 o r m ore
M e d ia n
5 48 9
100
35
25
17
10
5
8
3 .1
F a m ilie s in g e n e ra l
p o p u l a t i o n , 1 9 30 k
5489
100
32
25
18
11
6
8
3 .2
2 7 ,5 9 7 ,2 0 0
100
25
23
19
13
8
12
3 .6
TABLE X V I I I
COMPOSITION OF MIGRANT FAMILIES BEFORE
AND DURING MIGRATION, ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 3 ) °
F a m ily c o m p o s itio n
T o t a l num ber
P e rc e n ta g e t o t a l
N o rm a l f a m i l i e s
H usband and w if e
H usband and w if e
and c h ild r e n
N o rm a l w i t h o t h e r s
B roken f a m i l i e s
Woman a n d c h i l d r e n
Man a n d c h i l d r e n
B roken w ith o t h e r s
O th e r ty p e s
B efore
m ig ra tio n
5 ,4 8 9
100
82
51
28
3
18
14
2
2
0 .5
D u rin g
m ig ra tio n
5 ,4 8 9
100
85
55
26
4
15
11
2
2
0 .5
a.
T h o m as, op* c i t * , No* 2 , p . 2 6 .
b.
B u r e a u o f C e n s u s , oj>. c i t * , p* 36*
c*
A d a p t e d f r o m Webb a n d B ro w n , op* c i t * , p . 9 5 .
y e a r s , two h u n d r e d f i f t e e n , o r 8 3 . 0 p e r c e n t w e re f r o m
norm al f a m i l i e s ;
t h i r t y - s i x , o r 1 3 .9 p e r c e n t w ere w i t h
t h e i r m o th er o n ly ;
s ix ,
o r 2 .3 p e r c e n t w ere w i t h a s t e p ­
f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r a n d two w e r e w i t h some o t h e r r e l a t i v e .
Why a m i g r a n t ?
P u nk e
91
p o in te d out a g e n e ra l in ­
c r e a s e i n m o b i l i t y s i n c e 19 00 a n d c i t e d a s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n
an i n c r e a s e d w e a l t h p e r c a p i t a an d im p ro v e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
fa c ilitie s .
An “ e x p u l s i v e f o r c e i n t h e c o m m u n ity o f r e s i ­
d e n c e ” and an “ a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e in th e p la c e o f d e s t i n a t i o n ”
Qp
a re g iv e n by a n o th e r w r i t e r
as causes o f m ig ra tio n .
Some­
tim e s m i g r a t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f an a t t e m p t to k e e p o f f
re lie f,
t o w o rk a n d r e t a i n o n e ! s s e l f - r e s p e c t .
“ The s e a s o n a l
dem and f o r m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s a n d t h e e c o n o m i e s o f t h e m i g r a n t
l i f e , w here e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r r e n t , c l o t h i n g and f u e l a r e
m i n i m i z e d seem t o s u g g e s t a r e a d y a n d e a s y s o l u t i o n . ” 95
h , A11
.
.
I w a n t i s a c h a n c e t o make a n h o n e s t l i v i n g
. When a p e r s o n r s a b l e t o w o r k w h a t ! s t h e u s e o f b e g g i n g ?
We a i n t t h a t k i n d o f p e o p l e , 1 s a i d a n e l d e r l y p e a - p i c k e r n e a r
C a l i p a t r i a . ” 9^
Webb, i n a n o t h e r m o n o g ra p h c a l l s i t t h e
91 P u n k e , “ E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a M o b il e P o p u ­
l a t i o n , ” E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 3 3 : 5 1 4 - 2 6 , M a rc h , 1933*
92 Webb a n d B ro w n , M i g r a n t F a m i l i e s ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C.
U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . x v i i .
93 H a th w a y , o p . c i t . , p . 5 1 .
94 P a u l S . T a y l o r , “A g a i n t h e C o v e r e d W a g o n ,” S u r v e y
G ra p h ic , 2 4 :3 4 8 , J u ly , 1935.
90
“ p s y c h o l o g y o f i t c h y f e e t ; 1' a d e s i r e f o r “ a b r e a k i n t h e
r o u t i n e o f m o n o to n o u s t a s k s .
it QS
^
T r a n s itio n to m ig ra to ry l i f e #
Why h a v e t h e s e p e o p l e ,
M e x ic a n s a n d w h i t e s , d e c i d e d t o b ecom e m i g r a t o r y ?
in a ttitu d e s
la rg e
The c h a n g e
to w ard a r o v in g l i f e h a s b e e n g r a d u a l a n d , to a
e x t e n t , h a s b e e n f o r c e d u p o n th e m .
M is s H a th w a y r e f e r s
t o t h e m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r who i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y h i s f a m i l y a s
h e t r a v e l s f r o m jo b t o
jo b :
He i s a t t e m p t i n g t o a v o i d a s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h i s
f a m i l y g r o u p . He i s m a k in g a n e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n som e­
t h i n g l i k e a s t a b l e f a m il y l i f e w i t h i n th e fram ew o rk o f
h i s u n s t a b l e m i g r a t o r y e m p l o y m e n t . 96
E m p lo y m en t t o t h i s f a m i l y - m a n now m e a n s a l i f e
on th e r o a d ,
i n a u t o - c a m p s a n d c a m p in g g r o u n d s a s h e m oves f r o m p l a c e t o
p la c e “ fo llo w in g th e
j o b . ” 9^
The f i r s t
jo b r u n s o u t f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r .
s t e p com es w hen t h e
E i t h e r by h i m s e l f
o r w i t h h i s f a m i l y h e s t a r t s f o r a new l o c a l i t y w h e r e h e
e x p e c ts to f i n d w ork.
He w a n t s t o g e t a p e r m a n e n t j o b o r
t o g e t a new s t a r t o f some s o r t *
B u t w o rk i s
s c a r c e and he
m u s t move o n t o l i v e .
“G ra sp in g th e id e a o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a r e fu g e e r e c i p ­
i e n t s a i d , . . . f i f t h e y f d a f g i v e i t t o me i n o n e c h u n k
I c o u l d a f g o n e b a c k a n d b o u g h t me a l i t t l e p i e c e o f l a n d
95 W ebb, The M i g r a t o r y - C a s u a l W o r k e r , o £ . c i t . , p . 2 0 .
96 H a th w a y , o p . c i t . ,
97 L o c . c i t .
p. 4.
91
. . . We w as o u t h e r e n i n e y e a r s a g o , t h e n we c o u l d g e t
a s te a d y jo b .
Now i t seem s we c a n ’ t s t a y i n o n e p l a c e .
We g o t t o f o l i o v / t h e s e l i t t l e j o b s t o l i v e . flt"
T h e n , b e c a u s e h e c a n make a l i v i n g b y f o l l o w i n g t h e c r o p s h e
t h i n k s he w i l l do i t
H a th w a y t e l l s
a s h o r t t i m e u n t i l Mt h i n g s g e t b e t t e r . 11
o f a c e r t a i n m an:
. . . h e p l a n s t o s e t t l e down a s s o o n a s t h e c h i l d r e n
a r e o ld enough t o a t t e n d s c h o o l.
I n t h e m e a n t i m e , how­
e v e r , h e f i n d s h e c a n k e e p s t e a d i l y e m p lo y e d i n t h e
f r u i t and c l a m s . "
As t i m e g o e s on h e com es t o r e a l i z e
t h a t o n ly by re m a in in g
m i g r a t o r y c a n h e a t t a i n a n y s o r t o f e c o n o m ic s e c u r i t y .
H a th w a y g i v e s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n
o f a fa m ily :
. . .
t h e c h i e f w a g e - e a m e r h a d n o t h a d s t e a d y em­
p l o y m e n t b e f o r e h e b e g a n t o ’ f o l l o w t h e f r u i t . 1 Now,
h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no d o u b t a b o u t h a v i n g a j o b , f o r M r.
G r a n t r e t u r n s t o t h e same r a n c h e s a n d t h e same p l a c e s
every y e a r.
As h e s a i d , fYou h a v e t o k e e p m o v in g t o
k e e p w o r k i n g . 1100
F in d in g a m e a su re o f s e c u r i t y he a c c e p t s th e
com es h a b i t u a t e d t o
life
and b e ­
it.
. . . some i n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d new h a b i t s
r e q u i r e d b y t h e ’ l i f e on t h e r o a d 1 n o l o n g e r d e s i r e t o
r e t u r n to a s t a b l e h a b i t a t . 10!
They h av e b eg u n t o f e e l a c e r t a i n in d e p e n d e n c e , b o r n o f t h e i r
d e s ire to :
Throw a s i d e t h e c a u t i o n s o f t h r i f t a n d i n d u s t r y a n d
ta k e t o th e ro a d i n o r d e r to p ro v e t o th e m s e lv e s and th e
98 T a y l o r , “A g a i n t h e C o v e r e d W a g o n , l o c . c i t .
99 H a th w a y , o p . c i t . , p . 5 5 .
100 I b i d . , p . 5 2 .
101 I b i d . , p . 5 1 .
w o rld t h a t
in d u strie s
h is s o c ia l
h im s e lf to
In
th e l a s t s ta g e
to ry life *
e a n ?t
th e y a re In f a c t f r e e a g e n ts • • . th e se
make h i s e x i s t e n c e p o s s i b l e a n d i n f l u e n c e
a t t i t u d e s b u t i n a p e r s o n a l se n se he h o ld s
b e i n d e p e n d e n t o f th em .^ -0 ^
th e
I n d i v i d u a l com es t o p r e f e r t h e m i g r a ­
“ One man s a i d
f I t g e t s i n t o y o u r b lo o d and you
s t o p t r a v e l l i n g [sic] # »tt103
(He h a d a w i f e b u t no
c h ild re n .)
Webb
s tu d ie d had
found
th a t f i f t e e n p er cen t o f th e
b e e n m ig r a to r y f o r tw e n ty y e a r s o r
group he
m o re a n d t h e
m e d i a n m i g r a t o r y t i m e w as e i g h t y e a r s .
Number o f m o ves p e r y e a r .
group a c t u a l l y m ig ra te s i s
p ic tu re .
The e x t e n t t o w h i c h a
a n o th e r im p o rta n t p a r t o f th e
T h i s c a n b e shown t o
some e x t e n t b y t h e n u m b e r o f
jo b s h e l d , a lth o u g h th e f i g u r e s w i l l be c o n s e r v a tiv e s in c e
s o m e t i m e s no jo b m a t e r i a l i z e s a f t e r t h e move i s m a d e , a s w as
tru e
i n f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s o f t h e tw o h u n d r e d m i g r a ­
t o r y a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s i n a s t u d y made i n 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 .- * - ^
The m e d i a n n u m b e r o f
19 3 3 t o 2 . 6 i n 1 9 3 4 .
j o b s f o r t h i s g r o u p w as f r o m
2 .7 in
One p e r c e n t h a d n i n e j o b s e a c h
year
and n in e te e n p e r c e n t to tw e n ty -o n e p e r c e n t had f o u r jo b s
o r m o re .- * -^
102 W ebb, o g . c i t . , p . 2 0 .
103 I b i d . , p . 5 2 .
104 W ebb, 0 £ .
c i t . , p . 86*
105 Webb, o £ •
106 L o c . c i t .
c i t . 3 p . 56.
93
V I.
C rops f o l l o w e d .
ROUTES OF MIGRATION
107
Webbxw' f o u n d t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
c r o p s f o r m i g r a n t s w ere (1 ) c o t t o n ,
b e e ts,
(4) g r a i n ,
and (7) b e r r i e s .
(2) f r u i t ,
(5) g e n e r a l fa rm w o rk ,
As i n d i c a t e d
b
e
f
o
r
e
(3)
su g ar-
(6) v e g e t a b l e s ,
,
re g u la r p a tte rn s
a r e e s ta b li s h e d by th e m ig ra to ry la b o r e r s and t y p i c a l r o u te s
can be tr a c e d .
T a y l o r a n d R o w e ll^ 0 9 d e s c r i b e d tw o t y p i c a l
and one a c t u a l c y c le as f o llo w s :
I.
P e a s , I m p e r i a l V a l l e y , F e b r u a r y - M a r c h ; P e a s , N ipom o,
A p r i l ; P e a s , A lam ed a o r Y o lo C o u n t y , May; A p r i c o t s , C o n t r a
C o s ta C o u n ty , J u n e ; A p r i c o t s , S a n ta C la r a C o u n ty , J u l y ; G ra p e s ,
F r e s n o C o u n ty , A u g u s t-S e p te m b e r ; P e a s , F r e s n o C o u n ty , O c to b e r ;
P e a s , I m p e r i a l V a l l e y , N o v e m b e r -D e e e m b e r.
or
II.
P e a s, I m p e ria l V a lle y , F eb ru ary -M arch ; P o ta to e s o r
c o t t o n c h o p p in g , K ern C o u n ty , M ay -Ju n e; A p r i c o t s , K in g s
C o u n ty , J u l y ; G ra p e s , F re s n o C o u n ty , A u g u s t; c o t t o n p i c k i n g ,
K ern C o u n ty , S e p te m b e r-O c to b e r-N o v e m b e r.
107 I b l c U i P . H 4 .
108 P a r t I I o f t h i s C h a p t e r .
109 P a u l S . T a y l o r , a n d E d w a rd J . R o w e l l , “ P a t t e r n s o f
A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r M i g r a t i o n w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a , * 1 M o n th l y L a b o r
R e v ie w , 4 7 : 4 8 0 - 9 0 , N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 8 .
94
An A c t u a l C a s e — M e x ic a n
L e t t u c e , S a l t R i v e r V a l l e y , N o vem b er-M ar.ch; C a r r o t s ,
I m p e ria l V a lle y , M arch -Ju ne; A p r ic o ts , C o n e jo s, F resn o
C o u n ty J u n e ; P e a c h e s , T u l a r e C o u n t y , J u l y - A u g u s t ; P lu m s ,
F re s n o C o u n ty , A u g u s t; C o tto n , T u la r e C o u n ty , S e p te m b e rN o v e m b e r .1 1 ^
D i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s a r e fo u n d f o r w h i t e s and M e x ic a n s;
t h e f o r m e r g o i n g f a r t h e r a f i e l d a n d t h e l a t t e r k e e p i n g m ore
o r l e s s o f a s h u t t l e b e tw een F re sn o an d I m p e r i a l C o u n tie s ,
a s show n i n F i g u r e s
4
and 5 .
F o r a l a r g e s h a r e o f th e
M e x ic a n p o p u l a t i o n o f B r a w l e y a n d E l C e n t r o t h i s
is tru e ;
i n d e e d many o f th e m c o n s i d e r I m p e r i a l V a l l e y t h e i r home a n d
o n l y l e a v e d u r i n g t h e s l a c k m o n th s o f A u g u s t a n d S e p t e m b e r ,
when t h e dem and f o r l a b o r i n F r e s n o C o u n t y , b e c a u s e o f t h e
g rap e h a r v e s t , i s n e a r ly f o u r tim e s th e n eed s f o r th e r e s t
o f t h e y e a r . 1 -*--1-
For th is
r e a s o n t h e v o lu m e o f m i g r a t i o n o f
t h e M e x ic a n s o b s e r v e d b y T a y l o r , a s show n i n T a b l e XIX, i s
u n u s u a l l y d e p e n d a b l e f o r m o s t M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s b u t n o t
e n t i r e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h o s e s t u d i e d i n C h a p t e r s V. t o X I I .
I t i s p ro b a b le t h a t th e g r e a t e r d is ta n c e
tra v e le d by
t h e w h i t e m i g r a n t s , a s show n o n F i g u r e 5 , i s a t t r i b u t a b l e
to
t h e l o n g e r - e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f t h e M e x i c a n s , g i v i n g th e m
g r e a t e r a s s u r a n c e o f j o b s w i t h t h e same e m p l o y e r s , y e a r a f t e r
110 T a y l o r a n d R o w e l l , l o c . c i t .
111 A dam s, l o c . c i t .
95
R O U T E S OF
AGR I C U L T U RA L L A B O R E R S
so mtitAn fiA/AtL(es
JUf/t 113#-JOv e t f 3 f
W idth
of L in e In d ica tes
Amount of Trove./
(a fte r Tay/oy^
a
PEAC.Ha
Fe£RAPES
c o tto n
GRAPES
-Lt& EN O Ba
Ba kcrsf/c (
31
KijtAc
8
Hr etuo l e y
N (Jipomo
R fRi'oerttde.
da I a * Ic o
3a Salt n a s
Qr Brer*'/ -rood
C*
cp
C a l i A n t y i a.
G
B I Ce.* f r o
G
Fr mt \f o
GIc.*i c/or a.
Hemet
F
He
H
x
L
H o l f ut 1
X rid i O
Ltndsa^
LA
Las A p f a l a *
A/,*
Alt !»*t d
£ Satrct ma ni o
3-7". TAk 7ag-<s
9-A. Santa An&.
s-p. Santa VuoIa
St Ff~OcJ{f £ yj
FIGURE 4
PATTERNS OF MIGRATION
WITHIN CALIFORNIA8MEXICAN FAMILIES
a.
P a u l S . T a y l o r , a n d E d w ard J . R o w e l l , " P a t t e r n s o f
A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r M i g r a t i o n w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a , ” M o n th l y
L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 7 : 4 8 0 - 9 0 , N o v em b er, 1 9 3 8 .
96
ROUTE? OF
AGRICULTURAL l a b o r e r s
SO 'W » IT e Mje A $ tn i£ S
113h-Svtfg ms
o f Ltn ce S kon/ g Vgg.
Of Routes
ZAcHIS
(fL-ficr
To. y f o r ^}*
MOM
MACHei
c tHHSs
Oa.
« / fOTTOV
*
8a
81
LEGEM 0a k crj fie IJ
B lftka
0
Qy&uj/ey
Cp
Caf/fafrt'a
E
E/C*h1ro
EtBr
f orf B r a f f
F
F,esnp
L
L- A.
Lindsay
Lot A » f e / * S
M
t s ip o n t o
H
ft
$
T
CH
«U
ocPifa
Ho/ivt He
navyr t/i11*
Sacramento
F
a Sc tinas
I. j . S a n T o t e
S.R Santa Rota
St sfodfon
FIGURE 5
PATTERNS OF MIGRATION
WITHIN CALIFORNIA*
"WHITE11 FAMILIES
a* P a u l _S T a y l o r , and E dw ard J . R o w e l l , " P a t t e r n s
A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o r M i g r a t i o n w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a , " M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 7 : 4 8 0 - 9 0 , N o v em b er, 1938*
of
97
TABLE XIX
MOVEMENT OP MEXICANS BY MOTOR
VEHICLE OVER THE RIDGE ROUTE
BY SEMI-MONTHLY PERIODS a
P e rio d
Y e a r m o n th
1927
June
Ju ly
A ugust
S e p t*
O ct*
Nov*
Dec*
1928
Jan*
'F e b .
M arch
A p ril
May
h a lf
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irs t
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irst
Second
F irs t
Second
N um ber o f M e x ic a n s
N o rth -b o u n d
S o u th -b o u n d
16 1 3
1661
2068
2096
6370
50 82
424
302
258
132
241
376
143
164
92
73
81
112
127
39
195
469
5 08
542
989
833
765
2 58
29 0
99
633
3 ,4 1 3
3 ,0 8 2
1 ,9 3 5
1 ,3 0 1
1 ,2 9 2
690
526
534
451
2 83
2 21
216
2 16
225
195
2 65
149
a* P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , M ig r a tio n S t a t i s t i c s , I I I ( B e r k e l e y , C a X iT o rn ia :
The U n i v e r s i t y o r C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 5 .
98
year.
Of t h e
m em b ers o f t h i s
g ro u p , v i s i t e d by
th e w r i t e r ,
m o st w ere q u i t e s u r e o f a jo b a t t h e end
o f th e jo u rn e y to
F r e s n o C o u n ty
w h ite s th e m ig ra tio n
is,
w hereas in th e c a se o f th e
t o a m uch g r e a t e r e x t e n t ,
M ig r a tio n by c h a n c e .
by chance.
I t i s v ery d o u b tfu l t h a t th e
m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s “ know i n s t i n c t i v e l y ”
go t o a g i v e n a r e a t o p i c k c r o p s .
when i t
is
I n d e e d , a l l th e
tim e to
e v id e n c e
p o i n t s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r n o t h a v i n g a n y s u r e know ­
l e d g e o f w h e r e t o go n e x t i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r w o r k .
“ R a re ly ,”
s a y s T o lie s “does any ty p e o f m ig ra n t have th e a s s u r a n c e o f
e m p lo y m e n t u n t i l a f t e r h e h a s mo v e d . 1
m a t t e r o f “ g o in g on g o s s i p , a n d
b l i n d w a n d e rin g .
1
^
begt ^
a t w orst i t
is
±3 a
s im p ly
L e t t e r s f r o m f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s who h a v e
c h a n c e d on w o r k i s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t common s o u r c e o f i n 11 R
f o r m a t i o n . **•
F o llo w in g th e c r o p s .
The co m m o n est t y p e o f m i g r a t o r y
l a b o r e r m oves n o r t h w a r d f r o m I m p e r i a l V a l l e y i n t h e e a r l y
sp rin g ,
s o m e ti m e s w o r k i n g a s f a r n o r t h a s W a s h i n g t o n b y
e a r l y summer a n d t h e n b a c k s o u t h a g a i n a s t h e f a l l
crops
112 M cW illiam s* w o r d s ; v i z . , p . Q4.
113 Q u o t e d b y M au ze, o £ . c i t . ,
p . 126.
114 C r o s s a n d C r o s s , 0 £ .
p. 33.
c it..
115 C h a r l e s S . H o f f m a n , “D r o u g h t a n d D e p r e s s i o n
M i g r a t i o n i n t o O r e g o n , 193 0 t o 1 9 3 6 , M o n th ly L a b o r R e v i e w ,
4 6 :2 7 , Ja n u a ry , 1938.
99
m a tu re .
T h i s w as p r o v e d b y H ath w ay who c i r c u l a t e d a
q u e s t i o n n a i r e , on A p r i l 1 8 , 1 9 2 9 , among t h e a p p l e - p i c k e r s
i n t h e Y ak im a V a l l e y .
S he s u m m a r iz e s h e r f i n d i n g s a s
fo llo w s :
A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r {si© u s e d i n t h e a p p l e
h a r v e s t i s m i g r a n t , an d p r o b a b l y 35 p e r c e n t f o ll o w t h e
f r u i t h a r v e s t i n g a l l th e y e a r a ro u n d ; p ack to m a to e s and
l e t t u c e in th e I m p e r ia l V a lle y , C a l i f o r n i a ; p ic k and
p ack o r a n g e s , lem o n s, g r a p e f r u i t , g r a p e s , o l i v e s , p e a r s ,
a n d m any o t h e r p r o d u c t s i n C a l i f o r n i a d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r
a n d summer a n d come t o W a s h i n g t o n a n d O re g o n i n t h e
a u tu m n .
An e x c e l l e n t e x a m p le o f t h i s
t y p e i s g i v e n o f a man t w e n t y -
f o u r , h i s w i f e , t w e n t y a n d a c h i l d o f tw o y e a r s o l d w ho:
. . .
l e f t H a n f o r d , W a s h i n g t o n on A p r i l f i r s t ,
t r a v e l e d t o P r e e w a t e r , O r e g o n , w h e r e M r. Downs w o r k e d
a t p r u n i n g c h e r r i e s u n t i l May 3 0 ; t h e n t o B e n t o n C i t y
u n t i l J u n e 3 0 , C h e l a n a n d W e n a tc h e e f o r t h i n n i n g a p p l e s
a n d w o r k i n t h e c h e r r i e s u n t i l A u g u s t 1 0 ; t o K e n n e w ic k
t o p i c k p e a r s u n t i l S e p te m b e r 1 ; t o W h ite b lu f f f o r
a p p l e - p i c k i n g u n t i l S e p te m b e r 1 8; to C h elan f o r w are­
h o u s e w o rk f r o m S e p t e m b e r 18 t o N o vem b er 3 0 ; t o M onte­
b e l l o , C a l i f o r n i a f o r w o rk i n t h e o r a n g e s u n t i l D e c e m b e r
30 a n d t h e n b a c k t o H a n f o r d t o v i s i t r e l a t i v e s b e f o r e
com m encing t h e t r i p o v e r a g a i n .
The g r o u p s d e s c r i b e d b y T a y l o r a n d H o w e l l ,
a lso e x c e lle n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s
(p ag e 93) a r e
of fo llo w in g th e c r o p s .
p a t t e r n i s made o f g o i n g t o a g i v e n a r e a a t t h e
each y e a r.
in c lu d e i t
A
same t i m e
I f t h e w o r k w as g o o d l a s t y e a r t h e m i g r a n t s w i l l
on t h i s y e a r f s i t i n e r a r y ;
if
t h e r e w as n o w o r k ,
th e y w i l l tr y a d i f f e r e n t p la c e t h a t th e y have h e a rd a b o u t.
116 H a th w a y , o £ . c i t . , p . 2 6 .
117 I b i d . , p p . 5 5 - 5 6 .
100
S o m e tim e s t h e y go f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e w i t h a l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r ,
d e p e n d i n g o n h im t o g e t th e m j o b s a h e a d ; s o m e tim e s t h e y know
t h e i r em p lo y er a t t h e en d o f th e
jo u rn e y and have a l e t t e r
f r o m h im p r o m i s i n g a j o b ; o f t e n e r t h e y j u s t f r e e - l a n c e a n d
d e p e n d on t h e !fg r a p e v i n e ”
A nnual m ig r a tio n .
t o t e l l th e m w h e r e t o go n e x t .
I t may b e n o t e d h e r e , h o w e v e r , t h a t
some o f t h e r e f u g e e l a b o r e r s h a v e a l r e a d y b e g u n t o make r e ­
g u la r t r i p s
f r o m O k la h o m a , A r k a n s a s , w e s t e r n T e x a s a n d
e l s e w h e r e , t h r o u g h t h e c o t t o n f i e l d . s o f T e x a s , New M ex ic o
and A riz o n a to I m p e r i a l an d San J o a q u in V a l l e y s , w o rk in g
o n l y e n o u g h on t h e r o a d t o p a y e x p e n s e s a n d w i n t e r i n g i n
C a lifo rn ia .
I f th e y e a r n enough d u r in g th e w i n t e r to ta k e
th e m b a c k , w e l l a n d g o o d .
I f n o t,
t h e S . R. A. w i l l g l a d l y
s e n d th e m b a c k t o k e e p th e m f r o m b e c o m in g s t a t e
a n d so a c h a r g e on t h e s t a t e .
re sid e n ts
T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t alw ay s
t h e c a s e , a s T a y l o r h a s n o t e d tfmany who w o u ld l e a v e Jbu tJ c a n ­
n o t , f o r l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s . ” **-1 ^
E m p lo y m en t a g e n c i e s .
Many a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m ade t o
s y s t e m a t i z e t h e m i g r a t i o n an d e n s u r e a n a d e q u a t e b u t n o t a n
o v e r s u p p l y o f l a b o r when t h e c r o p s a r e r e a d y .
At f i r s t
th e
f e d e r a l governm ent a tte m p te d to g a t h e r in f o r m a tio n c o n c e rn in g
118 I b i d . , p . 39
1 19 T a y l o r , “ A g a i n t h e C o v e r e d W a g o n ,” l o c . c i t .
101
c ro p s and l a b o r s u p p ly and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t h e n , by
p u b l i c i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o cam ps a n d o t h e r p r o m i n e n t
p l a c e s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e w o r k e r s t o go a s d i r e c t e d *
The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s E m p lo y m en t S e r v i c e ,
th ro u g h i t s
F a rm L a b o r D i v i s i o n , a s i n d i c a t e d i n i t s
annual
r e p o r t f o r 19 3 0 a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g :
( a ) The s e c u r i n g o f a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n
r e l a t i v e t o th e c r o p s f o r w h ic h l a b o r i s n e e d e d and o f
r e p o r t s fro m c o m p e te n t s o u rc e s w it h i n th e a r e a to be
serv ed *
T h is in c lu d e s cro p a v e r a g e s , c o n d i t i o n s , and
p r o b a b l e y i e l d s ; t h e s e a s o n s a n d p e r i o d s when o u t s i d e
l a b o r w i l l b e n e e d e d , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w o rk r e ­
q u i r e d ; th e num ber o f l a b o r e r s t h a t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y i n
e a c h s e c t i o n t o c a r e f o r i t s p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s ; th e w ages
t o b e p a i d ; t h e l i v i n g a c c o m m o d a tio n s t o b e p r o v i d e d ;
th e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; th e m ost d i r e c t r o u te s b e ­
tw een p o i n t s ; and th e s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly n e a r e s t t o th e
f i e l d s o f a c t i v i t y f r o m w h i c h l a b o r may b e r e c r u i t e d .
(b) A s s ig n in g s p e c i a l a g e n t s t o t h e f i e l d d u r in g
p e rio d s o f s e a so n a l a c t i v i t y to v i s i t im p o rta n t p o in ts ,
v e r if y r e p o r ts as to la b o r n e e d s , p re v e n t c o n g e s tio n o f
l a b o r e r s in any s e c t i o n , d i r e c t th e r e l e a s e d w o rk ers
fro m c o m p le te d a r e a s t o p o i n t s b e y o n d , and a s s i s t in
b r i n g i n g abo u t a n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a b o r .
(c) P u b l i c i t y t h r o u g h p o s t e r s and n e w s p a p e rs d e s ig n e d
t o r e a c h t h e arm y o f l a b o r e r s who a r e n o t i n t o u c h w i t h
e m p lo y m e n t e x c h a n g e s •
T h a t t h e s e r v i c e w as n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n a c t u a l l y f i n d i n g
jo b s
f o r m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s was r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f
Labor in 1936.
120 U n i t e d S t a t e s S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r , N i n e t e e n t h
A nnual R eport o f th e S e c r e ta r y o f L abor f o r t h e F i s c a l ^ e a r
E n d i n g J u n e 5 0 , 1950 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C• : ‘U n i t e d S t a t e s
G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 3 7 .
102
’‘E v e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F arm P l a c e m e n t S e r v i c e o f t e n
c o n f i n e d i t s e l f t o m a k in g f i n f o r m a l 1 p l a c e m e n t s .
It
d i d n o t r e g i s t e r w o r k e r s , b u t a d v i s e d th em on t h e h i g h ­
w ays a n d a t _ t h e o f f i c e s a s t o w h e r e w o rk w as o r w as n o t
a v a i l a b l e • ,!
I n 1935 t h e s t a t e t o o k o v e r t h e p r o b l e m a n d r e q u i r e s a l l
S . R. A. a p p l i c a t i o n s
to c l e a r th ro u g h th e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
E m p lo y m en t S e r v i c e b e f o r e t h e y a r e a d m i t t e d f o r a i d .
t h e p ro b le m i s
But
s t i l l n o t s o lv e d , m a in ly b e c a u se th e fa rm e r
and th e l a b o r e r a r e b o th i n d i v i d u a l i s t s
a n d p r e f e r t o do
t h i n g s t h e i r own way e v e n t h o u g h t h o s e vrays a r e n o t s o
e ffic ie n t.
O th e r c a u s e s a r e th e d e s i r e o f th e fa rm e rs to
c h o o s e t h e i r own l a b o r e r s i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g t o
s e n t t o th e m a n d t h e f a c t
ta k e w hat i s
th a t f r e q u e n tly th e la b o r e r fin d s
o u t a b o u t t h e new j o b l o n g b e f o r e t h e C. S . E . S . h a s a n y
in fo m a t io n .
uU o t o n l y d i d t h e S t a t e E m p lo y m en t S e r v i c e f a i l t o
f u l f i l l any im p o rta n t f u n c t io n w ith r e g a r d to a g r i c u l ­
t u r a l p la c e m e n ts ; i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a s a w h o le , th e y
f a i l e d e q u a l l y t o make h e a d w a y i n e i t h e r d i s p l a c i n g t h e
p r i v a t e e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c i e s o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e a c h i n g
t h o s e who w e r e n o t r e a c h e d b y t h e p r i v a t e e m p lo y m e n t
a g e n c i e s . ” 122
The a b o v e a u t h o r a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e E m p loy ­
m ent S e r v i c e h a d p l a c e d i n 1935 o n ly fro m 2 . 5 t o 4 . 9 p e r c e n t
o f th e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r e r s .
123
The Camp I n s p e c t o r o f t h e
121 U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , M i g r a t i o n o f
W o r k e r s ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g
O f f ic e , 1936), I : 114.
122
|Lewi§|
o p . c i t . , p . 101.
123 I b i d . , p . 1 0 4 .
103
D ep artm en t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , i n h i s
co n c lu d e d . . .
m ent s e r v i c e
r e p o r t on h i s t r i p ,
"N o w here d i d I f i n d a n y a t t e m p t b y t h e
em ploy'
t o d i s c o u r a g e p e r s o n s c o m in g i n t o I m p e r i a l
V a l l e y s e e k i n g em ploym ent."^-*34
Summary o f r o u t e s .
The m e t h o d s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
n e x t p l a c e t o w o rk a r e m any a n d v a r i e d *
"C hance, rum or, p o s t e r s , l e t t e r s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ,
l a b o r a g e n t s , f e e - c h a r g i n g e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c i e s a s w e l l
a s p u b l i c e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c i e s a l l p l a y e d t h e i r v a r i o u s
p a r t s i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e f l o w o f human m i g r a t i o n f o r
good o r i l l
The n e e d f o r a b e t t e r p l a n o f r o u t i n g t h e m i g r a n t s t o t h e i r
w o rk i s
e v id e n t.
M e th o d s f o r d o i n g t h i s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d
i n C h a p t e r XIV.
V II
T h e ir m e th o d s.
LABOR CONTRACTORS
Labor c o n t r a c t o r s have b een th e
h i s t o r i c m e th o d o f r e c r u i t i n g
of C a l i f o r n i a . P r o m
la b o r th ro u g h o u t th e h is to r y
th e days o f th e C h in e s e ^ ^ on, th e
c o n tr a c to r has been a p a r t of th e p i c t u r e .
At th e b e s t th e
l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r i s a g r e a t h e lp b o t h t o e m p lo y e r and
e m p lo y e e , g u a r a n t e e i n g l a b o r to t h e one and jo b s to th e
124 C a l i f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ,
R e p o r t t o G o v e r n o r 1s C o u n c i l , F e b r u a r y , 194 0 ( m im e o g r a p h e d ,
n . n . , F e b ru a ry , 1940), p . 18.
125 U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , M i g r a t i o n o f
W o r k e r s , I , op . c i t . , 1 3 7 .
126 (Lewis? o p . c i t . , p . 5 2 .
127 C f . , p . 6 8 .
104
o th e r ; a r ra n g in g a sc h e d u le o f m ig r a tio n and p ro v id in g ad e­
q u a t e camp s i t e s ,
ad v a n c in g c r e d i t a t s t o r e s c h a rg in g
r e a s o n a b le p r i c e s and even lo a n in g t e n t s and o th e r e q u ip m en t.
A t t h e w o r s t h e i s a n c r o o k 11 who d e l i b e r a t e l y a d v e r t i s e s
w id e ly f o r la b o r in o rd e r to
s e c u re an o v e rs u p p ly and th u s
k e e p w a g e s dow n , p r o v i d e s l i t t l e
o r n o t h i n g i n t h e w ay o f
c a m p in g f a c i l i t i e s , p a y s t h e w o r k e r s i n c r e d i t a t a s t o r e
c h a rg in g o u tra g e o u s p r i c e s , d e fra u d s th e grow er o u t o f a
la rg e
sh are of th e p r o f i t s
o f h is h a r v e s t th ro u g h h i s c o n tr o l
o f th e l a b o r su p p ly and f i n a l l y a b sco n d s w ith th e p a y r o l l ,
le a v in g th e la b o r e r s w ith o u t fu n d s to l iv e o n * ^®
B e a l s sums
i t up as fo llo w s :
The c o n t r a c t o r s c a r r y t h e i r w o r k e r s o v e r a few w e e k s
u n t i l p ic k in g tim e .
The g o o d s a r e c h a r g e d a t d o u b l e
t h e i r p ro p er v a lu e .
The c o n t r a c t o r a l s o g e t s a c u t on
w ag es, u s ti a l l y a b o u t tw e n ty p e r c e n t .
He i s , i n a w a y ,
o f t e n a s o r t o f l a b o r ttd i c k n f o r h e g u a r a n t e e s t h e
gro w ers n o t o n ly an a d e q u a te s u p p ly o f l a b o r b u t a gro u p
o f w o rk ers ta g g e d w ith th e n o n - s t r ik e g u a r a n te e .
T h ere
a r e a l w a y s m o re w o r k e r s i n t h e camp t h a n a r e n e c e s s a r y
i n t h e f i e l d s - - l a s t y e a r n e a r l y tw o men f o r e v e r y j o b —
a n d t h e c o n t r a c t o r p a r c e l s o u t t h e w o rk t o t h o s e who show
t h e m o s t s u b m i s s i v e d e f e r e n c e . 129
W ith o u t d o u b t th e l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r sy ste m i s th e b e s t
p o s s i b l e arra n g e m e n t f o r th e sm a ll o r m id d le - s iz e d f a rm e r .
The l a r g e g r o w e r f i n d s u s i n g t h e f i e l d - b o s s
i n g t h e same c r e w f r o m jo b t o
sy ste m and k e e p ­
jo b a n d y e a r t o y e a r , m o re
1 28 U ew ill o p . c i t . , p . 5 3 ; G o v e r n o r C. G. Young* s
M e x ic a n P a c t - f i n d i n g C o m m i t t e e , o n . c i t . , p . 1 3 1 .
129 C a r l t o n B e a l s , MM ig s — A m e r i c a * s S h a n t y t o w n o n
W h e e l s , 11 F o r u m a n d C e n t u r y , 9 9 : 1 1 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 .
105
e ffe c tiv e ,
a s w i l l b e s e e n i n C h a p te r IV .
c o n tra c to rs are d ish o n e st.
N o t many l a b o r
I n d e e d , many o f th e m h a v e g o n e
b a n k r u p t I n t r y i n g t o k e e p a crew t o g e t h e r d u r in g a s l a c k
la b o r p e rio d .
A d v e r tis in g t o g e t o v e r - su p p ly o f l a b o r .
In v e stig a t­
i n g t h e o f f - r e p e a t e d c h a r g e t h a t f a r m e r s o r c o n t r a c t o r s m ake
a p r a c t i c e o f c i r c u l a t i n g h a n d b i l l s i n th e nd u s t b o w lM t o
s e c u r e a l a r g e l a b o r s u p p l y , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F a rm P l a c e ­
m e n t B u r e a u c o n d u c t e d a n i n q u i r y a n d f o u n d t h a t two l a b o r
c o n t r a c t o r s h a d done s o ; one i n I m p e r i a l V a lle y a n d one i n
S a n ta B a rb a ra C o u n ty .
B o th c o n t r a c t o r 's
l i c e n s e s have b een
rev o k ed .
V III.
WAGES AND AN OVER-SUPPLY OP LABOR
S u rp lu s o f l a b o r .
tio n p re v a le n t i t
W ith t h e h a p h a z a rd ty p e o f m ig ra ­
i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t th e flo w i s n o t
s te a d y and c o n tin u o u s .
I t t e n d s t o becom e c o n g e s t e d i n
c e r t a i n a r e a s a t c e r t a i n tim e s and to be s c a r c e a t o t h e r
tim e s.
A sid e fro m th e i r r e g u l a r f lo w , t h e r e h a s b e e n , fro m
v e ry e a r l y tim e s , an o v e r - s u p p ly o f l a b o r m ost o f t h e tim e
in C a lifo rn ia a g r ic u ltu r e .
T h is i s ,
a t tim e s, u n a v o id a b le ,
b e c a u s e o f t h e t r e m e n d o u s v a r i a t i o n i n dem and f r o m m o n th t o
130 F r a n k T a y l o r , o p . c i t . , p . 2 3 8 .
106
m o n th f o r t h e s t a t e a s a w h o l e .
W ith t h e c o m in g o f t h e
r e f u g e e l a b o r t h e s u p p ly h a s b e e n i n c r e a s e d u n t i l 1 5 0 ,0 0 0
p e r s o n s now d i v i d e t h e e m p lo y m e n t w h ic h p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e s
a b o u t 5 0 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s . ^ 2
The s y s t e m o f a g r i c u l t u r e w h ic h h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d
h a s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s p ro b le m .
As s e e n a b o v e ,
th e a d o p t­
i o n o f l a b o r - s a v i n g m a c h i n e r y h a s , up t o r e c e n t y e a r s ,
t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b l e m b y r e d u c i n g t h e dem and
th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r w ith o u t a c o rre sp o n d in g re d u c tio n a t
h a r v e s t tim e .-^3
A n o th e r im p o rta n t f a c t o r i s
n a tu r e of th e c ro p .
th e p e r is h a b le
As F r a n k T a y l o r s o a p t l y p u t i t ,
some
c r o p s m ust be h a r v e s t e d t h e v e r y day th e y r i p e n o r t h e
g r o w e r s t a n d s t o l o s e t r e m e n d o u s sums. ^-34
T h ere i s
little
d o u b t t h a t th e g ro w ers a s w e ll as th e l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s
h a v e a l s o h a d i n m in d t h e k e e p i n g o f w a g e s t o a s low a
l e v e l a s p o s s i b l e b y m ean s o f a n o v e r - s u p p l y o f l a b o r . ^ 3 5
"The C a l i f o r n i a g r o w e r t h u s h a d a n d s t i l l h a s a t
p r e s e n t a t h i s d i s p o s a l a l a b o r su p p ly u n e q u a lle d f o r
v o lu m e a n y w h e r e .
He t h e r e f o r e h a s n e v e r h a d t o p r a c t i c e
a n y economy i n t h i s r e s p e c t .
On t h e c o n t r a r y , h e h a s
b e e n a b l e t o go a h e a d a n d d e v e l o p h i s a g r i c u l t u r e a l o n g
a p a t t e r n t h a t h a s p r e s u p p o s e d th e m ost a n a r c h i c , th e
m o st u n r e g u l a t e d , th e m ost l a v i s h l y w a s t e f u l u s e o f t h i s
h u g e army o f hum an b e i n g s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s o c i a l c o n ­
s e q u e n c e s . "136
131 C f. s u p r a . . p . 6 3 .
1 3 2 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , " M i g r a t o r y Farm L a b o r i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s , M o n th l y L a b o r R e v ie w . 4 4 : 5 4 0 , M a rc h , 1 9 3 7 .
133 C f . s u p r a . » p . 5 7 .
134 C f. s u p r a . » p. 4 1 , p . 44.
135 C f . , B e a l s , s u p r a , p . 1 04 .
136 [L e w is /Q P .
c i t . , p.
204.
107
Wages a n d e a r n i n g s .
N e a r l y a l l t h e w o r k do n e b y
m i g r a t o r y l a b o r i s p a i d f o r on a p ie c e - w o r k b a s i s and e a r n ­
in g s v a ry c o n s id e ra b ly a c c o rd in g to th e
s k i l l of th e w o rk er,
t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e c ro p and t h e num ber o f h o u r s w o rk ed , a s
Y /e ll a s t h e u n i t w age*
F o r e x a m p l e , T a b l e XX show s w h a t t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n
who i s u s e d t o w o r k i n g a t
i n v a rio u s crops*
t h e jo b c a n do i n a n i n e h o u r d a y
T h e wage i n d i c a t e d i s
in Im p e ria l V a lle y in 1939-40.
t u r n o u t a s much w o r k a s i s
th e p r e v a ilin g r a te
Of c o u r s e b e g i n n e r s do n o t
i n d i c a t e d a n d many d a y s o n l y a
few h o u r s a r e w o rk ed , b e c a u s e t h e tre m e n d o u s o v e r - s u p p l y o f
la b o r c o v e rs th e f i e l d
i n a few h o u r s .
A fte r a fre e z e in
th e p e a s o r d u rin g th e h o t t e s t w e a th e r in th e c a r r o t s th e
a m o u n t t h a t a p e r s o n c a n do f a l l s
down r a p i d l y *
G ro w e rs
com m only i n c r e a s e t h e u n i t r a t e a t s u c h t i m e s .
The f i g u r e s i n T a b l e XX a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y i n e x c e s s
o f th e e s tim a te s of th e S ta te
T a b l e XXI.
R e lie f A d m in is tra tio n in
T h ey d o u b t l e s s b a s e d t h e i r e s t i m a t e s o n t h e
average e a rn in g s o f r e l i e f c l i e n t s and s in c e th e se a re
u n s k ille d la b o r th e d iff e r e n c e
i s a c c o u n te d f o r .
W ages a r e o f t e n g r e a t l y i n e x c e s s o f e v e n t h e f i g u r e s
i n T a b l e XX.
The G l a s s f o r d
R e p o r t
-^ 7 g ru d g in g ly a d m its th at
-*-37 The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e s s ,
June 2 7 , 1934.
(E l C e n tro , C a l i f o r n i a ) ,
108
TABLE XX
AVERAGE PRODUCTION PER PERS0Na
AND WAGEb IN CERTAIN TRUCK CROPS
IN IMPERIAL VALLEY
P ro d u c tio n 0
K in d o f w o rk
B u n ch in g c a r r o t s
P ic k in g c o tto n
C u ttin g le ttu c e
P ic k in g peas
Wage
1 3 .5 c r a t e s
2 00 p o u n d s
2 2 .5 f i e l d c r a t e s
210-420 p o u n d s,
300 p o u n d s a v e r a g e
D a ily
e a rn in g s
lU
85d
Ilf!
# 2 .1 6
1 .7 0
2 .4 7
\<f.
3 .0 0
TABLE XXI
DAILY EARNINGS ESTIMATED BY S
LABOR COORDINATOR IN 1935 a R* A*
C rops
Wage
T ruck
A sp arag u s
L e ttu c e
M e lo n s
Peas
T o m a to e s
2 .0 0
1 .6 0
1 .6 0
1 .4 0
2 .0 0
C rops
F ru it
C itru s
G rapes
Peaches
P runes
W aln u ts
A p ric o ts
A p p le s
Wage
3 .0 0
2 .2 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
3 .2 0
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
C rops
Wage
F ie ld
G ra in ,
hay
B e e ts
C o tto n
Hops
B eans
2 .4 0
1 .6 0
1 .5 0
3 .0 0
2 .4 0
a . B ased on a n i n e - h o u r day a t o r d i n a r y p r o d u c t i o n .
b . P re v a ilin g ra te
in Im p e ria l V a lle y , 1959-40.
c . From A dam s, o p . c i t . , p p . 9 - 1 0 .
d.
[ L e w is ]
op. c i t . , p . 50.
e . I n c o n s i d e r i n g T a b l e s XX a n d X X I, t h e d a y s a v a i l a b l e
f o r w ork s h o u ld b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t ,
C f . T a b l e V, p . 46 a n d
T a b le V I, p . 4 6 .
109
i n c a n t a l o u p e s a man c a n e a r n f r o m f i v e d o l l a r s t o t w e l v e
d o l l a r s a d a y on o c c a s i o n s .
At th e peak o f th e seaso n a
d a i l y p i c k i n g o f e i g h t h u n d r e d p o u n d s o f p e a s i s n o t uncom m on,
a n d a g o o d c a r r o t t i e r c a n e a s i l y make t w e n t y - f o u r c r a t e s w hen
c o n d itio n s a re rig h t*
Some o f t h e r e g u l a r m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s a r e l u c k y e n o u g h
t o g e t a jo b b y t h e h o u r .
I r r i g a t i n g and l e t t u c e - c u t t i n g a re
com m only p a i d f o r i n t h i s w ay .
t h e i r h o u r l y w age f i g u r e s .
W rite rs v ary c o n s id e ra b ly in
H i l l f o u n d i n 19 2 7 t h a t t h e
a v e r a g e wage w as t h i r t y - e i g h t c e n t s . O n
th e o th e r hand
Lyon, i n 1933, r e p o r t e d f i f t e e n and tw e n ty c e n ts a s th e p r e v a ilin g ra te *
The S .
R. A. f i g u r e s a r e a b o u t t h e s a m e ,
s h o w in g a v a r i a n c e f r o m t h i r t y - f i v e
c e n t s i n 1 93 8 t o f o u r t e e n
and f i f t e e n c e n ts a t th e b o tto m o f th e d e p r e s s io n w ith th e
p r e v a i l i n g r a t e now a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e
c e n t s
.^ 0
P rank
T a y l o r * s f i g u r e i s tw o d o l l a r s a n d t e n c e n t s a d a y .^ - * -
These
l a s t two a r e a b o u t r i g h t f o r I m p e r i a l V a l l e y i n 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 .
1 38 M e r t o n E . H i l l , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a n A m e r i c a n ­
i z a t i o n P r o g r a m ( [ O n t a r i o , C a l i f o r n i a ] The B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s
o f t h e C h a f f e y "Union H ig h S c h o o l a n d t h e C h a f f e y J u n i o r
C o lle g e , 1928), p. 71.
1 39 L a u r a L u c i l l e L y o n , ” I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m
f o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t o f M e x ic a n G i r l s t o t h e H ig h S c h o o l s o f
t h e S a n F e r n a n d o V a l l e y ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 6 .
140
[Lewis]
og. c i t . , p . 31.
1 41 P r a n k T a y l o r ,
lo c . c i t .
110
E s t i m a t e s o f y e a r l y e a r n i n g s v a r y f r o m a low o f §281*
p e r f a m i l y o f two w o r k e r s f o r t h o s e n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e
w o r k , t o a h i g h o f $ 4 3 7 . f o r r e g u l a r w o r k e r s .3-42
O th er
e s t i m a t e s a r e $>3 0 0 .,3 -4 3 $ 3 6 0 . ^ 4 4 a n d $ 4 0 0 . * ^ ^ p e r s i n g l e
w o rk e r and $ 4 0 0 . p e r f a m i l y . ^46
It
is
sa fe to
say t h a t th e
av erag e fa m ily r e c e iv e s a t l e a s t $400. a y e a r .
Tim e w o r k e d .
The i n f l u e n c e o f t i m e l o s t o n e a r n i n g s
h as a lr e a d y b e e n to u c h e d u p o n .
in w a itin g
Tim e i s l o s t i n m i g r a t i n g ,
f o r c r o p s to m a t u r e , ^47 b e c a u s e o f b a d w e a th e r
and b e c a u se o f an o v e r-s u p p ly o f l a b o r .
S o m e tim e s t h e
u n s te a d in e s s o f th e m ark et n e c e s s i t a t e s k e e p in g th e h a r v e s t ­
i n g down t o a b a r e m in im u m .3-49
Even in a s e t t l e d p o p u la tio n
o n e s t u d y sh o w ed h a l f t h e men a s u n e m p lo y e d on e h u n d r e d d a y s
a y e a r an d t h r e e - f o u r t h s w ere u n em p lo y ed s i x t y d ay s o r m o re .
I cn
A s t u d y made b y t h e N a t i o n a l L a b o r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d i n L o s
142 M a u z e , jop. c i t . . p . 1 0 3 .
143 U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , o p . c i t . , 2 : 2 4 4 - 5 .
144
[Lewis]
o p . c i t . , p . 5 1 ; G o rd o n l o c . c i t .
145 G l a s s f o r d R e p o r t ; The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e s s , l o c . c i t .
146 W ebb, o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 4 .
147 V i z . s u p r a . , p . 4 5 .
148 V i z .
su p ra . , p. 47; p. 105.
149 U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , £ £ . c i t . , 1 : 8 6 .
150 H i l l ,
op. c i t . , p. 70.
Ill
A n g e l e s C o u n ty e s t i m a t e d t h a t M e x ic a n m i g r a n t w o r k e r s
a v e ra g e d o n ly t h i r t y
o u t o f f i f t y - t v / o w o rk in g w eek s.
151
The F arm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e s t i m a t e d t h a t nM i g r a n t
h e a d s w o r k e d a m e d i a n o f s i x m o n th s d u r i n g 1 9 3 7 ; l e s s
th a n
t w e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t vie r e e m p lo y e d n i n e m o n th s o r
/ 1-*-52
The S t a t e
m o r e
R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f i g u r e s show t h a t t h e m e d i a n
n u m b e r o f m o n th s o f e m p lo y m e n t d e c r e a s e d r e g u l a r l y f r o m 8 . 0
I n 1 9 3 0 t o 6 . 4 i n 1 9 3 5 . 153
O th e r e x p e n s e s .
I n c o m p a rin g e a r n i n g s i t
i s w e ll to
k e e p i n m in d t h a t w h i l e c o n s i d e r a b l e e c o n o m i e s c a n b e made
in re n t, u t i l i t i e s ,
e tc .,
th e w o rk e r m ust m eet a s u b s i s t a n c e
minim um b u d g e t o f $ 7 8 0 . a y e a r , 1 5 ^ p l u s $ 1 25 * a y e a r f o r g a s
and o i l ,
n o t to m e n tio n o th e r c a r e x p e n s e s .
151 G o r d o n , l o c . c i t .
152 F a rm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s
D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , R e g io n 9 , A S t u d y o f 6 , 6 5 5
M i g r a n t H o u s e h o l d s i n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 , s u m m a r iz e d I n
W orks T r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I n d e x o f R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t s ,
3 :1 4 9 .
153
J e w is]
og. c i t . , p . 119.
-1-54 D o c , c i t .
1 55 M y r n ie A. G i f f o r d , " D i s c u s s i o n o f H e a l t h o f t h e
M ig r a n t ," J o u r n a l o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1 1 1 : 7 6 5 , A u g u s t - 2*7, 1 § 3 8 .
112
IX .
CHILD LABOR
C auses o f c h i l d l a b o r *
T h ere have b e e n tim e s i n th e
h i s t o r y o f C a l i f o r n i a w hen t h e r e w as a n a c t u a l s h o r t a g e o f
la b o r.
Many g r o w e r s , i n s u c h t i m e s , h a v e l i t e r a l l y
th a t c h ild re n be p e rm itte d to h a rv e s t t h e i r c ro p s.
d em an ded
In 1918,
w hen t h e w a r h a d c r e a t e d a s h o r t a g e t h a t w as n o t y e t f i l l e d
b y M e x ic a n l a b o r , a l l t h e
s c h o o l s o f N apa w e r e c l o s e d a n d
th e sc h o o l c h ild r e n h a r v e s te d a $ 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 . prune cro p a t a
l a b o r c o s t o f $ 2 0 ,0 0 0 .-^ ®
A n o th e r ty p e o f p r e s s u r e b ro u g h t by g ro w ers i s l e s s
o f t e n v o i c e d a n d now n o t common i n many s e c t i o n s o f C a l i f ­
o r n i a , a l t h o u g h a few g r o w e r s a r e
s t i l l h e a rd to doubt th e
w isd o m o f e d u c a t i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n a t p u b l i c
e x p e n se and to
s u g g e st t h a t t h e i r p a r e n ts need t h e i r h e lp to keep th e fa m ily
to g e th e r.
T h e ir r e a l re a s o n f o r w a n tin g th e c h i l d r e n i s
t h a t w a g e s c a n b e l o w e r e d when c h i l d r e n a r e w o r k i n g .
E very
g r o w e r knows t h a t h e m u s t p a y t h e p i c k e r e n o u g h so h i s
f a m i l y c a n make a b a r e l i v i n g .
If
t h e r e a r e m o re w o r k i n g
i n a fa m ily t h e p e r u n i t r a t e can be lo w e re d s in c e th e
t o t a l e a rn in g s w i l l be th e
sam e .
On t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r e n t s ,
t h e dem and a r i s e s o u t o f
t h e i r f e e l i n g o f e c o n o m ic n e c e s s i t y ;
156 M c W i ll i a m s , o p . c i t . ,
th e y see a d d i t i o n a l
p . 176,
113
money c o m in g i n a n d do n o t r e a l i z e
th a t i t w ill in e v ita b ly
l o w e r t h e i r own w a g e s a n d d e n y t o t h e c h i l d r e n t h e i r o n e
o p p o r t u n i t y t o im p ro v e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n — e d u c t i o n .
o f m in d , a c a r r y - o v e r fro m th e c o t t o n f i e l d s
is
T h is s t a t e
o f th e S o u th ,
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e a b u s e s o b s e r v e d i n th e San J o a q u in
V a l l e y c o t t o n b e l t w h e r e some s c h o o l s f o r m i g r a n t s a r e
s t a r t e d e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d c l o s e d a f t e r a minimum d a y
h a s b e e n t a u g h t so t h a t c h i l d r e n may n l e g a l l y 11 w o rk i n t h e
c o tto n .
C h i l d l a b o r on s c h o o l d a y i l l e g a l .
i s n o th in g le g a l about i t .
Of c o u r s e t h e r e
The L a b o r Code f o r b i d s
th e
e m p lo y m e n t o f m i n o r s u n d e r s i x t e e n y e a r s w i t h o u t w o rk
p e rm its ^ ®
a n d n o p e r m i t may b e i s s u e d u n d e r t h e S c h o o l
Code t o a c h i l d u n d e r f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f a g e t o w o r k a n y
p a r t o f a day i n w h ic h s c h o o l i s
in
s e s s i o n . - ^ 59
Even f o r
th e c h i l d o v e r f o u r t e e n , t h e s e c u r i n g o f a p e r m it t o w ork
on a s c h o o l day i s d i f f i c u l t an d he i s
l i m i t e d t o a maximum
1 fiO
o f t h r e e h o u r s , e v e n when a m inim um s c h o o l d a y i s h e l d . °
157
M auze, o p . c i t . ,
p . 180.
1 5 8 [jR o b e rt A. G a r d i n e r , C o m p i l e r ] L a b o r C o d e , S t a t e
o f C a l i f o r n i a , 193 7 ( S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g
O fflF e " , 1 9 3 9 7 , S e c t i o n s 1 2 9 0 , 1 2 9 9 , 1 3 0 4 .
159 [ A l f r e d E . L e n t z , C o m p i l e r } S c h o o l Code o f t h e
S t a t e o f Ca l i f o r n i a , 1937 ( S a c r a m e n t o : '" " C a l i f o r n i a S T a t e
'P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ), S e c tio n 1 .1 7 7 .
160 L o c . c i t .
114
e x c e p t u n d e r v e ry u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , 161
p r a c t i c e o f m a in ta in in g a d i f f e r e n t le n g th
p a r t o f th e c h ild re n o f a d i s t r i c t i s
C h ild l a b o r e x i s t s .
in d ic a te d ,
The v e r y
sc h o o l day f o r
u n d o u b te d ly i l l e g a l . l 6 ^
N e v e rth e le ss,
as has been
c h i l d l a b o r c o n tin u e s to f l o u r i s h
s e c t i o n s . 163
The S .R .A .
stu d y e u p h e m is tic a lly r e p o r te d
"m en, women a n d e v e n c h i l d r e n w o rk w hen i t
c h i l d r e n . "164
in c e rta in
Webb a n d Brown,
is
th a t
le g a l f o r th e
in t h e i r s tu d y o f th r e e
h u n d re d tw e n ty - fiv e m ig ra n t f a m ilie s ,
fou nd t h a t o f n in e
h u n d r e d t w e n t y - f o u r w o r k i n g m em b ers, two h u n d r e d t h i r t y - o n e ,
o r t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t a r e u n d e r tw e n ty y e a r s o f a g e ,
n in e ty -th re e ,
an d
o r te n p e r c e n t a re under f i f t e e n y e a rs of
a g e , 1 65 a n d so a r e i l l e g a l l y
e m p lo y e d i f
t h e y w o rk a t a n y t i m e
1 61 I t i s t r u e t h a t S c h o o l C ode, S e c t i o n 1 . 1 7 1 h a s t h e
e f f e c t o f p e r m i t t i n g t h e e m p lo y m e n t o f m o s t m i n o r s a t f i f t e e n
y e a r s and S e c tio n 1 .1 7 2 c an b e i n t e r p r e t e d t o r e l e a s e c e r t a i n
c h i l d r e n f o r f u l l - t i m e e m p lo y m e n t a t f o u r t e e n y e a r s , b u t t h e
l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e i s s u a n c e o f t h e s e p e r m i t s a r e so
r i g i d a s t o make s u c h e m p lo y m e n t i m p r a c t i c a b l e .
F o r e x a m p le ,
t h e p e r m i t m u s t b e on a s t a t e - a p p r o v e d f o r m a n d t h e s e f o r m s
r e q u i r e t h e i s s u a n c e o f a new p e r m i t e v e r y t i m e t h e m i n o r
ch an g es h i s jo b .
E m p lo y e r s s o o n becom e i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h e
" r e d - t a p e " a n d r e f u s e t o em p lo y s u c h m i n o r s .
The S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n s tr o n g ly opposes th e is s u a n c e o f
t h e s e two t y p e s o f p e r m i t s .
162 / L e n tz l o p . c i t . . S e c t i o n 3 . 2 0 .
163 U n ite d S t a t e s D ep artm en t o f L a b o r,
1 1 :2 4 5 .
1 64 |Lew isl o p .
c it.,
p.
1 65 Webb a n d B row n, o p .
116.
c i t . , p.
98.
op. c i t . ,
115
d u rin g sch o o l h o u rs .
H0 f t h e
s ix ty -th re e
c a s e s o f one o r
m ore c h i l d r e n u n d e r s i x t e e n w o r k i n g , f o r t y - s i x c a s e s , o r
s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e S an J o a q u i n V a l l e y . ,f166
The f o r m e r common c u s to m o f a d j u s t i n g t h e s c h o o l d a y o r t h e
s c h o o l t e r m t o a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o w o rk s t i l l p e r s i s t s ,
C a l i f o r n i a and i s
rife
i n many s t a t e s . ^-67
What t o do a b o u t c h i l d e x p l o i t a t i o n .
itse lf
i s n o t b a d , b u t a good t h i n g .
and j u v e n ile c o u r t
even in
C h ild la b o r in
Many p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s
ju d g es a r e r e q u i r i n g t h e i r c h a rg e s to g e t
jo b s and l e a r n th e d i s c i p l i n e o f h a r d w o rk .
It
i s when
c h i l d r e n a r e r e q u i r e d t o w o rk l o n g h o u r s w i t h no o p p o r t u n i t y
t o p l a y , o r i n h a z a r d o u s o r u n h e a l t h f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s , o r when
w o rk i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a c h i l d f s e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t
c h i l d l a b o r becom es a c u r s e .
T here i s
a t p r e s e n t no l i m i t t o
t h e h o u r s a c h i l d may b e r e q u i r e d t o w o r k i n a g r i c u l t u r e w hen
s c h o o l s a r e n o t i n s e s s i o n , n o r a n y p r o t e c t i o n f o r th e m
f r o m t h e i r own p a r e n t s who w i l l o f t e n n o t o n l y t a k e e v e r y
o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o w o rk w hen p o s s i b l e , w h e t h e r
th is
is
l e g a l o r n o t , b u t a l s o , b y t a k i n g f r o m th e m e v e r y c e n t
t h e y e a r n d e p r i v e th e m o f t h e l e s s o n s t o b e l e a r n e d f r o m t h e
w i s e s p e n d i n g o f m o n ey .
So f a r a s g r o w e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t
166
[Lewis]
o p . c i t . , p . 117.
167 H a th w a y , o £ . c i t . , p . 1 6 8 f .
168
[ G a rd in e r ]
L abor Code, o p . c i t . ,
S e c tio n 1394.
116
t h a t o f te n a t h i r t e e n - y e a r o ld g i r l i s th e f a s t e s t and b e s t
p i c k e r o f a l l , m o s t o f t h e m , w hen t h e y h a v e h a d t h e i r r e s ­
p o n s i b i l i t y u n d e r t h e la w c a l l e d t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n a r e g l a d
to c o o p e r a t e , a s K e l l e y r e p o r t e d fro m K ern C o u n t y . j n
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty t h e l a r g e p e a - g r o w e r s now h a v e a s t a n d a r d
ru le
t h a t no o n e u n d e r e i g h t e e n s h a l l b e a l l o w e d t o w o rk a t
any tim e w ith o u t a p e r m it.
I n d e e d many g r o w e r s r e f u s e t o
a llo w c h ild r e n u n d e r s ix te e n in th e f i e l d s a t a l l ,
c la im in g
t h a t t h e y p u l l u p t h e v i n e s a n d so d e s t r o y a s much a s t h e y
p ic k .
As i n t h e c a s e o f t h e n o n - p a y m e n t o f w a g e s , t h e l a b o r
c o n t r a c t o r s a r e th e c h i e f o f fe n d e r s as f a r as c h ild l a b o r i s
concerned.
C h i l d r e n a n e c o n o m ic a s s e t ? I t
is d o u b tfu l, i f
even
among m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s , c h i l d r e n a r e a n a s s e t a s Mauze
asserts•
If
t h i s w ere t r u e i t w o u ld b e e x p e c te d t h a t
l a r g e f a m i l i e s w o u ld b e t h e r u l e a n d , a s T a b l e X VII s h o w s ,
m ig ra tio n red u ces th e
s iz e o f th e fa m ily .
It
i s m o re l i k e l y
t h a t e c o n o m ic p r e s s u r e f o r c e s p a r e n t s t o u s e e v e r y p o s s i b l e
s o u r c e o f in c o m e a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l ,
a n d who w o u ld b e s t r o n g
e n o u g h t o w i t h s t a n d t h e t e m p t a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e
c h i l d c a n e a r n m ore i n a d a y t h a n h i s f a t h e r ?
169 H e f f e r n a n , l o c . c i t .
170 Mauze"", 0 £ c i t . , p . 9 3 .
17 1 p . 8 7 .
117
X.
SUMMARY
C a l i f o r n i a la n d sy ste m .
S in ce th e d ay s o f th e
S p a n is h g r a n t s m ost o f C a l i f o r n i a l a n d h a s b e e n i n l a r g e
h o ld in g s.
As t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d i n l a t e y e a r s t h e
num ber o f s m a ll h o ld in g s h a s in c r e a s e d r a p i d ly ,
are of l i t t l e
c u ltu re .
areas,
co n seq u en ce i n th e p i c t u r e o f C a l i f o r n i a a g r i ­
F a rm s o f m edium s i z e ,
th e r u l e
i n m ost a g r i c u l t u r a l
a re d e c re a sin g in C a lifo rn ia .
The l a r g e o w n e r s ,
te rm e d ,
o r g r o w e r s a s t h e y a r e commonly
te n d to s p e c i a l i z e i n c e r t a i n v e ry p r o f i t a b l e c ro p s
a n d a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l e m p lo y e rs o f farm l a b o r .
ly
b u t th e se
c o n tr o l th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i r c ro p s,
T hey common­
th u s g u a ra n te e in g
th e m se lv e s s u r e r p r o f i t s .
Succ e s s i o n o f c r o p s .
p a rtic u la rly
C a lifo rn ia ,
The c l i m a t e s o f t h e w e s t ,
a r e su ch t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to
p l a n t t h e sam e c r o p i n v a r i o u s a r e a s a n d so s e c u r e a s u c c e s s ­
i o n o f h a r v e s t s and a s te a d y s u p p ly o f t h e c ro p f o r th e
m a rk e t.
P r o c e e d in g fro m s o u th to n o r t h i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
f r o m t h e warm v a l l e y s
to th e cool c o a s ta l p la in
it
and
is
p o s s ib le to fo llo w a s e r i e s o f h a r v e s ts o f v a r io u s c ro p s a l l
th ro u g h th e y e a r.
C a lifo rn ia ,
B ecause o f th e v a r i e t y o f p ro d u c ts in
some c r o p i s
b e in g h a r v e s te d every d ay .
d em an d f o r l a b o r u s u a l l y c o m in g a t h a r v e s t t i m e ,
t h e h a r v e s t s from one p a r t o f th e s t a t e
W ith t h e
fo llo w in g
t o a n o t h e r seem s t h e
118
n o rm a l and l o g i c a l t h i n g to do.
E a c h j o b l a s t s o n l y a few
w e e k s an d t h e n t i m e m u s t b e l o s t i n g o i n g t o t h e n e x t j o b .
T im e i s
a ls o l o s t b ecau se o f th e w e a th e r.
C hanges i n ty p e s o f c ro p s r a i s e d .
As c i r c u m s t a n c e s
m ade t h e v a r i o u s c r o p s m ore p r o f i t a b l e C a l i f o r n i a h a s
su c c e ssiv e ly
seen c a t t l e ,
w h eat,
v e g e t a b l e s and c o t t o n i n t r o d u c e d .
fru it,
sugar b e e ts ,p o ta to e s ,
A ll o f th e se crops are
now r a i s e d , w i t h f r u i t p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t common.
areas ra isin g
It
is
to
th e s e c ro p s t h a t th e stre a m o f m ig ra to ry la b o r
flo w s.
C hanges i n
so u rc e s o f la b o r su p p ly .
The e a r l i e s t
m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s w e r e s i n g l e men who f o l l o w e d t h e w h e a t
h a rv e sts.
D u rin g th e t r a n s i t i o n
from w h e a t to f r u i t th e
C h i n e s e b e c a m e t h e common s o u r c e o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r .
When
t h e y w e r e e x c l u d e d i n 1 8 7 9 , t h e i r p l a c e w as t a k e n b y t h e
J a p a n e s e , who s t a r t e d c o m in g i n n u m b e r s a b o u t 1 9 1 1 .
They
w e re th e f i r s t l a b o r s u p p ly i n th e b e e t and b e r r y h a r v e s t s .
They,
to o , w ere b a r r e d i n 1924.
E a s t I n d i a n s cam e i n s m a l l
n u m b e r s b e t w e e n 1907 a n d 1 9 2 4 .
A l l o f t h e s e r a c i a l g r o u p s h a v e g o n e t h r o u g h t h e sam e
s t a g e s o f b e i n g f i r s t lo w p a i d l a b o r e r s ,
th e n b eco m in g
f a r m e r s and f i n a l l y d r i f t i n g to th e c i t i e s .
a r e o n l y now e n t e r i n g t h i s
l a s t s ta g e .
The J a p a n e s e
They now c o n t r o l
m o s t o f t h e b e e t — an d b e r r y - r a i s i n g i n C a l i f o m i a an d much
119
of
th e c a n ta lo u p e in d u s tr y in I m p e ria l V a lle y .
F o r a few y e a r s s o u t h E u r o p e a n s w o rk e d a s m i g r a t o r y
la b o re rs b u t th e se ,
to o , h a v e becom e g ro w e rs .
D u r i n g t h e W o rld War o f 1 9 1 4 t h e M e x ic a n s s t a r t e d
co m in g , b e c o m in g i m p o r t a n t a s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r e r s a b o u t
1917.
I n many w a y s t h e y h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y
l a b o r s u p p ly , b e in g t r a c t a b l e ,
fie d .
d e p e n d a b le and e a s i l y
s a tis ­
They a r e n o t a m b i t i o u s t o b eco m e g r o w e r s a s f o r m e r
g r o u p s h a v e b e e n a n d e v e n a f t e r t h e y h a v e moved t o
sm a lle r c i t i e s
la b o re rs.
th e
th e y s t i l l re m a in l a r g e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l
The s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n i s
a lso
s t a y i n g wi t h t h e
crops.
F i l i p i n o s came i n l a r g e n u m b e r s f ro m 19 2 3 u n t i l 1929
and s t i l l
s u p p ly a l a r g e s h a re o f t h e
la b o r in c e r ta in cro p s.
The w h i t e r e f u g e e l a b o r f ro m t h e d r o u g h t a n d c o t t o n
s ta te s
s t a r t e d c o m in g i n 1930 an d a r e s t i l l c o m in g i n l a r g e
num bers.
A t l e a s t 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 h a v e come a n d t h e y now f o r m t h e
m a jo rity o f th e m ig ra to ry p o p u la tio n .
down, m o s tly i n
Many a r e s e t t l i n g
th e c o t t o n g ro w in g c o u n t i e s o f t h e s o u th e r n
San J o a q u in V a l l e y ,
an d t h e f r u i t c o u n t i e s o f t h e S a c r a m e n t o .
A few a r e s e t t l i n g i n L o s A n g e l e s .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m ig ra to ry w o rk e rs.
M ig r a to r y w ork­
e r s a re o ld e r th a n th e av erag e p o p u la tio n ; have f a m ilie s o f
f r o m two t o t h r e e c h i l d r e n a n d t e n d t o h a v e f e w e r b r o k e n
hom es th a n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .
They h a v e b eco m e m i g r a n t s
120
TABLE XXII
PERCENTAGE OF NATIONALITIES IN
MIGRATORY LABOR CAMPS OF CALIFORNIA3-
Y ear
N um ber
P e rc e n ta g e s,
a c c o rd in g to n a t i o n a l i t y
03
<D
P
1914
1920
1926
19 29
1931-32
1933-34
3 2 ,0 4 8
5 7 ,7 6 7
6 2 ,7 1 5
8 5 ,8 1 3
6 8 ,5 3 8
6 4 ,1 1 9
a.
d
q
•H
4 9 .3
6 4 ,7
4 9 .8
4 9 .1
4 8 .8
4 7 .3
[Lewis]
o
0
c
d
o
<D
1 1 .2
1 4 .0
2 7 .3
3 1 .3
2 8 .2
3 2 .5
05
0
c*
3
Qi
d
7 .4
5 .6
3 .0
2 .9
3 .0
3 .2
Xj
0
u
0
a
•H
ra
•H
rH
c;
•H
<rl
XJ
XJ
X)
•P
O
o
2 .3
2 .2
2 .1
1 .2
2 8 .7
1 3 .5
1 1 .5
7 .8
5 .9
0 .5
—
5 .3
7 .9
1 3 .6
1 1 .3
op* c i t * , p* 3 9 .
©
©
o
i—
!
O
o
•rH
o
•H
u
0
Q
nd
0
U
o
-
3 .2
-p
1 .1
—
1 .0
-
.5
-
121
i n o r d e r to k e e p on e a r n i n g a l i v i n g and t o g a i n o r m a in ta in
e c o n o m ic i n d e p e n d e n c e .
At f i r s t
t h e y p l a n t o s e t t l e down;
t h e n a s i t becom es c l e a r t h a t th e y m u st m i g r a t e t o w ork th e y
a d a p t t h e i r w ays o f l i v i n g t o i t
th e m ig ra to ry l i f e .
and f i n a l l y
come t o p r e f e r
M o st m i g r a n t s h o l d f r o m two t o t h r e e
jo b s a y ear.
M ig ra tio n r o u te s .
The r o u t e s f o l l o w e d b y m o s t
m i g r a n t s t a k e th e m f r o m I m p e r i a l V a l l e y i n t o t h e S an J o a q u i n
V a l l e y , w h e r e t h e M e x ic a n s commonly s t a y w h i l e t h e w h i t e s go
on in to
th e S acram en to V a l l e y .
M o st o f them do n o t know
w h a t j o b t h e y w i l l g e t when t h e y go t o
t h e new l o c a l i t y .
T he tim e o f t h e y e a r o f m i g r a t i n g from s o u th to n o r t h v a r i e s
by ra c e s ;
t h e M e x ic a n s g o i n g i n m id -s u m m e r a n d t h e w h i t e s i n
th e sp rin g .
A n n u a l m i g r a t i o n s f>r t h e w i n t e r m o n th s fro m
O k la h o m a a n d A r i z o n a a r e b e c o m i n g m o re common.
The e m p lo y m e n t a g e n c i e s h a v e b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l i n
d i r e c t i n g t h e flo w o f m ig r a to r y l a b o r ,
th e
p r in c ip a lly because
e m p lo y e rs e n c o u ra g e t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o v e r s u p p ly o f
la b o r.
Labor c o n tr a c to r s .
a la b o r c o n tra c to r.
M o st w o r k e r s a r e e m p lo y e d t h r o u g h
T h is i s
a s a t i s f a c t o r y a r r a n g e m e n t when
t h e c o n t r a c t o r i s h o n e s t and d e p e n d a b le ,
l a b o r s u p p ly to
e n su rin g a s u f f i c i e n t
th e g ro w er and jo b s to th e w o rk e rs .
The
sy ste m h a s , how ever, b e e n th e s u b je c t o f c o n s id e r a b le ab u se.
122
W ages.
is
The o v e r s u p p l y o f l a b o r , com m only o b s e r v e d ,
p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e lo w w a g e s c a l e .
I n d e e d many
w r i t e r s h av e a c c u s e d th e g ro w ers o f d e l i b e r a t e l y
w ages by f o s t e r i n g an o v e r s u p p ly o f l a b o r .
E a rn in g s ran g e
fro m # 1 .6 0 to # 3 .0 0 a day d e p e n d in g on t h e c r o p ,
# 2 8 1 .0 0 to # 4 0 0 .0 0 a y e a r .
The w o rk i s
d e p re ssin g
o r fro m
very i n t e r m i t t e n t .
T h e in c o m e o f m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s i s v e r y s m a l l when t h e c o s t
o f m ig ra tin g i s
c o n s id e re d .
C h ild la b o r .
The u s in g o f c h i l d r e n to p i c k c r o p s i s
s t i l l q u i t e common, some o f them e v e n w o r k i n g o n s c h o o l d a y s
in
a few p l a c e s i n s p i t e o f l a w s f o r b i d d i n g i t *
The p e r ­
m i t t i n g o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r e i g h t e e n t o w o rk a f t e r t h e y h a v e
re a c h e d t h e i r s ix te e n th b ir th d a y i s a lm o st u n iv e r s a l.
M o st
gro w ers a r e g la d to c o o p e r a te in k e e p in g c h ild r e n un d er s ix ­
t e e n y e a r s o u t o f t h e f i e l d s on s c h o o l d a y s .
CHAPTER IV
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEA,-GROWING IN IMPERIAL VALLEY
I.
GEOGRAPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
D e s c rip tio n of Im p e ria l V a lle y *
The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y , l y i n g i n t h e e x t r e m e s o u t h ­
e a s te rn p o rtio n of C a lifo rn ia , is a la rg e i r r ig a te d
s e t t l e m e n t , r e c l a i m e d from t h e C o lo ra d o D e s e r t .
It is
a h u g e b a s i n o f a p p ro x im a te ly 8000 sq u a re m ile s , bounded
on t h e e a s t , w e s t, and n o r t h by b o l d t r e e l e s s m o u n ta in s
a n d s t r e t c h i n g away t o t h e G u l f o f C a l i f o r n i a on t h e
s o u th *
M ore t h a n 2 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s o f t h i s b a s i n , a l ­
m o st e n t i r e l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , l i e b e l o w s e a l e v e l ,
w i t h t h e l o w e s t p o i n t 2 8 7 f e e t b e l o w a t t h e n o r t h e r n en d
i n t h e a r e a a t p r e s e n t c o v e r e d by t h e S a l t o n S ea . . .
D e s e rt c lim a te c o n d itio n s p r e v a il.
A g r ic u ltu r e depends
n o t a t a l l upon r a i n f a l l , t h e c h i e f r e s u l t o f w h ic h i s
t o m ake i m p a s s a b l e t h e r o a d s a n d h a m p e r t h e h a r v e s t i n g
of c ro p s .1
As w i l l b e s e e n i n F i g u r e 6 ,
I m p e r i a l V a lle y and
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty a r e n o t q u i t e s y n o n y m o u s , a l t h o u g h p r a c t i ­
c a lly
so,
s in c e n e a rly
a ll
t h e c o u n t y 1s p o p u l a t i o n i s i n
Im p e ria l V a lle y .
G e o g ra p h ic a lly ,
N ile d e l ta w ith i t s
s o il,
d eep s i l t s o i l and d e s e r t c lim a te .
The
when t h o r o u g h l y w e t , i s b o t t o m l e s s a n d c a n n o t ev e n b e
w a lk e d upon.
adobe,
-the v a l l e y may b e c o m p a r e d t o t h e
I t v a rie s
fro m n e a r l y p u r e
sand to t h e h e a v i e s t
each ty p e b e in g a d a p te d to a c e r t a i n c ro p .
The p r o b l e m
1 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s . V o l . I , The I m p e r i a l V a i l e y ( B e r k e l e . y , C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n iv e r s ity o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ), p . 3.
Dry^Letke
Qua-
:{ ' W -
¥ ^ |
%^T'
\^ ; “
-^ c -e g o P O
'v.-.-i:
W •-- ; ya;
LakeH odges
^RAMONA'
~?'
P
"--WESTVf%ANn \
•STATE
y
-M
V
BRAWLE'
cuy Amaca r a n c h o
CbidSor
D rylyr
UALPiNE
^HOLTVILLE
.■Spri
-PARK
Uguby
^ouo\A/«
+er
T i £' V
s^ vs
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•i
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i '^Sjti^iweStorVrn
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12!
iVISTAl
CAM30 _ -__
_
— *__ JACUMBA
rr
FIGURE
6
SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA SHOWING THE LOCATION OF IMPERIAL VALLEY
125
o f w a t e r s u p p l y and. f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n ,
lo n g a t h r e a t to th e
p e rm a n e n c e o f t h e v a lle y * s a g r i c u l t u r e , h a s b e e n s o lv e d by
t h e B o u l d e r Dam a n d A l l - A m e r i c a n C a n a l P r o j e c t s , w h i c h b r i n g
a fa ir-siz e d
r i v e r u n d e r c o m p le te c o n t r o l to m eet th e n e e d s
o f a g ric u ltu re .
L arg e a r e a s o f th e v a l l e y a r e w a s te la n d ,
e i t h e r b e c a u se of th e h a rd n e s s o f th e
ris e
s o il o r b e c a u se o f th e
o f s a l t an d a l k a l i i n t o o t h e r w i s e good s o i l .
I t is
e x p e c te d t h a t th e c o m p le tio n o f a d r a in a g e sy stem w i l l n o t
o n ly p r e v e n t f u r t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n o f fa rm la n d fro m t h i s c a u s e
b u t may e v e n r e c l a i m some l a n d a l r e a d y u s e l e s s .
The c l i m a t e i s
a t once i t s
c h i e f a s s e t and g r e a t e s t
h a n d ic a p .
R a n g i n g f ro m a n e x t r e m e lo w o f n i n e t e e n d e g r e e s
above zero
to an ex trem e h i g h o f o n e h u n d re d and t w e n t y - f i v e
d e g r e e s and w ith g r e a t v a r i a t i o n b e tw e e n day and n i g h t ,
it
m a k e s p o s s i b l e t h e fa m o u s l e t t u c e a n d c a n t a l o u p e c r o p s b u t a t
t h e same t i m e m akes l i v i n g
so u n p l e a s a n t i n t h e
summer t h a t
a f e e l i n g o f im p e rm a n e n c e h a s b e e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
l a s t few y e a r s .
th e n g e ttin g o u t.
u n t i l th e
Many h a d t h e i d e a o f m a k in g a " s t a k e " a n d
Many l a n d o w n e r s h a v e a lre a d y moved t o
m ore s a l u b r i o u s c l i m a t e s and h a v e i n t e n s i f i e d t h e farm
te n a n c y p ro b le m .
T e m p e ratu re and c r o p s .
The c o n t r o l o f minimum
te m p e ra tu re s o v e r th e ty p e s o f cro p s r a is e d i s
re s p o n s ib le
f o r th e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f a r e a s on c e r t a i n t r u c k c ro p s#
The
126
w arm f a l l m o n t h s f o r c e t h e g r o w t h o f l e t t u c e ,
c a r r o t s and
f a l l p eas and p ro d u ce t h e f a l l a s p a ra g u s c ro p .
The s i x w e e k s
o f n e a r f r e e z i n g w e a th e r d u r in g D ecem ber and e a r l y J a n u a ry
m ake p o s s i b l e
some o f t h e b e s t l e t t u c e
in th e n a tio n .
The
tw o w e e k s o f q u i t e warm w e a t h e r i n l a t e J a n u a r y a n d e a r l y
F e b r u a r y make p o s s i b l e t h e e a r l y m e l o n s a n d t o m a t o e s an d
s t a r t t h e s p r i n g p e a s to b lo o m in g , w h i l e th e c o o l w in d s o f
la te
fa st.
F e b r u a r y a n d M arch k e e p t h e p e a c r o p f r o m m a t u r i n g t o o
Even t h e h o t w e a t h e r o f J u l y a n d A u g u s t h a v e a v a l u e
in p ro d u c in g th e h ig h s u g a r c o n te n t o f th e g r a p e f r u i t .
M o st
o f th e s e c ro p s have th e a d d i t i o n a l a d v a n ta g e o f m a tu rin g a t
a t i m e when t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l l y
in
th e n a tio n .
no o t h e r c o m p e t i n g c r o p s
R a th e r th a n b e in g r a i s e d
m a r k e t s i n L o s A n g e l e s a n d San F r a n c i s c o
f o r th e lo c a l
th e y a r e r a i s e d
f o r t h e h i g h - p r i c e m a r k e t s o f New Y o r k a n d C h i c a g o .
II.
THE PEA-GROWING- AREA
L o c a t i o n i n V a l l e y — Two c r o p s .
many p a r t s o f I m p e r i a l V a l l e y . ^
in g o f peas is
of C a lip a tria .3
B ut in one a r e a th e r a i s ­
th e p r in c ip a l in d u s try .
fls p r i n g p e a " b e l t ,
Peas a re r a is e d in
T h is i s
th e s o - c a lle d
a b e a n -s h a p e d a r e a l y i n g e a s t and n o r th
T h i s a r e a h a s a v i r t u a l m o n o p o ly on t h e
2 V iz .,
F ig u re 6, p.
124.
3 V iz .,
F ig u re 7 , p.
127.
127
N
Stale o^Oiile-S
C3
Growers Cam>p&
K
..
nc
" 7
XT
..
t>
■•13
FIC-UHE
7
PR IN C IPA L PEA-GROWING AREAS IN IMPERIAL VALLEY SHOWING
LOCATION OF CAMPS
128
r a is in g o f sp rin g p eas,
s i n c e h e r e a l o n e do t h e c l i m a t i c
c o n d i t i o n s m ake i t p o s s i b l e .
The p r i n c i p a l c o n t r o l i s
te m p e ra tu re ,
a lso
a lth o u g h s o i l i s
an im p o r ta n t f a c t o r .
Good p e a - r a i s i n g s o i l m u s t b e s a n d y ,
so t h e w a t e r
w i l l n o t s t a n d i n t h e p e a s a n d c a u s e m ild e w ,
e n o u g h b o d y t o make a c r o p .
an d s t i l l w i t h
The g r o w e r s h a v e im p r o v e d t h e i r
s o i l by h e a v y a p p l i c a t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r and by t i l i n g .
N e a rly a l l th e b e s t f i e l d s a r e t i l e d
and th e p ro b le m o f
a lk a li,
i s th u s e lim in a te d .
to w h ic h p e a s a r e
second f a c to r i s
se n sitiv e ,
fro st-fre e n e ss.
A
P eas t o l e r a t e c o n sid e ra b ly
l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a n many c r o p s ,
such as to m a to e s, b u t
c o n tin u e d n ig h t te m p e ra tu re s o f tw e n ty -se v e n d e g re e s o r
lo w e r w i l l d e s tr o y th e b lo sso m s and r u i n
th e im m atu re p e a s .
H ence t h e p e a - g r o w in g a r e a m ust b e v i r t u a l l y
th e s p rin g -p e a -a re a t h i s i s th e c ase.
fro st-fre e .
A g e n tle
In
s lo p e to w a rd
t h e S a lto n S ea p r o v id e s t h i s and th e w i n t e r - t o m a t o - a r e a
n o r t h w e s t o f N i l a n d w i t h t h e p h en o m en o n known a s t e m p e r a t u r e
in v e rsio n .
The f r o s t d r a i n s down to t h e l o w e r l e v e l s
and
d i f f e r e n c e s o f f o u r o r f i v e d e g r e e s b e tw e e n th e s p r i n g and
f a l l - p e a - a r e a s a r e n o t unknow n.
s a n d y s o i l w arm s up m ore e a s i l y
B e sid e s t h i s
th e l i g h t ,
t h a n a h e a v i e r s o i l an d so
a id s in c o u n te ra c tin g th e e f f e c t o f th e c o o l n ig h ts .
d ic a te d above,
t h e r e a r e two a r e a s ,
As i n ­
each w ith i t s h a r v e s t
t i m e , o n e b e g i n n i n g i n N o v em b er, t h e o t h e r a b o u t F e b r u a r y
15.
P i c k i n g s t a r t s on t h e f a l l p e a s a n d c o n t i n u e s u n t i l
129
t h e y a r e d e s t r o y e d by f r o s t , w h i c h may come an y t i m e fro m
N o v em b er 1 t o J a n u a r y 1 .
a r e a o f f r o s t d ra in a g e ,
in F eb ru ary .
S p rin g p e a s , b e in g p la n t e d in th e
a r e n o t h u r t by th e f r o s t ,
These l a t t e r p e a s ,
and m a tu re
a t t h e t i m e t h e y f i r s t come
o n , h a v e a m o n o p o ly o f t h e n a t i o n ' s m a r k e t ,
s i n c e t h e R io
G r a n d e V a l l e y p e a s a r e u s u a l l y a m o n th a n d t h e F l o r i d a p e a s
a t l e a s t two w e e k s l a t e r i n m a t u r i n g . 4
if
As t h e s e a s o n c l o s e s ,
th e t h r i p s have n o t d e stro y e d th e cro p ,
m u s t c o m p e te n o t o n l y w i t h
th e
sp rin g peas
t h o s e a r e a s a b o v e nam ed b u t a l s o
w i t h t h e A r r o y o G r a n d e - P i s m o B e a c h a r e a an d s t i l l
S a n t a M a ria and th e n S a l i n a s ,
crop,
if
it
is
T racy,
l a t e r w ith
a n d San J o s e ,
so t h e
t o make m oney, m u s t b e p i c k e d a s r a p i d l y a s i t
m a tu re s. 5
H azard s to c ro p .
s o il,
" fro s tle s s "
a r e a a n d a m o n o p o ly on t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n a l
m ark et f o r a s h o rt tim e ,
sp rin g ,
W ith i t s n a t u r a l a d v a n ta g e s su ch a s
th e pea d e a l,
i s h ig h ly fav o red .
e sp e c ia lly
T h ere a r e how ever,
in th e
s t i l l many
f a c t o r s b e y o n d t h e c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f t h e g r o w e r s w h i c h may
p r e v e n t t h e i r r a i s i n g and h a r v e s t i n g a good c r o p .
As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d ,
p le te ly
fro s tle s s .
4 V iz .,
no a r e a i n t h e V a l l e y i s com­
P eas as w e ll as o th e r c ro p s,
T a b le X X III, p .
5 V i z . , T a b le I I I ,
130.
p . 43.
n eed o n ly
130
TABLE XXIII
MARKETING SEASON FOR PEAS THROUGHOUT
THE UNITED STATES 1 9 3 8 - 3 2 *
Season
R e g io n
P ro d u c tio n * 5
1*000 b u s h e ls
24
3 12
85
28
E a rly
A riz o n a
Im p e ria l V a lle y
F lo rid a
Texas
Second e a rly
A la b a m a
C a lifo rn ia , o th e r
L o u isia n a
M is sis sip p i
S o u th C a r o l i n a
I n t e r m e d i a t e A.
N o rth C a r o l i n a
Tennessee
V irg in ia
3 03
15
147
I n t e r m e d i a t e B.
M ary lan d
New J e r s e y
49
233
L a t e A.
C o lo rad o
Id ah o
New Y o rk
O re g o n
W a sh in g to n
51 4
193
532
58
497
L a t e B.
C a lifo rn ia
587
L a t e C.
A riz o n a
Im p e ria l V a lle y
56
426
15
1 ,7 8 1
72
161
157
a.
U n ite d S t a t e s D e p a rtm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,
A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s ( W a s h i n g t o n D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s
G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 8 2 .
b.
The p r o d u c t i o n i n b u s h e l s i s n o t a r e l i a b l e
in d e x o f th e v a lu e o f th e cro p .
O f . , T a b l e X XIV., p . 1 3 7 .
131
o n e v e r y c o ld n i g h t to d e s t r o y
in
th e v in e s c o m p le te ly .
Tw ice
t h e l a s t n i n e y e a r s t h i s h a s h a p p e n e d a n d o n l y a few
fie ld s
e s c a p e d c o m p le te d e s t r u c t i o n *
a r e dam aged som ew hat*
t h e v i n e s by f r o s t i s
N e a rly ev ery y e a r c ro p s
In th e f a l l - p e a a re a d e s tr u c tio n o f
th e ex p e c te d t h in g ,
ta k e a p r o f i t b e fo re th is happens.
If
an d g r o w e r s h o p e t o
th e m arket i s
ju st
r i g h t an d t h e p e a s a r e n e i t h e r so e a r l y t h a t t h e y h a v e t o com­
p e t e w i t h o t h e r C a l i f o r n i a a n d A r i z o n a p e a s n o r so l a t e
t h e f r o s t g e t s th e m , a g o o d p r o f i t i s
re a liz e d .
b r in g s a b e t t e r p r ic e as th e season advances;
in
sp rin g peas i s
th a t
The f a l l c r o p
th e b o o t p r ic e
th e f i r s t o f th e c ro p .
L a s t y e a r a h eav y r a i n i n S ep tem b er c a u s e d e r o s i o n i n
t h e f i e l d s w h i c h w ip e d o u t n e a r l y a l l t h e p l a n t i n g o f f a l l
p e a s a n d some o f t h e s p r i n g p e a s .
B e sid e s,
a r a i n d u rin g
h a r v e s t s e a s o n w i l l d e l a y p i c k i n g an d may c o s t t h e g r o w e r
th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s as w e ll a s p u ttin g th e p ic k e r s o u t of
w ork.
P e a s m u s t b e p i c k e d a t l e a s t t w i c e a w eek w h en t h e y
a r e rip e n in g ra p id ly ,
and,
as has been in d ic a te d ,
r a i n may k e e p t r u c k s a n d p i c k e r s o u t o f t h e f i e l d s
w eek.
R ain i s n e v e r p o p u l a r i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y .
be n e a rly as g r e a t a h a z a rd as th e r a i n .
"w arm s p e l l "
com es to o e a r l y
t h a t th e m ark et i s
v in e s a lso
If
a sev ere
fo r a
The s u n may
th e Jan u ary
t h e c ro p p ro d u c e s so h e a v i l y
g l u t t e d a n d t h e p r i c e g o e s down a n d t h e
te n d to d ry up.
132
Warm w e a t h e r a l s o b r i n g s on i n s e c t p e s t s .
s tin g s
th e s i d e o f t h e im m atu re pod and i t n e v e r f i l l s
p ro p e rly .
If
e v e r y week.
The g r o w e r s a r e f o r c e d t o d u s t t h e i r
T h is i s
done w ith a ir p la n e s .
The c l i m a t e a n d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s .
L iv in g i n
on th e d e s e r t i n th e w in te r i s n o t as p le a s a n t as i t
seem .
out
t h e y b eco m e m o re n u m e r o u s t h e y e a t t h e f l o w e r s
and even th e v i n e s .
fie ld s
A th rip
W h ile i t
is
u s u a l l y j u s t warm,
it
a te n t
m ig h t
s o m e tim e s g e t s a s h o t
a s n i n e t y d e g r e e s i n J a n u a r y o r F e b r u a r y f o r a few d a y s .
On
t h e o t h e r h a n d t e m p e r a t u r e s a s low as t w e n t y - s e v e n d e g r e e s a r e
e q u a l l y u n p l e a s a n t w hen o n e i s
liv in g o u t of doors.
The c o l d
w i n d s o f f t h e m o u n t a i n s , w h i c h make t h e s p r i n g c r o p so p r o ­
f i t a b l e b y s l o w i n g up t h e s e a s o n ,
a re n o t g e n tle zephyrs b u t
f r e q u e n t l y young sand sto rm s.
R a in , h o w e v e r, i s
o f mud.
th e w o rst t r i a l .
Camps b e c o m e a s e a
S c h o o l s a r e c l o s e d a n d t h e r e i s no w o r k ,
a n d a d u l t s a r e c o o p e d up i n l i t t l e
be w a te r-tig h t.
so c h i l d r e n
t e n t s t h a t may o r may n o t
C o o k in g , n o r m a l l y d o n e o u t o f d o o r s , b e c o m e s
a n a d d i t i o n a l h a z a r d an d t h e e r s t w h i l e p i c k e r i s l u c k y i f h i s
t e n t i s n o t b u r n e d down.
T he e f f e c t o f t h e b a d s e a s o n o f
1 9 3 7 a t Nipomo on t h e l i v e s o f t h e p i c k e r s i s w e l l t o l d
in
th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n :
The f i r s t c r o p L o f p e a s ] r u s t e d w i t h t h e t o o a b u n d a n t
r a i n a n d t h e m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r paw n ed h i s r i c k e t y c a r
a n d t h e w h e e l s o f h i s t r a i l e r t o g e t money f o r f o o d ,
t h e n s t a r v e d u n t i l IJ1. S. AH r e l i e f f u n d s b r o u g h t h i m a
133
fe w n e e d s .
T h e r e w e r e s t i l l m o re d i r e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h
t h e c o m in g o f t h e f r o s t w h i c h n i p p e d t h e l a t e c r o p o f
peas.
S e v e r a l h u n d r e d s h a d i n some way s e c u r e d g a s o l i n e
t o move o n w a r d — 1 , 8 0 0 s t i l l r e m a i n e d , t h e v i c t i m s o f m a l­
n u t r i t i o n and d is c o u ra g e m e n t.
W h o le f a m i l i e s m u s t p i c k
a l l day to s e c u r e s i x o r e i g h t h am p ers o f p e a s ; th e
c o m b in e d g a r n i n g s ( # 1 . 5 0 t o $ 2 . 0 0 ) c o u l d n o t f e e d t h e
fa m ilie s .6
III.
ORGANIZATION FOR GROWING, HARVESTING AND MARKETING
B e g in n in g s o f p e a - r a i s i n g .
V a lle y as e a r ly a s 1916.
P e a s w ere r a i s e d i n t h e
I t w as n o t , h o w e v e r ,
u n til
th e
c o l l a p s e o f t h e c o t t o n boom an d t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e " f r o s t le s s b e lt"
i n 1 9 2 1 t h a t t h e I n d u s t r y b co am e w e l l s t a r t e d .
E v en i n t h o s e e a r l y d a y s t h e l a n d was i n l a r g e h o l d i n g s , b u t
e v e n so t h e r e w e r e many g r o w e r s ,
e s p e c ia lly in th e f a l l d e a l.
T he " f r o s t l e s s a r e a " w as n o t s o w e l l d e f i n e d an d many
m a r g i n a l g r o w e r s p l a n t e d a few p e a s .
C o n c e n tr a tio n o f o w n e rsh ip .
rig id
c lim a tic c o n tro ls in
The a b s e n c e o f s u c h
t h e f a l l d e a l h a v e made p o s s i b l e
t h e g ro w in g o f t h i s c r o p anyw here i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y .
Con­
s e q u e n tly i t h a s u n t i l v e ry r e c e n t l y re m a in e d a sm a ll-g ro y /e r
in d u stry .
c r o p and,
Many E a s t I n d i a n s t u r n e d f r o m c o t t o n
to
t h e new
e i t h e r i n t h e nam e o f a m i n o r c h i l d ’'* o r t h r o u g h a
6 E d i t h E. Low ry, " N o t e s on M i g r a n t W o r k ," The
M l s s l o n a r y R e v ie w o f t h e W o r l d .
6 0 :1 0 0 , F e b ru a ry , 1937.
7 O f.,
p . 71.
134
ndummy" c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h w h i t e o f f i c e r s , t h e y b e g a n a c q u i r ­
i n g l a n d a.nd p l a n t i n g t h e c r o p .
O th e r fa rm e rs fo llo w e d s u i t
a n d f o r a few y e a r s i t l o o k e d a s t h o u g h t h e f a l l p e a c r o p
m i g h t b eco m e a m a j o r i n d u s t r y .
a r d o r o f many a n d a f r e e z e
th e m .
Two b a d s e a s o n s d am p en ed t h e
s p e lle d
th e f i n i s h f o r m ost o f
F a l l p e a s becam e o f m in o r im p o r ta n c e .
I n th e
sp rin g d e a l,
on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
a fte r
th e to o
o p t o m i s t i c s o u l s who p l a n t e d o u t s i d e t h e f r o s t l e s s b e l t
w ere e lim in a te d ,
th e g ro w ers p ro s p e re d u n t i l th e f r e e z e o f
1 9 3 2 , when n o t m ore t h a n o n e a c r e i n t e n w as s p a r e d .
S e v e r a l g r o w e r s who h a d o v e r - e x t e n d e d
th e m s e lv e s becam e
b a n k r u p t a n d w e r e b o u g h t o u t f o r a s o n g by a n e i g h b o r who
h a d some r e a d y c a s h o r a b e t t e r c r e d i t r a t i n g .
The s t r i k e o f 193 3 s p e l l e d
t h e f i n i s h o f o t h e r s , who
h a d t a k e n a c h a n c e and m o rtg a g e d t h e i r l a n d to p l a n t
a d d i t i o n a l c r o p s o n ly to h a v e th e w o r k e r s r e f u s e to p i c k i t
f o r an y p r i c e . ®
A f u r t h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o w n e rsh ip to o k
p la c e .
The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e n t r a l i z e d m a r k e t i n g b r o u g h t
p ra c tic a lly
s i n g l e c o n t r o l e v e n f o r t h o s e who w e r e l u c k y
enough to buy i n t h e f r o s t l e s s b e l t an d s m a rt enough to
a v o id p lu n g in g .
M e th o d s o f h a r v e s t i n g .
8 O f.,
In th e
C h a p te r X I, p. 273.
e a rly days o f th e
135
in d u stry
t h e g r o w e r h i r e d a few h a n d s ,
p ic k e d h i s
s h i p p e d t h r o u g h a c o m m i s s io n m e r c h a n t ,
ris k s of ra isin g ,
th u s ta k in g a l l th e
h a r v e s t i n g and m a r k e tin g .
o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s becam e o r g a n iz e d .
c r o p an d
G r a d u a l l y -each
U s u a l l y now,
th e f a l l -
p e a -g ro w e r and th e s m a ll s p r in g - g r o w e r e i t h e r s e l l s
th e crop
in
t h e f i e l d t o a s h ip p e r o r h i r e s a l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r to p ic k
it
f o r h im a t so much a p o u n d a n d s e l l s
th e p ic k e d p e a s to
th e sh ip p e r.
O n ly t h e l a r g e s t g r o w e r s p i c k t h e i r own p e a s ,
i . e . th e y h i r e
t h e i r p ic k e r s and f i e l d b o s s e s ,
co m m issio n b a s i s .
a n d s h i p on a
Of c o u r s e a s t i m e g o e s by o n l y
th e
l a r g e s t g ro w e rs rem ain .
M e th o d s o f m a r k e t i n g .
E a rly in th e h i s t o r y
of pea-
g r o w in g i t becam e e v i d e n t t h a t s u c c e s s i n t h i s b u s i n e s s
r e s t e d a s l a r g e l y o n m a r k e t i n g a s o n any o t h e r f a c t o r .
At
t h a t t i m e t h e common m e th o d o f s e l l i n g w as t o s h i p a c a r l o a d
to
an e a s t e r n c e n t e r ,
s a le s,
th e n ,
s e l l a l l t h a t c o u ld be s o ld a t p r i v a t e
as th e ic e in
th e c a r beg an to m e lt,
to a u c tio n
o f f t h e r e s t f o r w hat i t w o u ld b r i n g .
A few g r o w e r s c o n c e i v e d t h e seem e o f r e - i c i n g
in
t h e e a s t and h o l d i n g t h e p e a s u n t i l
p riv a te ly .
n e c e ssity
But th e la c k o f r e l i a b l e
fo r s p littin g
th e c a r s
th e y c o u ld a l l be s o ld
a g e n ts in th e
e a s t o r th e
t h e p r o f i t w i t h a p e r s o n i n whom t h e y
h a d no c o n f i d e n c e b r o u g h t t h i s p r a c t i c e
t o an e n d .
Two b r o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , who h a d b e e n q u i e t l y
e x p a n d in g
t h e i r h o l d i n g s a n d h a d b o u g h t o n e o f t h e two p a c k i n g s h e d s i n
136
C a l i p a t r i a f r o m t h e c o m m i s s i o n m e r c h a n t s f o r whom t h e y h a d
h i t h e r t o b e e n w o rk in g ,
c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a o f o n e o f them
g o in g to th e e a s t w ith t h e p e a s to
s e l l th em an d t h e o t h e r
m a n a g i n g t h e p i c k i n g an d s h i p p i n g .
The p l a n w o r k e d a d m i r ­
a b ly .
When t h e m a r k e t i n o n e l a r g e c i t y
c a r s a r e s h u n te d to o th e r c i t i e s .
is
s a tis fie d
S in c e th e o n ly c o m p e tito rs
a r e o t h e r C a l i p a t r i a and N i l a n d g r o w e r s , t h a n k s t o
n a t u r a l m o n o p o ly ,
v irtu a lly
th e
th e
t h i s c o m b in a tio n h a s b een a b le to g e t
c o m p le te c o n t r o l o f th e s p r i n g p e a d e a l and th e y
a r e now i n a p o s i t i o n t o d i c t a t e
th e p o l i c i e s f o r th e
e n tire
in d u stry .
S e c t i o n - w id e o r g a n i z a t i o n .
The c o m m i s s i o n m e r c h a n t s
h a v e a te n d e n c y to c o n c e n t r a t e on o n e c ro p i n
r a t h e r th a n s e v e r a l c ro p s i n one a r e a .
s p e c ia liz e s in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n and,
w ith g ro w ers,
se v e ra l areas
T h u s , o n e com pany
th ro u g h a rra n g e m e n ts
much o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a s i n g l e c r o p .
b o a s t t h a t th e y p ic k p e a s ev ery day o f th e y e a r ,
o t h e r g r o w e r - s h i p p e r c o m b i n a t i o n s do f o r l e t t u c e .
They
j u s t as
The a r e a s
i n w h i c h t h e y w o r k a r e show n o n T a b l e XXIV.
By b u y i n g t h e c r o p o f s m a l l g r o w e r s e i t h e r i n t h e
f i e l d o r a s p i c k e d by a l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r an d e i t h e r r u n n i n g
t h e i r own c r e w s o r u s i n g a l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r t o p i c k t h e i r
own c r o p s t h e y a r e e n a b l e d t o s h i f t o p e r a t i o n s f r o m a r e a t o
a r e a as th e c ro p s m a tu re ,
o f t e n g o i n g i n t o I d a h o a n d U ta h o r
O r e g o n a n d W a s h i n g t o n f o r summer c r o p s .
I n t h i s way t h e y c a n
137
TABLE XXIV
SIZE AND VALUE OF PEA CROP IN SIX WESTERN STATES
AND IN CALIFORNIA BY COUNTIES, 1 9 2 9 a
S ta te s o r c o u n tie s
A cres
256
A riz o n a
Id ah o
1 ,1 1 7
O regon
903
2 ,9 0 3
W a sh in g to n
8 ,9 0 9
U ta h
2 6 ,7 8 3
C a lifo rn ia
6 ,3 9 6
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
S a n L u i s O b is p o Co. 4 , 0 7 4
M o n te r e y C o u n ty
3 ,8 4 8
S a n M ate o C o u n ty
3 ,6 2 5
S a n t a C l a r a Co.
1 ,5 4 2
A la m e d a C o u n ty
2 ,6 5 2
587
V e n t u r a C o u n ty
S a n D ie g o C o u n ty
680
584
L o s A n g e l e s C o u n ty
S a n t a B a r b a r a Co.
612
S a c r a m e n t o C o u n ty
494
2 09
R i v e r s i d e C o u n ty
224
C o n t r a C o s t a C o u n ty
204
S a n t a C r u z C o u n ty
S t a n i s l a u s C o u n ty
388
O r a n g e C o u n ty
78
A ll o th e rs
2 ,5 8 6
V alu e
$
1 2 ,2 8 5
7 0 ,4 8 6
1 2 3 ,8 8 5
4 5 8 ,7 1 0
5 9 3 ,7 7 9
2 ,7 8 2 ,6 1 0
6 8 4 ,1 3 3
5 2 8 ,0 2 4
3 2 6 ,4 2 9
3 0 9 ,0 6 0
2 3 1 ,7 7 9
2 2 9 ,9 0 4
9 3 ,5 6 7
6 6 ,7 6 5
6 0 ,7 7 6
5 8 ,7 8 3
5 1 ,6 5 2
4 0 , 686
1 2 ,7 7 0
1 8 ,7 3 8
1 8 ,2 1 0
1 1 ,6 5 3
5 1 ,7 4 1
V a lu e p e r a c r e
$ 4 7 .9 9
6 3 .1 0
1 3 7 .1 9
1 5 3 .0 3
6 6 .6 5
1 0 3 .8 9
1 0 6 .9 6
1 2 9 .6 1
8 4 .8 3
8 5 .2 6
1 5 0 .3 1
8 6 .6 9
1 5 9 .4 0
9 8 .2 0
1 0 4 .0 7
9 6 .0 5
1 0 4 .5 8
1 9 4 .3 8
5 7 .0 1
6 2 .4 4
3 1 .4 7
1 4 9 .4 0
2 0 .0 1
a.
B u reau o f th e C en su s, F i f t e e n t h C ensus o f th e
U n ite d S t a t e s :
1 9 3 0 , A g r i c u l t u r e ( W a s h i n g t o n . D. C . , U n i t e d
S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 ) , V o l . I I , No. 3 . ,
p a ssim .
138
s u p p ly th e l o c a l m e rc h a n ts th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r and d e v e lo p a
re g u la r,
in s te a d o f se a so n a l,
b u s in e s s .
T h is i s
p o p u la r w ith
t h e w h o l e s a l e r who d i s l i k e s c h a n g i n g f r o m d i s t r i b u t o r t o d i s ­
trib u to r.
L a rg e -s c a le o r g a n iz a tio n s such as t h i s a r e th e r u le
in Im p e ria l V a lle y .
In 1934,
s e v e n t y - f o u r I n d i v i d u a l s and
c o r p o r a t i o n s c o n t r o l l e d 3 0 ,1 4 7 a c r e s o f l e t t u c e ,
1 3 ,9 3 2 a c r e s
o f p e a s and 3 ,6 7 5 a c r e s o f c a r r o t s .
g ro w er-
F ifty -th re e
s h i p p e r s ow ned 3 1 , 2 2 4 a c r e s o f m e l o n s . ^
P e a - r a i s i n g i s o n ly in i t s
in fa n cy as a b ig -b u s in e s s
t y p e o f f a r m i n g a n d so f a r i s c o n c e n t r a t e d m a i n l y i n C a l i f ­
o rn ia ,
a s F i g u r e 8 show s.
E v en t h e a r e a s f o r U t a h a n d
W a sh in g to n a r e d e c e i v i n g s i n c e a l a r g e
a r e canned.
s h a re o f th e s e cro p s
A co m p ariso n o f th e v a l u e s ,
a s show n o n T a b l e
XXIV, r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c r e a g e w i l l b e m ore r e v e a l i n g i n
in d ic a tin g th e r e l a t i v e
h a rv e stin g o f peas.
im p o rta n c e o f v a r io u s a r e a s i n th e
As c a n b e s e e n ,
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y 1s c r o p
I s w o r t h m ore t h a n t h e c r o p o f any o t h e r e n t i r e
w e st.
s ta te
in th e
H o w ev er t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f s e c t i o n - w i d e h a r v e s t i n g a r e
p re se n t,
b o t h fro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e g r o w e r ,
th e la b o r
c o n t r a c t o r s a n d t h e p i c k e r s a s w i l l b e show n l a t e r .
flu c tu a tio n
The
i n a c re a g e from y e a r to y e a r I n d i c a t e s th e
9 [Max H. L e w is , E d i t o r l M i g r a , t o r y L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a
(S an F ra n c is c o : C a l i f o r n i a S ta te R e li e f A d m in is tr a tio n , 1 936),
p . 58.
Cartocraft Desk Outline Map, Western United States.
No. 7177
1110
,8 0 5 *
*
,7 8 2 ,6 1 0 .
y
1 2 ,2 8 5 .
•MH!!!:!!!........ liiiMUtf
FIGURE
VALUE OF PEA CROP IN
S IX WESTERN ST A T E S,
e a u o f t h e Cen
a . P rom
F i f t e e n t h Cen u s o f t h e J U n i t e d
S t a t e ' s t 1 9 3 0 .II A g r i c u l t u r e * 3 v
P a r t ' ^ T h e W e_s_t_e _r n_ S t t e s
te d S ta te s
•\ C• •
ovi&rMeX^ P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 3 ) ,
a ssim .
1929 a
J
Scale of Mites
Published by DENOYER-GEPPERT CO., Chicago
140
u n s e ttle d
s ta g e o f th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e c ro p .
I n 1929,
as
sh o w n I n T a b l e XXIV, C a l i f o r n i a p r o d u c e d 2 6 , 7 8 3 a c r e s o f p e a s .
In
1935-36,
a c c o rd in g to
th e U n iv e rs ity o f C a l i f o r n i a su rv ey ,
t h e r e w ere 7 5 ,2 8 6 a c r e s o f p e a s i n C a l i f o r n i a . ^
I m p e r ia l V a lle y
t h e 1929 f i g u r e i s
L ik e w is e f o r
6 ,3 9 6 a c r e s w h e re a s th e
D e p a rtm e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s r e p o r t g iv e s t h e 1939-40
f i g u r e as 1 ,7 2 0 a c r e s . E s t i m a t i n g
acre
(A dam s1 f i g u r e )
e ig h ty -tw o ham pers to
th e
a t t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s p e r h a m p e r w o u ld
m ake t h e p a y r o l l i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y 1s p e a s t o v a r y f ro m
$ 3 5 ,2 6 0 .
to $ 1 3 1 ,1 1 8 .
IV .
LABOR SUPPLY AND WORKING CONDITIONS
P e r is h a b le cro p and f l u c t u a t i n g m a rk e t.
Much c r i t i ­
c i s m h a s b e e n l e v e l e d a g a i n s t t h e g r o w e r s f o r f o s t e r i n g an
o v e rsu p p ly o f
H ow ever,
l a b o r ,
^
a n d d o u b t l e s s much o f i t i s
ju stifie d .
i t m u s t b e b o r n e i n m ind t h a t a c r o p a s p e r i s h a b l e
10 R. L. Adams, S e a s o n a l L a b o r R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
C a l i f o r n i a * s C r o p s ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : The U n i v e r s i t y o f
C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ), p . 6.
11 C a l i f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ,
R e p o r t t o G o v e r n o r 1 s C o u n c i l . F e b r u a r y , 1940 ( M im e o g r a p h e d ,
n . n . , F e b ru a ry , 1940), p. 17.
12 C f . , [Lewis] o £ . c i t . . p . 1 0 4 ; C a r e y M c W i lli a m s ,
F a c t o r i e s i n t h e F i e l d . The S t o r y o f M i g r a t o r y F arm L a b o r i n
C a l i f o r n i a ~ TN ew Y o rk : L i t t l e , Brown a n d Company, 1 9 3 9 ) ,
p a ssim .
141
a s p e a s an d a f l u c t u a t i n g m a r k e t r e q u i r e s a much l a r g e r
l a b o r s u p p ly a t c e r t a i n tim e s
th a n can be k e p t w o rk in g
s te a d ily .
rig h t i t
When t h e m a r k e t i s
a d v a n ta g e to
is
to th e g ro w e r1s
s e l l a s l a r g e a s u p p ly a t t h a t p r i c e a s h e can
do a n d so o b v i o u s l y h e p i c k s h i s l a s t a v a i l a b l e p e a s a l l on
th e
sam e d a y a n d t h e r e w i l l b e no m ore w o rk f o r t h r e e d a y s .
T h i s w as n o t e d b y P r a n k T a y l o r who r e p o r t e d c a s e s o f c r o p s
p i c k e d i n a w eek w h i c h c o u l d h a v e b e e n s t r e t c h e d o v e r a
m o n t h , ^ 3 an d i s
th u s t y p i c a l o f a l l such i n d u s t r i e s .
f i n d i n g f a u l t w i t h i t m u st f i n d a s o l u t i o n
b lem o f m e rc h a n d is in g o f p e r i s h a b l e s .
Those
to th e w h o le p r o ­
I t d o e s seem t o t h i s
w r i t e r t h a t g r e a t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n dem and a r e a r e f l e c t i o n o f
p e rio d ic
sc a rc ity
a n d t h a t a m o re o r d e r l y p r o c e s s o f s u p p l y ­
i n g m a r k e t s w o u l d i n t h e e n d n e t a b o u t t h e same in c o m e t o t h e
gro w er.
L a rg e o v e r - s u p p ly e x i s t s
ev ery y e a r .
W ith o u t d o u b t
t h e c o m in g o f t h e r e f u g e e l a b o r h a s a g g r a v a t e d a n a l r e a d y
s e r i o u s p ro b le m .
When t h e y come o f t h e i r own a c c o r d ,
sh o w n i n C h a p t e r I I I ,
it
is
as
s e r i o u s e n o u g h b u t when a n
em p lo y e r, be h e g ro w er o r l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r ,
d e lib e ra te ly
b r i n g s i n m ore p i c k e r s f r o m A r i z o n a w hen an o v e r - s u p p l y
13 F r a n k J . T a y l o r , 0C a l i f o r n i a 1 & G-rapes o f W r a t h , 0
F o ru m an d C e n t u r y . 1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N ov em ber, 1 9 3 9 .
142
alre a d y
e x ists
a s w as t h e c a s e when L o u i s M o rt b r o u g h t
3 . 0 0 0 p i c k e r s t o C a l i f o r n i a i n N o vem ber 2 0 , 1 9 3 7 , p r o m i s i n g
th e m s t e a d y w o rk f o r a t l e a s t s i x m o n t h s ,
i t is
to b e
e x p e c t e d t h a t h i s c o n t r a c t o r ’ s l i c e n s e w o u ld b e r e v o k e d a s
it
w a s .
^4
The sam e y e a r t h e r e w e r e f r o m 6 , 0 0 0 t o 8 , 0 0 0
p i c k e r s in th e p eas around C a l i p a t r i a . ^
In J a n u a ry ,
1940,
t w e n t y - f i v e a u to m o b ile s d a i l y w ere
r e p o r t e d a r r i v i n g a t t h e p e a - f i e l d s . 16
6 .0 0 0 A m e ric a n s,
o f M e x ic a n s .
They b r o u g h t a b o u t
4 ,0 0 0 F i l i p i n o s ^ 7 and an u n c o u n te d num ber
I t w as e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e a t l e a s t o n e
and a h a l f p e rs o n s f o r every p o s s ib le j o b ^
a t th e peak of
th e season.
R e l a t i o n o f p e a s and c o t t o n i n
th e V a lle y .
An i n t e r ­
e s t i n g e x p e r i m e n t i s b e i n g t r i e d o f r e c e n t y e a r s by l a b o r
c o n tra c to rs.
I t w as o r i g i n a t e d by t h e n o t o r i o u s L o u i s M o rt
b u t h a s b e e n t a k e n o v e r by o t h e r s and seem s to h a v e h e lp e d
to
s ta b iliz e
t h e l a b o r s u p p l y s o m e w h a t.
When t h e f a l l p e a
d e a l i s o v e r th e crew s a r e ta k e n a s a g ro u p to c o t t o n
14 C f .
s u p ra . , p.
105.
1 5 W i l l i a m T. C r o s s and D o r o t h y E. C r o s s , N ewcom ers
a n d Nomads i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a :
S ta n f o r d U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1937), p. 55.
op.
16 C a l i f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ,
c i t . , p. 17.
17 L o c .
c it.
18 I b i d . , p . 1 8 .
143
f i e l d s g r o w i n g o n l y f i v e o r s i x m i l e s away on t h e h a r d g r o u n d
u n s u i t e d to p e a s ,
b e tw een f a l l
a n d t h e same c re w h a r v e s t s t h e c o t t o n c r o p
and s p r i n g p e a s .
If
th e c o tto n p ic k in g produced
a d e c e n t l i v i n g t h i s w o u ld b e a g o o d a r r a n g e m e n t .
I t may b e
t h a t t h e i m p r o v e d g r o w i n g p r a c t i c e s now f o l l o w e d i n K e rn
C o u n ty w i l l b e a d o p te d i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y and p r o d u c e a c r o p
w i t h a y i e l d h i g h e n o u g h t o make p i c k i n g p r o f i t a b l e .
If th is
c o u l d b e d o n e a b i g s t e p w o u ld b e t a k e n to im p ro v e t h e l o t o f
t h e p e a - p i c k e r s who do n o t g e t w o rk w i t h t h e b i g g r o w e r s .
W o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s .
One o f t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s
o f th e w o rk in g c o n d itio n s i s
to
expect
come a c o u p l e o f w e e k s i n a d v a n c e a n d w a i t f o r t h e c r o p t o
m a tu re .
Y e a r a f t e r y e a r t h e s e p i c k e r s come, o f t e n o n t h e same
d a y o f t h e m o n th an d camp i n
to
th e f a c t t h a t th e p i c k e r s
t h e same s p o t w a i t i n g f o r t h e p e a s
rip e n .
The s t o o p i n g c h a r a c t e r o f t h e w o r k , r e q u i r i n g w o r k i n g
on th e knees and th e n e c e s s ity
s ta n tly
fo r irrig a tin g
th e c ro p con­
m akes p i c k i n g a m o s t d i s a g r e e a b l e j o b f r o m o n e p o i n t
o f v iew .
The h a m p e r , a m o d i f i e d c o n e ,
h i g h and tw e lv e to
about t h i r t y
in c h e s
s i x t e e n in c h e s i n d ia m e t e r fro m b o tto m to
t o p h o l d s a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e p o u n d s o f p e a s a n d c a n beco m e v e r y
h e a v y when i t h a s a l a r g e lum p o f mud on i t .
19 G f . ,
T a b l e V, p . 46
FIGURE 9
PICKIKG
PEAS
145
The p i c k e r s ,
t o w o rk i n o v e r a l l s ,
men, women an d c h i l d r e n ,
comm only come
t h e women w e a r i n g b i g h a t s ,
M e x ic a n s and s u n b o n n e ts i f w h i t e s ;
if
th e y a r e
t h e men e i t h e r w i t h s t r a w
h a ts o r b are headed.
As h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d , women commonly w o rk i n t h e p e a s
a s w e l l a s t h e men an d t h i s c r e a t e s f o r th e m t h e d o u b l e l o a d
o f h e l p i n g w i t h t h e e a r n i n g o f t h e l i v i n g an d c a r r y i n g on
such h o u s e k e e p in g a s th e y can .
S m a l l c h i l d r e n a r e commonly
t a k e n to t h e f i e l d s and e i t h e r k e p t i n t h e f i e l d s w i t h t h e i r
m o th e rs o r l e f t in th e c a r s a t th e edge o f th e f i e l d s .
T h is
c r e a t e s a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w h ic h t h e F arm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a ­
tio n
is
a t t e m p t i n g to s o l v e t h r o u g h i t s
o f t h i s t y p e o f w o rk n e e d s t o b e d o n e ,
day n u r s e r i e s .
e sp e c ia lly in
M ore
th e
g r o w e r* s ca m p s .
The la w r e q u i r e s t h e c o n t r a c t o r o r g r o w e r , a s t h e c a s e
may b e ,
to p r o v id e a w a te r su p p ly and a l s o
At th e p r e s e n t tim e ,
to ile t fa c ilitie s .
t h r o u g h t h e e x c e l l e n t ?/ork o f t h e C o u n ty
H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ,
th e se f a c i l i t i e s
a re a v a ila b le in a l l
except th e s m a lle s t
f i e l d s a n d a w a t e r s u p p l y i s now u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e .
W o r k in g h o u r s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s .
S u f f i c i e n t p e a s m ust b e p ic k e d to k e e p t h e v in e s b lo o m in g and
n o t l e t th e p e a s c o m p le te ly rip e n .
The p i c k i n g may b e s p e d
u p o r s lo w e d down, d e p e n d i n g o n t h e m a r k e t .
re ta rd s
Cool w e a th e r
t h e m a t u r i n g o f t h e p e a s a n d s lo w s down t h e p i c k i n g .
146
C o n v e r s e l y warm w e a t h e r s p e e d s i t
a n o th e r im p o rta n t f a c to r .
h o u rs w i l l be lo n g e r;
h ours w ill be sh o rte r.
if
up.
The l a b o r s u p p l y i s
I f th e re i s
th e re is
a s h o r t su p p ly th e
a p l e n t i f u l su p p ly th e
At th e peak o f th e se a so n p ic k e r s
may w o rk a s much a s t e n h o u r s , w h e r e a s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g an d
t h e e n d t h e y w i l l o f t e n w o r k o n l y two o r t h r e e .
A ll p ic k e rs
a r e r e q u i r e d t o s t a r t an d q u i t w o rk t o g e t h e r .
Rows a r e a s s i g n e d by t h e r o w - b o s s t o t h e p i c k e r s i n
t h e o r d e r t h e y come t o w o r k .
When o n e row i s
p i c k e r m oves t o t h e n e x t u n p i c k e d ro w .
f i n i s h e d th e
F re q u e n tly
sev eral
p i c k e r s p i c k o n t h e same row i n t o a s i n g l e h a m p e r .
" P i c k e r s who h a v e w o r k e d i n a f i e l d l o n g e n o u g h t o
know w h e r e t h e 'g o o d p i c k i n g * a n d t h e ' p o o r p i c k i n g * a r e
t o b e f o u n d , w i l l f r e q u e n t l y s to p w ork t e m p o r a r i l y i f
t h e y a n t i c i p a t e a 'p o o r * f i e l d .
O fte n , th e p ic k e r s w i l l
i n s p e c t t h e r o w s and w i l l l e a v e t h e f i e l d f o r t h e tim e
b e i n g , i f t h e y do n o t t h i n k i t w o r t h w h i l e t o w o r k .
The
new a n d i n e x p e r i e n c e d p i c k e r s a r e t h e n l e f t t o c o v e r
t h e s e row s . . . O r d i n a r i l y row s a r e a s s i g n e d i n t u r n ,
b u t t h e r e i s so much v a r i a t i o n i n t h e c r o p , t h a t w o r k e r s
w i l l r e s o r t t o many d e v i c e s t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s f ro m
t h e r i s k o f lo w e a r n i n g s . "20
Paym ent i s u s u a ll y by th e pound.
to
a s s i g n a num ber to
t h e num ber i n a boo k .
t h e w eek.
The common p l a n i s
ea c h ham per and c r e d i t t h e w e ig h in g to
The p i c k e r i s
t h e n p a i d a t t h e end o f
One g r o w e r , h o w e v e r , p a y s a f l a t r a t e o f t w e n t y -
f i v e c e n ts p e r ham per and r e q u i r e s th e p i c k e r to b r in g w ith in
o n e - h a l f pound o f tw e n ty - f iv e pounds to each w e ig h in g .
He
20 M a r i o n H a th w a y , The M i g r a t o r y W o rk e r a n d F a m i l y
L ife
(C h icag o :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ,
1934), p.
90.
■
FIGURE 10
HARVESTING CARROTS IN IMPERIAL VALLEY
C a r r o t s , a s w e l l as p e a s r e q u i r e l a r g e num bers o f m i g r a t o r y
l a b o r e r s a t th e h a r v e s t .
T h e r e a r e o v e r two h u n d r e d f i f t y p i c k e r s
in t h i s f i e l d .
148
th e n re c e iv e s h is q u a r te r.
T h is p l a n i s v e ry p o p u l a r w ith
t h e M e x ic a n , who o f t e n i s n o t a b l e t o k e e p m a t h e m a t i c a l
r e c o r d s a n d h a s t o d e p e n d o n t h e c h e c k e r 1s w o rd u n d e r t h e
u s u a l p la n .
V.
ATTITUDE OF GROWERS TOWARD PICKERS— CHILD LABOR
L arg e g ro w ers ta k e P a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e .
pea deal is
a h a z a r d o u s o n e fro m t h e
The f a l l
s ta n d p o in t o f th e
p ic k e rs,
u n l e s s th e y a r e f o r t u n a t e enough to g e t i n
a
g r o w e r 1s
cam p, w h e r e t h e i r c o n d i t i o n i s
in th e
sp rin g crop.
T h is, how ever i s
t h e same a s
th e e x c e p tio n ,
l a r g e g r o w e r s r a i s e few f a l l p e a s b e c a u s e i t
s in c e th e
i s n o t as p ro ­
f i t a b l e as th e s p rin g cro p .
T hese s p r i n g p e a g ro w e rs a r e a l l a t l e a s t m o d e ra te ly
w e a l t h y a n d grow a n d p i c k t h e i r own c r o p s .
m a i n t a i n s h i s own camp,
y ear.
He h i r e s ,
Each g ro w e r
u s u a l l y a t t h e same s i t e y e a r a f t e r
so f a r a s p o s s i b l e ,
t h e same p i c k e r s e a c h
y e a r an d t h e same " f i e l d b o s s " who I s a l s o
"cam p b o s s . "
He
k n o w s many o f h i s p i c k e r s by name a n d d e p e n d s o n th em a s
much a s t h e y o n h im .
s to re
to
o c c a sio n
He l e a s e s t h e p r i v i l e g e o f r u n n i n g a
some l o c a l p e r s o n an d p a y s g o o d w a g e s . On t h e
o f t h e two c r o p f r e e z e s i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s t h e s e
g ro w e rs g u a r a n te e d c r e d i t a t th e s t o r e s and p a id b e t t e r th a n
r e g u l a r r a t e s f o r t h e fe w p o o r p e a s t h e r e w e r e t o p i c k .
b o th of th e se y e a rs,
h e a v ily ;
In
th e m a jo rity o f th e s e g ro w ers l o s t
many p i c k e r s l e a v i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o p a y t h e i r
149
b ills.
is
A so rt of p a te rn a lis tic
c h a ra c te ris tic .
Even b e f o r e t h e
S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Camps,
had s ta rte d
e s te d in
a ttitu d e
c o m in g o f t h e Farm
some o f t h e l a r g e g r o w e r s
t o f i x up t h e i r cam ps a n d w e r e g e n u i n e l y i n t e r ­
th e w e lfa re o f t h e i r p ic k e r s .
d e s ira b le fe a tu re s ,
n u rse rie s
to w ard th e p i c k e r s
That c e r t a i n
s u c h a s r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s and day
a re s t i l l la c k in g in th e l i v e s o f th e p ic k e r s in
t h e g r o w e r s cam ps i s
to b e a t t r i b u t e d
to
th e la c k o f u n d er­
s ta n d i n g o r im a g in a tio n a s to w h a t l i e s w i t h i n t h e i r pow er
to do.
O n ly a few y e a r s a g o t h e i d e a t h a t t h e p i c k e r s w o u ld
k e e p a s a n i t a r y u n i t d e c e n t a n d c l e a n w as s c o f f e d a t a s
v isio n a ry .
C h ild l a b o r .
W ith t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c
g r o w e r s i n m in d i t i s
la b o r in t h i s
a t t i t u d e o f th e
e a s y t o s e e why t h e c o n t r o l o f c h i l d
crop h as been c o m p a ra tiv e ly easy.
As s o o n a s
t h e y b eco m e c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t w as t o t h e i r own i n t e r e s t n o t t o
have c h ild re n in th e f i e l d s
w ith th e c h ild r e n .
t h e s y m p a th y o f t h e g r o w e r s w as
O f t e n l e t t i n g th e m w o rk a t a l l w as t h e
r e s u l t o f an o v e r - s e n t i m e n t a l i t y
th e c h ild re n
in
th in k in g th e y co u ld h e lp
e a r n a few e x t r a t h i n g s t h e r e b y ,
and soon th e y
saw t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n n e e d e d e d u c a t i o n f i r s t o f a l l an d t h a t
t h e j o b s s h o u l d b e s p r e a d among a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f a d u l t
p ic k e rs.
A t p r e s e n t no l a r g e g r o w e r t o l e r a t e s c h i l d l a b o r
o n s c h o o l d a y s a n d t h e y commonly w a r n t h e i r f i e l d b o s s e s
th a t if
th e p r a c t i c e i s p e rm itte d ,
t h e f i e l d b o s s may l o s e
150
h i s Job.
Some g r o w e r s do n o t e v e n p e r m i t c h i l d r e n t o w o rk
o n S a t u r d a y s an d h o l i d a y s ,
n e e d th e w ork.
h o l d i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e a d u l t s who
Such c h i l d l a b o r a s s t i l l
e x i s t s i s on s m a ll
a c r e a g e s w here a la b o r c o n t r a c t o r i s p ic k in g th e p e a s o r
w h e r e som eone i s b e g i n n i n g t o r a i s e p e a s on a s m a l l s c a l e
and h as n o t y e t been e d u c a te d to
see t h e p ro b le m i n th e p r o p e r
lig h t.
The a t t i t u d e o f t h e l o c a l co m m u n ity t o w a r d c h i l d l a b o r
h a s undergone a co m p le te change in
years.
th e l a s t s i x o r sev en
The w h o le v a l l e y o n c e f o l l o w e d t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e
c o tto n - g r o Y /in g s e c t i o n s , 21 t h a t t h e p i c k e r s w e r e an i n ­
f e r i o r g r o u p a n d e d u c a t i n g th e m w as a m i s t a k e b e c a u s e i t
m ade th e m d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l o t .
From t h i s p o i n t o f
v ie w t h e s o o n e r a c h i l d g o e s t o w ork th e b e t t e r .
new er id e a ,
has
is
t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n h ave a r i g h t to an e d u c a tio n ,
ta k e n h o ld and c h i l d
th e p a s t,
But th e
e x p lo ita tio n
is la rg e ly
a th in g of
a l t h o u g h c o n s t a n t v i g i l a n c e i n e n f o r c i n g t h e la w
s t i l l necessary.
T a b l e XXV i n d i c a t e s t h a t ,
e m p lo y e d ,
o f th e c h ild r e n
le g a lly
t h e l a r g e s t num ber w ere t h o s e w o rk in g on s c h o o l
h o lid a y s o n ly .
C h il d r e n w o rk in g e v e ry day and n o t a t t e n d i n g
s c h o o l c o n s t i t u t e d 3 8 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e gro up.
o f co u rse, p a s t th e ir s ix te e n th b irth d a y ,
21 C f . , p . 82
T hese w ere,
a l t h o u g h many o f
151
TABLE XXV
AGE d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
EIGHT HUNDRED AND THIRTY-THREE
MINORS LEGALLY EMPLOYED PICKING PEAS
IN IMPERIAL COUNTY 1 9 3 l - 1 9 3 9 a
Age
Number
P er cen t of
to ta l
T o ta l
795
100.
18b
1?
16
*15
*14
*13
*12
19
97
2 04
120
141
123
129
M e d ia n a g e
a.
v a c a tio n s o n ly .
2 .3
1 1 .7
2 4 .5
1 4 .3
1 7 .0
1 4 .7
1 5 .5
1 4 .7
A s t e r i s k s i n d i c a t e p e r m i t s t o w o rk S a t u r d a y s a n d
b.
W h ile n o t l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d to h a v e p e r m it s a f t e r
t h e e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y some m i n o r s r e q u e s t th e m a s p r o o f
o f t h e i r b e i n g o l d e n o u g h to v ro rk .
152
th e m h a d n o t f i n i s h e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l an d so s h o u l d h a v e
b e e n i n s c h o o l from an e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t ,
a le g a l one.
The f i g u r e s do n o t t e l l
i f n o t f ro m
th e co m p lete s to r y ,
s i n c e p e r m i t s t o w o rk f u l l t i m e ( C e r t i f i c a t e s o f A ge) a r e
i s s u e d to any m in o r s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d o r o v e r and e x p i r e on
t h e e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y , w h e r e a s t h e p e r m i t s t o w o r k on
S a tu r d a y m u st b e renew ed ev ery y e a r .
S i n c e , h o w e v e r , many
o f t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n n e v e r g e t e v e n a s i n g l e d a y 1s w o rk ,
it
is
lik e ly
t h a t t h e s e two f a c t o r s a b o u t c a n c e l e a c h o t h e r .
F o r each o f th e tw e lv e h u n d re d e i g h t y - e ig h t f a m i l i e s co u n te d
in
t h e p e a cam ps t h e r e w a s a n a v e r a g e o f . 6 5 m i n o r s w o r k i n g
e ith e r p a rt-tim e o r fu ll- tim e .
M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n n u m b e re d
tw o h u n d r e d s i x t y - f i v e o r 3 1 . 8 p e r c e n t o f a l l c h i l d r e n
w o r k i n g a n d M e x ic a n f a m i l i e s c o n s t i t u t e d 3 2 . 7 p e r c e n t o f
a l l f a m i l i e s i n t h e camp c e n s u s ,
so i t w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t
M e x ic a n a n d w h i t e c h i l d r e n w o rk e q u a l l y .
V I.
I m p e ria l V a lle y i s
SUMMARY
u n iq u e ly a d a p te d to th e r a i s i n g
o f w i n t e r v e g e t a b l e s fro m th e s t a n d p o i n t o f s o i l ,
and i r r i g a t i o n .
Peas are r a is e d
c lim a te ,
e x c l u s iv e ly i n an a r e a
n o r t h an d e a s t o f C a l i p a t r i a i n t h e
" f r o s t l e s s a r e a ," w here,
f o r a s h o rt tim e ,
t h e s p r i n g c r o p h a s a m o n o p o ly on t h e
n a tio n * s m a rk e t.
R ain ,
s titu te
f ro s t, hot s p e lls ,
and i n s e c t s con­
c r o p h a z a r d s a n d t h e y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o m a k in g l i f e
153
i n cam p s l e s s p l e a s a n t .
The g r o w i n g o f p e a s h a s b eco m e c o n c e n t r a t e d , i n t h e
h a n d s o f a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p o f c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d men.
A s till
s m a lle r g ro u p c o n t r o l s th e
o f th e e n tir e crop.
s h i p p i n g and m a r k e t i n g
The l a r g e c o m m is s i o n m e r c h a n t s o p e r a t e
on a s e c tio n -w id e b a s is
t h r o u g h o u t t h e W e s t, p i c k i n g p e a s
e v e r y day o f t h e y e a r .
Im p e ria l V a lle y ’ s pea crop i s
th e
m o st v a l u a b l e i n C a l i f o r n i a and ex ceed s i n v a lu e th e c ro p o f
any o t h e r e n t i r e w e s te rn s t a t e .
An o v e r - s u p p l y o f l a b o r h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y
b y t h e g r o w e r s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may make t h e g r e a t e s t
p o s s i b l e p r o f i t fro m t h e i r c ro p .
Some l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s
h a v e a c t u a l l y b r o u g h t l a r g e num bers o f p i c k e r s i n fro m o t h e r
a r e a s i n th e fa c e o f an a l r e a d y p r e s e n t o v e r - s u p p ly .
p ic k e rs
Pea-
s o m e ti m e s p i c k c o t t o n i n b e t w e e n h a r v e s t s .
A c o n s id e r a b le p e r io d o f w a itin g and d o in g s to o p in g
w ork i n f i e l d s ,
n e a r l y a l w a y s muddy, i s
w o rk in g c o n d itio n s .
c h a ra c te ris tic of
R ea so n ab ly a d e q u a te s a n i t a r y
fa c ilitie s
a r e a v a i l a b l e b u t th e s u p e r v is io n o f s m a ll c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t s
a p ro b le m .
P i c k i n g may b e g o o d o r p o o r ,
num ber o f f a c t o r s ,
d e p e n d in g on a
su ch a s l e n g t h o f d ay and c o n d i t i o n o f
th e crop.
L arg e g ro w ers ta k e a p a t e r n a l i s t i c
a ttitu d e
t h e i r p i c k e r s a n d h e l p th e m o u t i n b a d t i m e s .
on c h i l d la b o r as a r u le ,
to w a rd
They f r o w n
a l t h o u g h a n x i o u s to u s e t h o s e who
154
a re n ot re q u ire d
to a t t e n d
sc h o o l.
s c h o o l h o l i d a y s t h a n do e v e r y d a y ;
e m p lo y ees b e i n g 1 4 .7 .
M ore c h i l d r e n w o rk on
t h e m e d ia n a g e o f m i n o r
CHAPTER
V
THE PEA-PICKERS— BACKGROUND
I.
RACIAL GROUPS
P o lic y o f g ro w ers*
s t r i k e s , w h ich ,
d e stro y
G r o w e rs l i v e
in c o n s ta n t f e a r of
m o re t h a n p o o r m a r k e t s o r c r o p h a z a r d s ,
t h e p r o f i t s o f a y e a r 1s l a b o r .
can
F o r t h i s r e a s o n th e y
h a v e a d o p ted v a r io u s p r o t e c t i v e m e a su re s.
One i s
th e keep­
i n g o f an o v e r - s u p p l y o f l a b o r on h a n d so t h a t s h o u l d o n e
crew s t r i k e a n o t h e r m ig h t b e a v a ila b le .-* -
A s e c o n d way i s
t h e k e e p i n g o f a t l e a s t two r a c i a l g r o u p s among t h e p i c k e r s .
T h i s i s a h o l d - o v e r f ro m t h e d a y s w hen t h e J a p a n e s e u s e d t o
w a l k o u t _en m a s s e j u s t w h e n t h e h a r v e s t w as a t i t s
l e a v i n g t h e g r o w e r no o n e t o p i c k h i s c r o p .
u n lik e ly
s trik e
h e ig h t,^
I t is th o u g h t
t h a t t h e two g r o u p s w i l l g e t t o g e t h e r a n d b o t h
a t t h e same t i m e ,
and,
s t r i k e has n ev er o ccu rred ,
as a m a tte r of f a c t such a
a n d t h i s w as o n e o f t h e f a c t o r s
t h a t d e te rm in e d w h ich g ro w e rs s u r v iv e d th e p e a s t r i k e o f
1 9 3 3 .3
F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h e c o m in g o f t h e r e f u g e e w h i t e
l a b o r e r s w as a b o o n t o t h e p e a - g r o w e r s ,
1 C f . , C h a p te r I I I ,
2 I b id . , p.
3 C f. ,
p.
10 4 f f .
70.
C h a p t e r IV , p .
1 34 .
because i t
produced
156
b o t h o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h th e y d e s i r e d .
g r o w e r now u s e s a s i n g l e r a c e ,
th e w h ite ,
O n ly o n e l a r g e
and h e a d m its t h a t
h e i s w i l l i n g to chance tro u b le b ecau se o f h is d i s l i k e f o r
M e x ic a n s.
R a c ia l d i s t r i b u t i o n .
am ong t h e p e a - p i c k e r s i s
The c h a n g e o f r a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n
shown i n T a b l e XXVI.
M e x ic a n s t o w h i t e s i s d e c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y ;
T he r a t i o
th e w h ite s a t
p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i n g 6 5 .3 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l ,
3 4 .7 p e r c e n t.
of
t h e M e x ic a n s ,
The a b s e n c e o f o t h e r r a c i a l g r o u p s fro m t h e
T a b l e d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t o t h e r g r o u p s do n o t p i c k
peas.
Commonly t h e r e
a r e a few N e g r o e s p i c k i n g a n d f o r
s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e r e w ere l a r g e num bers o f F i l i p i n o s i n th e
fie ld s .
They d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , appear* o n T a b l e XXVI b e c a u s e
t h e N egroes a r e p a r t o f t h e p erm an en t p o p u l a t i o n o f
C a l i p a . t r ! a a n d go f ro m to w n t o t h e f i e l d s
each day,
an d
F i l i p i n o s h a d t h e i r own cam ps w h i c h w e r e n o t v i s i t e d i n t h e
course of t h i s
s t u d y s i n c e no c h i l d r e n l i v e d t h e r e .
The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e P u e r t o R i c a n s i s p r o b a b l y
a b s o lu te .
The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n b e c a m e t o o o l d t o p i c k a n d
t h e second g e n e r a t i o n h a s n o t r e t u r n e d
to th e f i e l d s .
It
w a s o b s e r v a b l e t h a t a s t h e o l d e r b o y s g re w up t h e y f o u n d j o b s
in c itie s
i n s t e a d o f s e t t i n g up new t e n t s
i n t h e p e a cam p s.
The a b s e n c e o f G y p s i e s f r o m t h e 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 l i s t
b e ta k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n
i s n o t to
t h a t th e y h a v e sto p p e d m ig ra tin g .
157
TABLE XXVI
r a c ia l
R ace
OF PEA- camp p o p u l a t i o n
( c h i ld r e n o v e r f iv e y e a r s o ld )
1 9 3 1 - 5 8 AND 193 9
c o m p o s it io n
Number
1939
1931-38
Per cent of to ta l
1939
1931-38
100
T o ta l
1666
421
W h ite
686
2 75
4 1 .2
6 5 .3
M e x ic a n
954
146
5 7 .3
3 4 .7
21
-
1 .3
5
—
.3
G y psy
P u e r to R ican
100
-
158
O n ly o c c a s i o n a l l y h a v e t h e y come a n d t h e l a s t
in
th e v a lle y ,
tim e th e y w ere
a u th o r itie s fo rced t h e i r c h ild re n in to
a n d made th e m k e e p a s a n i t a r y camp.
school
The l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r who
h a d h i s l i c e n s e r e v o k e d w as o n e o f t h i s g r o u p o f R u m an ian
G y p sie s.
T a b l e XXVII,
s h o w in g t h e r a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a t
N ila n d f o r a f iv e - y e a r p e rio d ,
g iv e s a c le a r p ic tu r e of th e
f l u c t u a t i o n o f M e x ic a n a n d w h i t e p e a - p i c k e r s .
W h i t e s show a
p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e b o t h i n a b s o l u t e num bers a n d a ls o i n p e r
c e n t o f th e t o t a l .
th e decrease.
M e x ic a n s h a v e f l u c t u a t e d m o re b u t a r e o n
T a b l e XXVII i s n o t so v a l u a b l e i n
p e a -p ic k e rs o n ly ,
s h o w in g t h e
s in c e i t in c lu d e s th e norm al p o p u la tio n o f
t h e to w n a n d i s b a s e d o n a n a n n u a l a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s T a b l e
XXVI i s b a s e d o n a n a c t u a l c o u n t o f a l l t h e s e p a r a t e c h i l d r e n
liv in g in
t h e cam p s.
M e x ic a n s r e t u r n y e a r a f t e r y e a r m ore t h a n w h i t e s .
e n t i r e p e a - p ic k in g group i s very u n s ta b le ,
f a m i l i a r f a c e s a re seen ev ery y e a r.
c a lle d
nr e g u l a r 11 c r e w s f a i l
t h e n come b a c k u n e x p e c t e d l y .
to r e t u r n
The
a n d o n l y a few
Even some o f t h e s o f o r a y e a r o r two an d
No p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n c a n a c c o u n t
f o r t h e i r s t a y i n g away o t h e r t h a n t h a t t h e i r f a n c y w as b e t t e r
s u i t e d by w o rk in g e ls e w h e re .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d i t
t h a t t h e f i g u r e s i n T a b l e XXVII a r e t o o l a r g e i n
num ber o f y e a r s and to o
th e lo w er
s m a ll i n th e h i g h e r g ro u p s ,
f i g u r e s a r e b a s e d on p e r i o d i c camp c e n s u s e s an d i t
c u l t to c o u n t ev ery o n e e v ery y e a r .
i s p ro b a b le
s in c e th e
is d if f i­
TABLE XXVII
NUMBER OP YEARS FAMILIES HAVE BEEN
PICKING PEAS IN NILAND-CALIPATRIA AREA
Number
of
y ears
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
O ver
T o ta l
M e d ia n
1932-38
Per
N o.
cent
of
to ta l
162
62
45
34
27
18
6
3
357
1 . 77
4 5 .4
1 7 .4
1 2 .6
9 .5
7 .6
5 .0
1 .7
.8
1939
Per
No.
cent
of
to ta l
1932-38
Per
N o.
cent
of
to ta l
28
7
2
4
1
5
4
3
54
235
29
17
2
3
2
1
1 . 46
T o ta l*
W h ites
M e x ic a n s
5 1 .9
1 3 .0
3 .7
7 .4
1 .8
9 .3
7 .4
5 .5
8 1 .3
1 0 .0
5 .9
.7
1 .1
.7
.3
2EU
1 . 12
1939
No.
Per
cent
of
to ta l
138
4
2
1
9 4 .5
2 .7
1 .4
.7
1
146
.7
1 . 29
1932-38
Per
N o.
cent
of
to ta l
4 03
98
62
36
30
20
7
3
659
1 . 32
6 1 .2
1 4 .9
9 .4
5 .5
4 .6
3 .0
1 .0
.4
1939
No •
Per
cent
of
to ta l
166
11
4
5
1
5
4
4
200
8 3 .0
5 .5
2 .0
2 .5
.5
2 .5
2 .0
2 .0
1 . 16
159
a* T o t a l i n c l u d e s G y p s i e s an d P u e r t o R i c a n s * T a b l e XXVII i s t o b e r e a d a s
fo llo w s :
1 62 f a m i l i e s , o r 4 5 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e M e x ic a n s i n t h e 1 9 3 2 - 3 8 g r o u p w e r e
p i c k i n g p e a s f o r th e f i r s t tim e , w h ile 3 f a m i l i e s , o r .8 p e r c e n t had b een p i c k ­
in g f o r ov er sev en y e a r s , e t c .
160
C e rta in f a c ts ,
XXVII.
how ever, a r e c l e a r l y
shown b y T a b l e
The d i s p r o p o r t i o n o f f i r s t y e a r f a m i l i e s
is la rg e ly
an e v id e n c e o f th e c o n tin u e d stre a m o f r e fu g e e l a b o r ,
p r i n c i p a l l y w h i t e b u t wi t h some M e x i c a n s , f ro m t h e W e s ts o u t h - c e n t r a l R e g io n a n d S o u t h e r n m o u n t a i n s t a t e s .
g o e s t o show t h a t t h i s
la rg e
e x te n t,
but is
I t a lso
r e f u g e e l a b o r i s n o t r e t u r n i n g to any
s e t t l i n g down e l s e w h e r e ,
as o th e r
w r i t e r s h a v e sh o w n .4
A n o th e r o u t s t a n d i n g c o n c l u s io n j u s t i f i e d by T a b le
XXVII i s
t h a t M e x ic a n s t e n d t o r e t u r n m ore o f t e n t h a n
w h i t e s an d t h i s i s t h e c a s e ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h a few f a m i l i e s
who h a v e b e e n c o m in g b a c k y e a r a f t e r y e a r f o r s i x a n d s e v e n
years*
I n d e e d many s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n f a m i l i e s a r e c o u n t e d
am ong t h i s
group.
The M e x i c a n s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t r e t u r n i n g i n
l a r g e num bers a s f o r m e r ly .
When t h e q u e s t i o n i s
i s J o e R e y n a ? ,* th e answ er i s
a t C a stro v ille .
"Oh, h e i s
l i v i n g w ith h i s
Or p e r h a p s t h e a n sw e r i s
t o M exico o n a v i s i t a n d d i d n o t com e b a c k . "
a change t h a t i s
son
"He w e n t b a c k
T hese an sw ers
t a k i n g p l a c e a s t h e M e x ic a n f i n d s
h i m s e l f crow ded o u t o f p e a - p i c k i n g .
4 O f.,
a s k e d "W here
H is son h a s a s te a d y jo b i n a b e e t m i l l
[sugar re fin e ry ] . "
illu stra te
such
C h a p te r I I I ,
S e c t i o n IV , p . 82 f .
161
II.
ROUTES OF MIGRATION
L a s t p l a c e w orked b e f o r e p i c k i n g p e a s .
g i v e n i n T a b le XXVIII I n d i c a t e
The d a t a
th e c o u n ty o r s t a t e
i n w h ic h
t h e l a s t s c h o o l a t t e n d e d by a m i g r a t o r y c h i l d w as l o c a t e d .
It
th ro w s c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on w h at t h e e r s t w h i l e p e a -
p i c k e r s d i d b e f o r e c o m in g t o I m p e r i a l V a l l e y .
T hus,
th e
f o r t y who w e r e i n K e rn C o u n ty w e r e d o u b t l e s s p i c k i n g c o t t o n ,
a n d t h e t w e n t y - t w o fro m F r e s n o C ou n ty w e r e p i c k i n g e i t h e r
g ra p e s o r c o tto n .
a re in d ic a te d .
The o n e s who w e r e p r o b a b l y p i c k i n g p e a s
They c o n s t i t u t e 1 2 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
and th e y have p ro b a b ly been p ic k in g p e a s th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r.
T h e r o u t e s f o l l o w e d b y t h i s g r o u p a r e shown i n F i g u r e 11^
w h i c h i s b a s e d on a c c o u n t s by t h e p i c k e r s o f t h e i r
tra v e ls.
A n n o u n ced d e s t i n a t i o n o n l e a v i n g I m p e r i a l V a l i e v .
s a m p l e of m o v em en ts t o
t h e p e a s fro m w i t h i n t h e v a l l e y
A
and
fro m p e a - g ro w in g and o t h e r I m p e r i a l V a ll e y a r e a s to an no unced
d e s tin a tio n s
e lse w h e re i s
C h a p te r X III.^
c e n t,
g i v e n by T a b l e XLIX a n d T a b l e L i n
I n t h e f o r m e r t h e l a r g e s t v o lu m e ,
5 2 .9 p e r
i s le a v in g f o r p ea -g ro w in g a re a s e i t h e r l o c a l l y
i n o t h e r c o u n tie s w ith h a l f g o in g to l o c a l p e a s .
5 P.
165.
6 T a b le XLIX, p . 3 3 8 ;
T a b l e L, p .
342.
or
S in c e
162
TABLE XXVIII
LAST SCHOOL ATTENDED BY PEA-PICKERTS CHILDREN
BEFORE COMING TO IMPERIAL VALLEYa
1931-1939
S t a t e o r c o u n ty
None s i n c e
la s t year
ARIZONA
NEW MEXICO
TEXAS
OKLAHOMA
ARKANSAS
MISSOURI
KANSAS
NEBRASKA
OREGON
WASHINGTON
IDAHO
UTAH
COLORADO
M e x ic a n
W h ite
T o ta l
3
2
5
10
3
1
63
5
13
27
13
3
1
1
73
8
14
27
13
3
1
1
3
1
2
3
2
10
4
7
1
8
4
1
6
T o ta l S ta te s
D u s t Bowl
P e a -g ro w in g
O th er
(28)
14
13
1
(138)
126
6
6
(166)
140
19
7
R iv e rsid e
B ly th e
(c o tto n )
C o u c h e lla V a l.
(c itr u s )
Hemet V a l l e y
(fru it)
(14)
(5)
(19)
6
2
8
8
8
3
3
a.
C o u n tie s w ere c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c i t y
g iv e n as l a s t r e s id e n c e .
T he l o c a t i o n o f t h e c i t y i n a n
a r e a w h e r e t h e l a r g e s t p r o d u c t i o n was c o t t o n , p l a c e d t h e
g ro u p in g as a c o tto n -g ro w in g a r e a .
163
TABLE XXVIII
(c o n tin u e d )
LAST SCHOOL ATTENDED BY PEA-PICKER'S CHILDREN
BEFORE COMING TO IMPERIAL VALLEYa
1931-1939
S t a t e o r co u n ty
M e x ic a n
S a n D ie g o
O ra n g e
E l Modena
(c i t r u s )
Irv in e
(p eas)
S an B e r n a r d i n o
Los A n g e l e s
3
(1)
K ern
K in g s
T u la re
W estsid e
(c o tto n )
E a stsid e
(c itru s )
F resno
W estsid e
(c o tto n )
E a stsid e
(fru it)
M a d e ra
M e rc e d
S ta n isla u s
8
10
(6 )
San J o a q u in
W o o d h r id g e
(fru it)
T racy (p eas)
S a n ta C la ra
S an B e n i t o
B u tte
Yuba
Y o lo
N evada
W h ite
T o ta l
(4)
3
(5 )
1
1
7
5
6
(15)
6
9
2
2
8
1
4
1
1
32
6
(21)
4
8
6
40
16
(27)
6
12
15
(7)
15
(22)
7
13
8
7
1
9
10
9
1
(3)
(3 )
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
10
1
1
1
1
1
a* C o u n t i e s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c i t y g i v e n
as l a s t re sid e n c e *
T he l o c a t i o n o f t h e c i t y , i n a n a r e a w h e r e
t h e l a r g e s t p r o d u c t i o n w as c o t t o n , p l a c e d t h e g r o u p i n g a s a
c o tto n -g ro w in g area*
164
TABLE XXVIII
(c o n tin u e d )
LAST SCHOOL ATTENDED BY PEA -PICKER'S CHILDREN
BEFORE COMING TO IMPERIAL VALLEY9,
1931-1939
S t a t e o r co u n ty
M e x ic a n
A lam ed a ( p e a s )
S o lan o (p e a s )
C o n tra C o sta (p eas
S an M ateo ( p e a s )
M o n te r e y ( p e a s )
S an L u i s O b is p o ( p e a s )
S a n ta B arb ara (p eas)
S U M MA R Y
OF
W h ite
T o ta l
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
1
1
1
1
10
4
1
1
O T H E R
C O U N T I E S
Per cent of to t a l
C o tto n -g ro w in g a re a s
F ru it-g ro w in g a r e a s :
C itru s
D ecid u o u s
P e a-g ro w in g a r e a s
100
4 1 .7
100
6 3 .3
100
5 3 .2
2 5 .0
1 8 .7
1 4 .6
1 5 .6
1 1 .0
1 0 .1
2 0 .0
1 4 .6
1 2 .2
I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
R e sid e n c e a r e a s
B raw ley
G a le x ic o
Jasper
W e s tm o r l a n d
M u lb e rry
B ard
O t h e r p e a camps
O t h e r I m p e r i a l C o.
H o lt v i l i e
N o r t h End
(54)
38
2
1
1
12
(22)
(76)
9
1
1
2
7
47
1
3
1
1
2
19
1
1
1
1
a . C o u n tie s w ere c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d in g to t h e c i t y
g iv e n as l a s t r e s id e n c e .
T he l o c a t i o n o f t h e c i t y , i n a n
a r e a w h e r e t h e l a r g e s t p r o d u c t i o n w as c o t t o n , p l a c e d t h e
g ro u p in g as a c o tto n -g ro w in g a r e a .
^Amanu U
rfttmoleyi
100
166
th is
i n v o l v e s o n l y M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n f r o m B r a w l e y ,
t h a t many f a m i l i e s come f r o m t h e n o r t h d i r e c t l y
w a it th e re u n t i l peas rip e n ,
o r th a t th e re i s
m o v em en t o f t h e s e t t l e d p o p u l a t i o n i n t o
f o r th e d u r a tio n o f th e se a so n ,
it
in d ic a te s
t o B r a w le y an d
a c o n s id e ra b le
t h e l o c a l p e a cam ps
b o th o f w h ich a r e p r o b a b ly
tru e .
T a b l e L? sh o w s s i m i l a r d a t a a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e p e a
s e a s o n f o r f o u r V a lle y to w n s,
g ro w in g a re a .®
some o f w h i c h sire i n t h e p e a -
The p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n g i v i n g a s t h e i r
d e s t i n a t i o n c o u n t i e s w here p e a s a r e r a i s e d i s
l a r g e s t group,
c o u n ty .
s till
th e
t o t a l i n g 2 7 .5 p e r c e n t o f th o se le a v in g th e
A lm o s t a s l a r g e a g r o u p go t o t h e c o u n t i e s w h e r e
c o t t o n i s b e in g chopped.
A riz o n a i s added,
Indeed i f
th e g roup g o in g to
th e c o t t o n g ro u p becom es th e l a r g e r ,
a l­
th o u g h im m e d ia te ly th e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s o f i n c l u d i n g i n t h e
p e a - p i c k i n g g r o u p t h o s e g o i n g t o I d a h o a n d O re g o n .
In c lu d ­
i n g a l l th e p e a - g ro w in g a r e a s i n one g ro u p g iv e s 3 9 .3 p e r
c e n t f o r t h i s group;
d o i n g t h e same f o r c o t t o n g i v e s 3 3 . 7
7 P. 342.
8 I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e a s to
t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y o f t h o s e who l e f t
f o r V a lle y s c h o o ls , p a r t i c u l a r l y s in c e th e s e r e p r e s e n t such
a l a r g e p r o p o r tio n ( f o r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t) o f th e t o t a l , o r
t h a t no s e p a r a t e d a t a f o r t h e p e a - g r o w i n g a r e a a r e a v a i l a b l e .
A v ery la r g e p e rc e n ta g e o f c h ild r e n le a v in g th e se l a t t e r
s c h o o l s , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r t e a c h e r 1s e x h o r t a t i o n s , s t i l l
l e a v e w i t h o u t g e t t i n g t r a n s f e r s a n d t h e r e i s no m eans o f
k n o w in g t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n .
I n d e e d , many o f t h e c h i l d r e n
t h e m s e l v e s do n o t know w h e r e t h e y a r e g o i n g n e x t .
MEXICAN MIGRANTS JUST ARRIVING
167
FIGURE 12
168
p e r c e n t o f th o se le a v in g th e V a lle y .
A t an y r a t e i t
is
e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e two t y p e s o f a r e a s a b s o r b n e a r l y t h r e e f o u r t h s o f t h e c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g I m p e r i a l C o u n ty a t t h i s
C a u tio n m ust b e o b s e rv e d i n to o h a s t i l y
tim e .
a ssu m in g t h a t
m i g r a n t s g o i n g t o p e a - r a i s i n g a r e a s go t o p i c k p e a s a n d
s im ila rly
f o r c o tto n ch o p p in g a r e a s .
c r o p i n M o n te r e y C o u n ty ,
L e ttu c e i s
th e d e s t i n a t i o n to w ard w h ic h se v e n
p e r c e n t o f th o s e l e a v i n g w ere g o in g .
C o u n t y i s m o re n o t e d f o r i t s
C o u n ty h a s a l a r g e c i t r u s
acreage.
th e p r in c ip a l
S im ila rly ,
f r u i t th a n f o r i t s
San B e n i t o
peas.
a re a as w e ll as a la rg e
T u la re
c o tto n
The f a c t s h e r e p r e s e n t e d a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a b o v e
a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f th e p r o b a b le c r o p s th e group a r e f o llo w ­
in g .
M ig ra n t8 r e - e n te r in g C a l i f o r n i a .
X X V I I I , 9 c o m in g fro m o t h e r s t a t e s ,
T hose,
i n T a b le
f o r m an i n t e r e s t i n g g r o u p .
They a r e p a r t o f th e g ro u p c o u n te d by P a u l T a y lo r a s th e y
re -e n te re d C a lifo rn ia .
T h e se w ere t h e m ost num erous a t t h e
A r i z o n a and O regon b o r d e r s . * ^
le ss
T h o se f r o m O re g o n w e r e d o u b t ­
m o stly r e t u r n i n g p e a - p i c k e r s ;
t h o s e fro m A r i z o n a may
h a v e m e r e l y g o n e t o t h e Yuma o r S a l t R i v e r V a l l e y s t o w o rk
9 P. 162.
10 P a u l S. T a y l o r a n d Edw ard J . R o w e l l , " R e f u g e e L a b o r
M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 , n M o n th l y L a b o r R e v i e w » 47;
2 4 0 - 5 0 , A u g u st, 1938.
169
in
t h e l e t t u c e o r c o t t o n b e tw e e n th e f a l l and s p r i n g p e a s .
I n h i s c o u n t,
T a y l o r 11 s e g r e g a t e d t h o s e w i t h C a l i f o r n i a
l i c e n s e s an d f o u n d t h e r a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a s show n o n
T a b l e XXIX, w i t h t h e w h i t e s g r e a t l y p r e d o m i n a t i n g .
d e c l i n e i n t h e n u m b e r o f M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s i s
The
shown b y a
c o m p a r i s o n o f T a y l o r 1s f i g u r e s f o r 192 8 a n d f o r 1 9 3 5 .
In
t h e f o r m e r y e a r f i f t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e M e x ic a n s e n t e r ­
i n g C a l i f o r n i a w ere i n C a l i f o r n i a c a r s and in th e l a t t e r
y e a r o n ly 4 7 .1 p e r c e n t w ere i n C a l i f o r n i a c a r s , w h ile th o s e
c o m i n g f ro m o t h e r s t a t e s i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . 1 ^
in g to T o lie s,
seek
A ccord­
1 2 ,8 3 9 C a l i f o r n i a l a b o r e r s l e f t C a l i f o r n i a to
e m p l o y m e n t . 1^
M ig ra to ry p a t t e r n s .
L ik e o t h e r g ro u p s o f m ig r a to r y
w o r k e r s , p e a - p i c k e r s t e n d t o go fro m o n e c r o p t o a n o t h e r i n
t h e i r s e a r c h f o r w o r k , a l t h o u g h t h e e v i d e n c e seem s t o
show
m o r e o f th em f o l l o w i n g t h e sam e c r o p a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e .
T h e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r h i s t o r y o f J u a n A r g u i l e z 14 w i l l i l l u s t r a t e
11 P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d Tom V a s e y , " D r o u g h t R e f u g e e an d
L a b o r M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , J u n e t o D e c e m b e r, 1 9 3 5 , "
M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 2 : 3 1 2 - 1 8 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 .
^
Loc. c l t .
1 3 Q u o t e d b y F r a n c e t t e Mauzd, "A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y
F a m i l i e s i n t h e S an J o a q u i n V a l l e y . "
U n p u b lish ed M a ste r* s
T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s ,
1 9 4 0 , p. 73.
1 4 Names u s e d a r e f i c t i t i o u s .
170
TABLE XXIX
MAJOR RACE GROUPS OF MIGRANTS RE-ENTERING
CALIFORNIA, JUNE 1 6 - - D e c e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 3 5 a
Number
Per cent
T o ta l
1 0 ,1 9 4
1 0 0 .0 0
W h ite
7 ,8 6 0
7 7 .1 0
M e x ic a n
1 ,3 9 6
1 3 .6 9
F ilip in o
668
6 .5 5
N e g ro
173
1 .7 0
G y psy*
67
.6 6
O th e r0
30
.3 0
R ace
a . A d a p t e d f r o m P a u l 3 . T a y l o r an d Tom V a s e y , " D r o u g h t
R e fu g e e and L ab o r M ig r a t i o n to C a l i f o r n i a , Ju n e to D ecem ber,
1 9 3 5 ."
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v i e w , 4 2 : 3 1 2 - 1 8 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 .
b . F i g u r e c o m p u te d .
✓
c . In c lu d e s Jap an ese,
C h i n e s e , A m e r ic a n I n d i a n s
and H i n d u s .
t h e r o u te s and c ro p s f o llo w e d as w e ll a s g iv e an i d e a o f
e a rn in g s.
T a b l e XXX r e p r e s e n t s h i s
s to ry as he to ld i t
each f a l l upon r e - e n t e r i n g I m p e r ia l V a lle y .
15
It
is
es­
p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g in t h a t he fo llo w e d th e p a t t e r n o u t­
l i n e d by P a u l T a y l o r o n F i g u r e 4 .
A co m p ariso n o f h i s
e a r n i n g s and d ay s n o t w o r k in g ,w ith t h o s e fo u n d i n o t h e r
s t u d i e s , s h o w s h im t o b e e m p lo y e d a much g r e a t e r p r o p o r ­
tio n of h is
tim e th a n m ost m ig r a n ts ,
a n d so so m ew h at b e t t e r
p a id .
E q u a lly t y p i c a l ,
g roup,
is
th e p a tte rn
a lth o u g h he r e p r e s e n ts a s m a lle r
shown i n T a b l e XXXI o f a man who
w o r k e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e p e a s f ro m 1931 t o 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 .
T h ere a r e ,
tio n :
in g e n e ra l,
f i v e m a in p a t t e r n s o f m i g r a ­
( 1 ) t h o s e f o l l o w i n g t h e same c r o p w i t h t h e sam e
com pany o r c o n t r a c t o r ,
(2)
t h o s e f o l l o w i n g t h e sam e c r o p
b u t w ith d i f f e r e n t co m p an ies o r c o n t r a c t o r s ,
(3)
th o se
f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t c r o p s w i t h t h e sam e c o n t r a c t o r ,
(4)
th o s e fo llo w in g d i f f e r e n t c ro p s w ith d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a c t o r s ,
an d (5)
t h o s e who a r e
15 O f . ,
e n tire ly
fre e -la n c e s.
It
i s p ro b a b le
a l s o T a y l o r 1s r o u t e s i n C h a p te r I I I ,
16 T a b l e IV , p . 4 6 ;
T a b l e XXI, p . 1 0 8 .
T a b l e V, p .
46;
p .9 5 f
T a b l e XX, p . 108
172
TABLE XXX
HISTORY OF MIGRATIONS AND EARNINGS OF
JUAN ARGUILEZ, JULY, 19 3 5 — JANUARY, 1938
J u l y - O c to b e r, 1955: P ic k e d p e a c h e s and n e c t a r i n e s a t
F resn o ,
W orked t h i r t y - t h r e e d a y s , m ade f o r t y - o n e d o l l a r s .
O c to b e r-D e c e m b e r:
C u t M a la g a an d M u s c a t g r a p e s n e a r F r e s n o ;
t w e n ty - f iv e c e n t s p e r h o u r , a v e ra g e s ix - h o u r day , tw e n ty f i v e t o t h i r t y d a y s p e r m o n th .
D ecem ber: L e f t f o r I m p e r i a l V a lle y .
J a n u a r y , 1956: W a itin g f o r c ro p to r ip e n .
F e b ru a ry : P ic k e d p e a s , Im p e ria l V a lle y .
One c e n t p e r p o u n d ,
a v e r a g e one h u n d re d t w e n t y - f i v e pounds p e r day, w orked e i g h t ­
e e n to tw en ty d a y s .
Work i r r e g u l a r b e c a u s e o f w e a t h e r .
F e b r u a r y - M a r c h : W orked a s w agon-m an i n l e t t u c e f i e l d , n e a r
B raw ley , on c o n t r a c t .
F iv e c e n ts a c r a t e rep ack o u t o f pack­
in g house; n o t f i e l d pack.
T h is p a id s ix t y c e n ts to a d o l l a r
a day.
W o rk ed s i x t e e n d a y s .
A p r 1 1 - Mayt
T ied c a r r o t s a t H o l t v i l l e .
T h irte e n c e n ts a
f ie ld c ra te .
W ith f a m i l y w o r k i n g S a t u r d a y s an d S u n d a y s ,m a d e
a b o u t s e v e n d o l l a r s a w eek b e c a u s e o f s h o r t d a y s a n d l o n g l a y ­
offs.
W orked e i g h t w e e k s .
Ju n e -Ju ly ;
P ic k e d f ig s a t F resn o .
E arned f i f t y d o l l a r s i n
tw o m o n t h s .
A u g u s t : C u t Thom pson S e e d l e s s G r a p e s n e a r F r e s n o f o r s e v e n
d a y s a t one and o n e - f o u r th c e n ts a t r a y .
E arned e le v e n
d o lla rs.
P ic k e d c o tto n one day, one h u n d red f i f t e e n pounds;
e a rn e d one d o l l a r .
S e p t e m b e r - N o v e m b e r:
C u t M a la g a a n d M u s c a t G r a p e s n e a r F r e s n o ;
t i f e n t y - f i v e c e n t s an h o u r .
Made t h i r t y d o l l a r s f o r s e a s o n .
D e c e m b e r : P i c k e d o r a n g e s a n d le m o n s i n T u l a r e C o u n t y , t w e n t y f i v e c e n ts an h o u r.
Made t w e n t y - f o u r d o l l a r s .
D ec e m b e r 1 9 5 6 - J a n u a r y 1 9 5 7 : P i c k e d o r a n g e s a t f i f t y c e n t s a
b o x “ f o r ”s m a l l j o b s a n d t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s a b o x f o r l a r g e j o b s
a t R ed la n d s.
A lso p ic k e d lem ons a t t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s an h o u r .
E arn ed t h i r t y d o l l a r s .
J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1937:
P ic k e d p e a s a t C a l i p a t r i a .
P ic k e d
o n e h u n d r e d t w e n t y - f i v e t o o n e h u n d r e d f i f t y p o u n d s a day f o r
a f i f t e e n day se a so n .
E a rn e d tw e n ty d o l l a r s .
F e b ru a ry : P ic k e d g r a p e f r u i t a t tw e n ty - f iv e c e n ts p e r h o u r n e a r
E l C e n tro .
W ork ed e i g h t h o u r s a d a y o n t h r e e j o b s f o r a t o t a l
o f tw e n ty -tw o d a y s .
E arn ed f o r t y - f o u r d o l l a r s .
M a rc h :
W orked a s h e l p e r o n f e r t i l i z e r t r u c k a t B r a w l e y .
Two
d o l l a r s a day f o r tw e n ty d a y s .
A p r i l : P ic k e d p e a s a t S a n ta M a ria .
B ad w e a t h e r a n d f a m i l y
w ere s ic k .
W ork ed n i n e d a y s .
E arn ed e le v e n d o l l a r s .
M ay: P i c k e d a p r i c o t s n e a r H a n f o r d ( K i n g s C o u n ty ) f o r t w e l v e
173
TABLE XXX
C on tin ued
d a y s i n l a s t two w e e k s o f May.
E arn ed s i x t e e n d o l l a r s .
J u n e , 1 9 5 7 : P i c k e d a p r i c o t s a t H em et.
Made f i f t y - s i x
d o l l a r s i n tw e n ty -o n e d a y s .
Ju ly :
T r e e - s h a k e r n e a r F re sn o a t t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s an h o u r.
A v e r a g e two d o l l a r s a d a y f o r t w e n t y - f i v e d a y s .
A u & u st-O c to b e r:
P i c k e d o r a n g e s a n d le m o n s n e a r F r e s n o a t
t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s p e r h o u r , w o rk in g an a v e ra g e o f s i x h o u rs
a day f o r s ix t y d ay s.
N o v e m b e r -D e e e m b e r : P i c k e d c o t t o n n e a r C o r c o r a n ( K i n g s
C o u n ty ) a t s e v e n t y - f i v e c e n t s a h u n d r e d .
A v e r a g e d two
h u n d re d f i f t y to t h r e e h u n d re d pounds f o r f i f t y d a y s.
J a n u a ry , 1938:
R e tu rn e d to I m p e r ia l V a lle y to p ic k p e a s . a
a . He d i d n o t r e t u r n
Summary:
in 1939.
Time c o v e r e d — t h i r t y m o n t h s .
Time w o r k e d — s i x h u n d r e d n i n e t o s i x
h u n d r e d s e v e n t e e n d a y s o r 2 0 . 4 d a y s p e r m o n th .
(N o te:
T h i s i s p r o b a b l y an o v e r - e s t i m a t e , s i n c e w o r k e r s a r e i n ­
c l i n e d to m in im iz e l a y - o f f s ) .
E a rn in g s a b o u t s ix h u n d red s ix d o l l a r s
o r t w e n t y d o l l a r s , t w e n t y c e n t s p e r m o n th o r two h u n d r e d
fo rty -tw o d o lla r s , f o r ty c e n ts p e r y e a r.
174
TABLE XXXI
THE WORK HISTORY OF APOLONIO PATRON
He s t a r t e d I n 1 9 3 1 , c o m in g h e r e f r o m C o l o r a d o w h e r e
h e h a d w orked i n b e e t f i e l d s .
The f i r s t y e a r h e t r i e d t o
s t a y i n C a l i p a t r i a , s e c u r i n g an o l d h o u s e a n d g e t t i n g w h a t
r a n c h w o rk h e c o u l d u n t i l h e w as s t a r v e d i n t o m o v in g i n May.
W a n d e r i n g a i m l e s s l y , w o r k i n g o n l y a fe w d a y s a t a t i m e , h e
r e a c h e d T r a c y j u s t a s t h e p e a - p i c k i n g w as a b o u t o v e r a n d a
l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r w as g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r a g r o u p t o go t o I d a h o
a n d p i c k p e a s a l l summer.
He s t a y e d w i t h t h e sam e c o n t r a c t o r
f o r two y e a r s a n d i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 3 3 s e c u r e d a c o n t r a c t o r 1s
l i c e n s e a n d g a t h e r e d a c r e w o f h i s own f r o m f r i e n d s h e h a d
m ade.
He s e c u r e d t h e c o n t r a c t f o r s e v e r a l s m a l l g r o w e r s i n
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y a n d t o o k h i s cre w t o P is m o B e a c h i n t h e
s p r i n g , w here b ad w e a th e r and th e l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t con­
t r a c t s c a u s e d h im t o l o s e m o s t o f h i s c r e w .
M oving o n t o
N i l e s h e p i c k e d p e a s and th e n w en t w i t h a n o t h e r c o n t r a c t o r
t o O r e g o n w h e r e h e p i c k e d f r u i t an d some p e a s u n t i l f a l l .
I n th e f a l l o f 1934 h e a g a in r e t u r n e d to I m p e r ia l V a lle y and
fo u n d a jo b w ith one o f th e b i g g ro w e rs.
He s o o n b ecam e
" r o w b o s s " a n d i n A p r i l w e n t o n w i t h t h e c re w a s " f i e l d
b o s s " t o t h e sam e g r o w e r ’ s p e a a c r e a g e a t S a n t a M a r i a .
He
w a s reco m m en d ed b y t h e g r o w e r t o a n o t h e r o p e r a t o r a t T r a c y
a n d w e n t f i r s t a s "row b o s s " a n d l a t e r a s " f i e l d b o s s " on
i n t o Id a h o , w o rk in g f o r a l a r g e co m m issio n -h o u se t h a t
s p e c i a l i z e d i n b u y i n g a n d p i c k i n g i t s own c r o p s .
R e tu rn in g
to C a l i p a t r i a h e s e c u re d h i s o ld jo b and h a s fo llo w e d t h i s
p a t t e r n e v e r s i n c e 1935.
175
t h o s e who a r e
th is
e n tire ly
l a s t group i s
fre e -la n c e s.
It
i s p ro b a b le th a t
s t i l l much t h e l a r g e s t .
Tim
11 e o f r e - e n t e r i n g C a l i f o r n i a a1s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f
fm-.ia m mm«r»iG»
n n nr 11
w -'-m — n n j-.t im m ..- -hi
k i n d o f crop fo llo w e d .
n o t p ic k p eas,
com m only r e t u r n
iiTfan.TBiri^iiBiv..1m in
................ imw
n
—
n
11
m
Many o f t h e m i g r a t o r y M e x i c a n s do
a s h a s b e e n shown b e f o r e .
to C a l i f o r n i a i n J u ly ,
T h is g ro u p
j u s t b e fo re th e
g r a p e a n d c o t t o n h a r v e s t s i n t h e San J o a q u i n V a l l e y ,
j o i n i n g t h o s e who l e a v e I m p e r i a l V a l l e y t o go t o
cro p s.
m
17
t h e same
T a y lo r * s c o u n t o f p e r s o n s h e a d e d n o r t h f r o m I m p e r i a l
V a l l e y i n 19 2 7 show s a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e f r o m 1366 i n A p r i l
to
a maximum o f 3 8 1 2 i n J u l y , 1® i n c o n t r a s t t o w h a t m i g h t
be
e x p e c te d ,
c o n s id e r in g t h a t th e p e a h a r v e s t i n I m p e r ia l
V a lle y i s o v er in A p ril.
o rn ia ,
The p e a k o f m i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f ­
o f t h o s e r e t u r n i n g fro m w ork e ls e w h e re ,
is
in
N o v e m b e r ,19 j u s t a t t h e p e a k o f t h e f a l l p e a s e a s o n a n d
th e s t a r t o f th e w in te r l e ttu c e
season in Im p e ria l V a lle y .
B i r t h p l a c e o f m i n o r a s §n i n d i c a t i o n o f e x t e n t o f
m ig ra tio n .
T he r a n g e o f m i g r a t i o n a s w e l l a s t h e p l a c e o f
17 T a y l o r an d V a s e y , L o c . c i t .
18 P a u l S. T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s . M ig r a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s . I l l « ( B e r k e l e y C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 3 ), p . 16.
19 S ee T a b l e XXXII
176
TABLE XXXII
RETURNING CALIFORNIANS
"IN NEED OF MANUAL EMPLOYMENT"
ENTERING CALIFORNIA BY MONTHS
IN 1 9 3 7 ^
M onth
T o ta l
J anuary
F eb ru ary
M arch
A p ril
May
June
J u ly
A ugust
S e p te m b e r
O c to b e r
N ovem ber
D ecem b er
R e tu rn in g C a lif o rn ia n s
1 4 ,2 1 5
1 ,0 5 3
559
3 87
764
9 99
9 99
1 ,3 9 2
1 ,5 5 1
1 ,4 6 1
1 ,7 2 4
1 ,7 8 7
1 ,5 3 9
a* A d a p t e d f r o m P a u l S . T a y l o r a n d E d w ard J . R o w e l l ,
" R e f u g e e L a b o r M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 , " M o n th ly
L abor R ev iew , 4 7 :2 4 0 - 5 0 , A u g u s t, 1 9 3 8 .
177
o r i g i n o f t h e g ro u p can b e i n f e r r e d fro m th e p l a c e s o f b i r t h
of
th e c h ild re n ,
a s show n i n T a b l e X X X III,
T h o s e b o r n i n M e x ic o a n d w h o s e s t a t e i s
v a r i a b l y f ro m t h e n o r t h e r n
s ta te s ,
g iv e n a re i n ­
a f a c t w h ic h b e a r s o u t
t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f T a y l o r 20 a s t o t h e o r i g i n o f I m p e r i a l
V a l l e y ’ s M e x ic a n s.
A riz o n a .
T hese,
The l a r g e s t g r o u p o f a l l w a s b o r n i n
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e b o r n i n M e x ic o a r e
p ro b a b ly th e o ld e s t c h ild r e n ,
p ic k in g peas.
T h irty -n in e ,
b o rn b e f o re th e fa m ily began
o r 1 4 . 8 p e r c e n t come f ro m
d r o u g h t s t a t e s a n d may b e l a t e a r r i v a l s .
The g r o u p f ro m
n e a r L os A n g e l e s c o m p r i s e t h i r t y - s i x ,
o r 1 3 . 7 p e r c e n t an d
may b e t h e o l d e r o n e s o f t h e f a m i l i e s
t h a t w ere r e c r u i t e d
in
th a t area.
Of t h e r e m a i n i n g g r o u p , w h i c h u n d o u b t e d l y i n c l u d e s
a ll
th e yo u n g er c h ild r e n ,
b o rn in Im p e ria l V a lle y ,
by f a r t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n w ere
a f a c t w h ich m ig h t b e e x p e c te d ,
c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t many o f t h e f a m i l i e s s p e n d s i x m o n th s i n
th e V a lle y every y e a r.
The s c a t t e r i n g o f t h e b i r t h p l a c e s
t h r o u g h o u t V a l l e y to w n s i l l u s t r a t e s
t h e common p r a c t i c e
am ong t h e g r o u p o f g o i n g t o s t a y w i t h f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s
to have t h e i r b a b ie s.
E v e r y o n e o f t h e o t h e r b i r t h p l a c e s i s on o n e o f t h e
tw o r o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n — t h a t f ro m B r a w le y t o F r e s n o o r
fro m C a l i p a t r i a to Id a h o .
90 T a b l e XXXV, I n f r a . , p .
189.
178
TABLE XXXIII
BIRTHPLACE OP MEXICAN MIGRATORY CHILDREN,
NILAND AND CALIPATRIA, 1 9 3 1 - 3 9 .
B irth p la c e
T o ta l
A rizo n a
Im p e ria l V a lle y
C a lip a tria
13
B ra w le y
9
N ila n d
8
W e s tm o r l a n d 7
E l C en tro
6
C a le x ic o
4
Im p e ria l
4
H eber
2
H o ltv ille
1
M exico
S onora
8
B a ja C a l i f .
7
S in a lo a
1
C o a h u ila
1
Not s t a t e d
27
Los A n g e l e s C o.
Texas
O ra n g e Co.
S a n B e r n a r d i n o C o.
K ansas
C o lo rad o
U tah
New M ex ico
P u e rto R ic o a
Nevada
O klahom a
V e n t u r a C o.
Idaho
F r e s n o Co.
K e r n C o.
T u la r e Co.
Sonoma C o.
Number
263
64
54
Per cent of
to ta l
100
.
2 4 .3 4
2 0 .5 3
44
1 6 .7 3
27
17
9
8
8
6
6
6
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1 0 .2 7
6 .4 7
3 .4 2
3 .0 4
3 .0 4
2 .2 8
2 .2 8
2 .2 8
1 .1 4
.7 6
.7 6
.7 6
.3 8
.3 8
.3 8
.3 8
.3 8
a . N o t M e x ic a n s b u t commonly c l a s s e d a s s u c h .
179
III.
MEXICAN PEA-PICKERS
How t h e y h a p p e n e d , t o com e.
M o st o f t h e m i g r a t o r y
M e x ic a n p e a - p i c k e r s came f ro m o n e o f t h r e e s o u r c e s .
The
M e x i c a n s u s e d a s s e c t i o n - h a n d s by t h e r a i l r o a d s i n a n d o u t
o f L os A n g e l e s w e r e r e c r u i t e d
V a l l e y i n t h e "boom 11 y e a r s .
S o n o r a an d S i n a l o a ,
to w ork i n th e c o t t o n i n th e
M o st o f t h e s e o r i g i n a t e d i n
a l t h o u g h some w e r e e m p lo y e d b y t h e r a i l ­
r o a d s i n t h e i r Texas l i n e s
a n d came f r o m s t a t e s b o r d e r i n g
th a t s ta te .
Some may b e o f t h e g r o u p m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r
I w h i c h
w e r e b r o u g h t f r o m C e n t r a l M exico by t h e M e x ic a n
ra ilro a d ,
b u t t h i s group m ust b e q u i t e
sm a ll,
s in c e th e re is
n o r e c o r d o f an y o f t h e c h i l d r e n b e i n g b o r n i n o t h e r t h a n
b o r d e r s t a t e s . ^2
group i s
Illu s tra tiv e
o f th e r a ilr o a d r e c r u ite d
t h e c a s e o f J e s u s L o p e z , m e n t i o n e d by W e b b ,^ 3 who
w o r k e d f o r M e x ic a n r a i l r o a d s ,
w o r k on t h e S o u t h e r n P a c i f i c
1916 to th e c o t t o n f i e l d s
d r i f t e d a c r o s s th e b o r d e r to
s e c t io n and th e n ch an g ed in
so h i s w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n c o u l d
w ork.
21 O f . , p .
22 C f . ,
7 4 f.
S e c tio n I I
o f t h i s C h a p te r.
25 J o h n N. Webb, The Mi e r a t o r.v - Ca s u a l W o r k e r
( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C .:
U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 96.
180
A n o t h e r l a r g e g r o u p came i n f r o m t h e c o t t o n - f i e l d s
o f A riz o n a , t o p i c k I m p e r i a l V a l l e y c o t t o n .
group d r i f t e d
S till
a c ro s s th e b o rd e r a t M e x ic a li.
many h a d b e e n b r o u g h t i n t o
a n o th e r
Of t h e s e l a s t ,
B a ja C a l i f o r n i a c o tto n f i e l d s
f r o m t h e w e s t c o a s t s t a t e s o f M exico a n d came i n t o
Im p e ria l V a lle y o f C a lif o rn ia ,
th e
a t t r a c t e d by b e t t e r w ages,
s i n c e th e p r e s e n c e o f C h in e se i n B a ja C a l i f o r n i a h ad a
te n d e n c y to d e p r e s s w ages a ro u n d M e x ic a li.
When q u e s t i o n e d ,
n e a rly a l l
t h e o l d e r men s a y t h e y s t a r t e d p i c k i n g p e a s when
th e c o tto n
"boom" f e l l f l a t i n 19 20 a n d b e c a m e m i g r a t o r y
b e c a u s e t h e r e w as n o t e n o u g h w o rk i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y t o k e e p
th e m e m p lo y e d t h e e n t i r e y e a r .
b e e t f ie ld s in to
a n d so i n t o
A fe w w e r e r e c r u i t e d f ro m
t h e p e a - g r o w i n g a r e a s o f U ta h a n d I d a h o
th e c y c le and th e l a t e r o n e s ,
com e d i r e c t l y
fro m th e c o t t o n o f T e x as and A r iz o n a .
T.voe o f M e x ic a n s p i c k i n g p e a s .
class,"
says H o llid a y ,2 4 " d is tin c tly
m ig h t be e x p e c te d ,
cam e.
of c o u rse have
"T hey a r e a p e o n
In d ia n in ty p e ,"
as
c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t a t e s from w h ich th e y
They a r e w i t h o u t d o u b t o f a d i f f e r e n t
ty p e from
t h o s e s t u d i e d b y G-amio,26 a n d b e l o n g p r i n c i p a l l y
to t h e
g r o u p d e s c r i b e d by P a u l T a y l o r , 26 c o m in g p r i n c i p a l l y
f ro m
24 J a y N ew ton H o l l i d a y , "A S t u d y o f N o n - A t t e n d a n c e
i n M ig u e l H i d a l g o S c h o o l o f B r a w l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , " ( u n p u b l i s h ­
ed M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s ; t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 53•
2 5 S e e T a b l e XXXIV
26 S e e T a b l e XXXV
181
TABLE XXXIV
STATES FROM WHICH MEXICANS CAME
TO THE MIDDLE WEST8
S ta te
Per cen t o f t o t a l
G u an aju ato
2 1 .3 1
J a lis c o
2 2 .3 1
M ic h o a c a n
1 4 .4 6
Z a c a te c a s
8 .8 8
D u ra n g o
7 .0 5
C h ih u a h u a
6 .1 2
D is tr ito F ed eral
4 .7 7
O th e rs
1 5 .1 0
C e n tr a l p l a t e a u m ild c lim a te
6 8 .0 8
D esert
1 3 .1 7
a . M an u el G am io, M e x ic a n I m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s * ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ) ,
p . 17 f f .
182
TABLE XXXV
STATES FROM WHICH MEXICANS CAME
TO IMPERIAL VALLEYa
S ta te
Per cent of to ta l
Baja C a lifo rn ia
1 5 .1
S in a lo a
1 4 .3
S onora
1 4 .3
G uanaj u a to
1 0 .8
J a lisc o
8 .9
D urango
7 .2
C h ih u ah u a
6 .9
M ic h o a c a n
6 .6
Z a c a te c a s
5 .6
O th e rs
1 0 .3
D esert s ta te s
5 7 .8
M ild p l a t e a u s t a t e s
2 2 .7
a . P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , V olum e I ; The I m p e r i a l V a l l e x ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n iv e r s ity o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ), pp. 1 9 -2 3 .
t h e d e s e r t p o r t i o n o f M e x ic o ,
a very s ig n i f ic a n t f a c t o r in
t h e i r a d a p ta tio n to a m ig ra to ry l i f e .
a r e a v ery v a r i a b l e gro u p ,
s trin g e n tly
ra c ia lly ,
W i t h o u t d o u b t " M e x ic a n s
and th e y h a v e b een v e ry
s e l e c t e d b y f a c t o r s o f i m m i g r a t i o n . " 27
Except
w h e re p e o p le fro m th e p l a t e a u s t a t e s h a v e b e e n draw n n o r t h
to a p o r t o f e n try ,
s u c h a s T ucson o r M e x ic a li,
t h e M e x ic a n s
com m only e n c o u n t e r e d I n C a l i f o r n i a h a v e m ore I n d i a n b l o o d
t h a n t h e a v e r a g e f o r M e x ic o , w h i c h i s
p e r c e n t . 28
T h is i s
about se v e n ty -fiv e
shown b y t h e a l m o s t u n i f o r m l y d a r k s k i n
c o l o r — t h e r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h show s t h e h i g h e s t
c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f I n d i a n germ p l a s m . 29
A d a p ta tio n to m ig ra to ry l i f e .
Coming f r o m d e s e r t
s t a t e s w here a r o v in g l i f e
i s common among t h e l a r g e p r o ­
p o r tio n o f th e p o p u la tio n ,
t h e M e x ic a n i s p e c u l i a r l y
a d a p te d to th e m ig ra to ry l i f e .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ich th e y
h a v e i n common w i t h o t h e r d e s e r t d w e l l e r s may n o t f i t
A m erican s t a n d a r d s b u t a r e a r e s p o n s e to t h e e n v ir o n m e n t.
F irst is
t h e s e e m i n g l a c k o f e n e r g y o b s e r v e d by
27 F r a n k l i n C. P a s c h a l a n d L o u i s R. S u l l i v a n , " R a c i a l
I n f l u e n c e s i n t h e M e n t a l a n d P h y s i c a l D e v e lo p m e n t o f M e x ic a n
C h ild re n ,"
C o m p a ra tiv e P sy c h o lo g y M onographs. 3 : 1 - 7 6 ,
O c to b e r, 1925.
184
FIGURE 13
RACIAL TYPES— SHOWING VARYING
PROPORTIONS OF INDIAN BLOOD
185
FIGURE 14
RACIAL TYPES
NOTE:
C o n t r a s t t h e I n d i a n a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e two b i g
b o y s w i t h t h e l i t t l e g i r l ab o v e and t h e s m a l l e r boy b elo w .
186
T h o m p s o n , who i s
ra in fa ll.
c o rre c t in a ttr ib u tin g i t
The B e r b e r s o f N o r t h A f r i c a ,
to t h e la c k o f
th e H o tte n to ts o f
t h e K a l i h a r i a s w e l l a s t h e B e d o u in s a r e n o t o r i o u s l y i n d o l e n t
by
are
so -c a lle d
11c i v i l i z e d 9 s t a n d a r d s .
But a l l o f th e s e groups
c a p a b le o f g r e a t s u s t a i n e d p h y s i c a l e f f o r t when th e
o c c a s i o n dem ands as i s
s e e n when t h e M e x ic a n i s
se ttin g -u p
«•
h is
camp o r g a t h e r i n g w o o d.
A n o t h e r c h a r g e made a g a i n s t t h e M e x ic a n s i s
t h a t th e y
a r e d i r t y a n d m ake no e f f o r t t o i m p r o v e t h e i r h o m e s .
a r e few s i d e w a l k s , no g r e e n g r a s s ,
T h e re
s m a ll, p o o rly v e n t i l a t e d
h o u s e s , o f t e n o f a d o b e e v e n i n t h e m o re p e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t s .
9Bad a s c o n d i t i o n s a r e ,
t h e M e x ic a n m ak es l i t t l e
i m p r o v e t h e m , 9 l a m e n t s L y o n , 31
T hese,
a g a in ,
e f f o r t to
a r e w h a t m ig h t
b e e x p e c t e d o f d e s e r t - d w e l l e r s who do n o t h a v e w a t e r e a s i l y
a v a i l a b l e a n d who e x p e c t t o move o n i n a s h o r t t i m e .
The
sam e f e e l i n g o f im p e rm a n e n o y a n d u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o i m p r o v e
t h e i r hom es w a s o b s e r v e d by P a u l T a y l o r among t h e w h i t e
s e t t l e r s o f I m p e r i a l V a l l e y who h a d b e e n t h e r e t w e n t y y e a r s
30 W a l l a c e Thom pson, The M e x ic a n M ind , A S t u d y o f
N a t i o n a l P sy c h o lo g y (B o sto n :
L i t t l e , Brown a n d CompanyT
p . 29.
3 1 L a u r a L u c i l l e L y o n , 9I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
f o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t o f M e x ic a n G - ir ls t o t h e H ig h
t h e S an F e r n a n d o V a l l e y , 9 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1 s
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s,
p p . 10-11.
t h e P r o g ra m
S ch o o ls o f
t h e s i s , The
1933),
187
o r n io re .^
The p o i n t h e r e made i s
t h a t w hereas th e ty p e o f
a d a p t a t i o n dem anded by a m i g r a t o r y l i f e w o u ld b e v e r y t r y i n g
and n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y
to p e o p le l i k e
t h e C h in e se o r J a p a n e s e
who h a v e b e e n s m a l l f a r m e r s o r c i t y - d w e l l e r s f o r g e n e r a t i o n s ,
it
w o u ld b e t h e n o r m a l c o u r s e o f
h a s alw ay s l i v e d t h u s .
M e x ic a n i s
t h i n g s f o r t h e M e x ic a n , who
T h i s may go f a r t o e x p l a i n why t h e
c l i n g i n g t o h i s f o l l o w i n g o f t h e c r o p s so t e n ­
a c i o u s l y a n d t o p o i n t a m o r a l t o g r o w e r s who a r e w o n d e r i n g
w h a t w i l l h a p p e n t o t h e i r l a b o r s u p p l y w hen t h e r e f u g e e l a b o r
s e t t l e s down a s i t
su re ly w ill.
G h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e M e x ic a n a s a w o r k e r .
b e e n shown
I t has
t h a t M e x ic a n s a r e w e l l t h o u g h t o f a s w o r k e r s .
T hey a r e on t h e i r s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e c r o p s 34 a n d a r e
s till
i n d em an d .
They s p e c i a l i z e i n p a r t i c u l a r c r o p s 33 a s
h a s b e e n shown a n d seem t o h a v e an " i n s t i n c t i v e
r i p e n i n g f r u i t and m elo n s .
h e lp
. . n36
to u c h f o r
They a r e " . . .
t h a n t h e O r i e n t a l s who p r e c e d e d th e m . "37
b e tte r
The g r o w e r s
32 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M ex ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s . V o l . I , The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ( B e r k e l e y . C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n iv e r s ity o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 28), p. 9.
33 C f . C h a p t e r I I I , p .
34 P ra n k J . T a y lo r , " C a l i f o r n i a ’ s G rap es o f W r a th ,”
F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y .
1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v em b er, 1 9 3 9 .
3 5 L e s l i e 0 . G o r d o n , " B r e e d i n g G ro u n d s f o r S o c i a l
U n r e s t , ” The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e . 5 7 : 2 3 - 2 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 7 .
36 F r a n k T a y l o r ,
37 L o c . c l t .
lo c . c l t .
188
l o n g e s t i n th e b u s in e s s i n I m p e r ia l V a lle y a r e t r y i n g to keep
t h e M e x ic a n h e l p t h e y now h a v e a n d a r e a l r e a d y b e g i n n i n g t o
s i g h f o r t h e " g o o d o l d d a y s " b e f o r e t h e c o m in g o f t h e " O k i e s . "
M e x ic a n s d i s a p p e a r i n g .
M e x ic a n .
s ta te s ,
Now i t
is
" I n 1 93 0 i t w as l a r g e l y
l a r g e l y A m e r ic a n s t o c k f ro m t h e d r o u g h t
" s a y s H e f f e r n a n , 3^ s p e a k i n g o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e
s c h o o ls i n a r e a s o f s e a s o n a l crops*
F e w e r a n d f e w e r M e x ic a n s
a r e c r o s s i n g th e s t a t e l i n e s lo o k in g f o r w ork.
The v o lu m e
d r o p p e d n e a r l y o n e p e r c e n t fro m 1935 to 1 9 3 6 .^ 9
Race p r e ­
j u d i c e an d a n " i n c r e a s e d s h a r i n g o f a v a i l a b l e w o rk " h a s
e x e r t e d a "dow n w ard p r e s s u r e o n w age r a t e s " 4 0 an& f o r c e d a
s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g t o o low e v e n f o r M e x ic a n s o f t h e
second
g e n e r a t i o n and th e y a r e b e g i n n i n g to l e a v e th e r a n k s o f th e
m ig ra n ts.
Many h a v e f o u n d I t
c itie s
e a s i e r to l i v e on r e l i e f
in th e
t h a n t o make t h e e f f o r t t o g e t j o b s i n i n d u s t r i e s
w h e r e t h e r e a r e no j o b s t o b e h a d a n d w h e r e t h e y a r e
38 H e l e n H e f f e r n a n , " R e p o r t o f C o n f e r e n c e o n E d u c a t i o n
o f C h ild r e n o f S e a s o n a l W o rk ers— F re sn o S t a t e C o lle g e ,
D ecem ber 9 -1 0 , 1938*" C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry .
E d u c a tio n , 7 :1 8 1 -9 1 , F e b ru a ry , 1939.
39 E dw ard J . R o w e ll , " D r o u g h t R e f u g e e a n d L a b o r M ig r a ­
t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a i n 1 9 3 6 , " M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , 4 3 : 1 3 5 5 - 6 3 ,
D ecem ber, 1936.
40 D a v i s Me E n t i r e a n d N. L. W h e t t e n , "The M i g r a n t s ,
I . R e c e n t M i g r a t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , " L and P o l i c y R e v i e w ,
2 :7 - 1 7 , S ep te m b e r-O c to b e r, 1939.
189
g e n e ra lly d isc rim in a te d a g a in s t.
T h is gro u p i s p ro d u c in g
s u c h a p r o b le m t h a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a C o m m is sio n on R e - e m p l o y m e n t i s m a k in g p l a n s t o r e p a t r i a t e th e m .
th e c o s t o f th e tr a n s p o r ta tio n
They p l a n t o p a y
an d g i v e f r o m s i x m o n th s t o
a y e a r ' s r e l i e f b u d g e t t o t h o s e who w i l l a c c e p t " r e p a t r i a t i o n , " 41
A c o n s id e r a b l e num ber h a v e a l r e a d y
t h e i r own a c c o r d ,
in
s ta rte d
to r e t u r n o f
s i n c e t h e new a g r a r i a n g o v e r n m e n t o f M ex ico
1934 o f f e r e d each r e t u r n i n g fa m ily a s l i c e o f c o n f is c a te d
real
e s t a t e . W h a t w i l l be th e e f f e c t o f t h i s r e tu r n i s
p r o b l e m a t i c a l , b o t h on t h i s a n d t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e b o r d e r .
T a l e s a r e a l r e a d y c o m in g b a c k o f " r e p a t r i a t e d "
c a lle d
"y a n q u is"
and t r e a t e d a s a l i e n s ,
th e y c a r e to c la im
to
as,
c h ild re n b e in g
in d e e d th e y a r e i f
t h e i r A m e r ic a n c i t i z e n s h i p a n d r e t u r n a g a i n
th e la n d o f t h e i r b i r t h .
IV .
SUMMARY
Pea- p ic k e r s i n th e p ro c e s s o f c h a n g in g .
G row ers
com m only h a v e two o r m ore r a c i a l g r o u p s a n d a n o v e r - s u p p l y
o f l a b o r p i c k i n g t h e i r p e a s a s an i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t s t r i k e s .
M e x ic a n s a r e n o t a s l a r g e a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p i c k e r s a s
fo rm e rly , b e in g d is p la c e d by re fu g e e la b o r .
fo llo w
two m a in p a t t e r n a ,
Pea p ic k e r s
o n e fro m I m p e r i a l V a lle y t o F re sn o
41 C a r e y M c W illia m s , "W h at1 s B e i n g Done A b o u t The
J o a d s ,? The New R e p u b l i c , 1 0 0 : 1 7 8 - 8 0 , S e p t e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 3 9 .
42 F r a n k T a y l o r ,
lo c . c i t .
190
o r K e rn C o u n t i e s an d b a c k ,
a n d o n e up t h e c o a s t t o T r a c y ,
t h e n c e t o U t a h , I d a h o , W a s h i n g t o n o r O r e g o n a n d b a c k down t o
Im p e ria l V a lle y .
A few o f t h e o l d e r M e x ic a n p i c k e r s who h a v e
b e e n i n t h e w ork a lo n g tim e a r e p e r s i s t i n g .
The M e x ic a n s
cam e f ro m d e s e r t a r e a s a n d a r e w e l l a d a p t e d t o a m i g r a t o r y
life .
They a r e s t i l l d e s i r e d by many g r o w e r s b u t t h e y h a v e
b e e n c ro w d in g i n t o
1934.
t h e c i t i e s o r l e a v i n g f o r M e x ic o s i n c e
CHAPTER VI
MIGRATORY CAMPS, THEN AND NOW
I.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
E a rly a t t i t u d e *
In e a r ly days th e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i ­
t u d e o f t h e g r o w e r s w as t h a t t h e l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e
p i c k e r s w as no c o n c e r n o f t h e i r s ,
s am e a t t i t u d e
s t i l l p e rs is ts .
an d to
some e x t e n t t h e
I n 1927 one o f th e l a r g e r
g r o w e r s e x p r e s s e d h i s r e a s o n s f o r t h i s p o i n t o f v ie w an d
h is
re a liz a tio n
t h a t tim e s w ere c h a n g in g .
The M e x i c a n s a r e s a t i s f i e d t o l i v e a n y w h e r e .
I t is
h a r d t o g e t w h i t e l a b o r t o do t h e w o r k an d l i v e a s t h e y
do.
O u r i n t e n s i v e l a b o r a n d s h o r t s e a s o n s make s t a n d a r d
h o u s in g p r o h i b i t i v e f o r t h e M e x ic a n s w i t h t h e i r l a r g e
fa m ilie s.
We c o u l d n ' t em ploy M e x i c a n s a t t h e h o u s i n g
s ta n d a rd s o f o th e r s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , we m u s t make some
im p ro v e m e n ts to m eet t h e b e t t e r h o u s in g w h ic h o t h e r
s e c t i o n s o f th e S t a t e a r e b e g i n n i n g to o f f e r to M e x ic a n s.
L e g a lly ,
so l o n g a s t h e g r o w e r d i d n o t p e r m i t t h e p i c k e r s t o
cam p o n h i s l a n d h e c o u l d n o t b e h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
s q u a t t e r cam p s t h a t s p r a n g up e v e r y w h e r e .
C o n d itio n s in such
cam ps w ere a p p a l l i n g fro m th e s t a n d p o i n t o f s a n i t a t i o n .
II.
S q u a t t e r cam p s.
UNIMPROVED CAMPS
When no cam ps a r e p r o v i d e d ,
th e
1 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s . V o l . I , The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ( B e r k e l e y . C a l i f o r n i a :
U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 57.
192
FIGURE 15
SQUATTER GAMP
193
p i c k e r s t e n d t o s e t t l e on d i t c h b a n k s a n d a t t h e e d g e s o f
f i e l d s o r th e ed g es o f to w n s.
They commonly c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r
an d c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r ib e d by a l o c a l r e s i d e n t as
fo llo w s :
T h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s on t h e w h o l e a r e d e p l o r a b l e .
T h e i r h o m es a r e t e n t s o r n o n d e s c r i p t s h e l t e r s .
E v ery ­
t h i n g t h a t c a n b e u s e d t o f o rm a w a l l i s u s e d .
The
f lo o r s o f th e se d w e llin g -p la c e s a re d i r t .
On m a k e - s h i f t
s t o v e s t h e y do t h e i r c o o k i n g .
V e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y i s an y
a t t e m p t m ade t o s c r e e n t h e i r s h e l t e r s .
Of f u r n i t u r e
t h e y u s u a l l y h a v e v e r y l i t t l e , many o f th e m s l e e p i n g o n
a m a t t r e s s o r clu m p o f r a g s on t h e g r o u n d .
When s i c k ­
n e s s e x i s t s i t i s n a t u r a l l y v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o w o rk w i t h
th e m .
T h e i r c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e o n l y a s m a t t e r i n g o f ed u­
c a t i o n , d u e t o f r e q u e n t moves o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . 2
W i t h no s h a d e , no s a n i t a r y
fa c ilitie s
s h a llo w h o l e s th e y th e m se lv e s d ig ,
b a i l o u t o f th e d itc h e s ,
can d isp o sa l,
fro m th e r a i n ,
no w a t e r e x c e p t w h a t t h e y
no p r o v i s i o n f o r g a r b a g e a n d t i n
and o f te n w ith o n ly th e p o o r e s t o f s h e l t e r s
w in d a n d c o l d , w i t h a t e m p e r a t u r e o f t w e n t y -
e ig h t d e g re e s to
n ig h t,
o t h e r th a n tem p o ra ry
t h i r t y - f o u r d e g r e e s a common o c c u r e n c e a t
t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s among t h i s g r o u p a r e o f t e n u n ­
s p e a k a b le .
The d e s c r i p t i o n s q u o t e d b e l o w may b e d u p l i c a t e d
a n y w i n t e r i n t h e s q u a t t e r c a m p s, a n d w a s u n t i l r e c e n t l y a n d
s till
is
to
some e x t e n t ,
e q u a l l y t r u e o f t h e l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r 1s
a n d e v e n some g r o w e r 1s cam p s:
. . . T h e s e im p r o m p tu cam ps a r e , o f c o u r s e , t h e v e r y
w o rst.
U s u a l l y t h e y h a v e no s a n i t a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r .
One
s u c h h a d no w a t e r s u p p l y ; t h e p e o p l e u s e d d i t c h w a t e r .
A n o t h e r camp w as d e p e n d e n t on w a t e r f ro m a f i l l i n g
s t a t i o n , a t f iv e c e n ts a b u c k e t.
M ost a r e b a d l y s i t u a t e d .
2 R e p o r t o f Norman D u p o n t, t h e n C h a ir m a n o f t h e I m p e r i a l
C o u n t y R e l i e f C o m m itte e , E l C e n t r o , q u o t e d by C r o s s a n d C r o s s ,
o p . c i t . , p. 56.
194
One on t h e
e d g e o f a m a l a r i a l marsh. ^
I n one o f th e s e f l y - i n f e s t e d h u t s , N egroes o f b o th
s e x e s a n d a l l a g e s w e r e f o u n d h u d d l e d en m a s s e .
I n some
p l a c e s s t r a n g e men a n d women w e r e t h r o w n t o g e t h e r i n t h e
same r o o m . ^
The p r i n c i p a l c a u s e o f t h e u n s p e a k a b l e c o n d i t i o n s
found in th e
s q u a t t e r cam ps l i e s
in th e f a c t t h a t th e r e i s
no o n e on whom t o p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
d itio n s.
f o r im p ro v in g con­
O ver and o v e r th e H e a lth O f f i c e r h a s e v ic te d
c a m p e r s fro m p u b l i c p r o p e r t y o n l y t o h a v e th em s e t t l e
w i t h i n a m ile o r so.
When t h e y a r e on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y t h e
ow n er can be co m p elled to m a in ta in s a n i t a r y
d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s o r k eep th e cam pers o f f .
t h e w a s te la n d i s deeded to th e s t a t e ,
little
can be done.
d r iv e n a b o u t,
w here.
a g a in
It
is
an d g a r b a g e
B u t much o f
i n w h ich c a s e v e ry
c e r t a i n t h a t how ever th e y a re
t h e u n e m p lo y e d m i g r a t o r y g r o u p m u s t l i v e
some­
B r e a k i n g up u n s a n i t a r y cam ps o n l y t r a n s f e r s t h e p r o ­
b le m to a n o th e r a r e a .
necessary i f
Of c o u r s e no s q u a t t e r cam p s w o u l d b e
th e su p p ly o f l a b o r c o u ld b e r e g u l a t e d .
Even t h e s t a t e i s p o w e r l e s s t o c o n t r o l t h e
s q u a tte r-
cam p p r o b l e m u n d e r e x i s t i n g l a w s .
The C o m m issio n o f I m m ig r a ­
t i o n and H o u sin g can m e re ly a d v is e
each in d iv id u a l c a se ,
s in c e
t h e r e i s no o n e who c a n b e p r o s e c u t e d u n d e r t h e
H o u s i n g A c t w hen t h e l a n d i s
owned b y t h e s t a t e o r o n e o f
3 C a r l t o n B e a l s , " M ig s — A m e r i c a * s S h a n t y t o w n o n W h e e l s , "
F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y , 9 9 : 1 0 - 1 5 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 .
4 D a n i e l M. K i d n e y , " H a r v e s t a n d R e l i e f , "
G -rap h ic, 2 4 :4 2 1 , S ep te m b e r, 1935.
S urvey-
195
its
s u b d iv is io n s.
The C o u n ty H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t h a s p r o c e e d e d a g a i n s t
i n d i v i d u a l c am p ers o f l a t e y e a r s and s i n c e th e a d v e n t o f th e
F .S .A .
Camps t h e s q u a t t e r s c a n no l o n g e r s a y t h a t t h e y h a v e
no p la c e to go.
The s u c c e s s o f t h i s p o l i c y i s
r e p o r t o f t h e camp i n s p e c t o r i n F e b r u a r y ,
seen in th e
1940.
He f o u n d
o n l y two s q u a t t e r 1s cam ps i n t h e e n t i r e c o u n t y .
I t w as a
ws u r p r i s e t o m e ," s a i d t h e i n s p e c t o r ,
" i n v ie w o f t h e p a s t
h i s t o r y o f th e C o u n ty ." 5
III.
PARTLY IMPROVED CAMPS
L a b o r - c o n t r a c t o r 1s c a m p s .
I n e a r l i e r y e a r s a common
p o l i c y o f th e g ro w e rs w as t h a t o f s h i f t i n g th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
o f k e e p i n g a camp upon t h e l a b o r - c o n t r a c t o r .
c o n tr a c to r had l i t t l e
The a v e r a g e
m ean s a n d ow ned no l a n d so t h e camp
m a i n t a i n e d by h im w as n e c e s s a r i l y v e r y i n a d e q u a t e .
Even when
t h e camp i n s p e c t o r s p r o s e c u t e d h im h e p r o v i d e d o n l y t h e b a r e s t
minimum s t a n d a r d s r e q u i r e d b y t h e la w a n d f r e q u e n t l y a n i n ­
s u f f i c i e n t num ber o f t h e s e .
g ro w ers,
few ,
if
W ith t h e c h a n g e d a t t i t u d e o f t h e
c o n t r a c t o r cam ps n e e d no l o n g e r e x i s t .
any,
T h e re w ere
in th e p e a -g ro w in g a r e a o f Im p e ria l V a lle y in
5 C a l i f o r n i a D ep artm en t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ,
R e p o r t o f t h e G o v e r n o r * s C o u n c i l , F e b r u a r y . 1 9 4 0 ( m im e o g r a ­
p h e d , n. n. F e b ru a ry , 1 9 4 0 ;, p. 18.
196
1939-40.
P r i v a t e pay cam ps.
When t h e t i d e o f i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m
th e drought s t a t e s began,
l a r g e n u m b e r s o f p r i v a t e p a y cam p s
s p ra n g up.
M e x ic a n s p r e f e r r e d l i v i n g n e a r t h e f i e l d s b u t
t h e w h ite p i c k e r s c l u s t e r e d a b o u t t h e to w n s.
The a d v e n t o f
t h e F. S. A. Camps w as a n a c t u a l s t i m u l u s t o t h e s e c a m p s,
s i n c e t h e p a y camp c h a r g e w a s t h e sam e a s t h a t o f t h e G o v e r n ­
m e n t Camp,
t h e o n ly d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t i n th e l a t t e r i t was
p o s s i b l e t o w ork o u t y o u r r e n t w h i l e t h e fo rm e r w as c a s h .
T h is h as le d
to a c u r io u s s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ,
th e p r iv a te
cam p r e s i d e n t s h o l d i n g t h e m s e l v e s a b o v e t h e g o v e r n m e n t camp
g ro u p b e c a u s e th e l a t t e r h a d no c a s h .
S c a r c e l y a n y M e x ic a n s
a r e f o u n d e i t h e r i n t h e p r i v a t e o r t h e (Government Camps.
One f e a t u r e o f t h e p r i v a t e camp i s v e r y u n d e s i r a b l e .
T h is i s
t h e camp s t o r e w h e r e a c e r t a i n
am o u n t o f c r e d i t i s
a d v a n c e d o r l o a n s a r e made o n p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y ,
"ta k in g i t
o u t in tra d e "
t h e cam per
a t p r i c e s f r o m two t o f o u r c e n t s a n
i t e m h i g h e r t h a n i n to w n .
The p a y c a m p s i n
crow ded,
su p p ly ,
c o n s id e r in g th e
t h e p a s t y e a r w e r e v e r y much o v e r ­
s a n ita r y f a c i l i t i e s and w a te r
a n d a t b e s t f e l l f a r b e lo w t h e
G o v e r n m e n t Camp.
s ta n d a rd o f th e
197
IV .
IMPROVED CAMPS
Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Cam ps.
F o r two y e a r s
t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s m a i n t a i n e d a m o b i l e
u n i t m i g r a t o r y camp i n s i d e t h e c i t y
lim its of C a lip a tria .
A p e r m a n e n t camp i s m a i n t a i n e d a t B r a w le y and i n 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 an
a d d i t i o n a l m o b ile u n i t was s e t up a t H o l t v i l l e .
T h e s e cam ps
p ro v id e p la tfo rm s f o r t e n t s ,
a r r a n g e d i n n e a t row s a ro u n d a
c e n t r a l co m m u n ity b u i l d i n g .
E le c tric ity
w a te r fa u c e ts,
p riv ie s ,
and g a r b a g e p i t s
b e t w e e n t h e ro w s o f p l a t f o r m s .
a r e p ro v id e d .
is a v a ila b le ,
and
a r e g r o u p e d i n ro w s
H o t w a t e r an d s t a t i o n a r y
tu b s
A m easure o f s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t i s p r o v id e d i n
t h a t th e cam p ers a r e o r g a n iz e d on th e co m m ittee sy ste m .
A
d a y n u r s e r y i s m a in ta in e d and r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l o f a s o r t i s
a v a ila b le .
E v e n i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t s a r e s t a g e d b y t h e camp
co m m ittee u n d e r th e
s u p e rv is io n o f th e s u p e rin te n d e n t,
o th e r r e c r e a tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s a re arran g ed fo r,
and
in c lu d in g
s p o r t s and gam es.
The G o v e r n m e n t Camp s e r v e s a v e r y u s e f u l p u r p o s e i n
s e t t i n g a s ta n d a rd f o r t h e g ro w ers.
t o make t h e m o b i l e u n i t s c o m p l e t e l y
1.
fa c to ry
s a tis fa c to ry
are:
T h e re i s no s h a d e .
2 . T he p r i v i e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s
3.
C e rta in f e a tu r e s la c k in g
an d s m e l l y .
A f a u c e t f o r e a c h p l a t f o r m w o u ld b e m o re s a t i s ­
th a n th e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n w here i t
i s n e c e s s a r y to
198
k eep w a te r on hand in th e t e n t s .
4.
T he c a p a c i t y
fa m ilie s in
in
F eb ru ary ,
is
s tric tly
t h e C a l i p a t r i a cam p.
l i m i t e d to tw o -h u n d red
When t h e camp b e c a m e f u l l
1 9 4 0 , l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s q u a t t e r s cam p ed j u s t
o u t s i d e t h e f e n c e an d h a d t o b e moved b y t h e h e a l t h o f f i c e r .
F o rtu n a te ly ,
t h e H o l t v i l l e camp w as s t i l l
open,
so many o f
t h e s q u a t t e r s moved t h e r e .
The g r o w e r s do n o t l i k e t h e F . S . A .
Camps a n d h a v e
o p p o s e d th em w i t h e v e r y m eans a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l .
M e rritt,
H. C.
o f t h e Tagus R anch i n T u la r e C o u n ty , v o i c e d t h e
o b j e c t i o n m o s t commonly e x p r e s s e d .
" I f my w orkm en l i v e o n t h e r a n c h an d I t e l l th em t o
b e o n h a n d a t e i g h t i n t h e m o r n i n g — th e y * r e o n h a n d . 11
" I f t h e y ' r e i n a F e d e r a l Camp I d o n ' t know w h e t h e r
t h e y ' l l b e h e r e o r n o t . . . W h ile I 'm l o o k i n g f o r
o t h e r p i c k e r s t h e p e a g h e s d r o p on t h e g r o u n d a n d a
y e a r ' s w o r k i s g o n e ." ®
T h e re i s a n o th e r re a s o n f o r th e o p p o s it i o n o f th e g ro w ers
to
t h e G o v e rn m e n t cam p.
T h is l i e s
in th e f e a r o f s tr i k e s .
T he p e a s t r i k e o f 19 33 w as b r o k e n b y t h e a c t i o n o f t h e
C o u n t y H e a l t h O f f i c e r i n c l o s i n g t h e s q u a t t e r camp o f t h e
s t r i k e r s on s a n i t a r y g ro u n d s .
If
th e
s trik e rs are liv in g
o n G o v e rn m e n t p r o p e r t y a n d g e t t i n g F e d e r a l r e l i e f t h e y may
b e a b le to c o n tin u e a s t r i k e
to t h e p o i n t w h ere t h e c r o p w i l l
b e c o m p le te ly l o s t .
6 F ra n k J . T a y lo r , " C a l i f o r n i a ' s G rap es o f W ra th ,"
F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y . 1 0 9 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v em b er, 1 9 3 9 .
199
G ro w e rs 1 cam ps*
s itu a tio n s l i t t l e
s u p e rio r in
co u rse,
b e tte r
e le c tric ity ,
The b e s t g r o w e r s '
w a te r p ip e d to
u n it w ith f lu s h
s ta tio n a ry
t h a n s q u a t t e r cam ps t o m o d e rn cam ps
some r e s p e c t s t o t h e G o v e rn m e n t Camps a n d , o f
free.
s a n ita ry
The cam ps o f t h e g r o w e r s r a n g e fro m
cam p s h a v e s h a d e ,
e a c h cam p s i t e ,
to ile ts,
free
g arbage p i t s ,
a
h o t an d c o l d s h o w e r s an d
tu b s w here w a s h in g can b e c a r r i e d on.
Camp s t o r e s
w i t h p r i c e s co m p arab le t o c i t y p r i c e s a r e o f t e n p r o v id e d .
T h e camp b o s s e s m a i n t a i n s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r t h e c a m p e r s
and p la y
space i s a v a ila b le .
T e n t s a r e l o a n e d o r s o l d on
p a y m e n ts i n c a s e o f em ergency.
T h i s im p r o v e m e n t o f g r o w e r s '
c a r r i e d on i n
cam p s i s a l s o b e i n g
t h e S an J o a q u i n V a l l e y w h e r e " l a r g e n u m b e r s o f
g r o w e r s h a v e n o t o n l y e q u i p p e d t h e i r cam ps f o r f l u s h
ru n n in g w a te r and g arb ag e d is p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s ,
to ile ts,
b ut have b u i l t
l a r g e n u m b e r s o f o n e - r o o m h o u s e s f o r t h e i r e m p l o y e e s ." ®
As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d ,
liv e
in th e g ro w ers'
cam ps.
t h i n g s found a t th e F .S .A .
1.
p ra c tic a lly
a l l o f t h e M e x ic a n s
T h e s e c a m p s l a c k some o f t h e
Camp, n a m e l y :
Tent p la tfo rm s.
7 F ran k T a y lo r,
lo c . c l t .
8 W a l t e r M. D i c k i e , " H e a l t h o f t h e M i g r a n t , " J o u r n a l
o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 1 1 :7 6 3 -6 5 , A u g u s t 2 7 ,
1938.
200
2.
lib ra ry ,
C om m unity c e n t e r w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ,
e tc *
3.
Day n u r s e r y .
4.
S e lf-g o v e rn m e n t o f th e cam pers.
V.
IMPROVEMENTS STILL NEEDED
C am p ers n e e d e d u c a t i o n .
The b i g g e s t r e a s o n f o r t h e
l a c k o f c e r t a i n i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e cam ps l i e s
c h a r a c te r s o f th e p ic k e r s th e m se lv e s.
in
th e
When o n e w h i t e woman
w a s a s k e d why s h e d i d n o t b o i l h e r w a t e r i n s t e a d o f d r i n k i n g
it
ra w fro m t h e i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h s h e s a i d :
w a t e r , b e c a u s e i t h a s so much scum o n i t . "9
" I h a t e to b o i l
When t h e t h r e e -
roo m h o u s e s w e r e b u i l t a t t h e T a g u s R an c h t h e e r s t w h i l e
c a m p e r s c h o p p e d o u t t h e p a r t i t i o n s a n d u s e d th em f o r f i r e ­
wood. ^
D e s ir a b l e im p ro v em en ts.
s t i l l la c k in g in
1.
C e rta in d e s ira b le
e v e n t h e b e s t cam ps so f a r .
th in g s a re
They a r e :
P r i v a c y — t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n why p e o p l e
h a v e t o camp w i t h i n s i x f e e t o f e a c h o t h e r .
T h is i s one o f
t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y - h e a r d o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e Government Camp.
2.
E s th e tic a p p e a l,
a h o m elik e a tm o sp h ere— th e
9 P a u l S. T a y l o r , " A g a in t h e C o v e r e d W a g o n , S u r v e y G ra p h ic , 2 4 :3 4 8 -5 1 , J u l y , 1935.
10 R e l a t e d t o t h e w r i t e r b y Mr. Brow n, Camp I n s p e c t o r ,
C a l i f o r n i a D i v i s i o n o f I m m ig r a tio n and H o u sin g .
201
p e r m a n e n t F. S. A. Camp i s
d o in g s o m e th in g to im p ro v e t h e
l o o k s o f t h e p e r m a n e n t camp a t B r a w l e y , b u t a s i d e f r o m t h i s
t h e cam ps a r e c e r t a i n l y n o t d e c o r a t i v e .
The p l a n t i n g o f
m o re t r e e s w o u l d im p r o v e e v e n t h e b e s t g r o w e r s 1 c a m p s .
3.
F irew o o d o r c o o k in g f a c i l i t i e s — th e e x p e n se i n ­
c u r r e d by t h e p i c k e r s in g e t t i n g t h e i r fire w o o d c o u ld pay
t h e c o s t o f ta n k g a s w h ic h c o u ld b e p ip e d to th e t e n t s .
4.
T a b le s — as so o n a s co o k in g f a c i l i t i e s
a b l e so t h a t t h e t a b l e s w o u l d n o t b e c h o p p e d u p ,
i n g o f th em w o u ld i m m e a s u r a b l y i n c r e a s e
k e e p in g .
are a v a il­
th e p ro v id ­
th e ease o f h o u s e ­
A ll o f th e above a r e a v a i l a b l e a t v a r io u s o f th e
f o r e s t cam ps o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e .
be le a rn e d ,
f r o m a s t u d y o f c a m p in g f a c i l i t i e s
N a t i o n a l p a r k s and f o r e s t s ,
Much c a n
in our
c o n c e r n in g w ays o f im p ro v in g th e
l o t o f th e ca m p e r, w h ich t h e s e m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s w i l l
p r o b a b ly alw a y s b e .
V I.
SUMMARY
Camps h a v e shown m a rk e d i m p r o v e m e n t .
a ttitu d e
o f g r o w e r s i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y w as t h a t w h e r e t h e
p i c k e r s l i v e d w as no c o n c e r n o f t h e i r s .
w as p r o v id e d ,
p ro v ed .
The e a r l y
I f a c a m p in g s p a c e
i t w as a b a r e p a t c h o f g r o u n d ,
e n tire ly
unim ­
C am p in g i n s u c h p l a c e s m e a n t t h a t e v e n t h e d e c e n c i e s
o f l i v i n g w ere f r e q u e n t l y im p o s s ib le .
b r o u g h t up on t h e g r o w e r s t o
When p r e s s u r e w as
im p r o v e t h e i r camps t h e y r e f u s e d
202
t o h a v e cam p s a t a l l ,
p la c i n g th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
upon th e
la b o r c o n tra c to rs.
These l a t t e r ,
b e i n g men o f s m a l l m eans a n d o w n in g no
l a n d , c o u l d n o t im p r o v e cam ps a n d s o o n w e r e f o r c e d t o g i v e
u p h a v i n g th e m ,
o r m et t h e b a r e s t minimum r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e
camp i n s p e c t o r s a n d h e a l t h
a u th o ritie s .
W ith t h e c o m in g o f t h e G o v e rn m e n t Camps, c o n d i t i o n s
im p ro v ed im m e d ia te ly .
P r i v a t e p a y cam ps s p r a n g up w h i c h
w e r e a n i m p r o v e m e n t o n t h e c o n t r a c t o r s 1 cam ps b u t w e r e s t i l l
u n s a tis fa c to ry .
th e id e a l in
The G o v e r n m e n t cam ps t h e m s e l v e s a p p r o a c h e d
c a m p in g f a c i l i t i e s ,
th e n e c e s s itie s ,
c e rta in
p ro v id in g ,
i n a d d i t i o n to
c o m f o r t s w h i c h make c a m p in g m o re
p le a s a n t.
The g r o w e r s ,
s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e G o v e rn m e n t cam p s an d
w a n t i n g t o k e e p t h e i r p i c k e r s m o re u n d e r t h e i r own c o n t r o l ,
s t a r t e d im p ro v in g t h e i r cam ps.
in
The b e s t o f t h e s e now a r e
some w ay s b e t t e r t h a n t h e G o v e rn m e n t c a m p s.
Much m o re c a n b e d o n e t o make camp l i f e
a v o id th e ten em en t a tm o sp h e re i f
in
p l e a s a n t an d
t h e way shown b y t h e cam ps
t h e N a t i o n a l p a r k s w as f o l l o w e d .
CHAPTER VII
HOMES AND FAMILY LIFE
I.
APPEARANCE OF HOME
C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e hom e.
la rly
The p e a - p i c k e r s ,
p a rtic u ­
t h e M e x ic a n s , b u i l d q u i t e e l a b o r a t e t e m p o r a r y h o m es,
w i t h a num ber o f room s.
t e n t s p la c e d
They o f t e n c o n s i s t o f two l a r g e
end t o end w i t h a w alk w ay t h r e e o r f o u r f e e t
w id e i n b e tw e e n .
A ramada i s
c o n s tr u c te d o v e r and around
t h i s , w i t h t h e n o r t h s i d e c l o s e d i n s o l i d l y an d t h e s o u t h
s id e open.
T hese c o n s t i t u t e
th e s l e e p i n g room s.
nS o m e tim e s t h e k i t c h e n i s i n o n e o f t h e two ro o m s ,
o f te n i t i s in a s e p a ra te s h e lt e r o u ts id e th e house.
A
r o o f o f b r u sh o r arrow -w eed may b e b u i l t o u t a c r o s s t h e
f r o n t o r r e a r f o r sh a d e. F r e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s a d d e d b y
t h e M exican h im s e lf a l e a n - t o o r o u t s i d e ro o m , o r m e r e l y
a s h e l t e r from th e sun and p r e v a i l i n g w e s t e r l y w i n d s .
T h is a d d it io n may b e c o n s t r u c t e d o f a l m o s t a n y t h i n g a n d
e v e r y th in g — arrow -w eed from t h e d i t c h b a n k s , b r u s h ,
c o r r u g a te d i r o n , b o x e s , c a r t o n s , b u r l a p .
I t i s of course
u n f l o o r e d . . . S o m e tim e s t h e s h e l t e r s a r e n o t h i n g m ore
th a n th e t y p i c a l arro w -w eed ram ada, c o n s i s t i n g o f r o o f
a n d fro m o n e t o t h r e e s i d e s w h i c h p r o v i d e s s h a d e an d
w i n d p r o t e c t i o n . "1
c ra te s
F u rn itu re .
The f u r n i t u r e i s v e r y s i m p l e - —a f ew p e a
fo r c h a irs;
a t a b l e made o n t h e
s p o t fro m p e a c r a t e
1 P a u l S c h u s t e r T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , V o l . I , The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ( B e r k e l e . v . C a l i f o r n i a :
The U n iv e r s ity o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ), p. 55.
w
FIGURE
16
WOMEN AND CHILDREN
IN THE HOME
The b o y i n b e d
h a s t o n s i l i t i s . T h is i s
t h e o n ly bed i n a oner o o m c a b i n , t e n f e e t by
tw e lv e f e e t .
Seven
p e o p le l i v e and s le e p i n
t h i s room .
M o th e r a n d
d a u g h te rs a re p la y in g w ith
g r a n d - d a u g h t e r who i s e n ­
j o y i n g h e r t y p i c a l s w in g in g
c rib .
T h is g ro u p d id n o t
l i v e i n a t e n t b u t o c c u p ie d
an abandoned s h a c k ,p a p
i t in s id e to keep out th e
w in d .
205
" s h o o k ” f i l c h e d fro m t h e p a c k in g shed;
one,
o r a t t h e m o st,
tw o b e d s o r s p r i n g s a n d m a t t r e s s e s o n t h e g r o u n d ;
two o r
t h r e e l a r g e l a r d c a n s w h ic h s e r v e t h e d o u b l e p u r p o s e o f
fo o d c o n t a i n e r s and c h a i r s ;
a n d a s h e l f o r two w h e r e
g r o c e rie s are s to re d .
The u s u a l M e x ic a n m i g r a t o r y home h a s a s w i n g i n g
c r a d l e f o r th e bab y , h a n g in g in th e open a i r u n d er th e
ram ada,
a n o l d b a t t e r e d t r u n k o r two w h e r e c l o t h e s a n d
t r e a s u r e s a r e k e p t , ^ and a s t o v e .
a r e q u ite in g e n io u s.
S o m e tim e s t h e s e l a t t e r
One c o n s i s t e d o f a g a l v a n i z e d i r o n
w a s h t u b t u r n e d u p s i d e down o n a p l a t f o r m a b o u t e i g h t e e n
in c h e s h ig h o f adobe.
in
A h o l e w as c u t i n t h e f r o n t t o p u t
t h e wood a n d t h e p i e c e c u t o u t w as h i n g e d o n w i t h w i r e s
fro m th e to p .
T he s t o v e p i p e cam e o u t t h e t o p a t t h e b a c k
a n d w a s made o f t i n
can s s lip p e d in s id e each o th e r and
w rapped w ith w ir e .
A p i e c e o f t i n was i n s e r t e d i n t o
t e n t w a l l and t h e s t o v e p i p e w e n t th ro u g h i t
a i r a b o u t two f e e t .
an d i n t o
th e
th e
When c o m p l e t e d i t made a v e r y s e r v i c e ­
a b l e s t o v e a n d k e p t t h e t e n t q u i t e warm.
T h a t t h e M e x ic a n i s
triv e s
s k i l l f u l w ith h i s h ands and con­
to f a s h io n u s e f u l a r t i c l e s o u t o f d is c a r d e d m a t e r i a l s
2 T h i s i s t y p i c a l o f a l l M e x ic a n s .
C f. , A lic e B e ssie
C u l p , "A C a s e S t u d y o f L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s o f T h i r t y - F i v e
M e x i c a n F a m i l i e s o f L os A n g e l e s w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o
M e x i c a n C h i l d r e n , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , The U n i­
v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 2 1 ) , p . 1 8 .
206
is
a c o m m o n p la c e .
B ut w ith t h i s
a h ig h le v e l o f p e r fe c tio n .
group th e a r t h a s r e a c h e d
R e t u r n i n g a s t h e y do t o
sam e s p o t i n t h e same camp y e a r a f t e r y e a r ,
th e
th e y f r e q u e n t l y
l e a v e t h e i r s to v e s and o t h e r such b e lo n g in g s i n t a c t on t h e
s p o t,
c o v e r i n g th e m w i t h s t o n e s ,
fro m a u to m o b ile s ,
o r p ie c e s o f sh eet iro n
o r o i l d ru m s w h i c h w i l l b e u s e f u l t h e
n ext y ear.
No v e r m i n .
The c o m b u s t i b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e camp i s
b u r n e d t o t h e g r o u n d when t h e p i c k e r s l e a v e ,
h o m e s , new e v e r y y e a r ,
an d t h e p i c k e r s 1
a r e c o m p l e t e l y f r e e fro m v e r m i n w h ic h
w o u l d a c c u m u l a t e w e r e t h e b r u s h s h a c k s an d t n e r a m a d a s l e f t
s ta n d in g .
The M e x ic a n s n e v e r move i n t o cam p s l e f t b y o t h e r s
a s do t h e w h i t e s a n d F i l i p i n o s .
A p p e a r a n c e o f c am p .
One o f t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c p i c t u r e s
o f t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a camp f r o m a r a m a d a - k i t c h e n ,
a p o p u la r w r ite r ,
life
g iv e n by
w i l l s e r v e t o make t h e p i c t u r e o f camp
m o re v i v i d .
. . .
He g l a n c e d a r o u n d t h e t e n t w i t h i t s t h r e e c o t s
f o r th e fa m ily o f n in e . . . w ith i t s s to v e t h a t had
once been a g a s o lin e c o n ta in e r , w ith i t s o ilc lo th - c o v e r ­
ed t a b l e on w h i c h w as a p a n o f b o i l e d p o t a t o e s b l a c k
w ith f l i e s . . .
He p a u s e d a n d s a t h u n c h e d o v e r t h e
l i t t l e s to v e , g a z in g o u t a c r o s s th e cam p-ground, p l a y ­
g r o u n d o f w h i t e a n d M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n , o f d o g s o f a
dozen b re e d s.
A b la c k and w h i t e puppy sn ap p ed a t t h e
h e e l s o f a g o a t l e a s h e d t o a t e n t s t a k e , an d a l i t t l e
g i r l i n a d i r t y c h i f f o n d r e s s fro m w h i c h t o r n r u f f l e s
f l u t t e r e d l i k e k i t e t a i l s p a u s e d on a h o p s c o tc h f i e l d
t o d r a w l g e n t l y , "O u t i t o u t , y o u d u r n f o o l d o g . "3
3 L u c r e t i a P e n n y , " P e a - p i c k e r 1s C h i l d , "
G -rap h lc. 2 4 :3 5 2 -5 3 , J u l y , 1935.
S urve.y-
207
L ig h t and f u e l .
a r t i f i c i a l lig h tin g .
sundow n,
th e
Few h o m es h a v e a s y e t an y m ean s o f
When t h e s u p p e r i s
e a te n ,
a t about
few d i s h e s a r e w a s h e d o r c o v e r e d w i t h a c l o t h
and th e fa m ily g o es to bed .
T h e n t h e y g e t up a t t h e f i r s t
s t r e a k s o f dawn a n d s t a r t c h o p p i n g wood f o r t h e b r e a k f a s t .
The f u e l s u p p l y p r o b l e m i s a s e r i o u s o n e on t h e
d e s e r t w here
th e o n ly t r e e s
nearby a re needed f o r shade.
F o rtu n a te ly ,
th e A th e l t r e e
g r o w s r a p i d l y a n d t h e y som e­
tim e s to p th e s e t r e e s ,
w ood o u t ,
use i t
s p l i t th e m up a n d ,
fo r k in d lin g .
an im p o r ta n t t a s k ,
a f t e r d r y in g th e
But g a t h e r i n g fire w o o d i s
t h e f i r s t u n d e r t a k e n a s so on a s t h e
t e n t s a r e s e t up a n d b e f o r e t h e r a m a d a s a n d b r u s h - w a l l e d
e x t r a bedroom s a r e b u i l t .
in to
A tru c k o r t r a i l e r is c a lle d
s e r v i c e a n d t h r e e o r f o u r men, f r o m a s many f a m i l i e s ,
go o f f t o t h e C h o c o l a t e M o u n t a i n s , n i n e o r t e n m i l e s
d ista n t.
I n t h e w a s h e s a t t h e f o o t o f t h e m o u n t a i n s grow
P a lo V erd e and Ironw ood t r e e s ,
tre e s.
q u ite siz e a b le fo r d e s e rt
The g r e e n wood o f t h e s e t r e e s d o e s n o t b u r n r e a d i l y
b u t t h e d e a d ir o n w o o d b u r n s a b o u t t h e sam e a s c o a l ,
slo w ly
a n d g i v i n g o f f e n o rm o u s q u a n t i t i e s o f h e a t f o r t h e v o l u m e .
L ik e c o a l i t i s d i f f i c u l t to k i n d l e .
L arg e tr u c k lo a d s o f
d e a d lim b s and r o o t s a r e b r o u g h t b a c k and p i l e d b e s i d e
te n ts.
T rue to h i s n a t u r e ,
t h e M e x ic a n s p l i t s o n l y
th e
enough
to m eet th e n eed s o f th e day.
No d e s c r i p t i o n o f a home w o u ld b e c o m p l e t e v / i t h o u t
208
a com m ent on t h e c a r d r i v e n b y t h e m i g r a n t .
C o n tra ry to
p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s t h e t r u e m ig r a to r y w o r k e r d r i v e s a good
c a r — c o m p a r a t i v e l y new .
h i s g e t t i n g c h e a p ly ,
S i n c e h i s l i v e l i h o o d d e p e n d s on
s a f e l y and s u r e l y fro m one p la c e
to
a n o t h e r , h e s p e n d s much o f h i s l e i s u r e t i m e w o r k i n g on h i s
car.
It
o rd er.
i s com monly k e p t p o l i s h e d a n d i n
S c a rc e ly
e v e r i s a camp v i s i t e d
good w o rk in g
t h a t does n o t have
o n e o r two c a r s t i p p e d o v e r on t h e s i d e w i t h t h e c a m p e r
h a r d a t w ork t i g h t e n i n g b e a r i n g s a n d g r i n d i n g v a l v e s .
II.
L arge f a m i l i e s .
o f fa m ily l i f e
of i t .
fiv e
FAMILY LIFE
The m o s t o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
among t h e s e M e x ic a n s i s
th a t th e re i s
s o much
C u lp f o u n d a n a v e r a g e s i z e o f 6 . 4 f o r t h e t h i r t y -
f a m i l i e s s h e s t u d i e d , w h ic h sh e s t a t e s i s
s a m p lin g .4
a ran d o m
G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g ’ s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g
C o m m it t e e r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e o f 4 . 3 c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y , 5
w h i c h , when t h e p a r e n t s a r e a d d e d i n ,
Culp* s .
is
a b o u t t h e same a s
T a b l e XXXVI show s t h e f i g u r e s o n f a m i l y s i z e i n t h e
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y p e a c a m p s.
The c o r r e c t e d m e d i a n s a r e
some­
w h a t s m a l l e r t h a n t h e two f o r e g o i n g a u t h o r i t i e s a n d a l s o
s m a l l e r t h a n w as f o u n d i n a m i g r a t o r y g r o u p s t u d i e d b y t h e
4 C u lp , o p .
c i t . , pp.
2 -5 .
5 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g ’ s F a c t - f i n d i n g C o m m itte e ,
M e x ic a n s i n C a l i f o r n i a (S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
P r i n t i n g O f fic e , 1 9 3 0 ), p . 58.
209
TABLE XXXVI
NUMBER OF CHILDREN OVER FIVE YEARS
IN FAMILIES IN PEA CAMPS
IN IMPERIAL COUNTY, 1 9 3 1 - 3 9 8-
N um ber o f
c h ild re n
M e x ic a n
Number P e r
cent
To t a l
422
100.
440
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
M e d ia n
90
102
106
76
22
14
11
2 1 .4
2 4 .2
2 5 .1
1 8 .0
5 .2
3 .3
2 .6
168
111
99
40
16
2
2
2
2 .0
C o rre c te d
m e d i a n 8-
-
-
1
2 .7
.2
3 .8
W h ite
Number P e r
cent
2 .8
100.
3 8 .1
2 5 .2
2 2 .5
9 .1
3 .6
.5
.5
.5
-
T o ta l^
Number P e r
cent
878
262
220
2 06
138
38
16
13
2
1
100.
2 9 .S
2 5 .1
2 3 .5
1 3 .5
4 .4
1 .8
1 .5
.2
.1
2 .3
3 .3
a. I t i s e s tim a te d t h a t t h i s group c o n ta in s a l l th e
c h i l d r e n b e tw e e n f i v e and f i f t e e n y e a r s a n d s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r
c e n t o f a l l b e tw e e n f i f t e e n an d tw e n ty y e a r s .
Of a l l C a l i f ­
o r n i a c h il d r e n in 1930, a c c o rd in g to th e c e n s u s , 2 3 .5 p e r c e n t
w e r e u n d e r f i v e y e a r s , 5 1 .6 p e r c e n t w ere b e tw e e n f i v e and
f i f t e e n y e a r s and 2 4 .9 p e r c e n t w ere o v e r f i f t e e n .
A s s u m in g
t h e sam e p r o p o r t i o n s f o r m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s , w o u ld mean t h a t
t h i s g ro u p r e p r e s e n t s 7 0 .2 7 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l num ber o f
c h i l d r e n i n th e cam ps.
The m e d i a n s w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e o n l y
7 0 . 2 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t r u e m ed ian num ber o f c h i l d r e n p e r
fa m ily .
C o r r e c t e d m e d ia n s a r e t h u s co m p u ted .
b . T o t a l c o lu m n I n c l u d e s f o u r t e e n G ypsy an d two P u e r t o
R ic a n f a m i l i e s .
210
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c H e a lth .®
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
t h e S .R .A . m e d ia n s i z e w as 3 . 0 5 ,
s o m e w h a t b e lo w t h e a v e r a g e o f a l l r a c e s f o r t h e p e a - p i c k e r s .
The a v e r a g e s i z e
among m i g r a n t s i s f o u n d b y a Farm S e c u r i t y
A d m in is tr a tio n su rv e y to be 2 .8 c h i l d r e n ,
T a y lo r.0
a c c o rd in g to F rank
Even among a g r o u p o f n o n - m i g r a t o r y M e x ic a n s t h e
n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n w as 3 . 7 p e r f a t h e r r e p o r t i n g a n d 4 . 1 1 p e r
m o th e r r e p o r t i n g . 9
S in c e m ig ra tio n te n d s to red u ce th e s iz e
o f th e
s e e m s s a f e t o a s su m e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e
fam ily,-*-0 i t
m i g r a t o r y M e x ic a n f a m i l y h a s n o t o v e r f o u r c h i l d r e n .
B irth r a t e .
"T he b i r t h
r a t e i s h ig h ,
in f a c t h ig h e r
t h a n a f a m ily o f f o u r o r f i v e c h i l d r e n w o u ld i n d i c a t e b e c a u s e
of
th e h ig h in f a n t m o rta lity r a t e . D o c t o r
D ic k ie r e p o r ts
1 1 8 . 9 i n f a n t d e a t h s p e r 1 , 0 0 0 l i v e b i r t h s among t h e M e x i c a n s
6 V iz . .
T a b l e XXXVII, p .
7 V iz .,
T a b l e XXXVIII, p .
211.
211.
8 F r a n k J . T a y l o r , " C a l i f o r n i a 1 s G-rapes o f W r a t h , "
F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y .
1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N ovem ber, 1 9 3 9 .
9 M e r to n E. H i l l , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f a n A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n
P r o g r a m ( [ O n t a r i o , C a l i f o r n i a ) : The B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s o f t h e
C h a f f e y U n io n H ig h S c h o o l a n d t h e C h a f f e y J u n i o r C o l l e g e ,
1 9 2 8 ) , p . 69.
10 C f . , T a b l e X V II, p .
87.
11 W. M. D i c k i e , T h i r t y - f o u r t h B i e n n i a l R e p o r t o f t h e
D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c H e a lth o f C a l i f o r n i a ( [S a c ra m e n to :
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O ff ic e ]"1 9 3 6 ), p . 1 68.
211
TABLE XXXVII
AVERAGE SIZE OP FAMILY AMONG ONE HUNDRED SEVENTY-SEVEN
MIGRATORY .,ORKEKSa
A ll
m em bers
A verage s i z e
A v e r a g e A m e r ic a n
A v e r a g e M e x ic a n
A verage C o lo re d
C h ild re n
5 .4
5 .4
5 .0
6 .5
5 .4
5 .0
4 .5
5 .4
TABLE XXXVIII
AGRICULTURAL WORKERS f FAMILIES CLASS IFIE D AS TO NUMBER
OF FAMILY MEMBERS NOT ABLE TO WORK IN THE FIELDS0
U n e m p lo y a b le
dependent s
C ases
None
1
2
5
4
5
6
7 o r m ore
N ot s t a t e d
T o ta l
121
120
125
119
82
70
45
60
55
7 75
M e d ia n 0
5 .0 5
Per cent
1 5 .6
1 5 .5
1 5 .8
1 5 .4
1 0 .6
9 .0
5 .8
7 .7
4 .5
1 0 0 .0
a* A n i t a E . F a v e r m a n , ,fA S t u d y o f t h e H e a l t h o f 1000
C h ild re n o f M ig ra to ry A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o re rs in C a l i f o r n i a , M
R e p o r t o f M i g r a t o r y D e m o n s tr a t i o n , J u l y , 1 9 5 6 - J u n e , 1957
(m im eo g rap h e d , S a c ra m e n to :
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D ep artm en t o f
P u b l i c H e a l t h , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 16 f .
b . [Max H. L e w i s , E d i t o r j M i g r a t o r y L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a
(San F r a n c i s c o :
C a lif o rn ia S ta te R e lie f A d m in istra tio n ,
1 956), p . 116.
c . M e d ia n o f f a m i l i e s h a v i n g d e p e n d e n t s .
212
a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 5 2 . 8 p e r 1 , 0 0 0 f o r a l l r a c e s . 12
T h irty -fiv e
p e r c e n t o f I m p e r i a l C o u n t y 1s p o p u l a t i o n i s M e x ic a n b u t
f i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e b i r t h s a r e M e x ic a n .
in
1932,
t h e r e w ere f i v e
In B raw ley ,
t i m e s a s many b i r t h s among t h e
M e x ic a n p o p u l a t i o n a s among w h i t e s . 13
The a t t i t u d e
o f t h e s e M e x ic a n s t o w a r d t h e c o m in g o f
c h i l d r e n i s t h a t o f th e t y p i c a l p a t r i a r c h a l f a m ily — an
e x p e c te d o c c u rre n c e every o t h e r y e a r o r o f t e n e r .
d ie s
th e re i s
When o n e
some g r i e f f o r a t i m e b u t s i n c e t h e s u p p l y
seem s l i m i t l e s s
t h e l o s s o f o n e o r two i s
b u t i s r a t h e r ta k e n f o r g r a n te d .
not g re a tly
fe lt,
The a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
p a r e n t h a s b u r i e d two c h i l d r e n . 14
R e la tiv e s and f r ie n d s in
th e fa m ily c i r c l e .
The g r e a t e s t e v i l i n t h e h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e
M e x ic a n c h i l d i s t h e c r o w d i n g o f many p e r s o n s i n t o o n e
sm a ll h o u se . . .
i n tw e lv e f a m i l i e s v i s i t e d t h e r e w ere
o t h e r r e l a t i v e s in c lu d e d in th e fa m ily c i r c l e .
One
f a m i l y , c o n s i s t i n g o f a w id o w ed m o t h e r a n d h e r t h r e e
c h i l d r e n , h a s t a k e n i n t o i t s home t w e l v e r e l a t i v e s , two
g r a n d p a r e n t s , t h r e e a u n t s , two u n c l e s a n d f i v e c o u s i n s .
The k i n d - h e a r t e d , h o s p i t a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e M e x ic a n s
l e a d s them t o t a k e i n a n y r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s who a r e
12 L o c .
c it.
1 3 V. S. M c C l a t c h e y , C a l i f o r n i a J o i n t I m m i g r a t i o n
C o m m i t t e e , I n c r e a s e o f M e x ic a n P o p u l a t i o n , q u o t e d b y M ilo A.
V. H o g a n , "A S t u d y o f t h e S c h o o l P r o g r e s s o f M e x ic a n C h i l d r e n
i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , T he U n i­
v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 4 ), p . 27.
14 H i l l ,
lo c . c i t .
213
in p o o re r c irc u m sta n c e s th an they them selves a r e
T h i s custom i s
. . 15
a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common among A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s
a g e n e ra tio n ago,
It,
.
however, i s
and a g a i n shows t h e p a t r i a r c h a l i n f l u e n c e .
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t i o n o f an
a l r e a d y c r o w d e d h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n a n d r e s u l t s i n many p e o p l e
h a v i n g t o s l e e p i n a s i n g l e r oom .
th irty -fiv e
Culp found f i f t e e n o f t h e
f a m i l i e s s h e s t u d i e d a l l s l e e p i n g i n t h e same
room— s i x o r s e v e n p e o p l e . 1 ®
Among a n o t h e r g r o u p o f s e t t l e d
M e x i c a n s t h e a v e r a g e w a s o v e r f o u r t o a r o o m . 1^
l a r g e r fam ily g roups o f m ig ra n ts ,
g irls,
t h e women f o l k s l e e p i n o n e r o o m ,
If
the
o r where th e r e a r e te e n -a g e
men i n a n o t h e r a n d
t h e f a t h e r and m o th e r and s m a l l c h i l d r e n i n s t i l l
room.
In
t h e r e a r e n ' t enough rooms i t
a th ird
i s custom ary to hang
a c u r t a i n b e tw e e n t h e s i d e s o c c u p ie d by th e boys and g i r l s .
T h r e e b e d s , h o w e v e r , i s u s u a l l y a b o u t t h e maximum n u m b e r t o
expect,
even i n
the l a r g e s t fa m ilie s ,
and even o f t h e s e
t w o may b e o n t h e g r o u n d .
Food.
t o r t i l l a s . 1®
The s t a p l e a r t i c l e s o f d i e t a r e b e a n s a n d
A l l m o r n i n g t h e m o t h e r a n d h e r d a u g h t e r mix
15 C u l p ,
op. c i t . ,
p.
6.
3.6 L o c . c i t .
17 H i l l ,
0£ .
18 I b i d . , p .
c i t . , p.
144.
75.
214
and bake th e s e l a t t e r .
w hich i s
T y p i c a l l y t h e y a r e made f r o m m a i z e ,
f i r s t made i n t o a m a t e r i a l s i m i l a r t o h o m i n y by
so ak in g i t over n ig h t in lim e w ater.
th e m olina o r food chopper.
kno wn a s m a s a .
The l i q u i d i s
made w i t h a l i t t l e
th e hands.
grease.
It
is
I t comes o u t a s a s o r t o f g r u e l
drained o f f.
A p aste is then
l a r d and t h i n w a f e r s a r e p a t t e d o u t w i t h
These a r e baked on to p o f th e
s t o v e , w i t h no
The b e a n s a r e f r e q u e n t l y b o i l e d w i t h t o m a t o a n d
o c c a s io n a lly b o ile d w ith a l i t t l e
v a ria b ly b o iled .
m eat, b u t th e y a r e i n ­
The common a r r a n g e m e n t i s
tim e f o r a l l to g a t h e r around the k e t t l e ,
o f b e a n s i s p l a c e d on a t o r t i l l a
a t a c o , w hich i s
an d i t
eaten in th e hand.
i n g o f few d i s h e s ,
still
th e n a t meal
where a sp o o n fu l
is
r o l l e d up t o f o r m
T his e n t a i l s
since the k e t t l e i s
th e wash­
th e o n ly u t e n s i l used.
O t h e r f o o d s o c c a s i o n a l l y f i n d a way i n t o
stap les
then p u t through
t h e i r d ie t b u t the
stay .
The b a s i s o f t h e d i e t i s b e a n s a n d r i c e , a l w a y s w i t h
c h ili.
Sometimes b r e a d w h o lly o r p a r t l y t a k e s t h e p l a c e
t o r t i l l a s and som etim es w h eat f l o u r i s used i n s t e a d
o f m a i z e t o p r e p a r e them.-*-9
R ecreation.
Less tim e i s a v a i l a b l e
to e i t h e r th e
m i g r a t o r y M exican l a b o r e r o r h i s f a m ily f o r r e c r e a t i o n
19 I b i d . ,
p.
144.
than
A
FIGURE 17
DINNER AT HE GARCIA'S
215
m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d . ^0
O n l y whe n t h e c r o p i s l a t e o r t h e r e i s
a w a i t b e t w e e n c r o p s d o e s h e f i n d much l e i s u r e t i m e .
th is is
s p e n t m a k i n g t h e home more c o m f o r t a b l e .
fam ily h elp s in th is
som etim es found.
task.
job,
B e d s t e a d s a r e made f r o m p i e c e s o f t r e e s a n d
Ramadas a n d l e a n - t o s a r e b u i l t
The c a r m u s t b e r e p a i r e d — a p e r e n n i a l
done a l m o s t a lw a y s by th e M exican h i m s e l f .
When l e i s u r e d o e s come i t
is
sp e n t i n s in g in g to a
g u i t a r o r i n c a r d p l a y i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e men.
is
The w h o l e
Very i n g e n i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e
s u p p o r t s a r e woven o f r o p e .
t o g i v e more r o o m .
Much o f
an I n v e t e r a t e g a m b le r,
The M e x i c a n
b u t r a r e ly p la y s f o r a la r g e stak e,
e x c e p t a t t h e en d o f t h e s e a s o n , when h e may t h r o w a l l h i s
earnings into
t h e np o t B i n a s i n g l e ,
im p u lsiv e g e s tu re .
The women s p e n d t h e i r l e i s u r e s e \ v i n g , m e n d i n g ,
i n g and d o in g fa n c y work.
This l a t t e r i s
o c c u p a tio n f o r young l a d i e s ,
gossip­
con sid ered a p roper
who o f t e n make b e a u t i f u l l a c e
from o ld f l o u r o r su g a r s a c k s.
G o i n g t o t h e m o v i e s o r t o d a n c e s i s n o t common.
Hathway found o n l y t w o - f i f t h s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d
20 H a th w a y f o u n d a n a v e r a g e o f t h r e e a n d o n e - h a l f
m o n t h s o f i d l e n e s s among h e r g r o u p , b u t o f c o u r s e s h e c o u n t e d
t h e t i m e on t h e r o a d a n d a l s o t h a t s p e n t i n s e t t i n g - u p camp
a s i d l e tim e.
M a r i o n H a t h w a y , The M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r a n d
F a m i l y L i f e ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) ,
p. 86.
C f . , a l s o T a b l e V, p . 4 6 .
217
who w e n t t o m o t i o n p i c t u r e s
th is
e v e n o n c e a m o n t h , 21 an(^ among
group t h e number i s s t i l l
less.
They h a v e v e r y few
c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e l i f e o f t h e c o m m u n it y a b o u t t h e m e x c e p t
th o s e r e l a t i n g to th e jo b .
Folk ways.
Many c u s t o m s n o t now p r a c t i c e d among m o s t
M exicans i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a r e s t i l l
group.
s e e n among t h i s
The o c c a s i o n o f a s a i n t ’ s d a y ( b i r t h d a y ) ,
as w e ll as
a w edding o r b a p tis m i s c e l e b r a t e d w i t h i n th e f a m ily ,
to
and,
a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e camp, w i t h m u s i c a n d o f t e n
dancing.
The d a n c i n g i s ,
of course,
t h e t r a d i t i o n a l .lota
a n d o t h e r d a n c e s o f M e x ic o .
S u p e r s t i t i o n s a re very w id esp read .
moon o r a s t a r i s
It
is
W ishing on th e
common among a d u l t s a s w e l l a s c h i l d r e n .
c o n s id e re d bad lu c k f o r s w e e th e a rts to exchange hand­
k erch iefs,
sin ce th is w ill c e rta in ly
le a d to a q u a r r e l .
B e l i e f i n l o v e p o t i o n s and o t h e r " w i t c h - d o c t o r ” m agic i s n o t
uncommon.
S e v e ra l a d m itte d they were s tr o n g b e l i e v e r s in
t h e power o f t h e
ev il e y e .^
Many o f t h e " w i t c h - d o c t o r ” b r e w s a r e commonly t a k e n
f o r a i l m e n t s a n d o f t e n t h e women a r e s k i l l e d i n h e r b t r e a t ­
m ent both in t e a s and p o u l t i c e s .
21 H a t h w a y ,
ojd.
c i t . , p.
T h i s i s o n e r e a s o n why i t
177.
22 O f . , M a n u e l G-amio, M e x i c a n I m m i g r a t i o n t o t h e
U nited S ta te s
( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ,
1 9 3 0 ) , p . 7 9.
218
is
s o d i f f i c u l t t o g e t t h e m t o go t o a d o c t o r .
A n o t h e r common f o l k w a y i s t h e c o r r i d o r — a s o n g made
up on t h e s p u r o f t h e moment to a f a m i l i a r t u n e w i t h a
catchy,
con stan t r e f r a in .
C ucaracha" a re
Songs o f t h e
t y p e o f "La
sung in th e t e n t s o r in th e shade o f th e
ramada in h o t a f te rn o o n s , w ith f i r s t one,
then a n o th e r
s in g in g v e rs e s and s e v e r a l j o i n i n g in th e chorus.
R eligeon.
group,
The h o l d o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h o n t h i s
never very stro n g ,
has alm ost com pletely re la x e d .
T h e s t r o n g c e r e m o n i a l i n f l u e n c e l e a d s t o d em ands f o r a
p r ie s t at ch risten in g s,
m a r r i a g e s and a t d e a th b e d s , b u t
t h e y n e v e r go t o c h u r c h o n S u n d a y .
th ey have a s tr o n g b e l i e f i n
As h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d ,
t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l and t h e i r
l a n g u a g e i s f u l l o f r e f e r e n c e s to God.^^
III.
SUMMARY
The M e x i c a n m i g r a n t ’ s home h a s l i t t l e
f u r n i t u r e an d
m o s t o f i t i s home-made.
T h e re i s o f t e n a b r u s h ram ada which
is
B u r n i n g t h e s h a c k s when t h e y l e a v e
used f o r th e k itc h e n .
p r e v e n t s th e a c c u m u la tio n o f verm in.
The f u e l s u p p l y i s o n e
o f t h e g r e a t e s t p ro b le m s i n camping i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y .
also
23 T h i s b r e a k i n g away f r o m c h u r c h i n f l u e n c e s w as
n o t e d b y H a t h w a y , o£ . c i t . , p p . 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 .
219
The a v e r a g e m i g r a t o r y M e x i c a n ' s f a m i l y h a s a b o u t f o u r
c h i l d r e n and i s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e w h i t e p i c k e r s .
rates
an d d e a t h r a t e s a r e h i g h .
B irth
The a v e r a g e M e x ic a n f a m i l y
h a s a b o u t f o u r p e o p l e t o e v e r y room i n t h e " h o u s e . "
F oo d c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f t o r t i l l a s
and b e a n s .
Much o f
t h e t i m e n o t s p e n t w o r k i n g i s o c c u p i e d b y f i x i n g up t h e camp
and r e p a irin g th e c a r.
L e is u r e tim e i s
a g u ita r o r p lay in g cards.
s p e n t i n s i n g i n g to
Women make f a n c y - w o r k .
F i e s t a s a r e o b s e r v e d by d a n c i n g and s i n g i n g .
The
i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c h u r c h i s n o t s t r o n g b u t many s u p e r s t i t i o n s
ex ist.
CHAPTER V III
SOCIAL FACTORS AND ATTITUDES
R acial c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
istic s
So f a r a s r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r ­
go M e x i c a n s seem t o b e t h e same t h e w o r l d o v e r .
The
f a c t o f t h e i r m i g r a t o r y l i f e h a s b r o u g h t some c h a n g e s t o
t h e i r way s o f r e a c t i n g ,
b u t n o t many,
sin ce,
a s w as i n d i c a t ­
e d b e f o r e , ^ * t h e y h a v e a l w a y s b e e n m or e o r l e s s a d a p t e d t o
m oving,
even i n M exico.
The M e x i c a n i d e a o f w h a t i s w o r t h w h i l e i s
j u d g e d by " w h i t e 0 s t a n d a r d s . ^
having th in g s ,b r in ^ l i t t l e
group.
ity
it
th in g s
stran g e,
The A m e r i c a n e m p h a s i s on
response in th e b re a s ts of th is
They a r e a c c u s e d o f l a c k o f a m b i t i o n when i n r e a l ­
is
an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w .
t o them a r e m ore e l e m e n t a l — g o o d f o o d ,
The g o o d
com panionship,
b e e r o r w i n e t o d r i n k , p l e n t y o f f i e s t a s w h e r e s i n g i n g and
d a n c i n g a r e t h e o r d e r o f t h e day and t h e o p p o s i t e s e x , a r e
th e th in g s to be d e s i r e d . 3
M exicans shun r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b u t w o rsh ip and i m i t a t e
1 OIL* S u p r a . , p p .
183-187.
2 J a y N e w t o n H o l l i d a y , °A S t u d y o f N o n - a t t e n d a n c e
i n M iguel H id a lg o School o f Brawley, C a l i f o r n i a " ( u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 54 .
3 C f . , J o h n S t e i n b e c k , T o r t i l l a F l a t (New Y o r k : C o v i c i ,
F r i e d e , 1 9 3 7 ), p a s s im — an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e l i v e s and t h o u g h ts
o f M e x i c a n men.
221
au th o rity
and w i l l f o llo w a s t r o n g l e a d e r f a i t h f u l l y . 4
a r e proud,
sen sitiv e,
and s u s p i c i o u s o f s t r a n g e t h i n g s ,
p r im itiv e people a re l i k e l y
lik ely
to be.
self-a sse rtio n ,
" T h ey do n o t s h a r e t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e
A nglo-Saxon tow ard th e l i e ; " 6 t h a t I s ,
t o b e a s h am ed when c a u g h t l y i n g .
p atien t,
as
T h e ir em otions a r e
to be "su ch fu n d a m e n ta l t h i n g s as f e a r ,
sex and g reed .
They
h o sp itab le,
they a re l e s s l i k e l y
On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e y a r e
p o l i t e and g e n e ro u s to a f a u l t w ith
t h e i r f r i e n d s , " 7 h a p p y so l o n g a s t h e r e i s
en o u g h f o o d i n t h e
h o u s e to k e e p body and s o u l t o g e t h e r .
E ffect of m obility.
l i f e h a s le d to
The e x t r e m e m o b i l i t y o f t h e i r
t h e a b a n d o n m e n t o f many a n d t h e f a i l u r e
a d o p t o f o t h e r s o f t h e ways o f l i f e
them.
to
in t h e com m unities around
S o c ia l as w e ll as p h y s ic a l a d a p ta tio n s have been
necessary.
A ty p e o f group anonym ity h a s d e v e lo p e d a s a
r e s u l t o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e c o m m u n itie s i n w h ic h t h e y work
a n d o f t h e w h i t e s i n t h e i r own c o m m u n i t y .
4 L a u ra L u c i l l e Lyon, " I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P rogram
f o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t o f M e x i c a n G i r l s t o t h e H ig h S c h o o l s o f
t h e S a n F e r n a n d o V a l l e y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 2 .
5 I b i d . , p.
16.
6 H olliday,
lo c. c l t .
7 Lyon,
c i t . , pp.
o jd .
14-15.
222
. . . one o f the o u ts ta n d in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e
m ig ra n t p e rso n s in te rv ie w e d in t h i s stu d y i s t h e i r
so ciab le a t t i t u d e .
No o n e i s a s t r a n g e r w i t h i n t h e
ca m p.
The v i c i s s i t u d e s o f a common o c c u p a t i o n a n d mode
o f l i v i n g seem t o h a v e p r o m o t e d a c a m a r a d e r i e w i t h i n t h e
group.
And i n many i n s t a n c e s t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e
m i g r a n t camp . . . b e c o m e s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n c h a r a c t e r . 8
The " s o c i a b l e a t t i t u d e "
r e p o r t e d by Hat hw ay a p p l i e s i n
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y b e tw e e n w h i t e and w h i t e and b e tw e e n M exican
and M exican b u t d e c i d e d l y n o t b e tw e e n M exican and w h i t e . 9
The s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y w hich she n o t e s i s v e r y e v i d e n t ,
tic u la rly
among t h i s M e x i c a n g r o u p .
group le a d s to g r e a t h o s t i l i t y
par­
The a n o n y m i t y o f t h e
t o a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f
l o c a l ag en cies to c o n tr o l b eh av io r.
They r e f u s e t o
t e l l on
e a c h o t h e r e v e n when t a k e n t o j a i l f o r q u e s t i o n i n g .
M e x i c a n f o r e m a n an d c o n t r a c t o r s h i r e M e x i c a n w o r k e r s
so f a r a s p o s s i b l e an d t h e r e
is a h o s tility
on t h e p a r t o f
w h i t e s t o w a r d w o r k i n g f o r a M e x ic a n b o s s . 10
The m i g r a t o r y l i f e
t e n d s to s t r e n g t h e n f a m il y r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p s i n p r o p o r t i o n a s i t c u t s community o n e s , ^
L ife
as
8 M a r i o n H a t h w a y , The M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r a n d F a m i l y
( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 1 7 f ,
9 C f . , P a u l S c h u s te r T a y lo r , M exican Labor in th e
U nited S ta te s .
V o l . 1, The I m p e r i a l V a l l e y T E e r k e l e y , C a l i f ­
o r n i a : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ) , p p . 8 3 - 8 6 .
10 W i l l i a m T. C r o s s a n d D o r o t h y E. C r o s s , Newcomers
a n d Nomads i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a :
S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ), p. 116.
11 A. W. B e a c h and W. G-. B e a c h , " F a m i l y M i g r a t i o n s an d
C h i l d B e h a v i o r , " S o c i o l o g y an d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 2 1 : 5 0 3 - 2 3 ,
J u l y , 1937.
22 3
T a b l e XVIII sh o w s. ^
The t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t b y
m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f s t a t i o n ­
ary ones.
Of s e v e n t e e n f a c t o r s
i n a r e c e n t s t u d y , 13 r e s i d e n t
f a m ilie s c o n sid e re d in o r d e r of im portance,
re la tiv e s,
o f work,
hom e, r e a l p r o p e r t y , m e d i c a l c a r e ,
so cial a f f ilia tio n s
and c h u r c h .
m edical care,
are
f r i e n d s , hom e,
custom s,
frien d s,
sch o o l,
place
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s a r r a n g e d them a s f o l l o w s :
church,
fam ily,
re la tiv e s,
sch o o l,
fa m ily and g e o g r a p h i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n .
com forts,
S ig n ifican t
th e i n c r e a s e d im p o rta n c e f o r m ig ra n ts o f custom s,
m edical c are and com forts,
fam ily ,
and t h e d e c r e a s e d im p o r t a n c e o f
r e a l p r o p e r t y , p l a c e o f work and s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n s .
The d e c l i n e i n t h e im p o rta n c e o f f a m i l y p r o b a b ly p o i n t s to
th e c lo s e r coherence of the
s o c i a l g ro u p a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e
i n c r e a s e d im p o rta n c e o f custom s.
A nother s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g in th e l i v e s o f th e m igra­
to ry
laborers is
the a t t i t u d e
tow ard c i t i z e n s h i p .
M ost
a l i e n s come t o A m e r i c a e i t h e r w i t h t h e i d e a o f b e c o m i n g
c i t i z e n s o r o f m aking a " s t a k e "
a n d g o i n g b a c k home.
N e i t h e r o f t h e s e a m b i t i o n s seems t o s t i r t h e M e x i c a n m i g r a n t .
He l i k e s t h i s
country but i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d in
h e l p i n g to run i t .
So l o n g a s h e i s n o t d i s t u r b e d i n l i v i n g
h i s own l i f e h e i s c o n t e n t t o
" b o s s .
"14
le a v e o t h e r m a tte rs to th e
T h i s e x p l a i n s why n i n e t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e
12 p .
87.
13 B e a c h a n d B e a c h , l o c . c i t .
14 H o l l i d a y , 0 £ . c i t . , p p . 1 2 - 1 3 .
224
w h i t e f o r e i g n - b o r n m i g r a n t s w ere c i t i z e n s and o n ly s e v e n t y th re e p er cent o f the o th e rs
( p r i n c i p a l l y M exicans) w ere
c i tizen s.
D o m i c i l i a r y and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n .
C lo se ly r e l a t e d to
and p o s s i b l y one cau se o f t h e n e g a tiv e a t t i t u d e
th is
group tow ard s o c ie ty i s
e x p r e s s e d by
the a t t i t u d e ,
m u tu a lly ta k e n by
t h e m a n d by w h i t e s o c i e t y i n camp a n d o u t ,
tow ard i s o l a t i o n .
T h i s p h en o m o n o n , o b s e r v e d b y P a u l T a y l o r i n t h e V a l l e y towns^®
and a p p ly in g e q u a lly to a l l d a r k r a c e s ,
o n e camp, w h e r e t h e camp b o s s ,
i s c a r r i e d on e v e n i n
a M exican h i m s e l f ,
asks the
w h i t e s to k e e p t h e i r t e n t s a p a r t from t h e M exican " s e t t l e ­
m ent. "^
The same p o l i c y r e l a t e s
is
t o g o i n g t o to w n , b u t h e r e i t
o v e r l a i d w i t h a custom a lm o s t O r i e n t a l i n i t s p o i n t o f
view .
Men go t o
to w n t o b u y g r o c e r i e s a t t h e M e x i c a n s t o r e
b u t women a l m o s t n e v e r g o .
"We1r e n o t a d m i t t e d t o t h e m o v i e s , " s a i d a n E l C e n t r o
M e x i c a n woman, " a n d n o t w a n t e d i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t s o r a t
t h e s o d a f o u n t a i n s , s o why g o ? "18
15 J o h n N. Webb a n d M a lc o l m Bro wn , M i g r a n t F a m i l i e s
( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1 9 3 8 ) , p. 157.
16 T a y l o r ,
17 C f . ,
op. c i t . , pp.
H o lliday,
18 T a y l o r ,
79-80.
o p . c i t . , pp.
op. c i t . , p.
92.
12-13.
225
" N e v e r ” s a y s P o tt e r- * - 9 " a r e m i g r a n t s r e c e i v e d i n t o a com­
m unity o r in to
th e l i f e o f th e com m unity.”
T a y l o r 1s a n a l y s i s
e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n t h e M e x i c a n s t r a d e a t M e x ic a n s t o r e s o r
s t o r e s where t h e i r t r a d e i s
s o l i c i t e d , ^ h u t i t does not
e x p l a i n why women s t a y home a n d l e t t h e i r h u s b a n d s go t o
town.
So f a , r a s c a n b e d i s c o v e r e d ,
th e w ives sta y
b e c a u s e the husbands a re n o t w i l l i n g f o r
stran g ers.
th em t o b e s e e n by
W i t h i n t h e camp g r o u p t h e r e i s
b u t o u ts id e th e group,
a t home
th e utm o st freedom —
e v e n o t h e r M e x i c a n s a r e l o o k e d upon
w ith suspicion.
The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s
facto rs.
F irst is
s o c ia l p o sitio n ,
t h e f a c t t h a t low m e n t a l i t y b r i n g s low
second,
low er s o c ia l s ta tu s
i s o l a t i o n i s found in th re e
f o r e i g n e r s n e a r l y alw ays h av e a
than n a t i v e - b o r n and t h i r d ,
d a rk r a c e s have a low er s o c i a l s t a t u s
M exicans s u f f e r from a l l
than the w h ite ra c e .
th e se handicaps.
and l a s t ones a r e lin k e d t o g e th e r .
i n America,
Indeed,
th e f i r s t
An e x p e r i m e n t i n T u c s o n
19 G-ladys L. P o t t e r , " S p e c i f i c S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n Emergency S c h o o l s , " C a l i f ­
o r n i a J o u r n a l o f Elem entary E d u c a tio n . 7 :1 3 8 -4 8 , F eb ru ary ,
1939.
20 Some m e r c h a n t s c a t e r t o t h i s t r a d e . As o n e
m erchant p u t i t :
"It* s cash .
They d o n * t c r i t i c i z e p r i c e s .
You c a n s e l l them h i g h e r p r i c e d a r t i c l e s t h a n t h e y i n t e n d
t o p u r c h a s e . . . They s p e n d e v e r y c e n t t h e y make.
N othing
i s to o good f o r a M exican i f h e h a s t h e m o n e y .” T a y l o r ,
o p . c i t . , p. 86.
226
brought out th a t
s o c ia l s t a t u s v a r i e s alm ost d i r e c t l y w ith
t h e am ount o f w h i t e b l o o d 21 a n d a l s o w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 22
The s tu d y c o n c l u d e s :
”. . .
it
seems .
.
. cred ib le .
. .
t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a p p r o a c h th e economic l e v e l f o r w hich
t h e i r m e n t a l e q u i p m e n t q u a l i f i e s t h e m B2^
study p u ts i t ,
Or, a s a n e a r l i e r
Blow s o c i a l s t a t u s may w e l l b e t h e
r e s u lt of
l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e r a t h e r t h a n i t s p a r t i a l c a u s e . b2^
\
Mores v s . l a w .
The c o n t e m p t shown b y t h e s e m i g r a n t s
f o r o u tsid e stan d ard s of conduct is r e f le c te d in th e a t t i ­
t u d e tow ard g o in g to j a i l .
O n ly i n s o f a r a s i t
t i o n o f th e mores o f t h e g r o u p i s i t
t o go t o j a i l .
is
a v io la­
co n sid ered a d is g ra c e
D r u n k e n n e s s , m a r i j u a n a . Bj a g s , B s e d u c t i o n ,
f a i l u r e to p r o v id e o r t h e f t from an o u t s i d e r a r e n o t con­
s i d e r e d s e r i o u s o f f e n s e s o n t h e p a r t o f men.
On t h e o t h e r
h a n d s t e a l i n g f r o m a n o t h e r M e x i c a n i n t h e camp i s
upon and l e a d s
frow ned
to v i o l e n t r e p r i s a l s w h ich sometim es l a n d s
both p a r tie s in J a i l .
A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e M exicans w i t h t h e t o t a l a s to
th e n a tu re of t h e i r crim es in d ic a te s th a t the o f fe n s e s
w h i c h p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t h e y a r e m o s t i n c l i n e d t o co m m it
21 F r a n k l i n C. P a s c h a l a n d L o u i s R. S u l l i v a n , BR a c i a l
I n f l u e n c e s i n t h e M en ta l a n d P h y s i c a l Developm ent o f M exican
C h i l d r e n , B C o m p a ra tiv e P s y c h o lo g y M onograph, 3 : 1 - 7 6 . O c t o b e r .
1935.
22 L o c . c i t .
23 L o c . c i t .
24 W. S. H u n t e r a n d E l o i s e S o m m e rm e ir , BThe R e l a t i o n
o f D e g r e e o f I n d i a n B l o o d t o S c o r e on t h e O t i s I n t e l l i g e n c e
l e s t , B J o u r n a l o f C o m p a ra tiv e P s y c h o lo g y , 2 : 2 5 7 - 7 7 . J u n e . 1922.
227
a r e v i o l a t i o n o f th e S t a t e P o iso n A c t, w hich r e l a t e s
n a r c o t i c s , and t h e c a r r y i n g and a s s a u l t w i t h d e a d ly
w eapons.2o
Among t h e women t h e
a n y man who w i l l
same r u l e o b t a i n s ;
to
l i v i n g w ith
s u p p o r t h e r and h a v i n g c h i l d r e n by him i s
an a c c e p te d s i t u a t i o n ,
s o r t o f de f a c to
m a r r i a g e and d i v o r c e .
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o n e man w h i l e
l i v i n g w ith a n o t h e r i s a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e code and i s a
c a u s e f o r extrem e c e n s u re .
This i s
also
t r u e o f t h e young
g i r l who g e t s c a u g h t h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s b e f o r e
up h o u s e k e e p i n g .
" T h e r e a r e q u i t e a s many s t o r i e s r i f e
M e x i c a n town f i n B r a w l e y ,
C alifornia],
among a c e r t a i n
o f M exican women.^5
th ere are
ty p e o f A m ericans a b o u t t h e c h a s t i t y
I l l e g i t i m a c y i n t h e l e g a l s e n s e may o r
may n o t b e a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e c o d e .
If it
is a r e s u l t of
t h e s e d u c t i o n o f a young g i r l by, f o r exam ple,
an o l d e r
man— h e r s t e p - f a t h e r o r a n o t h e r " m a r r i e d " man— s h e i s
o b je c t of scorn.
If,
in
about the in flu e n c e of
c o - e d u c a t i o n upon t h e v i r t u e o f A m erican g i r l s a s
sto rie s
settin g
how ever,
the
she r u n s o f f and s t a r t s
l i v i n g w i t h a y o u n g man who i s n o t a l r e a d y l i v i n g w i t h a
woman;
is
l i v e s w i t h h i m a t i m e and t h e n com es home, no s t i g m a
p l a c e d upon h e r s h o u l d s h e p r o v e t o b e p r e g n a n t .
F e w e r a r r e s t s a r e n o t e d o f M e x i c a n women f o r p r o s t i ­
tu tio n .
F e w e r a r r e s t s a r e n o t e d among M e x i c a n s f o r
25 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g ' s M e x ic a n F a c t - f i n d i n g Com­
m i t t e e , M exicans i n C a l i f o r n i a (S a c ra m e n to ; C a l i f o r n i a
S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f fic e ^ 1 9 3 0 ) , p. 198.
26 H o l l i d a y , o p . d t . , p . 3 5 .
228
c o n t r i b u t i n g to d e l i n q u e n c y and f a i l u r e
to p r o v i d e . ^
The h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c r i m e s f o r w h i c h M e x i c a n s a r e
i n c a r c e r a t e d a r e v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e w h i t e m an f s c o d e b u t n o t
o f t h e i r own m o r e s .
Even among t h e c h i l d r e n t h e c o n f l i c t
b e t w e e n t h e m o r e s o f t h e g r o u p an d t h e r u l e s o f o u t s i d e
so cie ty is
evident.
They n t e n d t o c o m m i t m ore s e r i o u s
a s o c i a l a c t s t h a n o t h e r p u p i l s . ”28
No d o u b t many o f t h e s e
a s o c i a l a c t s w ere normal re s p o n s e s to th e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n
com monly shown a g a i n s t a l l m i g r a n t s ,
The b o n d s t y i n g t h i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y M exicans.
group to t h e com m unities in
w h ic h th e y l i v e h a v e i n t h e main b e e n s e v e r e d .
h a n d t h e c o h e s i v e f o r c e s h a v e b eco m e u n u s u a l l y
On t h e o t h e r
stro n g .
T here h a s d e v e lo p e d som ething o f a t r i b a l f e e l i n g ,
cu larly
p arti­
i n o n e o f t h e Hb i g c o m p a n y n c a m p s , w i t h t h e camp
b o s s o c c u p y in g som ething o f th e p o s i t i o n o f a c h i e f t a n .
He
c o n f e r s w i t h t h e o l d e r men i n t h e camp a n d t h e y t h e n d e c i d e
camp p o l i c i e s
s u c h a s w h e t h e r t o l o o k f o r work e l s e w h e r e
when t h e c ro p i s
late,
o r who s h a l l b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e ­
in g th a t the s e t t l i n g b a sin i s kept f i l l e d .
o fte n a c ts in a ju d ic ia l cap a c ity ,
b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e camp.
Indeed he
d eciding q u a rre ls
He d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e t o
27 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g 1s F a c t - f i n d i n g C o m m i t t e e ,
o p . c i t . , p. 202.
28 May V. S e a g o e , HThe T r a n s i e n t C h i l d , 0 J o u r n a l o f
J u v e n i l e R e s e a rc h . 1 6 :2 5 1 -5 7 , J u ly , 1932.
229
c h i d e t h e p a r e n t s o f a g i r l who h a s v i o l a t e d t h e a c c e p t e d
s t a n d a r d s o f conduct*
M exicans and s c h o o l s *
f a v o r a b l e to ed u catio n *
tak es
The g r o u p m o r e s h a v e n o t b e e n
" P u ttin g the c h ild r e n in
school
the m o u t o f t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r e n t s a n d g i v e s them
t h e wrong i d e a s o f l i f e "
The f i r s t
s a i d J o e Reyna,
t h e camp b o s s *
s u s p i c i o n o f s c h o o l s was f i n a l l y
a l l a y e d and th e
p a r e n t s came t o w e l c o m e th e m a f t e r t h e s t r i c t e n f o r c e m e n t
of
t h e C h i l d L a b o r Law made i t
to work.
B u t now a new t y p e o f o b j e c t i o n h a s a r i s e n w h i c h
c a n n o t be e a s i l y
answ ered.
The c h i l d r e n b e g i n c o m i n g home
w i t h American i d e a s o f fre e d o m .
th at
im p o ssib le f o r the c h ild r e n
L ittle
"C uca" d i s c o v e r s
t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n t h i n k h e r name i s
t o h e r m o t h e r , who t r i e s
to
funny.
She t a l k s
s a t i s f y h e r by t e l l i n g h e r t h a t
h e r r e a l name i s R e f u g i a f o r w h i c h " C u c a " i s j u s t t h e n i c k ­
name.
B u t t h i s i s no b e t t e r t h a n b e f o r e a n d s o o n t h e g i r l
i n s i s t s on b e i n g c a l l e d R u t h .
T his i s j u s t th e outw ard
s i g n o f a p ro fo u n d change t a k i n g p la c e w i t h i n th e c h i l d —
a ch an g e w hich s e t s h e r a g a i n s t h e r f a m i l y and s o c i a l g ro u p .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f a n e d u c a t i o n a s a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
b e t t e r c i t i z e n s h i p c a n n o t a p p e a l t o o n e who d o e s n o t w a n t
to be a c i t i z e n ;
t h e v a l u e o f an e d u c a t i o n f r o m t h e p o i n t
o f view o f f i t t i n g
deaf
the c h ild
to
e a r n m o re money f a l l s
on
e a r s when t h e M e x i c a n k n o w s t h a t r i s i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t
econom ic l e v e l i s
v irtu ally
im possible;
an d t h e w o r t h -
230
w h i l e n e s s o f e d u c a tio n from a c u l t u r a l s t a n d p o i n t i s h a r d to
se ll
to one whose c u l t u r e i s
all
s p o k e n and who h a s h a d
a b o u t a y e a r and a h a l f o f s c h o o lin g i n h i s l i f e . 2 ^
g r o u p o f r e s i d e n t M exicans s t u d i e d a t O n t a r i o ,
p e r c e n t o f t h e men h a d n e v e r b e e n t o
sch o o l,
Of a
forty-tw o
only f o r t y -
t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e men a n d t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e women
c o u l d s p e a k E n g l i s h an d o n l y t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e men a n d
f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e women c o u l d w r i t e E n g l i s h . T h e s e
are
some o f t h e f a c t o r s e x p l a i n i n g t h e s c h o o l d i f f i c u l t i e s
o f R u t h Mesa w h i c h w i l l b e g i v e n i n C h a p t e r X I I 3 -*A nother s e t o f f a c t o r s e q u a lly p o t e n t in sh a p in g
children* s a t t i t u d e s
tow ard s c h o o l i s
r e l a t e d t o t h e lo w
s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g a t w hich th e y must l i v e .
P i c t u r e how y o u would f e e l w i t h two o r t h r e e c h i l d r e n
headed f o r school, alm ost b a r e f o o t, w ith ragged o r i l l f i t t i n g clo th in g .
You s e e th e m g o i n g down t h e r o a d
w i t h a p a p e r b a g i n t h e i r h a n d s , w i t h two b a k i n g p o w d e r
b i s c u i t s m a y b e , a n d some b e a n s i n b e t w e e n .
And i f y o u
w e r e a l i t t l e c h i l d how w o u l d y o u f e e l g o i n g t o s c h o o l
i n t h a t way — a n d when i t comes n o o n y o u s i t down i n
y o u r l i t t l e b u n c h , an d d r a g o u t t h e s e two s a n d w i c h e s
f u l l o f b e a n s , when t h e r e s t o f t h e l i t t l e o n e s a r e
s i t t i n g a r o u n d y o u t h e r e — t h e c h i l d r e n o f m ore f o r t u n a t e
people?
How do t h e c h i l d r e n f e e l ?
I t i s a l m o s t im­
p o s s i b l e t o k e e p th em i n s c h o o l . 1^2
29 M e r t o n E. H i l l , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f an A m e r i c a n i z a ­
t i o n P r o g r a m ( C O n t a r i o , C a l i f o r n i a J : The B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s o f
t h e C h a ffe y Union High S c h o o l and the C h a ffe y J u n i o r C o l l e g e ,
1 9 2 8 ) , p . 56.
30 L o c .
cit.
31 See a l s o A p p e n d i x B . , p . 4 1 5 .
32 S t a t e m e n t made b y J a c k N e i l l , a m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r ,
b e f o r e t h e Com monwealth C l u b , A p r i l 7 , 1 9 3 6 , q u o t e d b y W i l l i a m
Law, '’P r o b l e m s o f t h e M i g r a t o r y S t u d e n t , n C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l
o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 4 : 1 7 0 , March, 1939.
231
W i t h t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w i n m ind i t
m igratory c h ild re n
o th e r ch ild ren ,
is
e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d why
**do n o t h a v e a n o r m a l a t t i t u d e
to w ard s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s ,
tow ard
do n o t p l a y w i t h
o t h e r s on t h e p l a y g r o u n d a s w e l l a s l o c a l c h i l d r e n * "33
P ^ e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t s;
c h i l d was i n t h e
The c o n t r o l o f f a t h e r o v e r
e a r l i e r d ay s q u i t e com plete*
C h i l d r e n were
r a i s e d on t h e s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e o f h a r d w o r k .
C h i l d r e n h a v e much w o r k t o do a b o u t t h e h o u s e .
In
f o u r t e e n h o m es Cout o f t h i r t y - f iveD t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e t o
d o much o f t h e h o u s e w o r k , i n c l u d i n g t h e w a s h i n g a n d
i r o n i n g a n d i n two o f th e m t h e y h a v e t o do a l l o f i t
b e c a u s e i n one c a s e t h e m o th e r works a l l day and i n th e
o t h e r t h e m o t h e r i s l a z y a n d l e a v e s t h e w o r k t o t h e two
g i r l s aged se v e n and e i g h t .
In n in e te e n o f th e s e (th irty -fiv e !h o m e s t h i s duty of
c a r i n g f o r y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n f a l l s on t h e c h i l d r e n from
t h e age o f f i v e and u p . 34
The work i n i t s e l f
b ility
i s n o t an u n d e s i r a b l e t h i n g .
R esponsi­
f o r s m a l l e r b r o t h e r s a n d s i s t e r s may b e a w h o l e s o m e
activ ity
and h a v e r e a l c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g and s o c i a l i z i n g
e f f e c t s upon t h e c h i l d .
th e case,
since
U nfortunately
freq u en tly
laissez faire u n til
t h i s i s n o t alw ays
th e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e i s one o f
t h e y o u n g s t e r a p p r o a c h e s a d o l e s c e n c e an d
33 B e a c h a n d B e a c h ,
lo o , c i t .
3 4 A l i c e B e s s i e C u l p , "A C a s e S t u d y o f t h e L i v i n g
C o n d i t i o n s o f T h i r t y - f i v e M e x i c a n F a m i l i e s o f Los A n g e l e s
w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o M exican C h i l d r e n ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r * s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A ngeles, 1921), pp. 45-46.
232
th e n one o f s t e r n r e p r e s s i o n .
An e x a m p l e i n t h e f i e l d o f
t h e g i r l s 1 f r e e d o m o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h y o u n g men i s
g i v e n by
Bogardus.
A m e r i c a n g i r l s go u n c h a p e r o n e d t o p a r t i e s w i t h y o u n g
men; M e x i c a n g i r l s r e s p o n d w i t h a b o u n d t o s u c h f r e e d o m .
They s w i n g q u i c k l y f r o m o n e e x t r e m e t o t h e o t h e r w i t h t h e
r e s u l t t h a t t h e m o t h e r o f t e n f a i l s when s h e t r i e s t o
m a i n t a i n M exican s t a n d a r d s .
V ig ila n c e v e rsu s e lo p in g i s the c o n s ta n t s to r y .
Some­
tim e s th e g i r l goes to t h e extrem e o f a llo w in g a young
man s e x f r e e d o m w i t h h e r i n o r d e r t h a t t h e m o t h e r w i l l
be f o rc e d to co n se n t to a m a rria g e .
The p a r e n t s , h o w e v e r , a r e u s u a l l y f o r g i v i n g a n d t a k e
t h e young c o u p le "back h o m e ." O c c a s io n a lly t h e g i r l i s
f o r c e d t o go a n d l i v e w i t h h e r h u s b a n d i n h i s f a m i l y
g r o u p . 36
T h i s p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many o f
t h e c a s e s o f r u n n i n g away a n d g e t t i n g m a r r i e d t o g e t o u t o f
t h e c o n t r o l o f a "too s t r i c t "
p arent,
as the e x c e lle n t case
s t u d i e s o f Ly on36 show.
O o u r t s h i p and M a r r i a g e .
c o u rts h ip i s very r e s t r i c t e d
As h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d ,
among t h i s
th o s e o f the second g e n e ra tio n ,
Am erican s c h o o ls ,
S tates
P ress,
much t h e
group.
E v e n among
who h a v e grown up i n
same s t a n d a r d s a r e m a i n t a i n e d a s
35 Emory S. B o g a r d u s , The M e x i c a n i n t h e U n i t e d
( L o s A n g e l e s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a
1934), pp. 28-29.
36 I y o n ,
o£. c i t . , pp.
47-50.
233
amon g t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n .
As was s t a t e d
earlier,
the tie s
o f t h e g r o u p a r e much s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e a c q u i r i n g o f a new
language.
G i r ls a r e p e r m itte d to t a l k
t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o l d e r p e r s o n .
a y o u n g man a l o n e .
group,
t o y o u n g men o n l y i n
No g i r l i s
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t ,
supposed to see
however, w i t h i n th e
d a y -tim e t r y s t s a t t h e lunch h o u r d u r in g th e p ic k in g
s e a s o n a r e w inked a t .
P l a n s a r e t h u s made a n d t h e p r o s p e c t ­
i v e b r i d e 1s f a t h e r i s a p p r o a c h e d i n much t h e same f a s h i o n a s
i n o l d M exico.
C onsent i s n o t alw ays w i l l i n g l y g i v e n ,
th e g i r l s a t t h i s
age a r e th e b e s t p ic k e r s of a l l .
since
But the
i n e v i t a b l e m u s t b e f a c e d a n d o f f t h e c o u p l e go t o Yuma t o
the p r ie s t;
or if
th ey a r e in t h e m iddle o f a busy s e a so n
th e y m erely l i v e w ith one p a r t y ’ s p a r e n t s o r a n o th e r u n t i l
t h e y g e t a h o u s e b u i l t a n d t h e n move i n ,
when i t
and m arry l a t e r
i s more c o n v e n i e n t .
Of c o u r s e b e f o r e t h e g i r l w i l l c o n s e n t e v e n t o t a l k
w ith
in
t h e y o u n g man t h e r e m u s t b e a p e r i o d o f g u i t a r - p l a y i n g
ac a r o u ts id e th e la d y ’ s t e n t .
h elp
S o m e t i m e s f r i e n d s come t o
t h e sw ain w i t h h i s s u i t and a harmony q u a r t e t t e o f
’’C a r m e l a ” o r " F l o r d e Amor” o r " A m a p o l a ” f i l l s
the aftern o o n
shadows w ith m elody.
Most o f
c o n s id e r e d too
t h e young p e o p l e m arry e a r l y .
young f o r a g i r l o r e ig h te e n f o r a boy.
g i r l i s a n o l d m a i d who i s n o t m a r r i e d b y t h e
tw enty.
F o u rteen i s not
A
tim e sh e i s
234
D iv o rce ana d e s e r t i o n *
d e s e r t i o n a r e n o t uncommon.
Broken homes due to d e a t h o r
O c c a s io n a lly the w ife w i l l run
aw ay w i t h a F i l i p i n o o r a H i n d u h u t more commonly t h e e r s t ­
w h i l e husband g e t s an urge to
from th e g roup.
s e e t h e w o r l d a n d b r e a k s away
When e i t h e r o f t n e s e
events occur,
the
p e r s o n l e a v i n g i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f i t
and
n e v e r r e t u r n s o r com m unicates w i t h h i s r e l a t i v e s ,
has lo s t caste.
h is
’teen s,
to
look o ld ,
I t i s n o t uncommon f o r a b o y t o m a r r y i n
a n d t h e n when,
in h is
tw e n tie s h is w ife begins
to d e s e r t h e r and s t a r t g o in g around w ith
a n o t h e r woman o r o t h e r women a s t h e c a s e may b e .
tio n s of th is
sin ce he
Of s i t u a ­
s o r t i n B r a w le y , H o l l i d a y ^ h a s commented.
Som etim es t h e m o th e r i s f o r c e d , by economic c ir c u m ­
s ta n c e s , to a c c e p t a n o th e r husband w ith o u t the expense
of a divorce.
A breakdow n o f p r i d e and m o ra ls i s th e
resu lt.
T his statem en t r e f l e c t s a la c k of u n d e rsta n d in g of th e
M exican p e o p le .
M exicans,
Such a s i t u a t i o n ,
a c c e p t e d a s m o ra l by
c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e s t a n d a r d s o f a
m i d d l e - c l a s s A m erican m o r a l i t y .
be ascertain ed ,
D ivorce i s ,
unknown b e c a u s e d e s e r t i o n i s
so f a r a s c a n
easier.
As a
m a t t e r o f f a c t much o f t h e q u a r r e l i n g v i h i c h may b e f o u n d i n
t h e hom es o f t h e m i g r a t o r y w h i t e s i s a b s e n t .
how ever,
There i s ,
a g r e a t d e a l o f b u l l y i n g o f w iv e s by t h e i r h u s b a n d s,
e s p e c i a l l y whe n t h e l a t t e r h a v e b e e n d r i n k i n g .
37 H o l l i d a y ,
ojd.
c it.,
p.
53.
But t h e old
235
stan d ard p re v a ils
and t h e w i f e a c c e p t s h e r f a t e m o r e o r l e s s
me e k l y .
Summary.
M exicans a r e i n t e r e s t e d
t a l things of l i f e
such as food,
i n t h e m o re e l e m e n ­
com panionship and sex.
They f o l l o w l e a d e r s b u t o r d i n a r i l y
s h im r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
T h e i r w a n t s a r e fe w and t h e y a r e o f a h a p p y d i s p o s i t i o n .
T h e i r m o b i l i t y h a s made th e m s t r o n g l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e
g r o u p i n t h e camp a n d o b l i v i o u s o f a n y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
s o c ie ty in gen eral.
The r a c e e l e m e n t i s i n t r o d u c e d ,
sm all
tow ard
and
s o c i a l d i s t a n c e s b etw een M exicans and w h i t e s i s g r e a t .
is
s e e n i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t e n t s o f M exicans from
t h o s e o f t h e w h i t e s i n t h e camps.
is
T his
T h e i r lo w s o c i a l p o s i t i o n
probably a r e f l e c t i o n o f low er m e n ta lity .
The M e x i c a n m i g r a n t h a s a c o d e o f m o r a l s w h i c h i s
w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t from a c c e p t e d w h i t e s t a n d a r d s and f o r t h i s
r e a s o n e a c h r a c e t h i n k s t h e o t h e r h a s no m o r a l s .
d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d t e n d s to g e t him i n t o
p o lice,
p artic u la rly
self
tro u b le w ith the
co n cern in g th e use o f li q u o r and drugs
and th e c a r r y i n g of weapons.
b ility
H is
I n t h e p l a c e of t h e r e s p o n s i ­
to s o c i e t y t h i s group f e e l s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
to i t ­
a n d l o o k s t o t h e camp b o s s a s t h e s o u r c e o f g u i d a n c e i n
many m a t t e r s .
T his group h a s opposed s c h o o ls b e c a u se they te n d to
d r i v e a w edge b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n .
E verything th a t
s c h o o ls s ta n d f o r m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t th e w e lf a r e o f th e group,
a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e p a r e n t s commonly t e r m i n a t e t h e
236
c h i l d r e n s 1 e d u c a t i o n a s s o o n a s t h e la.w a l l o w s .
C o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n a r e common,
b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g a new s e t o f s t a n d a r d s f r o m
h is
c o n ta c t w ith the o u ts id e w orld.
T h is group f o llo w s th e
t r a d i t i o n a l M e x i c a n c u s t o m s r e g a r d i n g c o u r t s h i p an d m a r r i a g e ,
e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e a r e m ore r u n a w a y w e d d i n g s .
a r e n o t uncommon;
B r o k e n homes
t h e h u s b a n d b r e a k i n g away f r o m t h e g r o u p
and n e v e r r e tu r n in g .
w i t h a new " h u s b a n d . "
In a s h o r t tim e th e w ife s t a r t s
liv in g
The men commonly b u l l y t h e i r w i v e s
who s e l d o m p r e c i p i t a t e a q u a r r e l b y a n s w e r i n g .
CHAPTER IX
THE HEALTH OF THE MIGRANT MEXICAN
The p r o b l e m o f h e a l t h w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h o n l y i n
passing,
sin ce i t
i s a study i n i t s e l f .
S in ce, however,
h e a l t h i s s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o ­
gram c e r t a i n t r e n d s must be n o t e d h e r e .
Incidence of d is e a s e .
h ealth y
race.
M exicans a r e n o t a v e r y
I n L os A n g e l e s C o u n ty i n 1 9 2 6 , 2 3 . 8 p e r c e n t
o f a l l M exican r e l i e f c a s e s h a d t u b e r c u l o s i s a s c o n t r a s t e d
w i t h 1 0 .8 p e r c e n t f o r o t h e r r e l i e f cases.-*’
n o t o r i o u s l y a d i s e a s e o f M exicans,
co n tro l.
T his d i s e a s e ,
i s however,
Among t h e m i g r a n t s a s a w h o l e ,
coming u n d e r
D ickie r e p o r t s
e x a m in in g t h o u s a n d s and f i n d i n g th e i n c i d e n c e o f t h i s
d i s e a s e no h i g h e r among t h e c h i l d r e n t h a n among l o c a l r e s i ­
d en ts. ^
V enereal d is e a s e s ,
all
t o o a r e h i g h among M e x i c a n s .
c a s e s i n Los A n g e le s C ounty i n 1 9 2 5 - 2 ? ,
w e r e Mexicans. ^
Of
41.1 p e r c e n t
D ata a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e as to th e in c id e n c e
1 [Max H. L e w i s , E d i t o r I M i g r a t o r y L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a :
(San F ra n c isc o : C a l i f o r n i a S ta te R e lie f A d m in is tra tio n ,
1 9 3 6 ) , p. 32.
2 W a l t e r M. D i c k i e , ^ H e a l t h o f t h e M i g r a n t , n J o u r n a l
o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 1 1 1 :7 6 3 -6 5 , A u g u st 27,
1938.
3 [Lewis] l o c . c i t .
233
of
t h e s e d i s e a s e s among m i g r a t o r y M e x i c a n s , b u t t h e l o c a l
d o c t o r a t t h e I m p e r i a l County C l i n i c
s t a t e d t h a t M exicans
r e p r e s e n t o v e r o n e - t h i r d o f t h e c l i n i c ’ s cases. 4
Skin,
eye,
e a r and t e e t h i n f e c t i o n s a r e m e n tio n e d a s
common among M e x i c a n s .
also
C olds,
to n silitis
and pneum onia a r e
fre q u e n tly given as ailm e n ts o f M exicans.5
D ig estiv e
d i s o r d e r s a r e common, b e i n g g i v e n a s o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l
causes of ch ild ren ’ s d e a th s.6
T his i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g con­
s i d e r i n g t h a t b a b i e s a r e weaned on b e a n s and t h e f a m i l i e s
commonly d r i n k u n t r e a t e d i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h w a t e r .
P hysical d e fe c ts .
Of 10 02 m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n
exam ined by t h e S t a t e D ep artm en t o f P u b l i c H e a lth ,
the
p e r c e n t a g e o f c h i l d r e n w i t h d e f e c t s r a n g e d f r o m 6 1 . 2 among
b a b i e s u n d e r o n e y e a r t o 9 0 . 5 among t h o s e s i x y e a r s a n d
o l d e r w i t h an a v e r a g e o f 8 2 . 9 f o r t h e
e n t i r e gro u p .^
The
w h i t e s r a n g e d f r o m 5 6 . 8 p e r c e n t among t h e b a b i e s t o 9 1 . 3
4 S t a t e m e n t made May 9 , 1 9 4 0 by P a u l V. Y i n g l i n g ,
M.D.
5 A l i c e B e s s i e C u l p , "A C a s e S t u d y o f t h e L i v i n g
C o n d i t i o n s o f T h i r t y - f i v e M e x i c a n F a m i l i e s o f Lo s A n g e l e s
w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e to M exican C h i l d r e n ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1 9 2 1 ), p. 41.
6 W a l t e r M. D i c k i e , T h i r t y - f o u r t h B i e n n i a l R e p o r t
o f th e D epartm ent o f P u b lic H e a lth o f C a l i f o r n i a
[S acram ento: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ^ , p. 187.
7 A n i t a E. F a v e r m a n , flA S t u d y o f t h e H e a l t h o f
1000 C h ild ren o f M igratory A g r i c u l t u r a l L aborers in
C a lif o rn ia ,* 1 R eport of M igratory D em onstration. J u l y . 1936J u n e , 19 37 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d .
Sacram ento: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
D ep artm en t o f P u b lic H e a lth , 1937), pp. 18-20.
p e r c e n t among t h e o l d e s t g r o u p , w i t h 8 3 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e
t o t a l having d e f e c t s . 8
The M e x i c a n s r a n g e d f r o m 7 1 . 4 p e r
c e n t among t h e b a b i e s t o 8 7 . 5 among t h e o l d e s t g r o u p w i t h
an av erag e of o n ly 8 1 .8 p e r c e n t f o r th e g r o u p .9
Among t h e m i g r a n t s 1369 d e f e c t s w e r e f o u n d ,
one p e r c e n t o f w hich were m e d ic a l,
o r d ental care,
i.e.
i.e .
seventy-
r e q u i r i n g m edical
and t w e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t m e re ly h y g i e n i c ,
t h o s e w h i c h c o u l d h a v e b e e n c u r e d o r p r e v e n t e d by t h e
m other. ^
When t h e g r o u p was c o m p a r e d w i t h a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f
re sid e n t ch ild ren ,
p i c k e d a t random,
t h e M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s
w i t h d e f e c t s r a n g e d f r o m 229 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s
to
133 p e r c e n t , w i t h t h e t o t a l g r o u p o f M e x i c a n s a v e r a g i n g
135 p e r c e n t o f th e d e f e c t s fo u n d i n t h e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . ^
When h y g i e n i c d e f e c t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a l o n e t h e
M e x i c a n s showed a s l i g h t p r e d o n d e r a n c e .
o f M exicans,
3.5 p er cent
Of t h e t o t a l g r o u p
showed d i e t a r y d e f e c t s ,
w h ile 3.4
p e r c e n t o f t h e w h i t e c h i l d r e n showed s u c h d e f e c t s . 3-^
appear,
then,
I t w ould
t h a t m ore p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s a r e f o u n d among t h e
240
w h i t e s t h a n among M e x i c a n s a n d f u r t h e r ,
among t h e l a t t e r g r o u p ,
t h a t o f t h o s e found
m ore c a n b e c u r e d b y a m e r e i m p r o v e ­
ment o f d i e t .
In fan t m ortality r a te .
fam ilies
Of o n e h u n d r e d s e v e n t y - s e v e n
s t u d i e d , M exicans showed a r a t e o f .71 d e a t h s p e r
fa m ily , w h ile th e w h ite f a m ilie s had o n ly
.15 d e a th s p e r
f a m i l y . 13
T a b l e XXXIX shows t h e d a t a f o r m i g r a n t s a s c o m p a r e d
w i t h r e l i e f c l i e n t s and a l s o
p o p u la tio n of the s ta t e .
from th e t a b l e .
as compared w ith th e t o t a l
S everal co n clu sio n s are apparent
I n f a n t m o r t a l i t y i s m a r k e d l y h i g h e r among
a l l k i n d s o f m i g r a n t s t h a n among t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ,
w hereas i t
i s l o w e r among r e l i e f c l i e n t s .
M exicans i n e v e ry
c a s e h a d a much h i g h e r r a t e t h a n a n y o t h e r g r o u p .
m ig ra n ts had by f a r the h i g h e s t r a t e ,
tim es the r a te
h alf
M exican
i t being over fo u r
f o r a l l C a l i f o r n i a and n e a r l y f i v e and o n e -
tim es th e r a t e f o r w h ite r e l i e f c l i e n t s .
The c a u s e s o f t h i s
of clean lin e n ,
very h igh r a t e
are ignorance,
lack
l a c k o f c a r e and l a c k o f p r o p e r f e e d i n g . ^
The m a t e r n a l d e a t h r a t e was l i k e w i s e h i g h e r among
13 L o c . c i t .
14 D i c k i e , T h i r t y - f o u r t h B i e n n i a l R e p o r t o f t h e
D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , o p . c i t . , p . 168.
241
TABLE XXXIX
INFANT MORTALITY RATE AMONG MIGRANTS,
AMONG RELIEF CLIENTS AND AMONG THE
GENERAL POPULATION, BY RACES
I n f a n t d e a t h s p e r 1000 b i r t h s
Groups
W hite
M e x ic a n
T otal
M igrantsa
76.0
214,0
151 .0
R elief c lien t
59.6
104.5
-
G eneral
P opulation0
d
118.9
_d
52 .8
a . A n i t a E . F a v e r m a n , "A S t u d y o f t h e H e a l t h o f 1000
C h ild ren of M igratory A g r ic u ltu r a l L aborers in C a l i f o r n i a , ”
R e p o r t o f M i g r a t o r y D e m o n s t r a t i o n , J u l y , 1 9 5 6 “ J u n e , 1957
(m im e o g ra p h e d • S a c r a m e n to :
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent of
P u b lic H e a lth , 1957), p p . 18-20
b . [Max H. L e w i s , e d i t o r ] M i g r a t o r y L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a :
(San F r a n c i s c o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 5 6 ),
p . 52.
c . W a l t e r M. D i c k i e , T h i r t y - f o u r t h B i e n n i a l R e p o r t o f
t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a (l&acram ento: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O ffice] , 1956), p . 168.
d . No d a t a a v a i l a b l e .
242
M exicans, b e in g 7 .0 p e r 1,00 0 l i v e b i r t h s
as c o n tr a s te d w ith
5.7
Th us i t
f o r the e n t i r e
s t a t e ’ s p o p u la tio n .1^
is
evident
t h a t i n f a n t a n d m a t e r n a l m o r t a l i t y among t h i s g r o u p p r e s e n t s
a r e a l c h a lle n g e to h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s .
trib u te
less
Cause o f p o o r h e a l L h c o n d i t i o n s .
Many f a c t o r s c o n ­
to t h e p o o r h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s .
Poor h o u sin g doubt­
i s a f a c t o r and i n s u f f i c i e n t c l o t h i n g i s
D i s t r u s t o f d o c t o r s an d l a c k o f f u n d s t o
doubt play t h e i r p a r t.
only
poor d iet.
Dr.
s e e a d o c t o r no
H o sp ital f a c i l i t i e s
to emergency c a s e s .
another.
are a v a ila b le
The g r e a t e s t c a u s e , h o w e v e r ,
is
E lle n S ta d tm u lle r of th e S ta te D epartm ent o f
P u b lic H ealth re p o rte d t h a t o n e - th ir d o f th e m ig ran ts are
u n d e r n o u r i s h e d . 16
".
. .
th e m ajo rity o f the m ig rato ry
c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e a d i e t low n o t o n ly i n c a l o r i e s b u t a l s o
1n
i n v ita m in s and p r o t e c t i v e m in e r a ls .
M ethods u s e d i n i m p r o v i n g h e a l t h
co n d itio n s.
Much
h a s b e e n a n d i s b e i n g d o n e t o i m p r o v e h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s among
m igrants.
F o r t h o s e who a r e n o n - r e s i d e n t s ,
the A g ric u ltu r a l
15 L o c . c i t .
16 H e l e n H e f f e r n a n , " R e p o r t o f C o n f e r e n c e o n E d u c a t i o n
o f C h ild r e n o f S easo n a l W orkers— Fresno S t a t e C o lle g e ,
D e c e m b e r 9 - 1 0 , 1 9 3 8 , " C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y Edu­
c a t i o n , 7 :1 8 1 -9 1 , F e b ru a ry , 1939.
17 D i c k i e ,
"H ealth o f th e M ig r a n t," l o c . c i t .
243
W o r k e r s ' H e a l t h an d M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t s e v e r y n e e d .
T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d j o i n t l y b y t h e Farm
S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e S t a t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic
H e a l th , w ith th e a s s i s t a n c e of th e C a l i f o r n i a M edical
A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h r o u g h
f u n d s p r o v i d e d by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t .
or
Whenever l o c a l
s t a t e h e a lt h departm ent d o c to rs o r n u rse s d is c o v e r cases
i n w hich h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o r m e d ic a l c a r e a r e n e e d e d and th e
p a tie n t is not elig ib le
to t h e county h o s p i t a l th ey r e p o r t
him to th e A s s o c i a t i o n , w hich p r o v id e s a l i s t o f p r i v a t e
p h y s i c i a n s whose s e r v i c e s
p a tie n t selects
the
are a v a ila b le .
a d o c to r and,
same m a n n e r .
From t h i s
i f necessary,
l i s t the
a h o s p i t a l in
A ll f e e s a re p a id by th e A s s o c ia tio n in
accordance w ith a d e f in ite
h o s p ita l asso ciatio n s.
s c h e d u l e a p p r o v e d by m e d i c a l an d
T his p la n i s q u i t e p o p u la r in lo c a l
m e d i c a l circles,-*-® s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s a g u a r a n t e e d incom e to
l o c a l d o c t o r s and h o s p i t a l s
h e r e to fo r e been c h a rity
atten tio n .
f o r a c l a s s o f p e o p l e who h a v e
c a s e s o r r e c e i v e d no m e d i c a l
The p r i n c i p a l f l a w i n t h e p r o g r a m l i e s
i t a l i c i z e d words;
h a v i n g no s t a t e
the s e r v i c e i s
residence.
in the
a v a i l a b l e only to p e r s o n s
For t h i s
re a so n alm o st none of
t h e M e x i c a n m i g r a n t s o r t h e w h i t e s who a r e t r u e m i g r a t o r y
la b o re rs are
elig ib le.
18 L o c .
cit.
But i t m eets th e n eeds o f th e r e fu g e e
244
l a b o r e r s i n a s p le n d i d manner.
Some t h i n g s a r e b e i n g d o n e f o r a l l m i g r a n t s .
a s t h e p r o b l e m f o r much o f t h e M e x i c a n g r o u p l i e s
fic ie n t d iet i t
p a rtic u la rly
s eem s t h a t
sin ce
Insofar
i n a de­
th e s o l u t i o n w ould n o t be d i f f i c u l t ,
the v e ry c ro p s they p ic k ,
p e a s and c a r r o t s ,
a r e e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e s o f v i t a m i n s and p r o t e c t i v e m i n e r a l s .
B u t t h e a n o m o ly i s
e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t m o t h e r s o f b o t h
r a c e s a r e nu n u s e d t o p r e p a r i n g an d u s i n g t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y o f
v e g e t a b l e s and f r u i t s w h ich a r e o b t a i n a b l e i n
Work i s now b e i n g d o n e t o
th is
s t a t e . ” ^9
te a c h t h e m ig r a n t m o th e rs to p r e p a r e
a n d u s e t h e a v a i l a b l e f o o d and to p l a n b a l a n c e d d i e t a r i e s
w i l l come w i t h i n
th at
t h e i r f in a n c ia l range. ^
A w id e s p re a d program o f im m u n izatio n i s b e i n g p ro v id e d
th ro u g h th e S t a t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic H e a lth .
E ig h ty -th ree
t h o u s a n d t y p h o i d i n o c u l a t i o n s w e r e g i v e n among t h i s g r o u p i n
1938-40.
cian,
Two p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s a n d a l a b o r a t o r y
tech n i­
as w e ll as a v e n e re a l d is e a s e c l i n i c a r e b e in g p ro v id ed
by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e f o r I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
at
all
tim es and d u r in g th e peak o f t h e p e a - s e a s o n a d o c to r
a n d two a d d i t i o n a l n u r s e s a r e on d u t y .
D uring the w i n t e r o f
1 9 3 9 -4 0 t h e t r a v e l i n g S t a t e T u b e r c u l o s i s C l i n i c was i n t h e
19 L o c . c i t .
20 L o c .
cit.
245
V alley a l l w in ter.
As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s t n e C o u n ty H e a l t h
O ffic e r stated
cerned,
ni s
t h a t i n s o f a r a s h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s a r e con­
and t y p h o i d f e v e r i n p a r t i c u l a r ,
I m p e r i a l County
c o m p a ra b le t o any c i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n r a n g i n g b e tw e e n
8 0 , 0 0 0 a n d 9 0 , 0 0 0 . "21
Work y e t t o b e d o n e .
as
In s p ite of th e s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta
t o t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e a n d d e f e c t s among th e m ,
it
seem s p r o b a b l e t h a t even t h e M exican m i g r a t o r y p e a - p i c k e r s
a r e a s h e a l t h y a s any o t h e r group o f M exicans i n th e co u n ty
of
t h e same e c o n o m i c l e v e l .
a d e q u a t e l y met i s t r u e ,
That t h e i r needs a r e
p artic u la rly
s i t u a t i o n o f t h o s e who a r e e l i g i b l e
s t i l l in ­
in com parison to
the
f o r a i d from t h e A g ri­
c u l t u r a l W orkers H e a lth and M ed ical A s s o c i a t i o n .
F o r a gro u p such as th e one h e r e s t u d i e d i t
p r o b a b l e t h a t a p r o g r a m c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e A.W.H.
A s s o c i a t i o n w ould,
in f a c t,
t h e h e a l t h problem than t h e
is
a n d M.
b e m ore e f f e c t i v e i n m e e t i n g
tu rn in g o v er to th e w orkers of
a s i m i l a r a m o u n t o f money i n t h e f o r m o f a n i n c r e a s e i n
earn in g s.
The c o s t o f s u c h a p r o g r a m s h o u l d n o t b e p l a c e d
e n t i r e l y upon t h e s t a t e ,
state
resid en ts
s in c e w h ile t h e group a r e m ostly
t h e y do m i g r a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w e s t a n d t h e i r
21 C a l i f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ,
R e p o r t t o G o v e r n o r 1s C o u n c i l . F e b r u a r y . 194 0 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ,
n . n . , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 1 8.
246
p r o d u c ts supply a n a tio n -w id e m arket.
Summary.
M exican m i g r a n t s h a v e ,
on th e w h o le ,
p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s w hich r e q u i r e m ed ical a t t e n t i o n
m igrants,
few er
than w hite
a l t h o u g h m i g r a n t s a s a w h o l e h a v e many m o re o f
such d e fe c ts
th a n have th e norm al p o p u l a ti o n .
d i s e a s e s common t o M e x i c a n s a r e u n d e r c o n t r o l .
m o rtality rates,
however,
o t h e r group s tu d i e d ,
The c o n t a g e o u s
Infant
a r e v e r y much h i g h e r t h a n among any
c a u s e d p r i n c i p a l l y by ig n o r a n c e .
A
c a m p a i g n i s u n d e r way t o e d u c a t e t h e m i g r a n t s i n b e t t e r
d i e t a r y p r a c t i c e s and a l s o
to g r e a te r c le a n lin e s s .
The w o r k d o n e by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l W o r k e r s H e a l t h a n d
M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e n o n - r e s i d e n t m ig r a n ts s h o u ld be
expanded to i n c l u d e s t a t e
resid en ts.
CHAPTER X
RELIEF AND THE MEXICAN MIGRANT
Number o f M e x i c a n s on r e l i e f .
It
t h a t M e x i c a n s a r e m ore o f t e n o n r e l i e f
i s an a c c e p t e d f a c t
than o th e r ra c e s.
T a b l e XL shows t h a t M e x i c a n s a r e f r o m o n e t o o n e a n d t w o t h i r d s tim e s a s l i k e l y to b e on r e l i e f r o l l s as w h i t e s .
In
B r a w l e y i n 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 i t w a s a s s e r t e d t h a t o v e r 8 00 o u t o f a
t o t a l o f 1,205 f a m i l i e s on r e l i e f w ere M e x ic a n s.1
l a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t y w as 3 7 . 7 p e r c e n t M e x i c a n i n
The p o p u ­
1930.^
Even a l l o w i n g f o r a h e a v i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f M exicans i n
Braw ley than elsew here i n th e co u n ty ,
accurate,
if
these f ig u r e s are
t h e p r o p o r t i o n o n r e l i e f was g r e a t l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e .
I n 194 0 t h e s i t u a t i o n i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y w a s e x a c t l y t h e r e ­
verse of th is,
a s T a b l e XLI s h o w s .
Th e n u m b e r o f M e x i c a n s on
r e l i e f was much l e s s t h a n t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p o p u ­
l a t i o n would i n d i c a t e .
B o t h o f t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s showed a
l a r g e r p e rc e n ta g e than th ey b o re to th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n .
It
1 J a y New ton H o l l i d a y , ”A S t u d y o f N o n - A t t e n d a n c e i n
M ig u el H idalgo School o f B raw ley, C a l i f o r n i a ” (u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s
A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 51.
2 E u re a u o f t h e C en su s, F i f t e e n t h Census o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s : 1930. P o p u l a t i o n . V ol. I l l , P a r t I (W ash in g to n , D.C.:
U n i t e d S t a t e s Oovernment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 3 ), p a s s i m .
248
TABLE XL
RELATION OF PROPORTION OF MEXICANS
AMONG WELFARE DEPARTMENT CASES AND
MEXICANS IN TOTAL POPULATION
Per cent of
M exicans
among
W elfare
case
Per cent of
M exicans
in to ta l
population
19 3 0 b
County
Y ears
covered
Los A ngeles
1923-28
25.
7.6
Orange
1926-28
40.
13.9
R iv ersid e
1923-28
30.
13.7
San Diego
1923-27
20.
7 .6
a . [ M a x H. L e w i s , E d i t o r ! M i g r a t o r y L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a
(San F ra n c is c o : C a l i f o r n i a S ta t e R e l i e f A d m in is tra tio n , 1936),
p p . 32-33.
b. B u re a u o f th e C en su s, F i f t e e n t h Census o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s : 1930. P o p u l a t i o n . V ol. I I , G en eral R eport
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . : U n i t e d . S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1933), passim .
249
TABLE XLI
PROPORTION OP VARIOUS RACES ON RELIEF
ROLLS OP STATE RELIEF ADMINISTRATION IN
IMPERIAL COUNTY, FEBRUARY 1 4 , 1 9 4 0 ,
COMPARED WITH THE PROPORTION IN THE
GENERAL POPULATION
Race
F am ilies
on
re lie fa
P e r c e n t Number I n
of
to ta l
population*5
to tal
T otal
867
W hite
647
74.6
33,136
54.4
M exican
180
2 0 .8
21,618
35.5
40
4.6
1,954
3.2
Negro
100.
Per cen t of
to tal
population
60,903
100.
a* B a s e d o n a l e t t e r r e c e i v e d f r o m Ned H o l m e s , S t a t e
R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n D i r e c t o r f o r I m p e r ia l County, J u l y 2,
1940.
b.
B ureau of t h e C ensus, F i f t e e n t h Census o f th e
U n i t e d S t a t e s : 1 9 5 0 . P o p u l a t i o n . V o l . I l l , P a r t I (W ash­
i n g t o n , D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
1932), p a ssim .
250
may b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s r a c e s t o t h e
t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n have changed s in c e 1950.
true,
T his i s p ro b a b ly
since th e school enrollm ent f ig u r e s in d ic a te
pop u latio n s h if t .
such a
I n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 50-58 M exicans i n c r e a s e d
o n l y 5 .0 p e r c e n t w h i l e w h i t e s i n c r e a s e d 1 1 .8 p e r c e n t and
Negroes 4 .4 p e r c e n t in
the school p o p u la tio n .
A llow ing f o r
t h e s e g a i n s f o r t h e r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n g ro u p s would s t i l l
le a v e th e M exicans, w ith 5 5 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la ­
tio n ,
still
X L II shows,
fig u res,
be
f a r b elo w t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n on r e l i e f .
t h e number o f M exicans on r e l i e f ,
As T a b l e
u s i n g t h e 1950
c o n s t i t u t e d o n ly f i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f w hat i t m ight
ex p e c te d to b e © ccording to t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n o f th e t o t a l
p o p ulation.
w ill s till
C o r r e c t i n g f o r t h e d e c l i n e i n M exican p o p u l a t i o n
show t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e o n l y s i x t y - t h r e e p e r
c e n t o f t h e i r expected p r o p o rtio n o f th e r e l i e f p o p u la tio n .
N e g r o e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
show 155 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r
expected r e l i e f p o p u la tio n a c tu a lly
on r e l i e f .
S i n c e N e g r o e s a n d M e x i c a n s commonly o c c u p y low
econom ic l e v e l s i t
is
to b e ex p e c te d t h a t f o r b o t h g roups
th e percentages of r e l i e f
th e w hites.
Trie f i g u r e s
c l i e n t s w ould b e g r e a t e r th a n f o r
snow t h a t t h i s
a n d so t h e f i g u r e s f o r M e x i c a n s a r e a l l
is
t r u e o f Negroes
t h e more s u r p r i s i n g .
A c h e c k - u p o n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 5 , 0 0 0 f a m i l i e s who
r e c e i v e d g r a n t c h e c k s f r o m t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
i n I m p e r i a l County r e v e a l e d t h a t l e s s t h a n f i v e p e r c e n t were
251
TABLE XLII
IMPERIAL COUNTY
ESTIMATED POPULATION INCREASE
AND CHANG-E IN PROPORTION
R ac ia l
groups
E stim ated P er c e n t of expected r e l i e f population*5
A c c o rd in g to
A ccording to
P er c e n t of
1930
e s t i m a t e d 1938
in crease
Census
p o pulation
1930-1933a
T o tal
1 0 .0
100
100
W hite
1 1 .8
137
135
M exican
3.0
59
63
Negro
4 .4
144
153
a.
B ased on p e r c e n t o f i n c r e a s e o f r a c i a l g ro u p s i n
school population.
b.
E x p e cted as compared to p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p o p u la ­
t i o n — computed a s f o l l o w s :
To t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f e a c h g r o u p ,
s e e T a b l e XLI, wa s a d d e d t h e e s t i m a t e d i n c r e a s e a n d t h e new
p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n w e re com puted.
The
s e c o n d c o lu m n i n t h i s T a b l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e f o u r t h c o l u m n i n
T a b l e XLI d i v i d e d by t h e s e c o n d c o l u m n .
The t h i r d c o lu m n i n
t h i s ta b le re p re s e n ts th e c o rre c te d percentages of th e t o t a l
p o p u l a t i o n d i v i d e d by t h e r e s p e c t i v e f i g u r e s i n c o l u m n t w o ,
T a b l e XLI.
252
M exican.
%
M exicans r e c e i v i n g county a i d w ere l e s s
than f i f t e e n
p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l and t h o s e r e c e i v i n g s t a t e a i d w ere
s ix te e n per cen t of the
to tal. ^
T h e s e f i g u r e s se em t o
so f a r a s I m p e r i a l C o u n t y i s
commonly on r e l i e f
show q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e l y
concerned,
that,
M exicans a r e n o t a s
as w h ite s o r Negroes.
I t must be borne
i n mind t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e f o r F e b r u a r y 1940 a n d t h e
‘’p u r g i n g 11 o f a l i e n M e x i c a n s f r o m t h e r e l i e f r o l l s d i d n o t
tak e place u n t i l A p ril.
A ttitu d es of r e l ie f
is
safe to
say t h a t r e l i e f
au th o rities
tow ard M e x ic a n s.
a u th o rities
diare th e g e n e ra l
It
f e e l i n g t h a t A m e r i c a n money s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d f o r a l i e n
M exicans.
I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s f e e l i n g ,
many s o c i a l
service
w o r k e r s become i m p a t i e n t w i t h t h e i r M exican c l i e n t s b e c a u s e
t h e l a t t e r a r e so u n d e p e n d a b l e .
c re a te s o th er p reju d ices.
to w a rd M exicans l i e s i n
th e la s t d o lla r is
The l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n c e
The b i g r e a s o n f o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e
the f a c t th a t th e l a t t e r w a it u n til
spent b e fo re applying fo r r e l i e f
h a v e e i t h e r t o go h u n g r y u n t i l a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n
a n d so
i s made o r
r e c e i v e an emergency g r o c e r y o r d e r .
3 L e t t e r f r o m Ned H o l m e s , D i r e c t o r , S t a t e R e l i e f Admin­
i s t r a t i o n , I m p e r i a l C o u n t y , d a t e d J u l y 2, 1 9 4 0 .
4 L e t t e r from P h i l Hoffman, I m p e r i a l C o u n ty I n d i g e n t
C o m m issio n er, d a t e d J u l y 11, 1940.
253
A t t i t u d e o f M exicans tow ard r e l i e f ,
do n o t w a n t t o go on r e l i e f .
They p r e f e r t o k e e p c h i l d r e n
o u t o f s c h o o l a n d p u t th em t o w o r k .
Bracarnonte i s
an i l l u s t r a t i o n
m igratory p e a-p ick ers.
k e e p i n g c h i l d r e n home i s
t h e M exican i s
M e x i c a n s commonly
The c a s e o f S a n t o s
(A ppendix A .) ,
P art of th is
f r o m among t h e
relu ctan ce i s because
t h e e a s y way a n d p a r t i s b e c a u s e
i m p a t i e n t o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r so much nr e d -
tap e. n
A t t i t u d e o f grow ers tow ard r e l i e f #
a r e very c r i t i c a l o f th e r e l i e f program .
criticism
is
The g r o w e r s ,
too,
The co m m o n e s t
t h a t th e r e l i e f b u d g e ts a r e f ig u r e d too h ig h
and g e t th e c l i e n t s used to a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g w hich th e y
c a n n o t m a i n t a i n from t h e i r e a r n i n g s .
sta te re lie f
m onth,
As a m a t t e r o f f a c t ,
f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l w o rk ers a v e ra g e s $51.00 a
o r $612.00 a y e a r § ,
w h i c h i s m o re t h a n t w i c e t h e
$ 2 6 5 .0 0 a y e a r fo u n d by t h e S p e c i a l S e n a t e Com m ittee to
I n v e s t i g a t e Unem ploym en t a n d R e l i e f t o b e t h e a v e r a g e e a r n ­
ings of a g r ic u ltu r a l m ig ra n ts.6
It
i s m ore e v e n t h a n t h e
$ 6 0 6 . 0 0 e a r n e d by J u a n A r g u i l e z ^ who h a d s t e a d y w o r k n e a r l y
5 F r a n k J . T a y l o r , " C a l i f o m l a 1s C r a p e s o f W r a t h , n
Forum and C e n t u r y , 1 0 2 :2 3 2 - 3 8 , November, 1939.
6 M y r n i e A. G - i f f o r d , ^ D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e H e a l t h o f t h e
M i g r a n t , 0 J o u r n a l o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n .
1 1 1 :7 6 5 , A u g u st 27, 1938.
7 Cf.,
T a b l e XXX, p .
172f.
254
all
th e tim e.
I f an a v e r a g e o f t h e r a t e s p e r day as g iv e n
o n T a b l e s XX a n d XXI8 i s
a v e ra g e r a t e p e r day.
taken,
i t p r o d u c e s $ 2 . 5 1 a s an
On t h e b a s i s o f two h u n d r e d s e v e n t y -
e i g h t a v a i l a b l e days f o r work ( T a b le V I ) , ^ t h e y e a r l y
i n g s would b e a b o u t $ 6 4 2 .0 0 , b u t t h i s
i n m i g r a t i n g and o f f - s e a s o n .
earn­
a s s u m e s no t i m e l o s t
U s in g 2 2 . 5 weeks o f employment
e a c h y e a r ( T a b l e V ) , 10 a n d f i g u r i n g a f u l l s e v e n d a y s p e r
week would p r o d u c e a b o u t $ 5 6 4 .0 0 p e r y e a r , w hich i s o n ly a
little
more t h a n h a l f t h e r e l i e f b u d g e t r e p o r t e d b y P r a n k
T ay lo r.
W i t h t h i s i n mind t h e r e i s l i t t l e w o n d e r t h a t t h e
g ro w e rs o b j e c t to what th e y term h i g h r e l i e f b u d g e t s .
On
t h e o t h e r h a n d , when f r o m t h e f i g u r e s a b o v e i s d e d u c t e d
$512.00 p e r
food
b ig
year,
supply f o r a
w h i c h i s t h e c o s t o f a minimum
fa m ily o ff iv e - ^ none o f
adequate
thebudgets
en o u g h a n d t h e $ 2 6 5 . 0 0 b e c o m e s a d i s g r a c e .
seem
For m igrants
a minimum o f $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 a y e a r m u s t b e s p e n t on c a r e x p e n s e s ,
a n d t h i s me an s t r a v e l i n g o n l y t e n t h o u s a n d m i l e s a y e a r ,
c o n serv ativ e estim ate.
8 p.
108.
9 p.
48.
10 p .
46.
11 G i f f o r d ,
lo c. c l t «
a
255
Off r e l i e f
to w ork*
I n p e r i o d s when t h e l a b o r s u p p l y
is
short,
e s p e c i a l l y i n low -pay work such as c o t t o n p i c k i n g ,
it
i s common f o r t h e g r o w e r s t o dem an d t h a t r e l i e f
be
s e n t to th e f i e l d s
t o p i c k c o t t o n * 12
clien ts
j n Im p e ria l V alley
t h e c o t t o n i s u s u a l l y so p o o r t h a t a n i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r
c a n n o t earn o v er f i f t y
c e n t s to s e v e n t y - f i v e c e n t s a day.
By t h e t i m e t h e y d e d u c t t h e i r g a s o l i n e
th ere is not
enough l e f t
much l e s s a f a m i l y *
is
cut off
the r o lls *
If
to feed a s in g le person d e c e n tly ,
the r e l i e f c l i e n t refu ses
I f he works i t
t i o n d u rin g th e co tto n season.
tying.
to and from t h e f i e l d
is
to work he
a lm o s t slow s t a r v a ­
The same i s
tru e fo r c a rro t
The c r o p s g e t p i c k e d a n d t a x e s a r e k e p t down b u t a t
t h e expense o f th e w orker.
I n p a s t y e a r s i t w as a common p r a c t i c e f o r t h e r e l i e f
o f f i c e to su p p le m e n t th e e a r n i n g s o f a p e r s o n i n low -pay
c r o p s s u f f i c i e n t t o make up h i s n o r m a l r e l i e f b u d g e t .
This
a m o u n t e d t o a d i r e c t s u b s i d y t o g r o w e r s f r o m r e l i e f money,
s i n c e i t o b v i a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p a y i n g even a l i v i n g wage.
T h a t t h e t e n d e n c y i s now i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f u s i n g
re lie f
as a means o f f o r c i n g t h e p a y i n g o f a l i v i n g wage i s
s e e n i n t h e r e c e n t a c t i o n o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f I m m i g r a t i o n and
H ousing in h o ld in g a w a g e - r a te h e a r in g .
T h i s h e a r i n g was
12 F r a n c e t t e Mauze^ "A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s
i n t h e San J o a q u i n V a l l e y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s ,
T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 0 ) ,
p . 65.
256
h e l d a t M a d e r a May 9,
1939 a n d t h e w a g e f o r c o t t o n - c h o p p i n g
w a s s e t a t 27|- c e n t s p e r h o u r .
v i o u s l y t o p a y 20 c e n t s .
The g r o w e r s h a d a g r e e d p r e ­
The S . R . A .
r e f u s e d to send r e l i e f
w o r k e r s t o t h e f i e l d s u n l e s s t h e 27-| c e n t r a t e w a s p a i d . 13
T yp e s o f r e l i e f .
F o r t h o s e who m u s t a p p l y t o some
ty p e of r e l i e f o rg a n iz a tio n ,
com plicated.
is
th e procedure i s
somewhat
The o r g a n i z a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e p e r s o n m u s t go
determ in ed p r i n c i p a l l y by r e s id e n c e .
t h o s e who h a v e b e e n i n t h e s t a t e l e s s
N on-residents,
i.e .
than th re e y e a rs o r
w h o , h a v i n g l i v e d h e r e l e a v e t h e s t a t e f o r a n e n t i r e y e a r 1^
are
if
e l i g i b l e f o r a i d f r o m t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
they a re a g r i c u l t u r a l w orkers.
R e s i d e n t s may o r may n o t b e e l i g i b l e f o r s e v e r a l t y p e s
o f aid.
If
t h e y a r e e m p l o y a b l e a n d c i t i z e n s a n d c a n f i n d no
w ork th e y a r e e l i g i b l e a t t h e S.R.A.
t h e employment s e r v i c e .
a f t e r they r e g i s t e r w ith
I f they a re a l i e n s ,
unem ployed, and
e n t e r e d t h e U n ite d S t a t e s l e g a l l y and can p ro v e i t o r i f
came b e f o r e J u l y 1 , 1 9 2 4 a n d c a n p r o v e i t ,
f o r S.R .A.
If
they
they a re e l i g i b l e
r e l i e f . 13
the a p p lic a n t i s
a widow- a n d r e s i d e n t ,
h er child ren
13 C a r e y M c W i l l i a m s , MW h a t ! s B e i n g Done A b o u t t h e
J o a d s ? , w The New R e p u b l i c , 1 0 0 : 1 7 8 - 8 0 , S e p t e m b e r 2 0 , 1 939.
14 C a l i f o r n i a S t a t u t e s o f 1 9 4 0 ,
15 L o c .
cit.
C h ap ter 12,
Sec.
10.
257
are
e lig ib le fo r half-orphan s ta te -a id
e ig h teen y e a rs old.
Or i f
and a r e s i d e n t he i s
en titled
But i f
h a s no p l a c e
the a p p lic a n t i s over s ix ty - f iv e
to o l d age s e c u r i t y .
t h e a p p l i c a n t i s an a l i e n i l l e g a l l y
en tered he
to w hich he can t u r n e x c e p t to ask to b e
’• r e p a t r i a t e d . n
or
u n t i l they a r e
Or i f h e i s
unem ployable,
e ith e r p h y sically
so cia lly ,
t h e r e i s no h e l p f o r h im i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y .
Thus,
many M e x i c a n s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a d i f f i c u l t
s i t u a t i o n when t h e y g e t o u t o f w o r k a n d c a n n o t f i n d a n y .
P r iv a te agencies in th is
if
a r e a are alm ost n o n - e x is ta n t.
Even
th ey a r e em ployable and can prove l e g a l e n tr y i n t o th e
U n i t e d S t a t e s many m i g r a t o r y M e x i c a n s m e e t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n
p r o v i n g r e s i d e n c e i n t h e s t a t e o r any o t h e r p l a c e .
who l e a v e t h e
state
Those
each y e a r f in d t h e i r r e s i d e n c e q u e s tio n e d .
T h o s e who go n o r t h t o t h e g r a p e s i n
t h e summer c a n n o t f i n d
p r o o f o f c o n t i n u o u s r e s i d e n c e f o r t h r e e y e a r s i n any c o u n ty .
Even i f
they f i n a l l y
e s ta b li s h proof of t h e i r re sid e n c e the
f a m i l y c o u ld be n e a r l y s t a r v i n g b e f o r e i t
I t is
F .S .A .
re lie f
i s accom plished.
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t e v e n w i t h 1500 f a m i l i e s on
i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y 16 a t t h e p e a k i n 1 9 4 0 ,
16 L e t t e r f r o m Ned H o lm e s ,
lo c. c it.
258
less
t h a n two p e r c e n t o f t h e a n n u a l i n c o m e s came f r o m
re lie f
among t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l m i g r a n t s s t u d i e d b y t h e S p e c i a l
S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e t o I n v e s t i g a t e U ne m p lo y m e n t a n d R e l i e f . 1^
R e l i e f i n o f f - s e a s o n s o f em ploym ent#
who s e e t h e
e v ils of a m igratory l i f e
Many o f t h o s e
advocate u s in g r e l i e f
a s a c u s h i o n t o t a k e up t h e s l a c k b e t w e e n j o b s a n d so c u t
down o n m i g r a t i o n .
lab o r,
S ince,
w ith i t s
trem endous o v e rsu p p ly o f
C a l i f o r n i a no l o n g e r n e e d s t o c a l l w o r k e r s f r o m o n e
end o f t h e s t a t e
to th e o t h e r ,
m ust be on r e l i e f
and s i n c e t h o s e n o t w o rk in g
so m e w h e re i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s p l a n
w i l l b e th e most eco n o m ic a l,
as th e w o rk e rs w i l l n o t spend
t h e i r money i n m i g r a t i n g a n d s o w i l l h a v e e n o u g h t o k e e p th e m
o f f r e l i e f lo n g er.
F i g u r e 18 i l l u s t r a t e s
th is.
The y e a r 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 was o n e
i n w h i c h mor e t h a n t h e u s u a l o v e r s u p p l y o f l a b o r w a s p r e s e n t .
The u s u a l f r e e z e s
e n d e d t h e f a l l p e a s e a s o n on D e c e m b e r 1 3 .
T hat th e p ic k e r s co n tin u ed to pour i n t o
the V alley i s
d e n c e d by t h e N i l a n d S c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t c u r v e .
earnings in
evi­
As t h e i r
t h e f a l l p e a s r a n o u t a n d a s m ore l a b o r e r s
a r r i v e d a n d f o u n d no w o r k t h e r e l i e f
lo ad ro se,
a l t h o u g h how
t h e p i c k e r s l i v e d f o r t h e s i x weeks fro m t h e f i r s t
u n t i l February f i r s t ,
17 G r i f f o r d ,
when t h e r e l i e f
loc. c i t .
freeze
lo a d had r i s e n
enough
259
to
i n d i c a t e th e y were r e a l l y
One e x p l a n a t i o n i s
on r e l i e f ,
i s d i f f i c u l t to say.
th a t t h e peas ship p ed ,
shown o n F i g u r e 1 8 ,
a r e o n l y t h o s e s h i p p e d b y t r u c k t o m a r k e t s i n L os A n g e l e s
and v i c i n i t y
m ents,
a n d do n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e r e a l v o l u m e o f s h i p ­
alth o u g h the shapes of the cu rv es are t y p i c a l .
It
is
p r o b a b l e t h a t some o f t h e l e s s h a r d - h i t f i e l d s c o n t i n u e d t o
p r o d u c e p e a s u n t i l t h e s e c o n d f r e e z e and th e p i c k e r s
t h i s work.
I n tim e s such as t h e s e t h e grow ers som etim es ru n
two c r e w s so t h a t a l l c a n e a r n a l i t t l e
out.
shared
and t h e w ork i s
spread
The d r a m a t i c o n s e t o f s p r i n g p e a p i c k i n g o n M arch 11 a n d
t h e l a g o f the r e l i e f l o a d so t h a t t h e r e l i e f p e a k comes i n
t h e m iddle o f t h e s p r i n g se a so n i s a l s o
is
ty p ical.
the e f f e c t of the oversupply of la b o r,
bab ly never picked a pea a l l y ear.
l o a d a f t e r M a r c h 15 r e f l e c t s
in g peas.
D oubtless,
T his l a t t e r
many o f whom p r o ­
The d r o p i n t h e r e l i e f
t h o s e who f i n a l l y g e t j o b s p i c k ­
d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m M ar ch 11 t o
A p r i l 2 4 , many p i c k e r s w e r e s t i l l g e t t i n g r e l i e f c h e c k s ,
sin ce th is
too i s
common.
in d ic a te the p o s s ib ility
The c a r r o t c u r v e i s
in clu d ed to
o f u s i n g t h i s c r o p t o t a k e up t h e
e x c e s s n u m b e r o f p e a - p i c k e r s who do n o t g e t w o r k .
The o n l y
d i f f i c u l t y w ith t h i s crop i s
that i t
i s n ot very p r o f i t a b l e
a n d so t h e p a y i s v e r y p o o r ,
the a v erag e u n tra in e d t i e r earn ­
i n g o n ly s e v e n t y - f i v e c e n t s to e i g h t y - f i v e c e n t s a day.
N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e low p a y ,
c a rro t acreages are
expanding
a n d t h e s e c o n d m o b i l e u n i t o f t n e F . S . A . was l o c a t e d a t
H o ltv ille,
the h e a r t of th e carro t-g ro w in g area.
260
TABLE X L III
RELATIONSHIP OF CROPS AND RELIEF IN
IMPERIAL COUNTY, 1 9 3 6 - 3 7
C rates
of peas
shipped
by tr u c k
Date
O ctober
November
December
January
February
9
15
22
29
2
5
6
9
12
16
19
23
£6
30
3
4
7
10
14
17
21
24
28
31
3
7
8
14
17
21
24
28
31
4
5
7
11
14
C rates of
carro ts
shipped
by t r u c k
C a s e s on
S . R . A.
re lie f
N iland
School
e n r o l l m e n t 8.
140
185
18 0
175
725
190
156
2820
200
132 5
175
750
ISO
1490
185
194
725
205
840
220
240
270
60
3 50
25
435
256
500
250
690
350
960
750
1290
240
220
1390
950
a . I n c lu d e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of th e d a t e s of a r r i v a l
of the p e a -p ic k e rs .
261
TABLE X L I I I ( c o n t i n u e d )
RELATIONSHIP OP CROPS AND RELIEF IN
IMPERIAL COUNTY, 1 9 3 6 - 3 7
C rates
of peas
shipped
by t r u c k
D ate
Mar c h
A pril
18
21
25
28
4
5
7
11
14
18
21
25
28
1
2
4
8
11
15
18
22
C rates of
carro ts
shipped
by t r u c k
C a s e s on
S . R . A.
re lie f
N iland
School
enrollm ent®
14 7 5
160
15 7 0
17 6 0
1725
250
225
2180
3820
600
3525
440
390 0
30 0
1790
18 6 0
149 0
13 7 0
252
250 0
175
635
100
133 5
645
20
680
a* I n c l u d e d a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d a t e s o f a r r i v a l
of th e p e a - p ic k e r s *
■S3 l u i i a S «■■■••■**■ i
liiiwiiiiiuiiitssl
saassfli
263
E f f e c t o f u s i n g r e l i e f a s an unemployment c u s h i o n .
C e r ta in q u e s tio n s co n cern in g the u s in g o f r e l i e f
employment c u s h i o n r a i s e t h e m s e l v e s .
a s u b s id y to a g r i c u l t u r e ,
sin ce i t
a s an un­
Such a p l a n am ounts to
rem oves from t h e i n d u s t r y
t h e need f o r p a y i n g enough wages to k e e p t h e w o r k e r s a l l
through the o ff-s e a s o n .
Would i t
n o t b e b e t t e r to pay th e
s u b s i d y to a g r i c u l t u r e and r e q u i r e t h a t a b e t t e r wage b e
p aid?
From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e p i c k e r s ,
s y ste m a s a t i s f a c t o r y one?
is
the r e l i e f
I s an y s y s t e m w h i c h r e m o v e s f r o m
a w o rk e r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s a v in g a good th in g ?
And o b v i o u s l y
t h e r e i s no n e e d f o r s a v i n g i f t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i l l f e e d t h e
w orker in the o ff-se a so n .
How l o n g w i l l i t b e b e f o r e t h e
m i g r a n t d i s c o v e r s t h a t i f he becomes t o t a l l y and p e r m a n e n t l y
i n c a p a c i t a t e d h e c a n l i v e o n t h e s t a t e - a i d money h i s c h i l d r e n
get?
b etter
Or,
fa ilin g th is,
i s n o t an a s s u r e d i n c o m e o n r e l i e f
th a n an u n c e r t a i n one f o r w h ic h he must work?
th ere not a danger th a t i t
to
Is
w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t
g e t the p ic k e rs o ff th e r e l i e f r o l l s
t o go t o w o r k ?
Then t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m r a i s e d by t h e r e c e n t a c t i o n
o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f I m m i g r a t i o n and H o u s i n g a n d t h e S t a t e
R e lie f A d m inistratio n in
in d u stry
th e crop.
as a c o n d i t i o n f o r r e l e a s i n g r e l i e f w o rk e rs to p ic k
T h is seems,
in
s i n c e i t m erely r e q u i r e s
to
s e t t i n g up a minimum w a g e f o r a n
the case in p o in t,
reasonable,
t h a t t h e p i c k e r s be g i v e n a c h a n c e
e a r n w hat th e y w ere g e t t i n g w h i l e on r e l i e f .
But i s
th ere
264
a danger of n o t being a b le to
stop such a procedure?
Then
t h e q u e s t i o n . o f w h e t h e r t h e I n d u s t r y c a n p a y much l a r g e r
w a g e s an d k e e p i n e x i s t e n c e , a l s o r a i s e s i t s e l f .
When p e a s
s e l l f o r f i v e c e n t s a p o u n d i n Los A n g e l e s t h e g r o w e r h a s
p a i d one c e n t f o r p i c k i n g ,
one c e n t f o r sh ip p in g ,
and h as
r e c e i v e d a t most f o u r and o n e - h a l f c e n t s f o r h i s p e a s i n th e
w h o le s a le m arket.
m ust pay f o r h i s
tiv atin g ,
Out o f two an d o n e - h a l f c e n t s a p o u n d h e
seed,
m achinery,
to m ention h i s
taxes,
w ater b i l l s ,
fertilizer,
cul­
a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n h i s camp, n o t
l o s s e s from c r o p and m a r k e t h a z a r d s o r a
p r o f i t to h i m s e l f .
I s t h e r e enough i n t h e c ro p to w a r r a n t
p a y in g an o th er h a l f cen t f o r picking?
f i g u r i n g as above,
And e v e n p a y i n g t h i s ,
w o u ld b r i n g t h e y e a r l y i n c o m e o f t h e
p i c k e r s to o n ly a b o u t $7 0 9 .0 0 .
T h is w ould b e o n ly $97.00
more th an t h e r e l i e f b u d g e t!
R e l i e f and v o t i n g .
A n o th er p ro b le m r a i s e d by k e e p in g
l a r g e numbers on r e l i e f i n th e s l a c k s e a s o n ,
of
is
the q u estio n
t h e d a n g e r o f h a v in g a l a r g e number o f c i t i z e n s r e c e i v i n g
a i d a n d p a y i n g few i f
any t a x e s .
W ill th e r e n o t be a tem pta­
t i o n t o s u p p o r t a n y s c h e m e w h i c h p r o m i s e s th em m o re r e l i e f ?
Th e e x a m p l e o f o t h e r s t a t e s w h i c h h a v e n o t e d h i g h p e n s i o n s
and th u s c r i p p l e d t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o l system s i s
food f o r
thought.
A l t e r n a t i v e s to r e l i e f .
One o f t h e way s o f a v o i d i n g
265
p u t t i n g t h e w o r k e r s on r e l i e f i n o f f - s e a s o n s i s
o f b e t t e r wages,
d is c u s s e d above.
the paying
The common m e t h o d w h i c h
w o u l d b e f o l l o w e d by t h e p i c k e r s w o u l d b e p u t t i n g t h e c h i l d ­
r e n t o work d u r i n g t h e busy s e a s o n .
a d d i t i o n to b e in g u n d e s ir a b le
tio n
and c h i l d w e l f a r e ,
T h is however,
in
from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f e d u c a ­
m e re ly adds to t h e burden o f
o v e r - s u p p l y o f l a b o r and h e l p s nobody i n t h e l o n g r u n ,
it
d e p re s s e s wages.
The r e a c t i o n a r y g r o w e r s w o u l d s u g g e s t l e t t i n g
p ick ers
is
since
fls h i f t f o r t h e m s e l v e s ” b e t w e e n j o b s .
no s o l u t i o n b u t a r e t u r n
to
the
This o f course
the low est p o s s ib le stan d a rd
o f l i v i n g from w h ic h t h e r e l i e f program h a s r a i s e d
the
p ick ers.
P robably
in g the p ic k e rs
th e only perm anent s o lu t i o n in v o lv e s te a c h ­
t o s p e n d m o re w i s e l y w h a t t h e y do e a r n
t o g e t h e r w i t h some p l a n w h i c h w i l l r a i s e
th e p r o f i t to th e
g ro w e r w i t h o u t i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o s t to t h e consumer.
This
w o u l d make p o s s i b l e t h e p a y m e n t o f b e t t e r w a g e s .
The e x p e r i m e n t s o f t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
w ith
s u b s is te n c e farm ing o r c o o p e ra tiv e farm ing d u rin g
p e r i o d s o f unemployment a l s o o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s w o r th y o f
co n sid eratio n .
The M i n e r a l K i n g P r o j e c t w i l l b e a r c a r e f u l
w atching.
R e l i e f and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e .
The r e l i e f p r o g r a m h a s
b e e n an u n m itig a te d b l e s s i n g to th e s c h o o ls .
The p r o b l e m
266
of
sc h o o l c l o t h e s and sh o es h a s been l a r g e l y
s c h o o l lu n c h problem i s
e v e n more f u l l y
t h e lu n c h p ro g ra m o f t h e S.R .A .
u n t i l J a n u a ry 1940,
solved.
solved.
The
A lthough
did n o t g et f u lly
u n d e r way
3 86 1 f r e e h o t l u n c h e s w e r e s e r v e d d u r i n g
t h e m onth o f M a r c h . 1®
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s t h e F. S. A. p r o ­
v id ed f r e e h o t lunches f o r the sch o o l c h ild r e n of i t s
tw o -h u n d re d cam ping f a m i l i e s a t C a l i p a t r i a f o r t h e
p ea season.
en tire
F o r many o f t h e c h i l d r e n i t was t h e o n l y
b a la n c e d meal they had e v e r had.
E ducation of th e c h ild re n
t o w a n t a more v a r i e d d i e t i s n o t t h e l e a s t o f t h e v a l u e s
o f t h i s program .
A nother im p o rta n t fu n c tio n o f r e l i e f ,
affects
school atten dan ce,
is
one place f o r a longer p eriod.
of
the h o ld in g o f the f a m il i e s in
An C h a p t e r X I I s h o w s , o n e
the b i g problem s i n e d u c a tin g th e m ig ra to ry c h i l d r e n i s
t a k i n g c a r e o f such l a r g e numbers f o r
the
so f a r a s i t
s u c h a s h o r t t i m e on
s m a ll s t a t e a p p o r t i o n m e n t s e a r n e d by t h e g r o u p .
By
p r o lo n g in g th e p e r io d o f r e s id e n c e r e l i e f can i n c r e a s e th e
average d a ily
attendance m a te ria lly
a n d so i n c r e a s e t h e
s c h o o l s 1 incom e.
Summary.
M e x i c a n s a r e commonly s p o k e n o f a s b e i n g
m o r e f r e q u e n t l y on r e l i e f
than o th e r ra c e s .
W hile t h i s
seems to p ro v e t r u e i n m ost S o u th ern C a l i f o r n i a c o u n t i e s
18 L e t t e r f r o m Ned H o lm e s ,
lo c. c it.
2 67
the reverse is
t r u e f o r I m p e r i a l County.
R elief a u th o ritie s
o f t e n becom e p r o v o k e d a t t h e l a c k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
t h e i r M exican c l i e n t s ,
and th e se l a t t e r are very r e l u c t a n t
t o go t o r e l i e f o f f i c e s
if
any o t h e r way o u t c a n b e f o u n d .
M ost grow ers f e e l t h a t r e l i e f r a i s e s
of
the p ic k e rs
in g .
the sta n d a rd of l i v i n g
to a p o i n t h i g h e r t h a n th e y can e a r n by work­
The f a c t s
au th o ritie s
shown b y
seem t o b e a r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n o u t .
a re beginning to
R elief
take th e a t t i t u d e t h a t u n le ss
t h e g r o w e r s p a y a t l e a s t a s h i g h - a wage a s t h e r e l i e f b u d g e t
t h ^ r w i l l n o t send r e l i e f
c l i e n t s to p ic k th e c r o p s .
W h i l e t h e r e i s some t y p e o f r e l i e f f o r n e a r l y
needy person,
every
t h e r e i s a t p r e s e n t i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y no
p r o v i s i o n f o r unemployed a l i e n s o r u n e m p lo y a b le s o f l e s s th a n
s i x t y - f i v e y e a rs of age.
of
R e lie f com prises a very sm all p a r t
t h e income o f m i g r a t o r y w o r k e rs .
The u s e o f r e l i e f
s e a s o n s o f employment i s
to
t a k e up t h e
s la c k o f l a b o r betw een
o p e n t o many s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s ,
t h e s ta n d p o in t of th e grow er,
th e w orker,
and t h e
from
taxpayer.
A s e r i o u s problem a n i s e s c o n c e r n in g the e x e r c i s e o f
t h e f r a n c h i s e by p e r s o n s on r e l i e f .
The o n l y c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e
be
t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e w o r k e r how t o
make i t
go f a r t h e r .
to r e l i e f
se em s t o
e a r n more a n d how t o
CHAPTER XI
STRIKES AND THE PEA-PICKERS
Why a s t r i k e ?
p o i n t of view .
The r e a s o n f o r s t r i k e s d e p e n d s on t h e
One g r o u p t a k e s t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t
strik es
a r e th e r e a c t i o n o f th e w orkers a g a i n s t i n t o l e r a b l e w orking
c o n d i t i o n s o r a t o o low r a t e o f p a y , 1
Or th e y a r e t h e
n a t u r a l o u t c o m e o f a d e s i r e o f t h e w o r k e r s t o c o m b i n e so t h a t
t h e y may b a r g a i n on a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h e m p l o y e r s .
o t h e r group j u s t as s i n c e r e l y
The
tak es th e stand t h a t s tr i k e s
a r e f o m e n t e d by s u b v e r s i v e g r o u p s b e n t o n o v e r t h r o w i n g t h e
s o c ia l order.
The t r u t h o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t b o t h g r o u p s
a re co rrect.
S t r i k e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e a r e n o t common, c o n s i d e r i n g
th at i t
is th e la r g e s t in d u s try in th e country.
On ly 1 9 . 6
p e r c e n t o f th e s t r i k e s in th e U nited S ta te s were in a g r i ­
c u l t u r e and f i s h i n g d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f 1 9 2 7 - 3 6 .2
it
is
o n l y when a g r i c u l t u r e b e c o m e s o r g a n i z e d l i k e a f a c t o r y t h a t
th e w orkers f e e l th a t th e farm er i s of a d i f f e r e n t c la s s ;
o n e who c a n n o t ,
is
o r w i l l n o t u n d e rsta n d t h e i r problem s.
It
t h i s m u tu al u n w i l l i n g n e s s to see t h e o t h e r s i d e ' s vlew -
B .C .:
1 J o h n N. Webb, The M i& r a to r . y - C a s u a l W o r k e r ( W a s h i n g t o n ,
U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ), p. 15.
2 F lo re n c e P e te rs o n , S tr ik e s i n th e U nited S t a t e s ,
1 8 8 0 -1 9 3 6 (W ash in g to n , D . C . : U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t ­
i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 8 ), p. 159.
269
p o i n t t h a t "brings on s t r i k e s .
S trik es
a r e more common d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s o f a
d e p r e s s i o n j u s t a s c o n d i t i o n s b e g in to im prove.
The r i s i n g
c o s t o f l i v i n g and th e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y lo w e r pay l e a d th e
p i c k e r s t o a s k f o r m o re money.
t o make a p r o f i t ,
The g r o w e r s ,
j u s t beginning
a r e r e l u c t a n t to r a i s e pay.
S t r i k e s a r e more s u c c e s s f u l when t h e r e i s a n u n d e r ­
supply of la b o r.
An o v e r s u p p l y e n a b l e s t h e g r o w e r s t o p u t a
new c r e w t o w o r k a n d i g n o r e
the s t r i k e r s .
s u c c e e d a l l w o rk e rs must q u i t a t t h e
q u ire s o rg an izatio n .
To make a s t r i k e
same t i m e .
This r e ­
To t h e p r e s e n t t i m e no o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s
su cceed ed i n com bining a l l
s o c ia l groups in to
a s i n g l e union,
s o w h e r e b o t h r a c e s w o r k f o r t h e sam e g r o w e r h e h a s b e e n a b l e
to keep one group w orking.
S t r i k e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e have from e a r l i e s t
t o b e l e d by t h e m o s t r a d i c a l o f a l l
A ttitu d e of grow ers.
of
th e ir crops,
tim es tended
la b o r groups.
"Because o f th e p e r i s h a b l e n a tu r e
C a l i f o r n i a g r o w e r s l i v e i n t e r r o r o f s t r i k e s . n3
T h i s must b e k e p t i n mind i n r e a d i n g t h e h i s t o r y o f
Im p e ria l V alley.
s tr ik e s in
With a l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e i r c r o p s t h e y
know t h a t t h e y m u s t s e t t l e q u i c k l y o r l o s e e v e r y t h i n g .
This
e x p l a i n s t h e q u i c k and d e c i s i v e a c t i o n when a s t r i k e o c c u r s .
If
the course a s tr i k e
t a k e s i n i n d u s t r y were fo llo w e d ,
the
3 F r a n k J . T a y l o r , " C a l i f o r n i a ' s G-rapes o f W r a t h , "
EP.r.B1!1 e n d C e n t u r y , 1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v e m b e r , 1 9 3 9 .
270
g ro w e rs w ould be r u in e d .
l e a d e r s h i p i n most s t r i k e s
t h e i r contention th at a l l
T h e r e h a s b e e n enough c o m m u n i s t
to g iv e t h e grow ers g ro u n d s f o r
strik es
a r e aim ed a t t h e d i s ­
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y and t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f p r e s e n t
c r o p - r a i s i n g m ethods.
to
H e n c e e v e r y t i m e an y p e r s o n a t t e m p t s
e x p r e s s a l i b e r a l o r even a n e u t r a l p o i n t o f view h e i s
i m m e d i a t e l y d u b b e d a r a d i c a l o r a nr e d fl a n d no o n e n e e d p a y
any a t t e n t i o n
to w hat he s a y s .
a l l o fficiald o m
of
T h is p o i n t o f view p r e v a d e s
aha th e l a r g e s t s h a r e o f t h e r a n k and f i l e
the farm ers in Im p e ria l V alley.
D u r i n g t h e p e a s t r i k e o f 19 33 t h e m i n i s t e r i n C a l i -
p a t r i a from t h e p u l p i t q u i e t l y u rg e d t h e grow ers to s e t t l e
t h e i r d if f e r e n c e s peaceably w ith the s t r i k e r s .
at
The a t t e n d a n c e
t h e c h u rc h f e l l o f f a lm o s t t o t h e v a n i s h i n g - p o i n t and t h e
m i n i s t e r w as r e c a l l e d
at the request of
the c o n g re g a tio n .
A. L. W i r i n , A t t o r n e y f o r t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l L i b e r t i e s
U nion,
an o r g a n i z a t i o n d e d i c a t e d t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e
rig h ts of free
speech,
t r i a l b y a,n i m p a r t i a l j u r y and t h e
o t h e r c i v i l l i b e r t i e s g u a r a n t e e d by t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ,
f o r s t r i k e r s who h a d b e e n j a i l e d i n t h e p e a s t r i k e .
o r g a n i z a t i o n was r e q u e s t e d t o w i t h d r a w him ,
c r i t i c i z e d him .
strik e
appeared
The
an d t h e p a p e r s
When h e r e t u r n e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e l e t t u c e
i n 1 9 3 4 a n d made p l a n s t o a d d r e s s t h e s t r i k e r s h e w a s
r e f u s e d a p e rm it to h o ld a m eeting.
When h e s e c u r e d i n ­
j u n c t i o n s i n th e U nited S t a t e s C i r c u i t C ourt a g a i n s t f u r t h e r
271
i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h h i s p r o p o s e d m e e t i n g h e was k i d n a p p e d b y a
g r o u p o f " v i g i l a n t e s ” a n a l e f t on t h e d e s e r t t w e n t y m i l e s
from Braw ley.
When h e f i n a l l y
r e a c h e d E l C e n t r o h e was
e s c o r t e d t o t h e C o u n t y l i n e by p e a c e o f f i c e r s a n d t o l d n o t t o
retu rn .
E v e r y o n e on t h e
s t r e e t c a l l e d him a communist and t h e
new spapers e d i t o r i a l i z e d
as follow s:
S en tim en t i n I m p e r ia l V alley today approves o f th e
a c t i o n t a k e n I n B r a w l e y a n d E l C e n t r o T u e s d a y n i g h t when
v i g i l a n t e s o rd e re d l e a d e r s i n th e a g i t a t i o n w hich h as
b e e n r i f e f o r t h e p a s t two w e e k s t o l e a v e t h e C o u n t y ,
a n d t o o k s om ew hat r a d i c a l s t e p s t o s e e t h a t t h e y d i d
leav e.4
T his a t ti tu d e
is not lo c a liz e d in Im p e rial V alley.
a g ric u ltu ra l area feels
j u s t n arrated ,
A g ricu ltu re,
the
same w ay .
Every
F o llo w in g th e episode
a co m m ittee o f th e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Board o f
t h e C a l i f o r n i a Farm B u r e a u F e d e r a t i o n a n d t h e
S t a t e Cham ber o f Commerce recom m ended t h a t t h e
" in v e s tig a te the a c t i v i t i e s of a tto rn e y s
state bar
employed to d e f e n d
p e r s o n s who a d v o c a t e t h e o v e r - t h r o w o f t h e p r e s e n t g o v e r n ­
m ent. " ^
O utline of s tr ik e s
in Im perial V aliev .
S trik e s in
C a l i f o r n i a a g r i c u l t u r e came i n t o i l l r e p u t e a t a n e a r l y d a y
4 E d i t o r i a l i n t h e Braw ley ( C a l i f o r n i a )
J a n u a r y 25, 1934.
N ew s .
5 P a u l S. T a y l o r a n d C l a r k K e r r , " U p r i s i n g s on t h e
F a r m s , " S ur ve.y- G - r a p h i c . 2 4 : 1 9 - 2 2 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 5 .
272
because of th e ir ra d ic a l lead ersh ip .
I.W .W . h e l d
When i n 1 9 1 0 - 1 1 t h e
s t r e e t d e m o n stra tio n s in Fresno they w ere d riv e n
o u t o f town i n a m a n n e r r e p o r t e d b y n e w s p a p e r s a s " p i c t u r ­
e s q u e . n6
T h a t t h e W h e a t l a n d Hop R i o t s o f 1913 w e r e j u s t i f i e d
i n v i e w o f t h e u n s p e a k a b l e l i v i n g a n d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s any
o n e who h a s r e a d t h e o f f i c i a l report**7 w i l l a d m i t .
less,
N everthe­
b e c a u s e t h e I.W.W. h a d c o n t r o l o f t h e s t r i k e , r e p r e s s i v e
m e a s u re s w e re t a k e n and f o u r p e o p l e w ere k i l l e d .
The f i r s t i m p o r t a n t a t t e m p t t o
s tr ik e in Im perial
V a l l e y was t h e c a n t a l o u p e s t r i k e o f 1 9 2 8 .
This h a s been
c o v e r e d c o m p l e t e l y e l s e w h e r e ^ an d w i l l n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d
here
except as i t
th e bad re p u te
s tr ik e s in,
illu strates
t h e p o i n t made.
th a t the r a d i c a l - l e d
i t was easy t o
Because of
s t r i k e s had p u t a l l
apply r e p r e s s i v e m easures a g a i n s t
6 [Max H. L e w i s , E d i t o r i M i g r a t o r y L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a .
(San F ran cisco : C a lif o r n ia S ta te R e lie f A d m in istratio n ,
1 9 3 6 ) , p. 55.
7 Commission o f I m m i g r a t i o n and H o using o f C a l i f o r n i a ,
R e p o r t on t h e W h e a t l a n d Hop F i e l d R i o t . 1913 ( S a c r a m e n t o :
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 1 4 ) , 56 p p .
8 G o v e r n o r C. C. Y o u n g 1s M e x i c a n F a c t - f i n d i n g
C om m ittee, M exicans i n C a l i f o r n i a (S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a
S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f fic e , 1930), pp. 135-150; P aul S c h u s te r
T a y l o r , M e x i c a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . V o l . I , The
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : The U n i v e r s i t y o f
C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 19 2 8 ), pp. 45-54; Lewis op . c i t . , pp.
60-63.
-----
273
th is
a l l - M e x i c a n s t r i k e and p u t t h e
accused the le a d e r s h ip o f t h i s
even r a d i c a l .
the
It
No o n e h a s
s t r i k e o f b e i n g communist o r
i s a ls o w orth n o tin g t h a t th e purpose of
s t r i k e — a n i n c r e a s e i n p a y — wa s a c c o m p l i s h e d .
The o n l y i m p o r t a n t s t r i k e i n
in
s t r i k e down.
1932-33.
the pea f i e l d s occurred
I t was a s t r i k e o f w h i t e p i c k e r s e x c l u s i v e l y a n d
w a s s p o n s o r e d by a c o m m u n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m t h e f i r s t .
Th e s t r i k e
leaders,
avowed co m m u n ists.
C a r o l i n e D ecker and P a t Chambers, were
The p e a - p i c k e r s a l l w a l k e d o f f
the job
o n t h e same d a y w i t h o u t m a k i n g an y d e m a n d s o r n o t i f y i n g t h e
grow ers of t h e i r i n te n tio n
in to
to
to s t r i k e .
When o n e g r o w e r w e n t
t h e r o a d o u t s i d e h i s p e a camp t o a s k h i s f o r m e r e m p l o y e e s
r e t u r n t o w o r k a n d o f f e r e d t o g i v e t h e m any i n c r e a s e i n
p a y t h e y a s k e d " 'w ith in r e a s o n " h e was t o l d
know y e t w h a t we w a n t .
p e a s."9
And t h i s ,
l a s t d o lla r in to
th e
strik e
"M ister,
We j u s t a i n ’ t g o i n g t o p i c k no m or e
when t h e g r o w e r i n q u e s t i o n h a d p u t h i s
a p ea c ro p w hich h a d b e e n p ic k e d once.
As
s p r e a d t h o s e g r o w e r s h a v i n g M e x ic a n p i c k e r s a n d a
few " l o y a l " w h i t e p i c k e r s d id t h e i r b e s t to p r o t e c t
p i c k e r s a t work.
took p la c e .
we d o n ’ t
th eir
The u s u a l s t o n e - t h r o w i n g a n d n a m e - c a l l i n g
Deputy s h e r i f f s w ere c a l l e d and t h e l e a d e r s w ere
9 P ersonal o b serv atio n of the w rite r.
274
j a i l e d on c h a r g e s o f d i s t u r b i n g t h e p e a c e .
When a t t e m p t s
w e r e made t o a g i t a t e i n t h e cam ps t h e g r o w e r s b a r r i c a d e d t h e
r o a d s l e a d i n g t o t h e camps a t t h e p r o p e r t y l i n e a n d l e t o n l y
t h e i r own p i c k e r s i n o r o u t .
The s t r i k e r s w e r e e j e c t e d f r o m
t h e g r o w e r s 1 cam ps a n d moved o u t on t h e d e s e r t a n d s e t up a
camp o f t h e i r own.
They r e f u s e d t o
s c h o o l a n d h a d no s a n i t a r y
send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to
fa c ilitie s
o f any s o r t .
A fter
t h r e e w e e k s o f e f f o r t s t o g e t t h e m t o i m p r o v e t h e i r camp t h e
C o u n t y H e a l t h O f f i c e r d e c l a r e d t h e camp a p u b l i c n u i s a n c e
and o rd ered i t
It
destro y ed .
s h o u ld be n o t e d t h a t t h e M exican p e a - p i c k e r s h a v e
n e v e r gone on a s t r i k e .
The s t r i k e w a s b r o k e n b u t two l a r g e
f i r m s l o s t h e a v i l y and s o l d o u t .
It
is
sm all wonder t h a t
o n e o f t h e s e g r o w e r s , now s h e r i f f o f t h e C o u n t y ,
b i t t e r ag ain st strik e s.
It
is
is
so
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t th e Asso­
c i a t e d F a r m e rs o f I m p e r i a l V a l l e y was o r g a n i z e d f o l l o w i n g
t h i s p e a - s t r i k e i n May 1 9 3 3 .
Growers w e re d e t e r m i n e d n o t to
be caught napping again.
The n e x t s t r i k e o f any i m p o r t a n c e was a g a i n among
M exican w o r k e r s ,
t h i s tim e d u rin g th e l e t t u c e season.
s t r i k e h a s r e c e i v e d so much p u b l i c i t y
This
t h a t i t w i l l be only
o u tlin e d here:
O c to b e r 12, 1933.
The o l d U n i o n o f M e x ic a n W o r k e r s ,
t h a t f u n c t i o n e d d u r i n g t h e c a n t a l o u p e s t r i k e was r e v i v e d .
A m e e t i n g w a s h e l d w i t h t h e g r o w e r s , who a g r e e d t o r e c o g n i z e
t h e u n i o n a n d a f i v e h o u r minimum d a y a t a wage o f 22f c e n t s
p e r h o u r was a g r e e d upon.
275
Novem ber 1 5 , 1 9 3 5 .
The u n i o n c a l l e d a o n e - d a y s t r i k e
a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e g r o w e r s w e r e n o t l i v i n g up t o t h e i r a g r e e ­
m ent.
I n s te a d o f s t r i k i n g a g a in s t t h e v i o l a t i n g grow ers th e
w h o le i n d u s t r y was p a r a l y z e d .
The g r o w e r s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y
c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l t h e ”l i t t l e f e l l o w s ” who w e r e n o t p a r t i e s
to th e agreem ent.
The s t r i k e h a d b e e n won t o o e a s i l y a n d t h e
u n i o n was f e e l i n g i t s s t r e n g t h .
J a n u a r y 2, 1934.
The C a n n e r y a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l W o r k e r s 1
I n d u s t r i a l Union, o f p e a - s t r i k e d i s r e p u t e , to o k c o n t r o l o f
t h e M exican u n i o n .
The l e a d e r s w e r e a g a i n C a r o l i n e D e c k e r
a n d P a t Chambers.
J a n u a r y 7, 1934.
The g r o w e r s s h i p p e d no l e t t u c e ,
c la im in g t h e m arkets w ere g l u t t e d .
A s t r i k e w as c a l l e d b y
t h e C. & A . W . I . U . ( C a n n e r y a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l W o r k e r s 1 I n d u s ­
t r i a l U n i o n ) f o r t h e n e x t day*
J a n u a r y 8 , 1934.
As t h e B r a w l e y g r o u p g a t h e r e d t o go
t o E l C e n t r o t o a m ass m e e t i n g i t was b r o k e n up b y S t a t e ,
C o u n t y a n d C i t y P e a c e O f f i c e r s , who u s e d t e a r g a s .
E ightys e v e n a r r e s t s w e r e made.
” The U n i o n l e a d e r s , m o s t l y c o m m u n i s t s , h a d t a k e n an
ex tre m e ly h o s t i l e s ta n d tow ard t h e grow ers from t h e very
first.
No c o m p r o m i s e w as p o s s i b l e t o th em . . .
i t was
p l a i n to e v e ry o n e t h a t 1934 would s e e t h e c l a s s b a t t l e
f o u g h t o u t to a f i n i s h ; e i t h e r th e union w ould g a i n f u l l
c o n t r o l o f t h e w o r k e r s o r i t w o u l d b e w i p e d o u t . ” ^0
J a n u a r y 12, 1934.
The M e x i c a n s h e l d a m e e t i n g i n
A z te c a H a ll i n Braw ley.
Tne C h i e f o f P o l i c e o f B r a w l e y , w i t h
p o l i c e m e n , s h e r i f f s d e p u t i e s and s t a t e t r a f f i c o f f i c e r s , w en t
t o t h e h a l l w i t h w a r r a n t s f o r t h e a r r e s t o f D e c k e r, Chambers,
and c e r t a i n o th e r a g i t a t o r s .
T e a r g a s w as t h r o w n a n d t h e
m eetin g d isp e rse d .
J a n u a r y 21, 1934.
A. L. W i r i n , o f t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l
L i b e r t i e s Union r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n to h o l d a m e e t i n g i n
A z t e c a H a l l on t h e e v e n i n g o f J a n u a r y 2 3 .
The r e q u e s t was
denied.
J a n u a r y 23, 1934.
An i n j u n c t i o n was s e r v e d r e s t r a i n ­
i n g o f f i c i a l s from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e m e e tin g .
At 7 :1 5
10 Norman M i n i , ” T h a t C a l i f o r n i a D i c t a t o r s h i p , ”
N a t i o n , 1 4 0 :2 2 4 , F e b r u a r y 20, 1935.
The
276
t h a t e v e n i n g W i r i n w as k i d n a p p e d a s r e l a t e d a b o v e .
The same t a c t i c s w e r e u s e d i n p u t t i n g down t h e s t r i k e
a s were used i n th e p e a - s t r i k e .
No m e e t i n g s w e r e p e r m i t t e d .
A g i t a t o r s w e r e k e p t o u t o f camps.
t e c t e d by d e p u t y s h e r i f f s .
in
"Loyal" w o rk ers w ere p r o ­
The l o c a l p a p e r s w e r e u n a n i m o u s
t h e i r a p p ro v a l o f what had been done as th e f o llo w in g
e d i t o r i a l shows:
" I t w a s n o t mob v i o l e n c e — i t w a s a s t u d i e d , o r g a n i z e d
movement o f c i t i z e n s s e e k i n g t h e o n l y way o u t o f d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e c o m m u n i t i e s ’ p e a c e . " 11
The g r o w e r s w e r e n o t a n t a g o n i s t i c
u nions as has been charged.
to t h e i d e a of
T h is i s p r o v e d by t h e i r w i l l i n g ­
n e s s to d e a l w i t h t h e M ex ic an Union and t h e i r a t t e m p t s i n
M arch to g e t a M exican W o rk ers A s s o c i a t i o n o r g a n i z e d u n d e r
t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e M exican C onsul a t C a l e x i c o ,
T errazas.
Joaquin
This l a t t e r a tte m p t f a i l e d because o f th e hold
o v e r t h e w o r k e r s h e l d by t h e C. & A . W . I . U . 12
I n J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y ,
i n g Com m ittee,
1934,
a Federal In v e stig a t­
co n sistin g of P rofessor J.
U n iv e r s ity o f Southern C a lif o r n ia ,
D epartm ent o f I n d u s t r i a l R e la tio n s ,
S. L e o n a r d o f The
W ill J .
French of the
a n d Simon J .
t h e D i v i s i o n o f I m m i g r a t i o n an d H o u s i n g ,
11 E d i t o r i a l i n T h e ( E l C e n t r o ,
P o s t , F e b r u a r y 4, 1934.
Lubin of
made a n i n v e s t i g a -
C alifo rn ia)
M orning
12 C h e s t e r W i l l i a m s , " I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e p a r e s f o r
W a r ," World Tomorrow, 1 7 : 1 9 9 - 2 0 1 , A p r i l 26, 1934.
277
tio n
a n d r e p o r t e d a t l e n g t h o n t h e s t r i k e on F e b r u a r y 1 1.
On t h e w h o l e t h e r e p o r t v/as c r i t i c a l o f t h e h i g h - h a n d e d way
i n w h i c h t h e s t r i k e was p u t down b u t t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e
p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n o f th e grow ers:
grow er i s
co n tro l,
.
.
the s h ip p e r-
a v i c t i m o f c irc u m s ta n c e s a lm o st beyond h i s
t h a t h e i s c a u g h t b e t w e e n a low s e l l i n g m a r k e t on
th e one hand,
.
" . . .
a n d an i n s i s t e n t l a b o r g r o u p on t h e o t h e r
The L e o n a r d r e p o r t was b i t t e r l y
I m p e r ia l V a lle y p a p e rs and i t s
censured in
a u t h o r s were a c c u se d o f
r a d ic a l lean in g s.
S i n c e t h e u n i o n was o p e n l y p r o m i s i n g t r o u b l e when t h e
c a n t a l o u p e h a r v e s t came o n a n d s i n c e t h e A s s o c i a t e d F a r m e r s
and o t h e r c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s were q u i e t l y o r g a n i z i n g to
p r e v e n t m or e s t r i k e s ,
t h e F e d e r a l G-overnment d i s p a t c h e d
B r i g a d i e r - G e n e r a l P e l h a m D. G l a s s f o r d i n A p r i l ,
F e d e r a l C o n c i l l i a t o r to s e t t l e th e
trouble.
1934,
as a
H is a p p o in tm e n t
w a s p r o t e s t e d b y t h e g r o w e r s who w e r e f u l l y o r g a n i z e d a n d
w ere o u t to d e s tro y
th e union.
At f i r s t h e was i n c l i n e d t o
f a v o r t h e g r o w e r s , b u t a f t e r s p e n d i n g o v e r two m o n t h s i n ­
v e s t i g a t i n g he concluded t h a t :
A g ro u p o f g ro w e rs h a v e e x p l o i t e d a communist
h y s t e r i a f o r t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s
. . . t h e r e b y p r e s e r v i n g w h a t i s s o e s s e n t i a l t o t hem ,
p r o f i t s — cheap la b o r ; t h a t they have succeeded in
d ra w in g i n t o t h e i r c o n s p ir a c y c e r t a i n county o f f i c i a l s
who h a v e b e c o m e t h e p r i n c i p a l t o o l s o f t h e i r machine.-*-4
13 W i l l i a m s ,
27,
lo c. c i t .
14 I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e s s ( E l C e n t r o , C a l i f o r n i a ) , J u n e
1934.
278
The n o t o r i o u s C a n n e r y an d A g r i c u l t u r a l W o r k e r s 1
I n d u s t r i a l U n i o n c o l l a p s e d when i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s a t
S a c r a m e n t o w a s r a i d e d on J u l y 2 0 ,
1934 and C a r o l i n e D ecker,
P a t C h am b er s a n d s i x t e e n o t h e r s w e r e a r r e s t e d a n d c h a r g e d
w ith v io la tin g
the c rim in a l sy n d icalism a c t.
l a s t e d u n t i l A p r i l 1,
1935.
The t r i a l
E ig h t o f th e group w ere
sen ten ced to p ris o n .
The e f f e c t o f t h e p e a an d l e t t u c e
back in d e f in ite ly
s t r i k e s w as t o s e t
any p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g a n y l e g i t i m a t e
union o rg an ized in Im p e ria l V alley.
I n 1 9 3 5 , when a n A m e r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o r a f f i l ­
iate
c a l l e d a s t r i k e to
El C entro l e t t u c e
sheds,
s e c u re union r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e
t h e same r e p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s w e r e
t a k e n a s w ere t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e communist u n io n .
S trik e­
b r e a k e r s w e r e h i r e d a n d i n t h e e n s u i n g r i o t i n g two p e r s o n s
w ere shot.
The s t r i k e w a s u n s u c c e s s f u l .
Summary.
as o rd in ary
S trik e s in a g r ic u ltu r e cannot be tre a te d
s t r i k e s b e c a u s e w h ile the
crops are lo s t.
strik e
c o n tin u e s the
To d a t e no u n i o n h a s s u c c e e d e d i n c o m b i n i n g
M e x ic a n s and w h i t e s i n t o o n e u n io n .
Two o f t r i e f o u r m a j o r
s t r i k e s in I m p e r ia l V a lle y were c o m m u n istic a lly o rg a n iz e d
a n d no s t r i k e h a s s u c c e e d e d i n t h e V a l l e y .
V ig ilan tism is
15 C a r e y M c W i l l i a m s , F a c t o r i e s i n t h e F i e l d .
The
S t o r y o f M i g r a t o r y Farm L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a (New Y o r k :
L i t t l e , Brown a n d Company, 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 1 2 8 .
279
c o n d o n e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s
and g e n e r a l p u b l i c .
At t h e
p r e s e n t tim e t h e A s s o c ia te d Farm ers, w hich o r i g i n a t e d in
th e V alley have th e s i t u a t i o n
n o m ore s t r i k e s
are lik e ly
so w e l l u n d e r c o n t r o l t h a t
to o c c u r.
The r e s u l t o f t h e
s t r i k e s has been to d riv e a l l of th e V alley in to
t h e arms
o f a s m a l l r e a c t i o n a r y g r o u p who a r e u s i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n
to
d i s c r e d i t a l l l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e s tow ard o rg a n iz e d la b o r
in th e V alley.
CHAPTER XII
EDUCATION
PART I .
THE PRESENT SITUATION
Number o f m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s .
No a c c u r a t e
up to d a t e c o u n t o f th e number o f m i g r a t o r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n
ex ists.
fig u res
I n 192 7 t h e r e w e r e 3 6 , 9 0 0 r e p o r t e d i n
t o b e m i g r a t o r y . 3*
It
f i g u r e had r i s e n to 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 .^
broad
is
school census
e s t i m a t e d t h a t b y 19 39 t h i s
C o n s id e rin g th e term i n th e
s e n se o f b e in g i n s e v e r a l s c h o o ls each y e a r i t
is
p ro b a b le t h a t n e a rly s ix ty p er c e n t o f the p u p ils in
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f I m p e r i a l County a r e m i g r a t o r y .
In the
p e a - p i c k i n g a r e a a lo n e t h e number e x c e e d s 1 ,0 0 0 each y e a r .
N i l a n d s c h o o l i n c r e a s e d 32 9 p e r c e n t f r o m t h e c l o s e o f t h e
f i r s t m o n th t o t h e p e a k e n r o l l m e n t i n 1 9 4 0 .
A ttendance of m ig ra to ry c h ild r e n a t s c h o o l.
a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n do n o t a t t e n d
a s w e l l a s do p e r m a n e n t o n e s .
a t C alip atria
It
i s an
school
The p e r c e n t a g e o f a t t e n d a n c e
t h e f i r s t m o n t h i n 194 0 w as 9 6 . 7 .
For th e
1 L i l l i a n B. H i l l , A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y S c h o o l s i n
C a l i f o r n i a , May 1 , 1930 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d (“S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a
S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n / 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 2.
2 F r a n c e t t e Mauze^ nA S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s i n
t h e San J o a q u i n V a l l e y ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 2 .
381
p e a k m onth o f
enrollm ent i t
fell
to 8 5 . 2 .
M ig ra n ts were
r e c o g n i z e d a s a p r o b l e m by w r i t e r s b e f o r e t h e r e f u g e e l a b o r
s t a r t e d com ing.3
A s u r v e y showed t h a t 6 7 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e
s c h o o l s w i t h M exican p u p i l s
agreed t h a t
the average d a ily
a t t e n d a n c e was l o w e r f o r t h e s e p u p i l s t h a n f o r t h e
to ta l.^
F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e M exican c h i l d r e n i n B a k e r s f i e l d were
r e p o r te d as a b s e n t to th e a tte n d a n c e s u p e r v is o r ,
o n ly n in e p e r c e n t of th e w h i t e s were r e p o r t e d . 3
w hereas
I n Orange
C o u n ty , M exican c h i l d r e n a v e r a g e d 9 2 .0 p e r c e n t o f a t t e n d a n c e
and w h ite s 9 8 . 7 . 3
d a n ce o f M exicans.
T h e r e s e e m s no d o u b t o f t h e p o o r e r a t t e n ­
It
is
to be expected th a t m ig rato ry
M exicans w i l l b e n o t o r i o u s l y p o o r i n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l.
The c a u s e s o f l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e s o f a b s e n c e among
M exicans and m ig r a n ts a r e v a r i o u s l y
lack of clo th in g ,
stated
to b e:
m o v in g ,
s ta y in g o u t to w o r k ,7 ig n o ra n c e o f
the
3 J o h n L e o n a r d C ompton, "A S t u d y o f N o n - a t t e n d a n c e i n
t h e E lem entary S chools o f B a k e r s f i e l d , C a l i f o r n i a ” (un­
p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 2 9 ), pp. 9 0 -9 3 .
4 Ward W i l l i a m L e i s , "The S t a t u s o f E d u c a t i o n f o r
M exican C h i l d r e n i n Four B o rd e r S tates'* ( u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n g e le s , 1 9 3 1 ), p. 36.
5 Co m pton,
op. c i t . , p.
62.
6 Sim on L u d w ig T r e f f , "The E d u c a t i o n o f M e x i c a n
C h i l d r e n i n O r a n g e C o u n t y ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 4 ), p . 37.
7 I b i d . , p.
40 .
282
l a w , p o o r hom es, p o o r a d j u s t m e n t a t school® and r e t a r d a t i o n , ^
as w e ll as i l l n e s s .
That t h i s l a s t i s
ju stifiab ly
c a u s e o f a b s e n c e among m i g r a n t s a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y
m i g r a n t s , w a s s e e n i n C h a p t e r IX.
a g reater
among M e x i c a n
O th er causes given are the
r e l u c t a n c e o f p a r e n ts to p u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o
school fo r
s u c h a s h o r t t i m e , 1^ o r t h e p a r e n t s b e i n g ° t o o b u s y t o s e n d 0
th e children
to s c h o o l.
I t Is c e rta in
t h a t most p a r e n t s
o f t h i s g r o u p do n o t e x e r t any u n u s u a l e f f o r t t o k e e p t h e i r
c h ild re n in sch o o l.
A t t i t u d e o f s c h o o ls tow ard com pulsory a t t e n d a n c e o f
m ig ran ts.
A change i n a t t i t u d e o f s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s con­
c e rn in g th e ed u catio n of m igratory c h ild re n ,
i s apparent.
S c h o o l s s e v e r a l y e a r s ago u s e d t o h i d e b e h i n d t h e t e c h n i c a l
w o r d i n g o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R i g h t s o f C h i l d r e n Act-1-^ w h i c h
r e q u i r e s a p a r e n t to send h i s
8 C o m pto n, 0 £ .
c h ild re n to the school of th e
c i t . , pp.
63-71.
9 J a y New ton H o l l i d a y , flA S t u d y o f N o n - A t t e n d a n c e i n
M ig u e l H id alg o School o f B raw ley, C a l i f o r n i a 0 ( u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s
A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 41.
10 Mauze,
op. c i t . , pp.
11-12.
11 U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , M i g r a t i o n o f
W o r k e r s ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t ­
in g O ffic e , 1936), 1:240-46.
12 [ A l f r e d E. L e n t z , C o m p il e r ! S c h o o l Code o f t h e S t a t e
o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1937 [ S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g
O f f i c e , 1938}, S e c . 1 . 1 3 0 .
283
d istrict
in to
i n w hich th e c h i l d r e s i d e s .
It
is p o ssib le
to r e a d
t h i s law t h e p o i n t o f view t h a t c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a
d i s t r i c t b u t n o t r e s id e n t th e r e a re n o t re q u ire d to a tte n d
sch o o l.
B u t w i t h t h e e n a c t m e n t o f S e c t i o n 1 . 1 3 1 i n t h e Code
in
a p a r e n t i s now r e q u i r e d t o p u t h i s c h i l d r e n i n
1921,
s c h o o l i n an y d i s t r i c t
t o # i i c h h e m ig h t remove them .
This
w a s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by p l a c i n g t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on
any p e r s o n " h a v i n g c o n t r o l o r c h a r g e " o f a m in o r. ^3
now g u a r a n t e e s t o e v e r y c h i l d t h e r i g h t t o a t t e n d
The la w
school.
V e r y few p l a c e s s t i l l d i s r e g a r d t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e law o r
n e g le c t to
enforce i t ,
b u t t h o s e d o i n g so a f f e c t t h e e d u c a ­
t i o n a l p ro g re s s of the e n t i r e s t a t e , because th ey a re
commonly t h e o n e s h a v i n g a l a r g e m i g r a t o r y p o p u l a t i o n .
M o st
m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n now a t t e n d s c h o o l a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e
y e a r a lth o u g h "to d a te ab o u t a l l t h a t h a s been done i s
to
com pel t h e c h i l d r e n to a t t e n d " - ^ s c h o o l w ith o u t m aking
adequate p ro v is io n f o r t h i s
e d u c a t i o n w h en t h e y do g o .
M i g r a t i o n makes s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e d i f f i c u l t .
w orkers,
p a r t i c u l a r l y M exicans,
13 I b i d . , S e c .
M igratory
a r e commonly o v e r - a g e when
1.131.
14 W i l l i a m T. C r o s s a n d D o r o t h y E. C r o s s , Newcomers
a n d Nomads i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a :
S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937), p. 120.
284
th ey s t a r t to
s c h o o l . T h i s
c o n f l i c t i n s c h o o l lav/s.
c la s s e s du rin g th e f i r s t
i s o c c a s i o n e d by a n o t h e r s e e m i n g
P u p i l s may b e a d m i t t e d t o b e g i n n i n g
s c h o o l m o n th o n l y .
16
°
P aren ts are
n o t r e q u i r e d b y l a w to s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o s c h o o l u n t i l
they are eig h t y e a rs of age.
If
th en ,
a p u p il is
fro m s c h o o l t o w a lk d u r i n g t h e m onths h e i s
in th e
c o t t o n f i e l d s o r i n I d a h o a n d so d o e s n o t s t a r t t o
I m p e r i a l County s c h o o ls ,
too f a r
San J o a q u i n
school,
r e c e i v i n g h i m i n N o v em b er ,
p e r m i t him t o a t t e n d s c h o o l u n t i l h e i s
cannot
e ig h t y e a rs old,
even
th o u g h a s c h o o l b u s g o e s p a s t h i s d o o r and b e g i n n i n g c l a s s e s
of
eight y e a r o ld s are bein g s ta rte d .
a v e r a g e p e a - p i c k e r ’ s c h i l d two y e a r s a t
T his r e t a r d s
the
the v ery s t a r t .
Of c o u r s e m i g r a t i o n c a u s e s l o s s o f s c h o o l t i m e a s w e l l
a s work t i m e . ^
I t i s common, a s s t a t e d a b o v e ,
fo r ch ild ren
t o n e g l e c t s t a r t i n g t o s c h o o l when t h e y a r e l i v i n g i n a c o t t o n
fie ld
f a r f r o m s c h o o l a n d no t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d .
l e s s an e s p e c i a l
them i n t o
e f f o r t i s made i n S a n J o a q u i n V a l l e y t o g e t
s c h o o l t h e y a r r i v e i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y i n November
w i t h o u t h a v i n g a t t e n d e d any o t h e r s c h o o l .
C h i l d r e n c o m in g
f r o m p e a s i n o t h e r s t a t e s h a v e commonly b e e n w o r k i n g up t o
15 L e i s ,
0 £.
c i t . , p.
34, p.
22.
16 [Lentz] o p . c i t . , S e c . 3 . 1 7 2 .
17 I b i d . , S e c .
pp.
Un­
1.130.
18 U n i t e d S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ,
151-2.
ojo.
c it.,
285
t h e tim e th ey l e f t .
Of a l l
cen t en ro lled l a t e . ^
child ren
in B ak ersfield ,
I n 1940 i n N i l a n d S c h o o l ,
7.5 p e r
11.3 p er
c e n t e n r o l l e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g b e e n i n any o t h e r s c h o o l t h a t
year.
I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n came t o
N i l a n d i n November, December and J a n u a r y ,
A n o th e r a t te n d a n c e problem i s
school b e fo re com pleting i t .
p rin c ip a lly .
th e d ropping o u t o f
N e a r l y h a l f t h e M e x i c a n s i n one
study q u it w ith le s s than th re e y e a rs o f school c o m p le te d .^
The m edian num ber o f y e a r s i n s c h o o l f o r a l l w o r k e r s on r e ­
lie f
i n r u r a l C a l i f o r n i a w as 7 . 6 i n 1 9 3 3 , w h i l e f o r f a r m
l a b o r e r s i t w as 6 . 6 .
Pi
The r e a s o n s commonly g i v e n f o r
q u i t t i n g a t th e e a r l i e s t l e g a l age a re :
it
(3)
necessary
t o work;
(2)
(1) p o v e r t y ,
making
l a c k o f home c o o p e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s ;
e m b a rra s sm e n t on th e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n a t b e i n g
" d i f f e r e n t ; 11 ( 4 ) p r e j u d i c e on t h e p a r t o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n ; 22
19 Co m pton, 0 £ .
c i t . , p. 86.
20 M e r t o n E. H i l l , The D e v e b p m e n t o f a n A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n
P r o g r a m ( { O n t a r i o , C a l i f o r n i a ] : The B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s o f t h e
C h a f f e y Union High S c h o o l and t h e C h a f f e y J u n i o r C o l l e g e ,
1 9 2 8 ) , p. 55.
21 P h i l i p M. H a u s e r a n d B r u c e L. J e n k i n s o n , W o r k e r s on
R e l i e f i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n M a r c h . 1933 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . :
U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1938), p p . 129 -1 3 0 .
22 V e r n o n M. McCombs, From O v e r t h e B o r d e r . A S t u d y o f
t h e M e x i c a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (New Y or k: C o u n c i l o f Women
f o r Home M i s s i o n s a n d M i s s i o n a r y E d u c a t i o n Movement o f t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, 1 9 2 5 ), p. 100.
286
(5)
l a c k o f i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u p i l . A m o n g
pea-pickers,
th e
t h e median g r a d e a t w h ic h c h i l d r e n r e a c h e d t h e i r
s i x t e e n t h b i r t h d a y a n d d r o p p e d o u t o f s c h o o l t o go t o w o r k
d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 9 5 1 - 3 9 w as 6 . 3 ,
a s shown on T a b l e XLIV.
An e x a m p l e o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a n u m b e r o f t h e s e f a c t o r s
in
c a u s in g a c h i l d to q u i t s c h o o l o r a t te m p t to q u i t i s
seen
i n t h e c a s e s t u d y o f R u t h M e s a . 24
School p ro g re ss.
f,T h a t t h e p u p i l o f M e x i c a n p e o n
p a re n ta g e does not le a r n as quickly
t h e l e s s o n s commonly
r e q u i r e d o f A m erican p u p i l s i s a p r o v e n f a c t . "25
That t h i s
r e t a r d a t i o n i s more d i f f i c u l t t o m e a s u r e w i t h t h e a b a n d o n ­
ment of f ix e d
s t a n d a r d s o f p r o m o t i o n f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e an d
th e s o c ia l placem ent of p u p ils ,
tr u th of th is
does n o t d e t r a c t from th e
statem en t.
The e x t e n t o f t h e r e t a r d a t i o n f o u n d d e p e n d s somew hat
on t h e s tu d y , b u t a l l i n v e s t i g a t o r s a g r e e t h a t M exicans
p r o g r e s s slow ly.
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l among M e x i c a n s ,
who w e r e f o u n d t o b e r e t a r d e d among e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n ,
were
23 L a u r a L u c i l l e L yon, " I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m
f o r t h e A d ju s tm e n t o f M exican G i r l s to t h e High S c h o o ls o f
t h e San F e r n a n d o V a l l e y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 2 2 .
24 S e e A p p e n d i x B.
25 M e r t o n E. H i l l ,
o jd .
c i t . , p.
76.
287
TABLE XLIV
GRADE COMPLETED BY MIGRATORY CHILDREN
QUITTING SCHOOL TO GO TO DORK
IN THE PEAS IN IMPERIAL COUNTY,
1931-39
Grade
tal
Number
535
Per cent
100.
1
8
1.5
2
7
1.3
3
36
6.7
4
80
15.0
5
68
12.7
6
84
15.7
7
104
19.5
8
128
23.9
9
20
3.7
M e d ia n g r a d e c o m p l e t e d
6*3
288
72,
7527 an(j 8 6 ^ 8 f 0 r t h e t o t a l s
o f two g r o u p s a s c o m p a r e d
w i t h t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t f o r w h i t e c h i l d r e n . 29
Among a
g ro u p o f m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n t h e a v e r a g e r e t a r d a t i o n b a s e d on
a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s was 88 p e r c e n t . 30
Of t h e g r o u p h e r e
s t u d i e d 85 p e r c e n t w ere r e t a r d e d a t l e a s t one y e a r , b a s e d
o n s c h o o l g r a d e . 31
R e t a r d a t i o n was g r e a t e s t i n t h e s i x t h g r a d e i n m ost
s t u d i e s , 3 ^ v a r y i n g f r o m 83 p e r c e n t 3 3 t o 93 p e r c e n t . 3 ^
O t h e r g r a d e s w i t h h i g h r e t a r d a t i o n f i g u r e s w ere se c o n d and
th ird .
E x p r e s s e d i n a n o t h e r way, M e x i c a n c h i l d r e n a r e f r o m
26 T r e f f , o p .
c i t . , p.
27 M e r t o n E. H i l l ,
44.
op. c i t . ,
p.
54 .
28 C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l
M i g r a t o r y L a b o r e r s i n t h e San J o a a u i n V a l l e y . J u l y a n d A u g u s t ,
1 937 (m im eographed.
San F r a n c i s c o : S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a ­
t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ), p. 14.
29 M e r t o n E. H i l l ,
lo c. c i t .
30 W i l b u r K i r k p a t r i c k Cobb, nR e t a r d a t i o n i n E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o ls o f C h i l d r e n o f M ig ra to ry L a b o r e r s in V e n tu r a County,
C a l i f o r n i a 11 ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Lo s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 2 6 .
31 R o g e r W a l t o n , ^ E d u c a t i n g t h e A s p h a l t A r a b , 11
N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s , 1 9 : 3 4 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 7 .
32 T r e f f , p p . c i t . , p .
33 H o l l i d a y ,
op.
34 Co bb, o p .
c it.,
51.
c i t . , p.
p.
22.
38.
289
o n e y e a r and t h r e e m onths to one y e a r and s i x months r e ­
t a r d e d , * 5^ w h i l e m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n w e r e f o u n d t o b e f r o m
f o u r months to one y e a r and f o u r m onths r e t a r d e d i n one
s t u d y , 36 a n d two y e a r s a n d n i n e m o n t h s o n a n o t h e r . * ^
T u l a r e C o u n ty t h e m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n
In
(born in o th e r s ta t e s
o r c o u n t i e s and p r i n c i p a l l y w h ite ) w ere b e h in d t h e r e s i d e n t
c h ild r e n of the f i f t h
g r a d e an a v e r a g e o f sev en m onths.
T a b l e XLV g i v e s c o m p a r a t i v e f i g u r e s f o r t h e S a n J o a q u i n a n d
I m p e r i a l V a l l e y s and f o r O range C ounty.
The c a u s e s o f t h e l a c k o f p r o g r e s s o f m i g r a n t s ,
and
p a r t i c u l a r l y M exican m i g r a n t s , h a v e n o t b een e n t i r e l y d e t e r ­
mined*
T h e r e s eem s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h M e x i c a n s ,
la c k of m ental a b i l i t y
l e a d s t o r e t a r d a t i o n . 39
a
The f a c t t h a t
t h e y a r e m i g r a t o r y may o f i t s e l f b e a s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e t o
35 M i l o A r t h u r Van Norman H o g a n , "A S t u d y o f t h e
S c h o o l P r o g r e s s o f M exican C h i l d r e n i n I m p e r i a l County"
" u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 3 1 .
36 D. T h e o d o r e Dawe, "A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y C h i l d r e n
i n K ern C ounty f o r t h e S c h o o l Y ear 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ," S i e r r a Educa­
t i o n a l New s. 3 4 : 1 2 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 8 .
37 Cobb, o £ .
c i t . , p. 89.
38 C l a r e n c e S p e n c e r , "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f a n Age
G-roup w i t h a G r a d e G-roup o f P u p i l s " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s ,
1 9 3 9 ) , p. 68.
39 0 . K. G - a r r e t s o n , "A S t u d y o f t h e C a u s e s o f Re­
t a r d a t i o n Among M e x i c a n S c h o o l C h i l d r e n i n a S m a l l P u b l i c
S c h o o l S y s t e m i n A r i z o n a , " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l
P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 : 3 1 - 4 0 , M arch, 1928.
290
TABLE XLV
RETARDATION AMONG MEXICANS
AND MIGRANTS IN CALIFORNIA
(E x p re sse d i n p e r c e n ta g e s o f th e t o t a l group)
San J o a q u in
E xtent of
V a l l e y 3,
retard atio n
m igrants
(years)
W h i t e M exican
Im perial
V alley*5
m igrants
A ll Races
Orange
County0
resid en ts
M exican
1 o r m or e
66.4
85.3
85
71.7
2 o r more
38.5
57.4
46
41.7
3 o r m o re
19.1
23.5
18
16.4
4 o r more
9.7
8 .8
8
5.3
3
1.4
5 o r more
a. C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e R e l ie f A d m in is tr a tio n , A g r i c u l t u r a l
M i g r a t o r y L a b o r e r s i n t h e S a n J o a q u i n V a l l e y . J u l y an d A u g u s t .
1957 (mimeographed.
San F r a n c i s c o : S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a ­
t i o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 14.
b . R o g e r W a l t o n " E d u c a t i n g t h e A s p h a l t A r a b , " N a t i o n 1s
S c h o o l s . 1 9 :3 4 , A p r i l, 1937.
c . Simo n L udw ig
T r e f f , "The E d u c a t i o n o f M e x i c a n C h i l d ­
r e n i n O r a n g e C o u n t y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n iv e r s ity o f Southern
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p .
53.
a c c o u n t f o r much o f t h e r e t a r d a t i o n . ^
" P u p i l s who move
from school to sc h o o l s e v e r a l tim es a y e a r sh o u ld n o t he
e x p e c t e d t o make a s much p r o g r e s s a s t h o s e who a r e p e r m a n ­
ent.
As h e v i e w e d i t
from t h e p o i n t o f view o f th e
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l an i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n clu d ed :
I t i s h a r d f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n t o c o n t i n u e i n any o n e
chosen l i n e , e s p e c ia lly in h ig h school b ecause of the
g r e a t v a r i a n c e i n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d ana th e y e a r s i n
w h i c h t h e y a r e g i v e n a t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s . . . The
s h o r tn e s s o f the tim e th e t e a c h e r i s i n c o n t a c t w ith
t h e s t u d e n t makes t h e p r o b l e m o f c o u n s e l i n g m ore d i f f i ­
cu lt . . .
I n h ig h s c h o o l, e s p e c i a l l y , th e problem o f
c r e d i t s and g r a d u a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l tie s.4 2
The problem i s
t h a t e i t h e r b e c a u s e th e y a r e M exicans o r b e ­
c a u s e they a r e m ig ra n ts ,
t h e c h i l d r e n h e r e s t u d i e d do n o t
p r o g r e s s norm ally th ro u g h sch o o l.
a u th o rities
It
i s up t o
educational
t o f i n d w a y s t o h e l p th em t o o v e r c o m e t h i s
handicap.
A b ility
t o do s c h o o l w o r k .
o ffe re d fo r the
One o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s
s lo w n e s s o f p r o g r e s s o f M exican c h i l d r e n i s
t h a t t h e y a r e i n c a p a b l e o f d o in g s c h o o l work.
Low i n t e l l i -
40 H e l e n H e f f e r n a n , " R e p o r t o f C o n f e r e n c e o n E duc a­
t i o n o f C h ild r e n o f S e a s o n a l W orkers— F resno S t a t e C o lle g e ,
December 9 -1 0 , 1938," C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry
Ed u c a t i o n . 7 : 1 8 1 - 3 1 , F e b r u a r y , 1939
41 H o g a n ,
ojd.
c i t . , p. 26.
42 W i l l i a m Law, " P r o b l e m s o f t h e M i g r a t o r y S t u d e n t , "
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 4 : 1 7 0 , M arch ,
1939.
292
genoe i s l i s t e d
as one o f t h e c h i e f p ro b le m s p r e s e n t e d by
M ex ic an s i n h i g h s c h o o l . 4^
M e x i c a n c h i l d r e n c a n do s c h o o l
w o rk o f an academ ic t y p e o n ly f i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t a s w e l l
a s w h i t e c h i l d r e n * 4 and h a n d work o n l y n i n e t y p e r c e n t a s
w ell,
says H i l l , 4^ but
t h i s i s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r home
c o n d i t i o n s a n d n o t b e c a u s e o f low m e n t a l i t y , 46
t h a t t h e more e d u c a t i o n t h e p a r e n t s h a v e ( 1 )
aged c h i l d r e n they w i l l have in s c h o o l,
in fa n t m ortality
econom ic s t a t u s
co n d itio n s
in t h e i r fam ily ,
they w i l l have,
t h e y w i l l h a v e . 4?
(3)
(4)
(2)
He c o n c l u d e s
th e few er over­
th e low er th e
the b e t t e r the
the b e t t e r liv in g
On t h e o t h e r h a n d i s
evidence of o th e r i n v e s tig a to r s t h a t
the
every one o f th e above
f a c t o r s v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f I n d i a n germ
p la s m o f t h e M exicans,
on the O tis
t e s t . 4^
as does also
in tellig en ce
as m easured
"M exicans a r e below w h ite s i n i n t e l l i -
43 L a u r a L u c i l l e Lyon " I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m s
f o r t h e A d j u s t m e n t o f M e x i c a n G i r l s t o t h e H ig h S c h o o l s o f t h e
S a n F ern an d o V a l l e y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s . Hie Uni­
v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 6 0 ,
44 M erton
E. H i l l , ojo. c i t . ,
46 I b i d . ,
p. 105.
46 I b i d . ,
p. 55.
47 I b i d . ,
p. 119.
p.
97.
4 8 F r a n k l i n C. P a s c h a l a n d L o u i s R. S u l l i v a n , " R a c i a l
I n f l u e n c e s i n t h e M e n t a l a n d P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f M e x ic a n
C h i l d r e n , " Go m p a r a t i v e P s.v cho l o ply Mono g r a p h s . 3 : 1 - 3 6 , O c t o b e r ,
1925.
293
g e n c e by an amount e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f o f t h e s p r e a d o f th e
m iddle f i f t y
p e r c e n t o f th e e n t i r e g ro u p ” a c c o r d in g to
a n o th e r i n v e s t i g a t o r . 4^
M igratory l a b o r e r s 1 c h ild r e n have a lso been s tu d ie d
from th e s ta n d p o in t o f m ental a b i l i t y .
That t h e r e have been
s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n m i g r a t i o n seems b o r n e o u t by t h e e v i ­
d e n c e w h i c h sh ows i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m 85 t o
8 9 i n o n e s t u d y , 82 t o
in
a n o t h e r . §2
90 i n a n o t h e r ® ! an d a v e r a g i n g 9 2 . 2
C hildren of n o n -la b o rin g m igrants averaged
1 0 3 . 8 ^ 3 a n d t h e n o n - m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n r a n g e d f r o m 9b t o
10 a5 4
The c o n c l u s i o n t o b e d r a w n i s
th a t w hile th e re i s
n o t com plete agreem ent c o n c e rn in g th e reaso n f o r i t ,
the
49 R o l l e n H. D r a k e , "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e
M e n t a l i t y and A ch ie v e m e n t o f M exican and W hite C h i l d r e n ”
( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n
C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 68.
50 Mauze1, ojc. c i t . ,
p.
164.
51 Dawe, l o c . c i t .
52 A. W. B e a c h a n d W. G-. B e a c h , " F a m i l y M i g r a t i o n
an d C h ild B e h a v i o r , ” S o c io lo g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 2 1 :5 0 3 2 3 , J u l y , 1937.
53 L o c . c i t .
54 Dawe,
lo c. c i t .
29 4
m e n t a l i t y o f M exicans,
schodL w o r k ,
is
t o r y workers*
a s m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f a b i l i t y t o do
lo w e r t h a n t h a t o f w h i t e s and a l s o
t h a t m igra­
c h i l d r e n a r e d i s t i n c t l y below o t h e r c h i l d r e n .
T h i s c r e a t e s a d o u b le p r o b le m f o r t h e t e a c h e r o f M exican
m igrants.
A t t i t u d e tow ard s c h o o l .
re sid e n t ch ildren . .
M ig ran ts
. m o re s o p h i s t i c a t e d
s c h o o l and m a i n t a i n a b o r e d a t t i t u d e
s e n t e n c e . "55
na r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m
as i f
.
. . come t o
serving a
T his i s p ro b a b ly t r u e r o f w h ite m ig ra n ts than
o f th e M exicans a lth o u g h i t
might b e t h a t th e M exicans a r e
n o t q u i t e so d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s .
tude,
stu d y ,
th at i t
T his a t t i ­
i s n o t n e c e s sa ry o r w orth w h ile to t r y
is p artly
to
a r e s u l t of the f e e l i n g t h a t j u s t about
w h e n t h e y g e t i n t e r e s t e d t h e y w i l l h a v e t o move a n d p a r t l y
f ro m th e o v e r-c ro w d e d s c h o o ls and lo w - g r a d e t e a c h i n g they
hav e had.
How d o e s t h e c o m i n g o f t h e m i g r a n t s a f f e c t t h e
s c h o o l s ? The i m p a c t o f n u m b e r s h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d
in
th is ch ap ter.
Such n u m b e r s b r i n g p r o b l e m s .
system s have th e classro o m s o r th e s t a f f
i n c r e a s e o f 364 p e r c e n t ^
L ife.
earlier
Few s c h o o l
t o t a k e c a r e o f an
and an i n c r e a s e d c l a s s
size is
55 M a r i o n H ath?/ay, The M i g r a t o r y W o r k e r a n d F a m i l y
C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 2 1 7 .
56 J e w e l P o t t e r , " T e a c h e r a n d M i g r a n t , "
c a t i o n a l New s. 3 4 : 2 6 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 .
S i e r r a Edu­
295
th e in ev itab le re su lt.
V alley,
tried
I n o n e l a r g e r oom i n t h e San J o a q u i n
o n e h u n d r e d t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n an d t h e i r t e a c h e r s
to c a r r y on a s c h o o l .
'
U n t i l t h e l a s t two y e a r s
c l a s s e s o f n i n e t y w i t h o n e t e a c h e r w e r e n o t unknown i n
G a l i p a t r i a a n d s e v e n t y - f i v e w e r e q u i t e common.
I n 1939-40
a t N ila n d one c la s s r o o m h a d e i g h t y c h i l d r e n f o r one day and
six ty
f o r s e v e r a l weeks ( s e e F ig u r e 2 0 ) .
On t h e d a y t h e
p i c t u r e s w e r e t a k e n t h e r e was an a v e r a g e o f f o r t y - n i n e
c h i l d r e n t o a r oom .
necessary,
T h e s e c l a s s e s w e r e l a r g e b e c a u s e i t was
under p r e s e n t f in a n c i a l arrangem ents,
to earn
enough a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e to pay f o r t h e amount
expended f o r t e a c h e r s ’ s a l a r i e s .
th e
The r e s i d e n t c h i l d r e n o n
same d a y i n t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l n e a r b y a v e r a g e d f o r t y -
two t o a c l a s s r o o m .
T h e se a r e c o n d i t i o n s to b e f o u n d i n any
d i s t r i c t where th e p o p u l a t i o n i s
in creasin g rap id ly ,
c a u s e d by t h e s y s t e m o f s c h o o l f i n a n c i n g .
and a r e
The m e d i a n c l a s s
s i z e f o r a l l g r o u p s i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y w as 43 a n d t h e
a v e r a g e w a s 4 5 . 2 l . 5^
B u i l d i n g s an d e q u i p m e n t .
From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f
57 A n i t a E. F a v e r m a n , ”A S t u d y o f t h e H e a l t h o f 1000
C h ild r e n o f M ig rato ry A g r i c u l t u r a l L a b o rers i n C a l i f o r n i a , ”
R e p o r t o f M i g r a t o r y D e m o n s t r a t i o n . J u l y . 193 6 - J u n e 1937
(m im eographed.
Sacram ento: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent o f
P u b l i c H e a lth , 1937), p . 43.
58 H o g a n ,
op. c i t . , pp.
13-19.
296
FIGURE 19
NILAND EMERGENCY-. SCHOOL
PRIMARY GRADES
297
i
FIGURE 2 0
HILAHD EMERGENCY SCHOOL
MIDDLE GRADES
298
FIGURE
NI L aND e m e r g e n c y s ch o ol
UPPER'GRADES
299
b u ild in g s the s it u a t i o n
is
equally bad.
E v e r y a v a i l a b l e room
m ust be t u r n e d i n t o a c la s s r o o m to ta k e c a r e o f t h e m ig r a n ts .
In C alip atria,
sch o o ls,
serv ice.
where th e m ig ra n ts a tte n d e d th e r e g u l a r
t h e c a f e t e r i a , and a u d i t o r i u m w ere c a l l e d i n t o
I n N ila n d , w h e re a one-room emergency b u i l d i n g
w a s b u i l t o n l y two y e a r s a g o ,
i t w as n e c e s s a r y
g a r a g e a n d a Boy S c o u t H u t a s c l a s s r o o m s .
b uild in g ,
fo rt,
from th e s t a n d p o i n t o f u t i l i t y ,
to f i t
up a
The e m e r g e n c y
l i g h t i n g a n d com­
wa s s u p e r i o r t o t h e c l a s s r o o m s o f t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l .
The g a r a g e ,
e x c e p t f o r t h e c e m e n t f l o o r was a s g o o d a s t h e
r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s , b u t t h e Hut h ad c r o s s - l i g h t i n g ,
dark
w a l l s , w a s much t o o s m a l l t o b e a d e q u a t e a n d l e t i n a
s u r p r i s i n g amount o f c o l d .
I t i s p o s s ib le , how ever,
th at
t h e b u i l d i n g s w e r e a t l e a s t a s goo d a s t h e a v e r a g e f o u n d i n
O r a n g e C o u n t y M e x ic a n s c h o o l s .
RQ
E q u i p m e n t i n s c h o o l s f o r m i g r a n t s p r e s e n t s a more
s e r i o u s problem .
It
is d iff ic u lt
t o g e t en o u g h t e x t b o o k s t o
s u p p l y s u c h a g r o u p , p a r t i c u l a r l y when no o n e h a s an i d e a o f
how many t h e r e w i l l b e .
supplem entary books.
has,
The seme p r o b l e m e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g
The C o u n t y L i b r a r y s u p p l i e s w h a t i t
b u t by F e b r u a r y , w hen t h e m i g r a t o r y p e a k c o m e s ,
b e s t books a r e loaned o u t .
p en cils,
paper,
etc .,
O ther m a te r ia ls ,
such as
can be o rdered in advance, b u t,
59 T r e f f , op . c l t . , p . 64.
the
u n til
300
the
teach er is h ire d ,
w o r k b o o k s c a n n o t b e o r d e r e d a n d by t h e
t i m e t h e w o r k - b o o k s come,
to work,
the ch ild re n
i f o rd ered a f t e r th e te a c h e r goes
a re n e a rly ready to le a v e .
A nother
p ro b le m c o n c e r n s th e trem endous t u r n - o v e r in th e p o p u l a t i o n .
A t e a c h e r w i t h an a v e ra g e o f f o r t y
c h i l d r e n f o r a m onth w i l l
p r o b a b l y h a v e s e v e n t y n a m e s on h e r r e g i s t e r f o r t h a t m o n t h .
T h i s means t h a t j u s t a s s o o n a s many g e t s t a r t e d
i n th e work­
b o o k s t h e y move on a n d p e r h a p s t h e n e x t c h i l d 1s a b i l i t y w i l l
d em an d an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t w o r k - b o o k .
T ran sp o rtatio n , lunches.
The m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n ,
e x c e p t t h o s e l i v i n g i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t camp i n O a l i p a t r i a ,
r i d e buses to
average c ity
school.
None h a v e t o w a l k a s f a r a s t h e
c h ild goes.
T h is c r e a t e s a p ro b le m o f a noon
lu n c h as w e l l as the one o f f in a n c in g th e bus system .
The
l u n c h p r o g r a m i n C a l i p a t r i a i s p r o v i d e d by t h e Far m S e c u r i t y
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t camp a n d
a t N i l a n d t h e S .R . A. l u n c h p r o g r a m f e d a l l who n e e d e d f r e e
l u n c h e s , b u t no h o t l u n c h e s w e r e p r o v i d e d a t C a l i p a t r i a f o r
t h e needy m ig r a to r y c h i l d r e n n o t l i v i n g i n th e m ig ra to ry
camp.
Teachers.
V arious
experim ents have been t r i e d in th e
s e le c t io n of te a c h e rs f o r m igratory p u p ils .
I n v e r y few
c a s e s have b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s been s u c c e s s f u l becau se of th e
im p o ssib ility
o f c a r r y i n g on a p ro g ra m such as t h e y h a v e
301
b e e n t r a i n e d t o do w i t h a c o n s t a n t l y
group.
s h if t i n g very la rg e
A f te r a couple o f y e a rs ex p erien ce th e te a c h e rs be­
com e a c c u s t o m e d t o h a n d l i n g t h e s e g r o u p s a n d a r e more
successful.
They a l s o
c a n a c c u m u l a t e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h may
b e used from y e a r to y e a r .
For th e se reasons i t has been
c u s t o m a r y t o h i r e l o c a l t e a c h e r s who do n o t c a r e t o l e a v e
t h e c o m m u n ity a n d a r e l i v i n g t h e r e b e c a u s e t h e i r h u s b a n d s
w ork t h e r e .
u su ally
is
Sometimes t h e y a r e e x c e l l e n t t e a c h e r s and
they a r e s u p e r io r to b e g in n e r s .
The e v i d e n c e h e r e
a l s o b o r n e o u t by t h e p r a c t i c e i n O r a n g e C o u n t y , w h e r e
t h e t e a c h e r s o f w h i t e c h i l d r e n h a d h i g h e r dep^rees a n d t h e
t e a c h e r s o f M e x i c a n s ? / e r e m o re e x p e r i e n c e d , b u t b o t h w e r e
equally
e x p e r t . 60
Ad-1 u s t m e n t s o f t h e
school day.
When t h e c l a s s e s a t
C a l i p a t r i a h a d o c c u p i e d a l l a v a i l a b l e c l a s s r o o m s a n d no more
b u i l d i n g s w ere a v a i l a b l e i t became n e c e s s a r y t o
d o u b le s e s s io n s in th e low er g rad es.
esta b lish
By b o a r d r e s o l u t i o n
t h e s c h o o l d a y i n t h e s e g r a d e s wa s f i x e d a t t w o - h u n d r e d
t w e n t y - f i v e m in u tes and t h r e e s e s s i o n s were s e t up.
r i d i n g on b u s e s
m igrants),
(th is
started
Those
i n c l u d e d n e a r l y a l l t h e M exican
sc h o o l a t n in e o ’ c lo c k and,
stay in g over
a n h o u r n o o n p e r i o d , w e r e t a k e n home a t o n e f o r t y - f i v e .
60 T r e f f , op. o i t . , p. 79.
302
T h e town c h i l d r e n w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o
two g r o u p s .
g r o u p came a t e i g h t - t e n a n d s t a y e d i n
The f i r s t
the classroom u n t i l
t w e l v e , when t h e y w e n t o u t s i d e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and
t h e n w e r e d i s m i s s e d on t h e g r o u n d s .
The a f t e r n o o n g r o u p
ca m e a t e l e v e n - f o r t y a n d h a d p h y s i c a l
grounds th e f i r s t th in g ,
stay in g u n til
observed.
going to
th ree-tw en ty .
e d u c a tio n on th e
t h e i r rooms a t t w e l v e an d
The u s u a l h o u r l y r e c e s s e s w e r e
The c u r i o u s p a r t a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m w as t h a t t h e
c h i l d r e n came t o p r e f e r a t t e n d i n g t h e m o r n i n g o r a f t e r n o o n
s e s s i o n a n d t h e t e a c h i n g d o n e was much s u p e r i o r t h a n
th at
d o n e in th e l a r g e r c l a s s e s which w ould h ave been o t h e r w i s e
necessary.
D ouble s e s s i o n s such a s t h i s have been used
s u c c e s s f u l l y i n Brawley s i n c e b e f o r e
S eg reg atio n .
1 9 3 4 - 3 5 . s -*-
The q u e s t i o n o f s e g r e g a t i o n ,
m i g r a n t s and f o r M exicans,
both f o r
r e s t s o n t h e same p r e m i s e - - t h a t
th e p ro g re s s o f r e s id e n t w hite c h ild r e n ,
d a u g h te rs o f the "im portant" p eo p le,
is
t h e s o n s an d
impeded by t h e p r e ­
s e n c e o f l a r g e numbers and a l s o by t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g ro u p
who l e a r n m o r e s l o w l y t h a n t h e y . ^
61 H o l l i d a y ,
op. c i t .,
p.
" I t is alm ost c e r t a i n ,"
5 2.
62 E v e l y n D o l o r e s R e y n o l d s , "A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y
F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g E d u c a t io n i n N o rth K ern County" ( u n p u b l i s h ­
e d M a s t e r 1s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s, 1 9 3 2 ), p. 167.
303
s a y s Dawe,
group,
" t h a t such c o n d i t i o n s te n d to r e t a r d t h e e n t i r e
due to t h e g r e a t a c c o m p lis h m e n t r a n g e i n
e a c h room
and th e over-crow ded c o n d itio n s .
A n o th e r r e a s o n o f t e n g iv e n a s an excuse f o r
tio n is
segrega­
t h e c i t i z e n s h i p p r o b l e m c r e a t e d by t h e p e c u l i a r
a t t i t u d e of m igratory
c h i l d r e n ,
c h i l d r e n on t h e p l a y g r o u n d ^
tow ard s c h o o ls ,
wp,Q &0 n o t p l a y w i t h o t h e r
a n d who t a k e a s u p e r i o r a t t i t u d e
t e a c h e r s a n d a l l o t h e r c h i l d r e n . 66
W hether
s e g r e g a t i o n o f f e r s an y s o l u t i o n f o r t h e m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n
to
a l l t h e s e problem s i s
not stated .
M e x i c a n s a r e commonly s e g r e g a t e d t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s
e x t e n t th ro u g h o u t th e S outhw est.
a ll
those in A rizona s e g re g a te d ,
Of t h e
s c h o o l s i n one study,
two o f e i g h t i n T e x a s
seg reg ated ,
and e le v e n o u t o f t h i r t e e n in C a l i f o r n i a
fi7
segregated.
The b a s i s f o r s e g r e g a t i o n g i v e n i n t h e
C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l s was t h e l a n g u a g e h a n d i c a p ,
and t w o - t h i r d s
r e p o r t e d t h a t a s s o o n a s t h i s w as o v e r c o m e s e g r e g a t i o n was
63 Dawe,
lo c. c i t .
64 R e y n o l d s ,
lo c. c it.
65 B e a c h a n d B e a c h ,
66 H a t h w a y ,
67 L e i s ,
loc. c i t .
lo c. c i t .
ojo. c i t . » p .
35.
n o t p r a c t i c e d . 6®
fin d in g s,
T h i s s eem s J u s t i f i e d
in
th e l i g h t o f Hogan’ s
t h a t i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s t h e y p r o g r e s s more s l o w l y
t h a n w h i t e s h u t by t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e t h o s e r e m a i n i n g i n
school p ro g ress a t the
same r a t e a s t h e w h i t e s . 6 ®
S eg reg atio n as p r a c tic e d has the e f f e c t o f b e n e f itin g
l o c a l w h i t e c h i l d r e n a t t h e expense o f t h e m i g r a n t s and t h e
M exicans.
grade,
It
is
t h e r u l e i n Brawley th ro u g h t h e e i g h t h
and i n C a l i p a t r i a th r o u g h t h e f o u r t h o r f i f t h
f o r M exican c h i l d r e n .
in
M ig ra n ts a r e n o t s e g r e g a te d a s such
t h e s e s c h o o l s and n e i t h e r M exicans n o r m i g r a n t s a r e
s e g re g a te d a t N iland,
in
grade,
e x c e p t t h a t when t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s e s
t h a t s c h o o l a v e r a g e f o r t y p e r t e a c h e r no more a r e en­
r o l l e d an d a l l
t h e r e s t go t o t h e e m e r g e n c y s c h o o l .
This
was a tem p o ra ry e x p e d i e n t u n t i l t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l should
h a v e g a in e d enough a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r a p p o r t i o n m e n t s to
t a h e c a r e o f them.
I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t w i t h an e n r o l l m e n t
o f f o r t y p e r t e a c h e r a f i v e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l w ould e a r n s ix
t e a c h e r ap p o rtionm ents-
The n e x t y e a r t h e s i x t e a c h e r s
w ould earn seven te a c h e r a p p o rtio n m e n ts ,
t h e money c a t c h e s up w i t h t h e
th e
emergency s c h o o l i s
en rollm ent.
and so o n ,
u n til
I n t h e meantime
J u s t e a r n i n g enough each y e a r to pay
t h e e x p e n s e s o f t h e n e x t y e a r w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g t h e in c o m e o f
68 I b i d . , p. 3 0 .
305
all
s c h o o ls In th e co u n ty by a le v y f o r th e U n ap p o rtio n ed
Fund.
S e g re g a tio n i s advocated f o r m ig ran t p u p ils in t n i s
s t u d y , b u t on a d i f f e r e n t b a s i s .
M i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n a r e now
t h e most u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d o f a l l r u r a l c h i l d r e n .
r e a s o n more n e e d s t o b e d o n e f o r t h e m .
done in a s e p a ra te sch o o l,
T his can b e s t be
at least at firs t,
s p e c i a l program o u t l i n e d in S e c tio n I I I
For th is
w ith the
o f t h i s C hapter.
C u r r i c u l u m an d o t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s p r a c t i c e d .
M e x ic a n
c h i l d r e n i n I m p e r i a l C o u n t y r e c e i v e m o re o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s
t i m e t h a n do t h e o t h e r s . A d j u s t m e n t s
o f th e s c h o o l day and
s e g r e t a t i o n s have a lre a d y been m entioned.
tw o,
Except f o r th e se
th e m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n and t h e M exicans h a v e a p p r o x i ­
m a t e l y t h e same p r o g r a m a s o t h e r s ,
ex cep t in th e A m ericaniza­
t i o n ro o ms f o r t h e s m a l l M e x i c a n c h i l d r e n , w h e r e g r e a t
em phasis i s
E n glish i s
II.
l a i d on l a n g u a g e ,
and r e a d i n g i s d e l a y e d u n t i l
learn ed .
ADJUSTMENTS NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION
C e rta in in adequacies in p re s e n t ed u catio n al o ffe rin g s
f o r m ig ra to ry c h i l d r e n w ere seen in S e c tio n I o f t h i s
C h a p t e r and i n p r e c e d i n g C h a p te r s .
70 I b i d . , p. 24.
The means o f c o r r e c t i n g
306
FIGURE 22
A FAIRLY
SATISFACTORY
EDUCATIONAL
ENVIRONMENT
PROVIDED IN
AN EMERGENCY
SCHOOL
307
and Im proving th e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n
educatio n al th inking.
are c le a rly
shown i n
They a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e XLV w h i c h
g i v e s t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e on m i g r a n t s ,
71
h e l d a t F r e s n o i n 1 9 38.
Ensure e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n i t i e s f o r a l l .
At th e
p r e s e n t t i m e c h i l d l a b o r an d s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e l a w s a r e ,
t h e most p a r t ,
p erm it.
en forced as w e ll as th e lim ite d s t a f f s w i l l
The s t a f f o f t h e S t a t e L a b o r C o m m i s s i o n e r ^ o f f i c e
should be m a te r ia lly
i n c r e a s e d so a s t o p e r m i t f r e q u e n t i n ­
s p e c t i o n s o f p l a c e s w h e r e c h i l d r e n may b e i l l e g a l l y
in
in
ag ricu ltu re,
p artic u la rly
employed
in co tto n f ie ld s .
A l a r g e r measure o f s u p e r v i s i o n a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r
school atten d an ce
s u p e rv is o rs should be v e s te d i n th e S ta te
D epartm ent o f E ducation,
so t h a t i n p l a c e s w h e r e t h e la w i s
i g n o r e d i t w ould b e p o s s i b l e f o r c o r r e c t i v e m e a s u re s to b e
taken.
S t u d e n t a i d t h r o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l Youth A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
s h o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e a t f o u r t e e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s a n d o n
t h e elem entary l e v e l .
secondary
The p r e s e n t s t u d e n t a i d p r o g r a m i n
s c h o o l s s h o u l d b e e x p a n d e d so t h a t a l l n e e d y
c h i l d r e n may r e c e i v e a s much e d u c a t i o n a s t h e y w i s h .
E d u c a t io n a ll . v . j u s t i f i a b l e b u i l d i n g s and e q u ip m e n t.
71 P.
315,
s e e a l s o A p p e n d i x C.
308
Many o f t h e m i g r a n t s a r e a t p r e s e n t h o u s e d i n m a k e - s h i f t
c l a s s r o o m s such as g a r a g e s and a u d i t o r i u m s .
m igrants,
lik e
class size ,
re sid e n t ch ild ren .
C lassroom s f o r
should exceed th e s ta n d a r d s f o r
J u s t a s t h e g o v e r n m e n t camp s t i m u l a t e d
t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f g r o w e r s ’ ca m p s ,
so t h e p r o v i s i o n o f
com pletely adequate school p la n ts f o r m igratory c h ild re n
w i l l b r i n g s n o u t an im p ro v em en t i n o f f e r i n g s f o r r e s i d e n t s .
S u f f i c i e n t b u ild in g s should be a v a ila b le
so t h a t d o u b l e
s e s s i o n s a n d o v e r c r o w d e d ro oms a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y .
S m aller c la s s e s
to p e r m it i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u e t i o n .
n a t u r a l c o r r e l a r y o f th e w ide ra n g e o f a b i l i t y ,
below th e s ta n d a r d o f t h e av erag e i s
g iv e n to i n d i v i d u a l s to
m ostly
t h a t m ore t i m e m u s t b e
ensure t h a t they not only p ro g re s s
norm ally through th e g rad es b u t a lso
understandings,
A
attitu d es
a c q u ire the b a s ic
end s k i l l s w hich c i t i z e n s h i p i n a
dem ocracy demands and w h ic h t h e i r p e c u l i a r t y p e o f l i f e r e ­
q u ires.
C la s s e s f o r m ig ra n ts should be s m a lle r — n o t l a r g e r
t h a n t h o s e f o r r e g u l a r p u p i l s ^ o n t h e same p r i n c i p l e t h a t
c l a s s e s f o r handicapped c h ild re n a re s m a lle r.
Longer school day.
Since a c o n s id e r a b le
tim e w ill be spent in m ig ratin g ,
m igratory c h ild
share of h is
th e sc h o o l day f o r th e
should be lo n g e r th a n t h a t f o r r e s i d e n t
72 G l a d y s L. P o t t e r ,
loc. c i t .
309
ch ild ren ,
i n s t e a d o f t h e p r e s e n t t o o - f r e q u e n t minimum d a y .
S p ecially tra in e d te a c h e rs.
m igrants,
a te a c h e r n eeds to be a s u p e r - te a c h e r ,
t h e r e s o u r c e s w hich t h e
av ailab le
to h e r .
scien ce of
through se v e ra l years
education h as d ev ised ,
The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e p r o v e n
experience— a l l of i t of a su p erio r
E d u c a t io n i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e work s h o u ld b e i n ­
c lu d e d i n th e t r a i n i n g program o f th e s e t e a c h e r s .
to
say,
N eedless
such t e a c h e r s w i l l have to be p a id b e t t e r s a l a r i e s
th an re g u la r teachers.
to
w ith a l l of
A m ere a c c u m u la tio n o f c r e d i t s o r d e g re e s
a t a u n i v e r s i t y i s n o t enough.
g ra d e .^
To s u c c e e d i n t e a c h i n g
They s h o u l d n o t c o n f i n e t h e i r w o r k
t h e c l a s s r o o m b u t s h o u l d v i s i t a l l homes f r e q u e n t l y t o
k e e p i n t o u c h w i t h t h e p a r e n t s 1 p o i n t s o f view and a m b i t i o n s
f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and a l s o to c a r r y
to th e p a r e n t s what
t h e s c h o o l s a r e t r y i n g t o do f o r t h e c h i l d r e n .
A d u lt educa­
t i o n c l a s s e s ere a n e x c e l l e n t way o f r e a c h i n g p a r e n t s ,
p artic u la rly
if
they a r e g eared to
the p e c u lia r needs of
t h e g r o u p . 7^
Change a t t i t u d e
tow ard pea- p i c k e r s .
The m o s t
im p o rta n t change in classro o m p ro c e d u re s needed i s one of
73 L yon, o £ .
c i t . , p.
6 1.
7 4 C f . , M e r t o n E. H i l l , o j d . c i t . , p . 60; G l a d y s L
P o t t e r , S p e c if ic S u g g estio n s f o r the O rg a n iz a tio n of I n s t r u c t ­
i o n i n Emergency S c h o o l s , ” C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry
E d u c a t i o n . 7 :1 3 8 -4 8 , F e b r u a ry , 1939.
310
th e
to
most s u b t l e ,
fe e l secure,
nam ely,
t o make t h e c h i l d r e n f e e l w a n t e d —
a t l e a s t f o r the tim e they a r e i n sch o o l.
T h i s w i l l go f a r . t o o v e r c o m e t h e a s o c i a l a t t i t u d e now
e v i d e n t whe n t h e y a t t e n d
D isregard g rad es,
s c h o o l.
em phasize w o r k in g g r o u p s .
One o f
th e c h ie f cau ses of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f c h ild re n w ith school
lie s
i n t h e i r seem ing l a c k o f s u c c e s s a s m easured by g ra d e
s t a n d a r d s . T he e l i m i n a t i o n o f g r a d e s ,
as such,
and t h e
s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a s much i n d i v i d u a l w o r k a s p o s s i b l e ^ 7 an d
t h e u s e o f s o c i a l g r o u p s much a s i s d o n e i n t h e b e s t o n e t e a c h e r s c h o o l s , when t h e s t i m u l u s o f a g r o u p i s
h a s b e e n fo u n d to im prove th e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .
advantageous,
n o
A d ju s t work to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f acco m p lish m e n t.
The r e d u c t i o n o f th e c u r r i c u l u m to i t s
nf u n d a m e n t a l s f,?9 h a s
b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s o n e way t o make p o s s i b l e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e
of
su ccess f o r each c h i l d . O t h e r
75 G l a d y s L. P o t t e r ,
76 H o l l i d a y ,
op.
77 J e w e l P o t t e r ,
ojd.
lo c. c i t .
c i t . t p. 41.
lo c. c it.
78 G l a d y s L. P o t t e r ,
79 R e y n o l d s ,
w riters
lo c. c i t .
c it.,
80 G l a d y s L. P o t t e r ,
p.
147.
lo c. c i t .
suggest,
311
p artic u la rly
f o r M exican c h i l d r e n ,
h o u s e h o ld and manual a r t s
the f if t h
g r a d e . ^1
the in tro d u c tio n of
in the sch o o ls,
In one s c h o o l,
p e r h a p s a s low a s
in re c o g n itio n o f the
s p e c ia l needs o f m igratory c h ild re n ,
a fu lly -eq u ip p ed
k i t c h e n was p r o v i d e d b y a p r o g r e s s i v e b o a r d an d t h e p u p i l s
p re p a re d lunches under th e su p e rv isio n of th e te a c h e rs.
H e re they a r e l e a r n i n g th e fo o d s n eed ed f o r h e a l t h ,
preparatio n,
clean lin ess,
so cia b ility
food
a n d how t o w o r k w i t h
o t h e r s . 8^
P r o b a b l y t h e b e s t way t o m e e t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s
o f a w ide r a n g e o f l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l accomplishm ent® ^ i s
t h r o u g h th e use o f l a r g e c u r r ic u lu m u n i t s such a s c l o t h i n g ,
sh e lte r,
food,
c o m m u n ity l i f e
o r s c i e n c e u n i t s , 84 on t h e
l o w e r l e v e l s an d t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f camp
life ,
w i t h t h e p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s ? / i t h i n t h o s e same u n i t s .
A w ide v a r i e t y o f easy book s, books o f a v e ra g e
d ifficu lty
a n d m ore d i f f i c u l t b o o k s on t h e same s u b j e c t s ,
s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d so t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n c a n p a r t i c i p a t e
81 L e i s ,
o p
.
c i t . , p.
54;
Lyon, o p . c i t . , p .
6 1.
8 2 M i l d r e d Kuhn, " M i g r a t o r y Home, U n i t e d E f f o r t s t o
F i n d a New Way o f L i v i n g , " S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l N ew s. 3 4 : 2 2 ,
November, 1938.
83 J e w e l P o t t e r ,
lo c. c i t .
84 G-ladys L. P o t t e r ,
lo c. c it.
312
according to
t h e i r s e v e r a l a b i l i t i e s . 85
Large s u p p lie s o f
m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o e a c h u n i t s h o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e
t h r o u g h t h e R u r a l S u p e r v i s o r 1s o f f i c e o r t h e C o u n t y L i b r a r y .
W ra p p in g p a p e r and c a l c i m i n e o r p o s t e r p a i n t o f f e r
excellent
m edia of e x p re s s io n .
C reativ e ex p ressio n .
l e v e l s and t h e v a r i o u s
upper lev els
form s o f c r e a t i v e
e x p r e s s i o n on t h e
s h o u ld p r o v i d e r e l e a s e and h a p p i n e s s a s w e l l
as co n trib u te
to
th e a c q u i r i n g o f an a v o c a tio n .
E m p h a s i s on s p e e c h .
speech a r t s
D r a m a t i c p l a y on t h e l o w e r
P a r ti c u l a r l y w ith m ig ran ts,
s h o u l d b e e m p h a s i z e d . 86
i c a n - b o r n M exican c h i l d ,
the
The s i g h t o f a n Amer­
h a r d l y a b l e t o make h i m s e l f u n d e r ­
stood,
i s a s a d c o m m e n t a r y on t h e m i s t a k e s o f o u r s y s t e m o f
p u b lic
ed u catio n in the p a s t.
P la n work w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n .
to r y n a tu re o f th e group,
be of l i t t l e
value,
Because o f t h e t r a n s i ­
l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g w i t h them w i l l
b u t each evening p l a n s f o r th e n e x t
d a y ' s w o r k s h o u l d b e r n a d e , 8 ^ so t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w i l l know
the d ire c tio n
they a re going.
85 L o c . c i t .
86 L o c . c i t .
87 L o c .
cit.
313
A ccum ulative r e c o rd s
to fo llo w th e c h i l d .
One o f t h e
m ost d isc o u ra g in g phases of te a c h in g m igratory c h ild re n i s
t h e f a c t t h a t a s s o o n a s a p r o g r a m g e t s w e l l u n d e r way t h e
group i s
e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e o n e w i t h w h ic h t h e
te a c h e r s ta rte d .
Much t i m e i s l o s t i n d i s c o v e r i n g w h a t t h e
a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s a r e and t h e p u p i l s com­
p l a i n o f r e p e a t i n g t h e same w o r k w h e r e v e r t h e y g o .
th is
could be o b v ia te d i f
P art of
a system o f c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d s
f o ll o w e d t h e c h i l d from s c h o o l to
s c h o o l on w h ich t h e
t e a c h e r c o u l d b a s e h e r p l a n s f o r h i m w h i l e h e w as w i t h h e r . ^ 8
P h y sical needs.
The p h y s i c a l n e e d s o f t h e m i g r a n t s
r e q u i r e a s much a t t e n t i o n a s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l .
Hot lu n ch es
sh o u ld be p ro v id e d f o r a l l c h ild r e n a t noonj^9 r e s t p e rio d s
s h o u l d b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o g r a m ; 9(9 s h o w e r s a n d o t h e r b a t h ­
in g f a c i l i t i e s
serv ices
s h o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e , 9 -*- an d h e a l t h
s h o u l d b e a p a r t o f t h e d a i l y p ro g ra m . 9^
C o st o f im proved p ro g ram .
A program such as t h a t
38 P a p e r b y L a w r e n c e C h e n o w e t h ,
lo c. c it.
8 9 G l a d y s L. P o t t e r ,
SO H e f f e r n a n ,
r e p o r t e d by H e f fe r n a n ,
l o c . c i t . ; H effernan,
lo c. c i t .
91 L o c . c i t .
92 L o c . c i t . : J e w e l P o t t e r ,
lo c.
c it.
lo c. c i t .
314
TABLE XLVI
RECOMMENDATIONS OF FRESNO CONFERENCE
ON THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF
SEASONAL WORKERS
I.
MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE STANDARDS FOR EMERGENCY SCHOOLS
( summarized)
1.
A l l c h i l d r e n b e tw e e n th e ag es o f e i g h t and s i x t e e n must
be in attendance.
2.
A s a f e , s a n i t a r y and e d u c a tio n a lly
p l a n t s h o u ld be p r o v i d e d .
3.
An a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f
4. T r a n s p o rta tio n should
m i l e s from s c h o o l.
serv icab le
school
p u re w a te r must be p ro v id e d .
b e p r o v i d e d f o r c h i l d r e n o v e r two
5.
The same l e n g t h d a y s h o u l d o b t a i n a s i n t h e r e g u l a r
sch o o ls.
No c r o p h o l i d a y s s h o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d .
6.
No g r e a t e r t e a c h e r - l o a d s h o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d i n t h e
emergency s c h o o ls th a n i n t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o ls o f th e d i s t r i c t ,
a n d i n no c a s e o v e r f o r t y p e r t e a c h e r .
7.
The c o u r s e o f s t u d y s h o u l d b e a d a p t e d
c h i l d r e g a r d l e s s of g rad e placem ent.
to th e needs of
the
8.
S u i t a b l e s c h o o l f u r n i t u r e and a d e q u a t e s u p p l i e s and
m a t e r i a l s of i n s t r u c t i o n should be p ro v id e d .
9.
County l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s
sh o u ld be a v a ila b le .
an d c o u n t y s c h o o l s u p e r v i s i o n
315
TABLE XLVI
( c o n tin u e d )
RECOMMENDATIONS OF FRESNO CONFERENCE
ON THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN OF
SEASONAL WORKERS
II.
NEEDS RELATED TO THE EMERGENCY SCHOOL SITUATION.
( summarized)
1.
C a l i f o r n i a should seek s p e c i a l f e d e r a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n s
f o r t h a t p o r t i o n o f s c h o o l c o s t s w h i c h i t b e a r s by r e a s o n
o f t h e m o b i l i t y o f t h e s e a s o n a l w o r k e r s who a r e n o t
re g u la r s ta te resid en ts.
2.
The s t a t e s h o u l d s e t up a n e q u a l i z a t i o n f u n d f o r r e l i e f
t o d i s t r e s s e d d i s t r i c t s w h i c h a r e a f f e c t e d by l a r g e m i g r a ­
t i o n o f s e a s o n a l w o rk e rs from o t h e r d i s t r i c t s i n t h e s t a t e .
3.
Inasm uch a s th e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n c a n n o t p r o g r e s s
u n l e s s t h e i r b a s i c p h y s i c a l n e e d s a r e met, a d e q u a t e
fin a n c ia l s u p p o rt should be g iv en th e p r e s e n t p u b l i c s t a t e
a n d c o u n t y h e a l t h , h o u s i n g a n d s o c i a l a g e n c i e s so t h a t
p r e s e n t law s can b e a d e q u a te ly e n fo rc e d .
4.
S t a t e cam ping p r i v i l e g e s s h o u ld b e r e g u l a t e d and con­
f i n e d to e s t a b l i s h e d a r e a s .
5.
P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d b e made f o r d a y n u r s e r i e s a n d n u r s e r y
s c h o o l c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n below s c h o o l age whose p a r e n t s a r e
engaged in a g r i c u l t u r a l la b o r .
6.
P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d b e made t o e n s u r e t h a t l a b o r camps
s h a l l h a v e r e a s o n a b l e p r o t e c t i o n o f law e n f o rc e m e n t a g e n c i e s .
7.
The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d
mak e a n a d e q u a t e s u r v e y o f t h e m i g r a n t s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n
in C alifo rn ia.
3 16
o u t l i n e d above i s
expensive.
More money m u s t b e p r o v i d e d .
T h e s o u r c e s o f s u c h money a r e d i s c u s s e d i n P a r t I I I o f t h i s
C hapter.
PART I I I .
THE PROBLEM OF FINANCE
OF SCHOOLS FOR MIG-RANTS
P o lic y o f S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n .
of
th e S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u cation tow ard th e
o f m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n w as e x p r e s s e d a t
in
The p o l i c y
education
the Fresno Conference
1938.
W herever th e r e a r e c h i l d r e n o f school age, i t i s th e
r e s p o n s ib ility of the c o n s titu te d educational a u th o r itie s
t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n s c h o o ls o f a q u a l i t y e q u a l t o
t h a t o f s c h o o ls p ro v id e d f o r th e perm anent r e s i d e n t s of
t h e community.
The b o d i e s l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e i n g t h a t
schools are
m ain tain ed w herever needed a re th e governing b o ard s of th e
v a rio u s school d i s t r i c t s
found.
i n w hich t h e m ig r a to r y c h i l d r e n a r e
M i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a v e r y few
sch ools.
O n e - t h i r d o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e s t a t e h a v e no
m ig ra n ts w h ile only 4 .3 p e r c e n t have o v er f i f t y
per cent of
t h e i r a v e r a g e d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e d e r i v e d from m i g r a t o r y
c h ild re n .^
A s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e S t a te D epart­
m e n t 's p o l i c y would p l a c e a l l th e b u r d e n o f p r o v i d i n g f o r
93 H e f f e r n a n ,
l o c . c i t . [ I t a l i c s not in th e o rig in al!
94 D a v i s M c E n t i r e a n d N. L. W h e t t e n , rtThe M i g r a n t s ,
I . R e c e n t M i g r a t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c O o a s t , 11 La nd P o l i c y
R e v ie w . 2 : 7 - 1 7 , S e p te m b e r-O c to b e r, 1939.
317
t h e m i g r a n t s upon t h i s
f r a c tio n o f th e school d i s t r i c t s .
A t t i t u d e s o f c o m m u n ity t o w a r d e d u c a t i o n f o r m i g r a n t s .
The c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h m i g r a n t s w o r k a r e n o t s y m p a t h e t i c
to w a r d them,
ity ^
a s h a s b e e n shown.
T rad itio n ally
t h e commun­
a t t i t u d e i s one o f t o l e r a n c e d u r i n g th e p i c k i n g s e a s o n
and o f a c t i v e a n ta g o n ism t h e r e s t o f t h e tim e.
S o m e t i m e s members o f l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d s a r e e m p l o y e r s
o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r and c a n n o t v iew t h e p ro b le m i m p a r t i a l l y
from t h e p o i n t o f view o f c h i l d w e l f a r e .
The w a l n u t g r o w ­
e r o r t h e p r u n e g r o w e r f e e l s h i s own e c o n o m i c n e e d f a r m o r e
t h a n h e f e e l s t h e c h i l d ’ s n e e d o f e d u c a t i o n . 9£>
T h e m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s do n o t v o t e i n
d ir e c t taxes.
pressure.
They h a v e no way o f
exerting p o litic a l
Money s p e n t o n m i g r a n t s i s ,
t a k e n o u t o f t h e community.
why t h e
t h e co m m u n it y n o r p a y
These a r e
np e a p i c k e r * s r o o m ” o r i t s
in a sense,
money
some o f t h e r e a s o n s
equivalent,
o r a tem porary
e n r o llm e n t o f p u p i l s from m ig ra to r y f a m i l i e s i n r e g u l a r
c la s s e s does n o t s t i r
b o a r d s . 96
th e enthusiasm o f d i s t r i c t
P ro v id in g f a c i l i t i e s
school
even a p p r o a c h in g adequacy
f o r s u c h e n o r m o u s n u m b e r s o f p e o p l e who come, many o f whom
do n o t e v e n w o r k i n t h e p e a - f i e l d s b e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t f i n d
w o r k , w ould t a x t h e r e s o u r c e s o f even a w e a l t h y community.
So t h e y t r y
t o k e e p t a x e s down by i g n o r i n g t h e w h o l e
95 H e f f e r n a n ,
lo c. c i t .
36 C ross and C r o ss , o p . c i t . , p. 2 1 .
318
p ro b le m .^
It
i s only as a s o c i a l c o n s c ie n c e i s
aroused th at
even l o c a l c h ild r e n a re p ro v id e d w ith p ro p e r e d u c a tio n
fa c ilitie s.
E f f o r t s o f c o m m u n it y t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r p r o g r a m .
Two s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t a r e f o u n d when t h e p r o b l e m o f
im proving th e schools i s
ex istin g f a c ilitie s
s h o u ld be s p e n t.
and i s w i l l i n g
In
raised .
One g r o u p f e e l s
ths-t
a r e " g o o d e n o u g h " a n d no m o r e money
The o t h e r g r o u p t a k e s p r i d e i n
th e schools
t o s p e n d r e a s o n a b l e sums w h e r e t h e y w i l l show.
a p o l l t a k e n among s c h o o l s w i t h l a r g e n u m b e r s o f M e x i c a n s ,
s ix ty -o n e p e r cent of the
sp ecial e ffo rts
e n t i r e g roup f a v o re d making
to im prove t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s to
M exican c h i l d r e n ,
b u t in C a l i f o r n i a only f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t
w e re favo r a b 1 e .
The e f f o r t s o f t h e I m p e r i a l V a l l e y c o m m u n i t i e s t o
p r o v id e such e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s
means i s
shown by T a b l e X L V II .
It
as li e w ith in th e ir
should be n o te d th a t
v a l u a t i o n s p e r p u p i l h a v e shown a s t e a d y d e c l i n e i n t h e p a s t
ten years.
T h is i s i n d i c a t i v e o f an a b s o l u t e d e c l i n e in
valu atio n s,
common t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t y an d a l s o ,
la rly
p artic u ­
i n t h e c a s e o f N i l a n d s i n c e 1935 o f a g r o w in g s c h o o l .
97 L e s l i e 0 . G o r d o n , " B r e e d i n g - G r o u n d s f o r S o c i a l
U n r e s t , " The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , 5 7 : 2 3 - 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 7 .
98 L e i s ,
op.
c i t . t p.
63.
319
TABLE XLVII
ABILITY AND EFFORT IN SUPPORTING SCHOOLS IN PEA-GROWING AREA
(As shown b y v a l u a t i o n s and t a x f i g u r e s )
C alip atria
A ssessed
v alu atio n
per
p u p il
Y ears
|
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
6,048.
5,195.
5,496.
4,862.
4 ,958.
4,9 6 8 .
5 ,3 6 0 .
4,257.
4,1 1 8 .
4,1 2 2 .
T ax
rate
per
#100.00
T otal
expenditures
per
p u p ila
Tax l e v y
per
p u pil
$ 84.07
75.79
83.30
70.08
69.32
72.21
67.12
82.98
74.06
74.57
|2 7 .2 1
23.38
32.97
24.31
- b
_ b
15.01
5.96
24.71
13.19
122.72
104.17
87.92
68.86
79.29
78.65
85.54
94.44
89.54
121.69
46.76
42.13
45.90
35.63
8.75
21.91
50.30
30.89
38.38
46.25
.45
.45
.60
.50
- b
- b
.28
.14
.60
.32
N iland
10,392.
9 ,363.
10,432.
8 ,9 0 7 .
8 ,7 5 1 .
8 ,1 1 4 .
10,265.
8 ,1 2 8 .
6,733.
5,7 8 1 .
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-33
1938-39
.45
.45
.44
.40
.10
.27
.49
.38
.57
.80
a.
T o ta l e x p en d itu res per elem entary p u p il f o r
C o u n t y i n 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 was 7 6 . 9 8 .
b.
No d i s t r i c t
taxes le v ie d fo r t h i s y e a r.
Im perial
320
The a b i l i t y
to support ed u catio n ,
th erefo re,
i s decreasing
f r o m year* t o y e a r .
The t a x r a t e ,
an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t to w hich
t h e co m m u n ity i s w i l l i n g
to s u p p o rt e d u c a tio n ,
co n sid erab le flu c tu a tio n ,
f i r s t four years,
has
shown
b ein g r e l a t i v e l y h igh d u rin g the
t h e n d r o p p i n g away t o a l m o s t n o t h i n g t h e
f i r s t y e a r t h a t th e d e p re s s io n began to be f e l t ,
b a c k v e r y s l o w l y an d e r r a t i c a l l y
and g a i n i n g
s in c e t h a t tim e.
T h a t t h e same w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a y f o r e d u c a t i o n
p r o v i d e s a much m o re m e a g e r o f f e r i n g now t h a n f o r m e r l y i s
sh o w n b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t a x l e v y p e r p u p i l .
yea^s,
a s i x t y c e n t r a t e was l e v i e d a t C a l i p a t r i a .
1931-32 i t produced n e a r ly
F o r two
In
th ir ty - th r e e d o lla rs per pu p il,
b u t i n 1937-38 i t p ro d u c e d o n ly a b o u t t w e n t y - f o u r and t h r e e
q u a rte rs d o lla rs per pu p il,
a n e t d ecrease in a b i l i t y
su p p o rt education of n e a rly o n e -fo u rth .
strik in g
situ a tio n is
fo rty -fiv e
to
An e v e n m ore
se e n i n th e c a s e o f N ila n d , where a
c e n t r a t e r a i s e d i n 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 more money p e r p u p i l
t h a n an e i g h t y c e n t r a t e d i d i n 1 9 3 8 -3 9 .
The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l
w h i c h was b o r n e by t h e d i s t r i c t s
expenditures p er p u p il
i n d i r e c t t a x e s may b e s e e n
b y a c o m p a riso n o f colum ns f o u r and f i v e .
N iland,
the
w ealth ier d is tr ic t,
p a i d on t h e a v e r a g e ,
c o s t of ru n n in g i t s
sch o o ls out of tax es ra is e d lo c a lly .
C a l i p a t r i a p a i d 22 p e r c e n t o f i t s
co sts.
38.4 p e r c e n t o f th e
B o t h o f th e m a r e
321
low ,
as a re th e ta x r a t e s ,
c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e f o r many u r b a n
a r e a s , b u t even w ith t h e s e r a t e s
the delinquency
i s high,
a n d when N i l a n d l e v i e d t h e maximum t a x a l l o w e d by l a w ,
produced only t h i r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l
These a r e p o o r d i s t r i c t s
expenditures.
and a r e d o in g a b o u t a l l t h a t
can be expected in th e s u p p o rt of p u b lic
t h e d e s i r e d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n m in d ,
m o n ey m u s t b e r a i s e d
it
it
is
education.
K eeping
evid en t t h a t the
elsew here.
Emergency s c h o o l s o p e r a t e d by t h e c o u n ty s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t . U n d e r t h e s c h o o l lav /, when a d i s t r i c t h a s d o n e a l l i t
c a n an d f u r t h e r e f f o r t s
a re n e c e ssa ry i n o rd e r to provide
equal educational o p p o rtu n itie s fo r a l l ,
th e county s u p e rin ­
t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s may,
from t h e U n a p p o rtio n e d County
E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Fund,
p rovide w hatever a d d itio n a l
fa c ilitie s
are,
i n h i s judgm ent,
requ ired .
The c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s may, w h e n e v e r i n
h i s judgm ent i t i s n e c e s s a r y , i n o r d e r to p r o v id e e le ­
m entary e d u c a tio n f o r c h i l d r e n r e s i d i n g i n h i s county,
o r in o r d e r to p ro v id e elem entary ed u catio n f o r m ig ra to ry
l a b o r e r s engaged i n s e a s o n a l i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n h i s
c o u n ty , and f u n d s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r s o u r c e s ,
e s t a b l i s h a n d m a i n t a i n o n e o r m ore e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s
f o r s u c h c h i l d r e n , o r p r o v i d e o n e o r more e m e r g e n c y
te a c h e rs f o r th e r e g u l a r elem entary sch o o ls of the
d i s t r i c t o f h i s co u n ty f o r such p u p i l s , a n d /o r p ro v id e
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r such c h i l d r e n to an e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l.
T h e c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s may p a y any
e x p e n s e s i n c u r r e d i n p r o v i d i n g a l l t h e f a c i l i t i e s and
se rv ic e s au th o rized in th is sectio n , in c lu d in g necessary
c a p i t a l o u t l a y s from t h e U n a p p o r tio n e d County E le m e n ta ry
S c h o o l F u n d . 99
9 9 /L entzj ££.
c i t . , Sec. 4 .1 9 2
322
T h i s s c h o o l c o d e s e c t i o n i s now so l i b e r a l a s t o g i v e t h e
c o u n ty s u p e r i n t e n d e n t a f r e e hand i n th e use o f t h e fund,
and hence in c r e a s e s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p r o p o r tio n a te ly f o r
s e e in g t h a t adequate e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r i n g s are p ro v id ed .
There i s ,
in
effect,
however,
restricts
one v ery s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y w hich,
th e county s u p e r i n t e n d e n t 's range of
a c tiv itie s m ateria lly .
T his l i e s in th e source o f the
U n a p p o r t i o n e d F u n d f r o m w h i c h t h e p a y m e n t s a r e t o b e made.
Th e p r i n c i p a l
so u rces o f th e fund a r e
(1) C e r t i f i c a t e f e e s ,
a m o u n tin g t o f i f t y - f o u r d o l l a r s i n I m p e r i a l County i n 193839,
(2)
e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f a l l u n n e c e s s a r y an d s u r p l u s
b a l a n c e s i n t h e fu n d s o f any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o r i n t h e
C o u n t y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l S u p e r v i s i o n Fund on J u l y
first,
(3)
a p p o r t i o n m e n t s o f s t a t e m o n e y s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a v e r a g e
d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e o f su ch emergency s c h o o l s a s w ere m a i n t a i n e d
th e previous y e a r,
and (4)
o t h e r w i s e a p p o r tio n e d to
average d a ily
a p r o - r a t a l e v y on t h e f u n d s
t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n an
attendance b a s is .
C e r t a i n f i x e d e x p e n s e s must b e p a i d o u t o f t h i s
in
a d d itio n to i t s p o s s i b l e uses to
o p p o rtu n ities
fund
equalize educational
f o r m igratory c h ild re n .
They i n c l u d e t h e
salary
and e x p e n s e s o f t h e a t t e n d a n c e s u p e r v i s o r and s c h o o l
nurse,
teach ers'
su p p lies,
and t r u s t e e s '
and paym ents to
in stitu te
th e Teachers'
expenses,
electio n
Perm anent and A n n u ity
D e p o s i t F u n d s f o r t h e e m p l o y e e s w h o s e s a l a r i e s come f r o m t h i s
323
fund.
These f i x e d e x p e n s e s amounted i n 1938-39 t o o v e r t h r e e
thousand d o lla r s
i n I m p e r i a l County.
Of t h e s o u r c e s o f i n c o m e m e n t i o n e d s h o v e ,
certificate
only th e
f e e s and t h e r e g u l a r s t a t e a p p o r t i o n m e n t f o r t h e
emergency s c h o o ls m a in ta in e d i n 1939-40 w i l l b e r e c e i v e d i n
1940-41.
fund i s
T h i s means t h a t ,
u se d up,
the only
a s s o o n a s t h e b a l a n c e i n trie
s o u rc e o f incom e w i l l b e from a
p r o - r a t a c h a r g e on t h e f u n d s a p p o r t i o n e d t o t h i s
county f o r
d i s t r i b u t i o n o n an A . D .A . b a s i s t o t h e s e v e r a l s c h o o l s .
Thus i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t a n y e x p e n d i t u r e s b y t h e
c o u n ty s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o ls to
equalize educational
o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m ig ra to r y c h i l d r e n can be done only a t th e
expense o f th e o th e r sc h o o ls i n th e county,
u n fair,
a procedure th a t
is
patently
sin c e the a re a p ro v id in g th e
is
a lre a d y one o f th e p o o re r a re a s in th e s t a t e .
equalizatio n
The s t a t e a s a s o u r c e o f a d d i t i o n a l m o n ey .
m i g h t b e p r o v i d e d by t h e
s t a t e to m eet the s p e c ia l needs of
m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n i n s e v e r a l ways.
be
to perm it th e in c lu d in g of a l l
U n a p p o rtio n e d Funds i n
county.
Money
A v e r y s im p le one would
t h e money n e e d e d i n
the
t h e s t a t e 1s a p p o r t i o n m e n t t o t h e
T h i s w o u l d mean t h a t a f t e r t h e money a l l o t e d f r o m
t h e S t a t e G e n e r a l Fund t o
t h e c o u n t i e s w a s c o m p u t e d on t h e
b a s i s o f e i t h e r t h i r t y d o l l a r s p e r p u p i l i n A .D .A .
in the
c o u n t y o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e S t a t e S c h o o l Fund a p p o r t i o n ­
m ent,
t h e money n e e d e d f o r t h e U n a p p o r t i o n e d F u n d s w o u l d b e
32 4
added,
in s te a d of b ein g included in
the t h i r t y d o lla r s .
w o u l d l e a v e t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e money e n t i r e l y
This
a t the
d i s c r e t i o n o f th e county s u p e rin te n d e n t*
A n o t h e r way f o r t h e s t a t e
to p r o v id e th e n e c e s s a r y
m on ey w o u l d b e t o r e v i v e t h e M i g r a t o r y S c h o o l R e v o l v i n g F u n d
w h i c h was s e t up i n 1927 a n d a b o l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n .
U n d e r t h i s p l a n a d d i t i o n a l a p p o r t i o n m e n t s w e r e made t o
sch o o l d i s t r i c t s having m igratory p u p ils ,
t h e A.D.A.
e a r n e d t o t h e M i g r a t o r y S c h o o l R e v o l v i n g Fund i n
t h e same way t h a t t h e A. D.A.
c r e d ite d to
the s ta te c r e d itin g
i n e m e r g e n c y s c h o o l s i s now
t h e U n a p p o r tio n e d County E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l Fund.
W i t h t h i s p l a n minimum s t a n d a r d s f o r m i g r a t o r y s c h o o l s c o u l d
b e made a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e r e c e i p t o f a d d i t i o n a l s t a t e
m oney.
The b i g p r o b l e m f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f
th at it,
too,
is
the s t a t e i s
i n c r e a s i n g l y u n a b le to pay i t s b i l l s .
F e d e r a l Aid t h e a n s w e r .
T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e
e d u c a tio n o f the c h ild r e n of re fu g e e l a b o r e r s
o r n i a ' s problem a lo n e .
These c h i l d r e n ,
elsew here,
the s ta t e in
have e n te re d
is not C alif­
b o rn and r a i s e d
such numbers a s to
swamp w h o l e communities^-®® a n d t a x t h e r e s o u r c e s o f e v e n t h e
100 C f . , T able XV, p. 8 3 .
325
state
itself.
T h e s e two s t a t e s [ C a l i f o r n i a , a n d W a s h i n g t o n ] a r e
becom ing p o p u la te d w i t h th e p r o d u c t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l
s y s t e m s o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y m u s t o f
n e c e s s i t y b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s y s t e m s t h e m s e l v e s . 01
Of c o u r s e p r o v i d i n g a g e n e r a l f e d e r a l a i d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m
is
d e s i r a b l e a n d s h o u l d b e a c c o m p l i s h e d , b u t so f a r a s
C a l i f o r n i a 1s m i g r a n t s a r e c o n c e r n e d i t
b a rn a f t e r the h o rse is
sto len .
i n Oklahoma w i l l h e l p t h i s
t i o n a l problem*
sta te
i s l i k e lo c k in g the
No a m o u n t o f money s p e n t
s o l v e i t s O k la h o m a e d u c a ­
The a d d i t i o n a l money m u s t b e s p e n t h e r e a n d
now i f a n e n t i r e g e n e r a t i o n i s n o t t o grow up w i t h t h e m o s t
m eag er e d u c a t io n a l o p p o r tu n i ty e v e r o f f e r e d to a l a r g e group
in
a state
th a t has b o aste d of i t s
The M e x i c a n m i g r a n t s ,
problem .
Spending,
f in e schools.
too a r e l e g i t i m a t e l y
a s many o f them d o ,
a federal
larg e p o rtio n s of
t h e i r tim e i n o t h e r s t a t e s and coming i n l a t e
w i t h o u t h a v i n g a t t e n d e d any o t h e r s c h o o l ,
every y e a r
they c o n s t i t u t e a
problem beyond th e a b i l i t y o f C a lifo rn ia * s a u t h o r i t i e s
m eet.
A b ro a d f e d e r a l program o f s u p e r v i s io n o f
to
employment
an d e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h i s group i s b a d ly needed.
C h i l d r e n s h o u ld b e s t a r t e d t o s c h o o l on tim e ,
m onths l a t e .
i n s t e a d o f two
On ly f e d e r a l a i d t o e d u c a t i o n , w i t h
su fficien t
101 (George E. O u t l a n d a n d C. K. M a r t i n , J r . ,
wT r a n s i e n c y a n d F e d e r a l A i d t o E d u c a t i o n , H S c h o o l a n d
S o c i e t y , 4 6 : 1 2 6 - 2 8 , J u l y , 1 9 3 7 ; s e e a l s o W. W. C a r p e n t e r
a n d A. Or. C a p p s , wU n c l e Sam a n d H i s C h i l d r e n , S c h o o l
E x e c u t i v e s M a g a z in e . 5 4 : 7 0 - 7 1 , November, 1934.
326
su p erv isio n
to
ensure t h a t a l l c h ild r e n a re g u aran teed t h e i r
e d u c a tio n a l r i g h t s in w hatsoever s t a t e
t h e y may b e ,
can f u l l y
s o l v e th e e d u c a t i o n a l p h a s e s of C a l i f o r n i a * s m ig ra to r y problem ,
IV.
The s i t u a t i o n t o d a y .
SUMMAKX
M ig rato ry p u p ils in C a l i f o r n i a
may n u m b e r a s many a s o n e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d .
th e en tire
A la rg e share of
s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f I m p e r i a l C o u n ty i s m i g r a t o r y .
Enormous i n c r e a s e s i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n from f i r s t month t o
p e a k month a r e t h e r u l e i n p e a - g r o w i n g a r e a s .
M i g r a t o r y an d M e x i c a n c h i l d r e n do n o t a t t e n d s c h o o l a s
w e l l a s do p e r m a n e n t o n e s .
Economic p r e s s u r e ,
la c k o f co­
o p e r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s and p o o r s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t a r e t h e
p r i n c i p a l c a u s e s o f t h e p o o r a t t e n d a n c e and d r o p - o u t s .
s c h o o l s now t r y
In to
is
school,
Most
t o g e t a l l c h i l d r e n who a r e i n t h e d i s t r i c t
in c lu d in g th e m igrants.
Th e f a c t o f m i g r a t i o n
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r so much l o s s o f t i m e a s t o c a u s e r e t a r d a t i o n .
M i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n t e n d to b e r e t a r d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y
p e r cent.
Th e g r e a t e s t r e t a r d a t i o n i s
Lack o f m en tal a b i l i t y
t i o n among t h e g r o u p ,
eighty
in the s ix th grade.
may b e a c a u s e o f some o f t h e r e t a r d a ­
s i n c e b o t h M exicans and m ig r a n t s a r e
below th e r e s t of th e sc h o o l p o p u la tio n in m ental a b i l i t y .
M igratory c h ild re n are n o t g r e a t l y
a tte n d in g sch o o l,
sch o o l,
in te re ste d in
p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t f e e l w a n t e d a t
and p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l a s e n s e o f f u t i l i t y
re-
327
g a r d in g go in g to school.
The c o m i n g o f t h e m i g r a n t s h a s s o d i s l o c a t e d
the
s c h o o l s t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f l o c a l c h i l d r e n s u f f e r s and
t h e m ig ra to ry c h ild r e n them selves o f te n g e t only th e p o o r e s t
ty p e of education.
Large c l a s s e s ,
s h o rt school day,
inade­
q u a t e c la s s r o o m s and e q u ip m e n t and o f t e n m e d io c re t e a c h e r s
are th eir lo t.
a t noon,
On t h e o t h e r h a n d many now h a v e h o t l u n c h e s
t h e y a r e t r a n s p o r t e d t o s c h o o l on b u s e s a n d t h e
educational o ffe rin g is
o f t e n a s good a s l o c a l c h i l d r e n g e t .
Im provem ents n e e d e d .
B efore adequate e d u c a tio n a l
a d v a n ta g e s a re o f f e r e d th e m ig ra to ry group,
c e r t a i n im prove­
m ents a r e needed:
a ) C h ild l a b o r and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e law s s h o u ld b e
r i g i d l y enforced throughout th e s t a t e .
(2) Enough a d e q u a t e c l a s s r o o m s s h o u ld b e a v a i l a b l e
a s t o p e r m i t a maximum o f f o r t y t o a room w i t h o u t
double s e s s io n s .
(3) A l o n g e r s c h o o l day s h o u ld com pensate f o r tim e
l o s t in m igrating.
( 4 ) The h i g h e s t t y p e o f t e a c h e r s o f b o t h t r a i n i n g
and e x p e rie n c e should be p ro v id e d .
(5) A l l n e c e s s a r y t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s s h o u ld b e
a v a i l a b l e in abundance.
(6) Grade s t a n d a r d s s h o u ld b e a b o l i s h e d and t h e
c h i l d r e n a l l o w e d t o p r o g r e s s a t t h e i r own r a t e s , w i t h
c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d s t o f o l l o w them from p l a c e t o p l a c e .
( 7 ) The c o u r s e o f s t u d y a n d c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e s
s h o u ld b e a d a p te d t o meet t h e p e c u l i a r needs o f th e
group.
328
(8)
An e m p h a s i s s h o u l d b e p l a c e d on m a k i n g t h e
m i g r a t o r y c h i l d f e e l s e c u r e and welcome.
The p r o b l e m o f f i n a n e e .
The i m p r o v e m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n ­
a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n d e p e n d s o n more money.
Th e l o c a l d i s t r i c t s a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y
e n th u s ia s tic about
s p e n d i n g money o n m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n a n d a l t h o u g h t h e y h a v e
p r o v id e d f a c i l i t i e s w hich approach e q u a l i t y w i t h th o s e f o r
resid en ts,
the o ffe rin g s are
w i t h a maximum p o s s i b l e
p ro v id e the n ecessary
s t i l l w oefully in adequate.
e ffo rt lo cal d is tr ic ts
educational f a c i l i t i e s
Eve n
could not
f o r Im perial
V alley* s p e a - p i c k e r s .
Funds a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f th e c o u n ty
superintendent of
s c h o o l s a r e a l r e a d y b e i n g u sed to e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r­
tu n ities
in ju ry
f o r m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n s o f a r as t h e y c a n w i t h o u t
to l o c a l s c h o o ls .
A d d i t i o n a l fu n d s from s t a t e o r f e d e r a l s o u r c e s must b e
p r o v i d e d b e f o r e a d e q u a t e o f f e r i n g s c a n b e made t o
t h i s group.
CHAPTER X III
THE RELATIONSHIP OF CROPS AND SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
IN IMPERIAL COUNTY
Crops dem anding s e a s o n a l l a b o r *
In Im p e ria l V alley
t h e r e a r e t h r e e main t y p e s o f f a r m i n g ;
d a iry farm s,
farm s,
t h e s o - c a l l e d "money
in clu d in g fla x ,
cro p s."
and v e g e ta b le s ,
g rain
Sugar b e e ts a re in clu d ed in t h i s l a s t group.
l i s t d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e two m a in t r e e c r o p s ,
and pecans,
o r cotton,
T his
citru s fru it
b u t t h e t r e e c r o p s do n o t u s e much
s e a s o n a l l a b o r and c o t t o n i s n o t an im p o r ta n t f a c t o r in t h e
a g r i c u l t u r a l p i c tu r e in th e V alley.
Of t h e s e c r o p s ,
of
th e v e g e ta b le s take the la rg e
t h e l a b o r and l e t t u c e ,
m elons, p e a s ,
share
c a r r o t s and tom atoes
a r e t h e m ost i m p o r t a n t from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f l a b o r r e q u i r e ­
m ents.
crops is
The s e a s o n s when l a b o r i s r e q u i r e d on t h e v a r i o u s
shown i n T a b l e X L V I I I a n d a l s o o n T a b l e X I , p .
62.
T h e t o t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l a b o r f l u c t u a t e m o n th b y m o n th ,
a s has been seen,
and a s t h i s c u r v e i s
a com posite o f th e
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l t h e c r o p s t h e p e a k s come when m ore
d if f e r e n t crops are h arv ested ,
o r when o n e w i d e - s p r e a d c r o p
su c h a s m elons i s b e i n g h a r v e s t e d .
The p e a k deman d o f 4 , 6 6 5
w o r k e r s i n J u n e was p r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h i s one c r o p .
o th e r peak,
of
i n March,
a le ttu c e peak.
is
The
a c o m b in a tio n o f s p r i n g p e a s on to p
As t h e T a b l e s h o w s ,
some c r o p s r e q u i r e
c o n s i d e r a b l e l a b o r d u r in g t h e grow ing se a so n .
L ettu ce,
330
TABLE XLVIII
SEASONS, KINDS AND AMOUNT
OP YORK ON VARIOUS CROPS
IMPERIAL VALLEY8
Month
August
Septem ber
W orkers
r e q u i r e d 13
38b
430
bctober
£,640
Novem ber
2,870
becember
J anuary
3,115
2,400
Crops
P a ll peas
L e ttu c e , w in te r tom atoes
M ilo m a iz e , c o t t o n
S pring p e a s , c a r r o t s , l e t t u c e
L ettuce
w in te r tom atoes
M ilo m a i z e , a s p a r a g u s , c o t t o n
S p r.p eas,sp r.p o m ato es,
c a r r o t s and l e t t u c e
l e t t u c e and c a r r o t s
P a l l p e a s , w i n t e r tom atoes
Cot t o n , m i l o , a s p a r a g u s , g r a p e f r u i t
M elo n s,sp r.to m ato es,
c a r r o t s and l e t t u c e
l e t t u c e and c a r r o t s
Tomatoes and m elons
P a l l p e a s ,w in te r tom atoes,
a sp a ra g u s.g ra p e fru it,c o tto n
M elons, to m a to e s
L e t t u c e and c a r r o t s
M e lo n s a n d t o m a t o e s
L e ttu c e ,w in te r tom atoes,
g r a p e f r u i t and c o tto n
Kinds
o f work
P lan tin g
P lan tin g
♦Picking
P lan tin g
♦Thinning
♦B rushing0
♦Picking
P lan tin g
♦T hinning
♦ Picking
♦Picking
P lantin g
♦Thinning
♦B rushing,
papering,
w eeding.
♦Picking
P lan tin g
♦Thinning
♦ W e ed in g ,
p apering.
♦P icking
a . A s t e r i s k s i n d i c a t e work r e q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l ( m i g r a t o r y )
lab o r.
Crops a r e a r r a n g e d i n a p p r o x im a te o r d e r of t h e i r i m p o r t a i c e
in use of la b o r .
b . L a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m R . L . Adams, S e a s o n a l L a b o r
R equirem ents f o r C a l i f o r n i a C rops, p . 22.
c . Many w i n t e r c r o p s a r e c o v e r e d w i t h waxe d p a p e r
i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r p l a n t i n g and l a t e r b r u s h s h e l t e r s a r e
e r e c t e d t o p r o t e c t th e m f r o m t h e c o o l n o r t h w e s t w i n d .
331
TABLE XLVIII continued)
SEASONS, KINDS AND AMOUNT
OP WORK ON VARIOUS CROPS
IMPERIAL VALLEYa
M on th
February
Worker s
required**
3,160
________
M arch
4,652
A pril
3,906
May
4,600
June
4,665
Ju ly
2,375
Crops
A s p a r a g u s an d m e l o n s
L ettu ce, spring peas,
g r a p e f r u i t , w i n t e r tom atoes
M e lo n s a n d t o m a t o e s
Kinds
o f work.
P lan tin g
♦Picking
♦ W e ed in g ,
opening
papers
P lan tin g
C otton
S p r.p e a s,le ttu c e ,a sp a ra g u s,
g r a p e f r u i t , w i n t e r tom atoes,
carro ts
♦Picking
M e l o n s an d t o m a t o e s
♦Taking o f f b r u s h
and w eeding
C otton
♦P lanting
T om atoes,asparagus,
sp r.p e a s,le ttu c e ,c a rro ts
♦Picking
♦Weeding
M e lo n s a n d t o m a t o e s
M il o M a iz e
P lan tin g
Tom atoes, c a n t a l o u p e s ,
carro ts
♦Picking
C a n ta lo u p e s ,o th e r m elons,
c a r r o t s , tom atoes, g rap es
♦Picking
O ther m elons, c a n ta lo u p e s ,
grape s
♦Picking
a* A s t e r i s k s i n d i c a t e w o r k r e q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l
(m igratory) labor*
Crops a r e a r r a n g e d i n a p p r o x im a te o r d e r
of t h e i r im p o rtan ce i n u s e of l a b o r .
b.
L a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m R* L . Adams, S e a s o n a l
Labor R equirem ents f o r C a l i f o r n i a C rops, p . 22 .
c* Many w i n t e r c r o p s a r e c o v e r e d w i t h w axed p a p e r
i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r p l a n t i n g an d l a t e r b r u s h s h e l t e r s a r e
e r e c t e d t o p r o t e c t them f r o m t h e c o o l n o r t h w e s t w in d .
332
m elo n s and to m a to e s a r e t h e c h i e f
exam ples.
L ettu ce i s
p l a n t e d by m a c h i n e r y a n d t h e c u l t i v a t i n g b e t w e e n t h e r o w s
c a n b e d o n e i n t h i s w a y , b u t so f a r no way h a s b e e n d e v i s e d
to o b v iate th e n e c e ssity
w eeding.
O n l y o n e l e t t u c e p l a n t c a n b e a l l o w e d t o gro w i n
an e ig h t in c h space;
h e a d u p.
f o r hand work i n th e t h i n n i n g and
if
t h e y a r e c l o s e r t o g e t h e r t h e y do n o t
Much h a n d w o r k i s
t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y , h o e i n g away
w eeds and t h i n n i n g to a s i n g l e p l a n t .
E a r l y c a n t a l o u p e s and to m a to e s a r e c o v e r e d w i t h waxed
p a p e r and o f t e n p r o t e c t e d from t h e w in d by b r u s h .
r e q u i r e s l a b o r i n th e w i n t e r m onths.
days a rriv e
This
The n a s t h e f i r s t warm
th e p a p e rs a r e opened on th e e a s t s id e to l e t
t h e te n d e r p l a n t s g e t used to the o u t s i d e a i r g r a d u a lly .
T h e s e p l a n t s a r e t h i n n e d t o two t o a h i l l a n d a l l w e e d s
chopped o u t.
A reas where c ro p s a re r a i s e d .
i n p a r t i c u l a r a re a s w ith in a county,
and c lim a tic needs.
Some c r o p s s p e c i a l i z e
a c c o rd in g to
th e ir so il
W in te r tom atoes and s p r i n g p e a s r e q u i r e
t e m p e r a t u r e s above t w e n t y - e i g h t d e g r e e s a t a l l t i m e s , and
t o m a t o e s do n o t do w e l l w h e r e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e r e a c h e s t h i r t y f o u r degrees,
du rin g the p ic k in g season.
F o r many y e a r s i t
w a s t h o u g h t t h a t no p l a c e i n t h e V a l l e y wa s c o n s i s t e n t l y
above f re e z in g throughout the w in te r.
But as th e s p r in g
p e a a r e a s p r e a d n o r t h w a r d i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t
c r o p s f a r t h e r s o u t h w e r e dam aged b y f r o s t ,
e v e n w h en
t h o s e on t h e
333
s t e e p e r s lo p e n o r th o f th e S a lto n Sea w ere u n to u ch ed .
As
to m a to e s i n December and January can v i r t u a l l y command t h e i r
own p r i c e , a ru sh o f tom ato grow ers to N ila n d to o k p la c e and
a new crop s e a s o n was e s t a b l i s h e d .^
im p o r ta n t f a c t o r ,
The sandy s o i l was an
to o , b e c a u s e i t warms up more q u ic k ly .
The sandy s o i l o f th e Mount S ig n a l and W estm orland
a r e a s marked them o u t a s tom ato and m elon a r e a s , a s shown
on F ig u r e 2 3 .
O th er a r e a s in th e V a lle y h a v e sandy s o i l , p a r t ic u ­
l a r l y th e a r e a in a t r i a n g l e e x te n d in g from M elolan d to
V erd e and n o r th o f H o l t v i l l e .
But t h e e a s t s i d e o f th e
V a l l e y i s c o o l e r than th e w e st and m elo n s p la n t e d h e r e are
two w eeks to a month l a t e r th an t h o s e from Mount S ig n a l.
F o r l a t e to m a to e s and m e lo n s, p a r t i c u l a r l y w a te rm e lo n s and
honeydew s w h ich m ature l a t e r when a l l o f th e V a lle y i s more
th a n warm, t h i s a r e a i s u n e x c e lle d .
crop i s c a r r o ts .
But th e b e s t adap ted
T h is crop r e q u ir e s a l o o s e s o i l ;
o th er­
w i s e th e c a r r o t s a re t w i s t e d and fo r k e d and so u n f i t f o r
s h ip p in g .
The c o o l w e a th e r i s no h a n d ic a p ; in d e e d i t i s a
b l e s s i n g b e c a u s e th e s e a s o n can b e th u s p r o lo n g e d .
A sp a ra g u s, t o o , r e q u ir e s a l i g h t s o i l b u t i t must b e
v e r y r i c h , a s th e crop i s a heavy f e e d e r .
The loam s o i l s
1 T h is r a p id d evelop m en t o f t h e w in te r tom ato a r ea
c a n b e se e n i n th e c h a n g es o f a s s e s s e d v a lu a t io n a t N ila n d
a s shown on T ab le XLVII, p . 3 1 9 .
The sudden i n c r e a s e in
1 9 3 5 -3 6 i s c a u se d by th e o p e n in g o f th e w in t e r tom ato a r e a .
334
IMPERIAL
VA LL E Y
N IL A N D
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I SEA
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iefiWe
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FIGURE S3
GRO#S IB IMPERIAL VALLEY IB 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 ^
■
A# ( s e e
i
335)
335
a . T h e d a t e f o r F i g u r e 23 w as g a t h e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e
o f t r a v e l i n g th ro u g h t h e V a lle y d u r in g th e s c h o o l y e a r .
Some o f t h e d a t a a l s o w a s f u r n i s h e d b y A r t S i n c l a i r , A s s i s ­
t a n t A g r i c u l t u r a l C o m m i s s i o n e r a n d b y R u d o lp h M i l l e r o f t h e
S o i l C o n s e rv a tio n S e rv ic e .
A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h i s map w i t h
T a b l e LVI w i l l show t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c r o p s a n d
s c h o o l e n ro llm e n t.
FIGURE 2 3 ( c o n t i n u e d )
CROPS IN IMPERIAL VALLE* IN 1 93 9 -4 0 &
336
on t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e sandy a r e a s d e te rm in e t h e p r i n c i p a l
a r e a s o f t h i s c r o p 's g ro w th .
H ead l e t t u c e i s
a d i f f i c u l t crop to r a i s e .
m u st i t h e th in n e d b u t i t m ust a ls o h a v e c o o l,
w e a th e r o r i t does n o t head p ro p e rly .
N ot o n ly
alm o st c o ld
The h a r d ,
c o ld ,
adobe
s o i l in th e c e n te r o f th e V a lle y i s th e b e s t f o r t h i s c ro p .
The l o w e s t t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e f o u n d i n t h i s a r e a a n d
a f t e r c o ld n i g h t s th e gro u n d s t a y s c o ld a l l day .
D u rin g t h i s
tim e th e l e t t u c e g e t s h a rd and firm .
S u g a r b e e t s a r e a new c r o p b u t seem t o b e m o s t
s u c c e s s f u l l y gro w n i n t h e c a r r o t a r e a .
grow n on la n d to o h a r d even f o r l e t t u c e ,
C o t t o n i s commonly
p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e
h a r d l a n d o f t h e w arm er s e c t i o n s .
C y c le s o f c r o p s .
a m o u n ts o f w a t e r ,
Then,
much m o re t h a n i s n e e d e d f o r f i e l d
cro p s.
to o , m ost v e g e ta b le s a r e heavy f e e d e r s and r a p i d l y
e x h a u s t th e s o i l .
tio n ,
V e g e ta b le s r e q u ir e th e use o f la rg e
T h is l a s t c o u ld b e overcom e by f e r t i l i z a ­
b u t i f t o o much w a t e r i s
u sed f o r to o lo n g ,
th e h e a v ie r
s o i l s b eco m e w a t e r l o g g e d a n d s o u r a n d w i l l n o t grow c r o p s .
T hree y e a rs i s
t h e common l i m i t f o r v e g e t a b l e s o n o n e
a c re a g e w ith o u t r o ta ti o n .
F o llo w in g v e g e ta b le s i t
c u s to m a ry to p u t i n a l f a l f a ,
d em a n d f o r l a b o r ,
so t h e d a i r y f a r m , w i t h no
su cceed s th e v e g e ta b le s ev ery th r e e y e a r s .
A f t e r a c o u p le o f y e a r s in a l f a l f a th e la n d i s
fie ld
is
c ro p such a s f l a x .
sown t o a
T hree y e a r s o f th e s e c ro p s a g a in
337
re q u ire s
s o il.
t h e c h a n g e t o a l f a l f a t o re n e w t h e n i t r o g e n i n t h e
A fte r t h i s
c y c le o f a l f a l f a
th e l a n d i s d r i e d o u t and
a g a in read y f o r v e g e ta b le s .
P o p u la tio n fo llo w s v e g e ta b le h a r v e s t s .
As l a n d c h a n g e s
fro m v e g e t a b l e s to o t h e r c r o p s and b a c k t o v e g e t a b l e s a g a in
t h e p o p u l a t i o n m oves w i t h t h e c r o p s .
I f a la rg e sh are o f th e
l a n d i n a g iv e n a r e a c h a n g e s fro m one t y p e o f c ro p t o
f o r ex am p le,
w i l l a lso
a n o th e r—
f r o m l e t t u c e t o c a r r o t s t h e p e a k o f e m p lo y m e n t
change,
s o t h a t , w h e r e a s F e b r u a r y may h a v e b e e n
t h e m o n th o f g r e a t e s t em p lo y m e n t i n t h e l e t t u c e , A p r i l may b e
th e peak fo r c a r ro ts .
As t h e l a b o r i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n a g i v e n a r e a f l u c t u a t e s
so w i l l ^ t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .
When m o s t o f t h e l a n d o f a
s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s p u t i n t o v e g e t a b l e s i t w i l l show a d e c i d e d
i n c r e a s e in p o p u la tio n d u rin g th e y e a rs th e v e g e ta b le s a re
grow n.
T a b l e XLIX a n d F i g u r e 2 4 i l l u s t r a t e t h i s c y c l e f o r
M a g n o lia S ch o o l D i s t r i c t .
is
As t h e g r a p h b e g i n s , t h e d i s t r i c t
e n t e r i n g a c y c l e o f a l f a l f a and f i e l d
cro p s.
A fte r fiv e
y e a r s o f th e s e c r o p s m ost o f th e la n d g o es i n t o l e t t u c e .
T h r e e l a r g e s h i p p e r - g r o w e r co m p an ies l e a s e d a l a r g e
it
a n d s e t up l a b o r cam p s.
Two y e a r s e n d s t h e l e t t u c e c y c l e
and th e la n d g o es b a c k to a l f a l f a ;
35 i s
in th e a l f a l f a .
a g a in in le ttu c e ,
l e t t u c e c y c le .
sh are of
n e a r ly a l l o f i t by 1934-
A fte r a f iv e y e a r c y c le th e la n d i s
b u t n o t so much l a n d a s a t t h e p r e v i o u s
The e f f e c t o f t h i s f l u c t u a t i o n o n t h e s c h o o l
3 38
TABLE XLIX
YEARLY AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE IN
MAGNOLIA SCHOOL DISTRICT, IMPERIAL COUNTY,
1923-1939
Y ear
1923-24
1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
A. D. A.
Teacher
a p p o rtio n m e n ts
60
83
66
90
72
79
88
117
1 11
70
49
38
49
52
76
87
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
113, U n iv e r s it y B o o k s to re , L os A n g e le s
340
c a n b e im a g in e d .
24 i t
S t a r t i n g a s a tw o -te a c h e r d i s t r i c t
i n 1923-
s lo w ly b u i l t to a c o n s i s t e n t t h r e e - t e a c h e r d i s t r i c t by
1926-27,
as a l i t t l e
o f t h e l a n d w as p u t i n t o
le ttu c e .
T hen
w h e n t h e b i g g r o w e r - s h i p p e r s cam e i n 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 t h e d i s t r i c t
e a r n e d f o u r t e a c h e r s f o r t h e tw o y e a r s o f t h e l e t t u c e c y c l e .
T he s p e c t a c u l a r d r o p f r o m a f o u r - t e a c h e r t o a t w o - t e a c h e r
a p p o r tio n m e n t i n 1932-33 r e f l e c t s th e
g ro w in g to
some o t h e r a r e a .
s h iftin g of le ttu c e -
The d r o p o f t h e c u r v e t o
such a
d e c id e d ly lo w e r l e v e l (a lm o s t a o n e - te a c h e r a p p o r tio n m e n t) ,
is
n o t n e c e s s a r ily a r e f l e c t i o n o f a l a r g e r p r o p o r tio n o f th e
l a n d g o in g o u t o f v e g e ta b le s th a n a t th e 1923-24 " d e p r e s s io n ."
A n o th e r f a c t o r i s
itie s
a t w ork h e r e .
B e tte r tra n s p o rta tio n f a c i l ­
a n d b e t t e r r o a d s h a v e m ade i t p o s s i b l e f o r m o re
f a m i l i e s t o l i v e i n B r a w le y a n d d r i v e t h e e i g h t o r t e n m i l e s
to w ork ev ery d a y .
A new p l a n i s b e i n g f o l l o w e d b y a n u m b e r
o f l e t t u c e g ro w ers.
E v e ry m o r n i n g a t s i x o ' c l o c k a t r u c k
l e a v e s th e p a c k in g shed f o r t h e f i e l d s ,
an d any w o rk e r d e s i r ­
i n g t o go c a n h a v e f r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o w o r k .
T h is i s a
r e a l m o n e y - s a v e r f o r t h e g r o w e r s i n c e h e no l o n g e r h a s t o
m a i n t a i n a l a b o r camp w i t h a l l i t s new r e s t r i c t i o n s .
s lu m i s
The
t r a n s f e r r e d fro m t h e d i t c h - b a n k to th e c i t y a n d th e
la n d lo rd i s re sp o n s ib le f o r th e liv in g c o n d itio n s in s te a d of
th e g ro w er.
The c i t y
s c h o o ls becom e o v e r-c ro w d e d and a r u r a l
s c h o o l w i t h f i v e ro o m s h a s tw o t e a c h e r s .
e co n o m ic w a s te i s
T h is tre m e n d o u s
seen a l l o v e r th e v a lle y .
S ch o o ls m ust b e
341
a b l e t o a c c o m m o d a te t h e p e a k l o a d a n d a r e
so b u i l t .
t h e new p l a n o f h o u s i n g i t
th e y w i l l e v e r be
fu ll
i s d o u b tfu l i f
a g a in .
T h is i s
p r e f e r to l i v e
t h e f a u l t o f no o n e .
T he M e x ic a n w o r k e r s
i n th e c i t i e s w here th e y c a n , i n tim e , h o p e to
own a home o f t h e i r own.
s t o r e s and t h e a t r e s .
At l e a s t th e y a r e n e a r to th e c h e a p e r
The e f f e c t o f t h i s
may b e s e e n i n t h e
r a p i d g r o w t h o f B r a w l e y ' s M e x ic a n p o p u l a t i o n .
in
B ut w ith
H id a lg o S chool
t h i s c i t y , w i t h an a l l - t i m e p e a k o f 1 , 7 5 8 o n F e b r u a r y 2 ,
1940,
i s o n e o f t h e l a r g e s t M e x ic a n s c h o o l s o u t s i d e o f M e x ic o .
P o p u la tio n s h i f t s
a n o th e r.
th ro u p fo t h e y e a r f r o m o n e c r o p t o
As t h e w o r k o n o n e c r o p e n d s t h e p o p u l a t i o n m i g r a t e s
w ith in
th e v a lle y
to o th e r c ro p s.
T h is d o es n o th a p p e n a l l a t
once.
As a new c r o p o p e n s up some w o r k e r s i n o t h e r c r o p s a n d
p e o p l e t e m p o r a r i l y o u t o f w o r k go t o p i c k i t .
S u c h a m ovem ent
o u t o f B r a w le y d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f t h e l e t t u c e s e a s o n i s
sh ow n b y T a b l e L.
L o c a l l y t h e m ovem ent i s p r i n c i p a l l y t o t h e
p e a a r e a s b u t some c h a n g e t o o t h e r l e t t u c e o r p o s s i b l y c a r r o t
areas is
shown i n t h e t a b l e b y t h e t w e l v e t r a n s f e r r i n g t o E l
C e n tro .
The s i t u a t i o n a m o n th l a t e r i s
L II.
sh ow n b y T a b l e s L I a n d
The f o r m e r show s t h e e x i t f ro m t h e v a l l e y a f t e r t h e p e a s
a r e p i c k e d an d w h en t h e l e t t u c e d e a l i s
T a b l e X L V III s h o w s ,
s l o w i n g down.
t h e dem and f o r l a b o r i n t h e v a l l e y
As
342
TABLE L
DESTINATION OP ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-POUR MEXICAN CHILDREN
TRANSFERRED PROM BRAWLEY, FEBRUARY 5 , TO MARCH 4 , 1 94 0
D e s tin a tio n
Number
Per cent
T o ta l c h ild re n
134
100
To L o c a l P e a s
N ila n d
C a lip a tria
M ulb e r r y
(3 6 )
24
10
2
(2 6 .9 )
1 7 .9
7 .5
1 .5
To L o c a l L e t t u c e
•
E l C e n tro
12
8 .9
4
3 .0
To M e x i c a l i
(R e p a tria te d o r
d e p o rte d )
To O t h e r C o u n t i e s
P e a -g ro w in g C o u n tie s
A lam ed a
H a y w a rd
N ile s
O a k la n d
C e n te rv ille
(6)
(4)
(2 )
(2)
Los A n g e le s
O range
San B e rn a rd in o
V e n tu ra
(4 3 .3 )
(2 6 .9 )
14
1 0 .4
8
6
2
6
6 .0
4 .5
1 .5
4 .5
(p e a s and
to m a to e s)
M o n te re y ( b e a n s an d p e a s )
R iv e r s id e (p e a s o r o n io n s)
S a n ta B arb ara (p e a s)
S a n L u i s O b is p o ( p e a s )
C i t r u s C o u n tie s
(58)
(36)
(18)
(1 3 .4 )
12
2
2
2
8 .9
1 .5
1 .5
1 .5
4
3 .0
O th e r C o u n tie s
K ern
343
TABLE L (c o n tin u e d )
DESTINATION OF ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-FOUR
MEXICAN CHILDREN TRANSFERRED FROM
BRAWLEY, FEBRUARY 5 , TO MARCH 4 , 1940
D e s tin a tio n
To O t h e r S t a t e s
A ri zona
Yuma ( l e t t u c e )
Pho e n i x
O k laho m a
New M e x ic o
Wyoming
Number
Per cent
(24)
(1 7 .9 )
18
1 3 .4
2
2
2
1 .4
1 .5
1 .5
(1 0 )
( 8)
34 4
TABLE LI
DESTINATION OF FIVE HUNDRED AND FOURTEEN
CHILDREN LEAVING FOUR
IMPERIAL VALLEY C IT IE S , APRIL, 1 9 4 0 a
D e s tin a tio n
Number
P er cent P er cent of
of
t o t a l le a v in g
Im p . Count.v
to ta l
100
T o ta l c h ild re n
514
T o t a l l e a v i n g I m p e r i a l Co.
178
3 4 .6 3
To o t h e r s t a t e s
V e g e ta b le s and f r u i t
Id aho
O regon
U tah
W a sh in g to n
(4 3 )
(21)
11
4
4
2
8 .3 7
4 .0 9
2 4 .1 6
1 1 .3 0
C o tto n (c h o p p in g )
A riz o n a
A rkansas
New M e x ic o
O k lah o m a
Texas
O th e rs
C o lo ra d o
Wyoming
(13)
9
2
2
1
4
(4)
2
2
3 .5 0
1 0 .1 1
.7 8
2 .2 5
(1 3 5 )
2 6 .2 6
7 5 .8 4
(18)
5
6
1
4
2
3 .5 0
1 0 .1 1
To o t h e r c o u n t i e s
To Bay A r e a ( p e a s , a n d
o th e r v e g e ta b le s)
A la m e d a
C o n tr a C o sta
San F r a n c i s c o
S a n ta C la ra
S a n t a C ru z
100.
a . From t r a n s f e r d u p l i c a t e s *
T he t o t a l n u m b e r t r a n s ­
f e r r e d o u t , A p r i l , 1940 w a s 1 0 0 4 .
T h is group r e p r e s e n t s
5 1 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l .
345
TABLE LI (c o n tin u e d )
DESTINATION OP FIVE HUNDRED AND FOURTEEN
CHILDREN LEAVING- FOUR
IMPERIAL VALLEY C IT IE S , APRIL, 1 9 4 0 a
Per cent
of
to ta l
P er cen t of
t o t a l le a v in g
I m p . C o u n ty
(31)
13
1
5
6
6
6 .0 3
1 7 .4 2
14
2 .7 2
7 .8 6
To C o t t o n C o u n t i e s
F resno
K ern
M erced
T u la re
(42)
4
27
2
9
8 .1 7
2 3 .6 0
To F r u i t C o u n t i e s
C o lu sa
S a c ra m e n to
S an J o a q u i n
S u tte r
T eham a
(19)
1
3
5
7
3
3 .7 0
1 0 .6 7
To o t h e r c o u n t i e s
Los A n g eles
S an D ie g o
(11)
5
6
2 .1 4
6 .1 8
W i t h i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
246
4 7 .8 6
-
90
1 7 .5 1
—
D e s tin a tio n
Num ber
To C e n t r a l C o a s t ( p e a s a n d
le ttu c e )
M o n te re y
San B e n ito
S a n L u i s O b is p o
S a n ta B arbara
Ve n t u r a
To C o a c h e l l a V a l l e y ( o n i o n s )
R iv e rsid e
Unknown
a . From t r a n s f e r d u p l i c a t e s .
The t o t a l n u m b e r t r a n s ­
f e r r e d o u t , A p r i l , 1940 w a s 1 0 0 4 .
T h is g roup r e p r e s e n t s
5 1 .2 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l .
346
s l a c k e n s o f f by s e v e n h u n d r e d f i f t y - t w o w o r k e r s a t t h i s
T h i s many m u s t e i t h e r l e a v e t h e v a l l e y
r e l i e f o r l i v e on w hat th e y h av e sav ed ,
tim e .
t o f i n d w o r k , go o n
if
l e a v i n g t h e v a l l e y a r e show n i n T a b l e L I ,
any.
Those
They r e p r e s e n t
o n l y 3 4 , 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l l e a v i n g B ra w le y s c h o o l s
b e c a u s e m ost o f t h e f a m i l i e s w ere l o o k i n g f o r w o rk e ls e w h e re
in
th e v a lle y ,
secu re in
t h e k n o w le d g e t h a t m o re w o r k w o u ld
o p e n up t h e n e x t m o n th .
T a b l e L I I a t t e m p t s t o show w h e r e t h i s g r o u p s t a y i n g
in
th e v a l l e y w e n t.
A l a r g e n u m b er m oved t o E l C e n t r o ,
p o s s i b l y b a c k home a f t e r h a v i n g b e e n i n B r a w le y o r H o l t v i l l e
te m p o ra rily .
areas.
T h is c o n s ta n t s h i f t i n g aro u n d even d u r in g a se a so n
illu stra te s
ev er,
More moved b a c k t o B r a w l e y fro m some o t h e r
th e i n s t a b i l i t y
seem s e v i d e n t .
th a n th e y l o s t a r e ,
o f e m p lo y m e n t.
One t r e n d , how­
T h o s e s c h o o l s who r e c e i v e d m ore p u p i l s
to a c o n s id e ra b le e x te n t,
o f t h e s p r i n g c r o p s — to m a to e s and m e lo n s.
one c a rro t-g ro w in g a re a to a n o th e r a ls o
in th e a re a s
The s h i f t fro m
seem s a l o g i c a l
c o n c l u s i o n fro m t h e f i g u r e s .
M e x ic a n s w e r e m o re m o b i l e i n 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 .
That th e se
p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t s w e r e l a r g e l y M e x ic a n s i n 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 i s
seen
b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d a t a f o r M e x ic a n s a n d n o n - M e x i c a n s
in
T a b le L II I ,
shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 2 5 .
The o n l y
l a r g e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t s o c c u r among two g r o u p s ;
le ttu c e
s h e d w o r k e r s an d t h e p e a - p i c k e r s .
th e
F or b o th o f th e s e
347
TABLE
LII
TRANSFERS WITHIN IMPERIAL COUNTY
APRIL, 19 4 0
BY SCHOOL RECEIVING CHILD
SHOWING MIGRATION TO MELON— AND TOMATO— GROWING AREAS
S c h o o ls r e c e i v i n g c h i l d
$ o ta i
Number
431
S ch o o ls w ith a n e t l o s s i n e n r o llm e n t
(273)
D e s e rt sc h o o ls
G la m is 3 , O g i l b y 2
5
G e n e ra l c r o p s , ( d a i r y i n g , h o g , f l a x , g r a i n , e t c .)
34
A c a c i a 4 , Elm 2 , I m p e r i a l 1 3 , M e s q u i t e L ak e
1 , N o r t h End 5 , S e e l e y 2 , S i l s b e e 4 , W e s t s i d e 3.
R e s i d e n c e a r e a s (w h e re M e x ic a n s s t a y b e t w e e n
cro p s)
44
C a le x ic o 40, H eber 4 .
L e ttu c e a re a s
120
B r a w le y ( p r i n c i p a l l y ) 1 1 2 , McCabe 7 , S u n s e t
S p rin g s 1 .
18
Pea a re a s
C a l i p a t r i a 16, N ila n d 2 .
C o tto n a r e a s
8
B a r d 3 , F t . Yuma 2 , W i n t e r h a v e n 3 .
C arrot areas
44
A l a m i t o s 1 , H o l t v i l l e 3 0 , M e l o l a n d 4 , V e r d e 9.
S c h o o ls w ith a n e t g a in i n e n r o llm e n t
C arro t areas
Alamo 1 0 , E a s t s i d e 9 , E l C e n t r o 6 3 .
T o m a to e s o r m e lo n s
E u c a ly p tu s 5 , J a s p e r 2 1 ,L a n ta n a 3 ,M t.
S i g n a l 9 , M u lb e rry 6 , P a lm e tto 8,
T r i f o l i u m 6, W estm o rlan d 1 7 .
D e s e r t S ch o o ls
Laguna 1
(158)
P er cent
100
6 3 .3 4
1 .1 6
7 .8 9
1 0 .2 1
2 7 .8 4
4 .1 8
1 .8 6
1 0 .2 1
3 6 .6 6
82
1 9 .0 3
75
1 7 .4 0
1
.2 3
(NOTE) F rom t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e n o m e th o d c o u l d b e
d e v is e d to s e p a r a t e th e m ig r a t i o n w i t h i n th e c o u n ty fro m
c r o p t o c r o p i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y m a n n e r . T h i s t a b l e sh ow s t h e
s h i f t f r o m l e t t u c e an d p e a s t o t o m a t o e s an d m e l o n s .
TABLE nr n SEASONAL
m o bility
MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OP IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, 1 9 2 9 -3 0 and
1 9 3 8 -3 9 . MONTHLY ENROLLMENT OP EACH GROUP IN TERMS OP ITS OWN TOTAL ANNUAL ENROLLMENT
Month
O ctob er
November
December
January
F eb ru ary
March
A p r il
May
June
A verage
e n r o llm e n t
Month
O ctober
November
December
January
F eb ru ary
March
A p r il
May
June
A verage
e n r o llm e n t
P e r c e n ta g e o f T o ta l
Group i l
Group I
P a l l peak
W inter peak
1 9 2 9 -3 0 1 9 3 8 -3 9
1 9 2 9 -3 0 i 1 9 3 8 -3 9
7 .8
6 .0
lS.2
1 5 .8
9 .5
1 4 .0
8 .3
1 3 .6
1 1 .2
1 1 .3
1 2 .0
1 2 .3
1 1 .2
1 3 .7
1 2 .5
1 2 .3
1 4 .7
1 3 .0
1 0 .1
1 1 .5
1 3 .2
1 2 .6
1 1 .6
9 .7
1 1 .2
1 1 .2
1 2 .4
9 .4
1 0 .0
8 .2
9 .5
1 1 .9
8 .2
1 1 .4
8 .6
6 .5
1 6 9 2 .0 1 9 5 1 .4
5 4 .1
P e r c e n ta g e o f t o t a l
an n u al M exican e n r o llm e n t
M exicans
1 9 3 8 -3 9
1 9 2 9 -3 0
7 .2
8 .2
9 .7
8 .8
1 0 .8
1 1 .0
1 1 .6
1 2 .4
1 2 .0
1 3 .4
1 2 .2
1 2 .8
1 1 .8
1 1 .7
1 1 .6
1 0 .9
9 .8
1 1 .3
1 4 7 .0
3 5 7 6 .0
4 1 4 1 .7
Annual M exican E n ro llm e n t
Group I I I
Group IV
S p rin g peak
S t a b le e n r o llm e n t
1 9 2 9 -3 0 1 9 3 8 -3 9
1 9 2 9 -3 0 1 9 3 8 -3 9
8 .8
8 .8
9 .0
7.0
8 .0
8 .1
1 0 .5
1 0 .1
9 .7
1 1 .1
1 1 .1
1 1 .0
1 0 .9
1 0 .8
1 1 .5
1 1 .6
1 2 .8
1 1 .7
1 1 .6
1 2 .4
1 2 .9
1 2 .2
1 1 .6
1 1 .7
1 1 .4
1 1 .7
1 3 .1
1 2 .8
1 2 .7
1 1 .7
1 1 .7
1 3 .3
1 0 .9
1 1 .6
1 3 .0
1 2 .4
7 3 9 .0
5 5 0 .1
9 9 8 .0 1 4 7 4 .8
P e r c e n ta g e o f t o t a l
an n u al non -M exican e n r o llm e n t
Non- M exicans
1 9 3 8 -3 9
1 9 2 9 -3 0
1 0 .1
9 .5
1 0 .0
1 0 .5
1 0 .8
1 0 .8
1 1 .6
1 1 .3
1 2 .2
1 1 .9
1 2 .2
1 2 .0
1 1 .8
1 1 .1
1 0 .9
1 1 .4
1 1 .2
1 0 .6
6 1 6 1 .0
6 3 3 2 .7
348
iHKHRGKi
ifl ieiiSBS!!
iiSmi
MBHssssassiigsas
■■£■■■■■■■EaSai
313, U n iversity Bookstore, Los A ngeles
350
g ro u p s th e c lo s e o f th e se a so n s ig n a l s a s h i f t to a n o th e r
c ro p a re a o u ts id e th e v a lle y .
The d a t a f o r 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 , h o w e v e r ,
s h o w s a l e s s p r o n o u n c e d p e a k o f e m p lo y m e n t f o r M e x ic a n s a n d
a slig h tly
m o re p r o n o u n c e d o n e f o r t h e w h i t e s ,
M e x ic a n s a r e s t i l l
b u t th e
som ew h at m ore m o b i l e t h a n t h e w h i t e s .
A s t u d y o f t h e d a t a i n T a b l e LIV show s t h i s
change in
am ount o f f l u c t u a t i o n fro m 192 4 -3 0 to 1938-39 v e r y c l e a r l y .
T h e t y p i c a l m o n th b y m o n th i n c r e a s e t o a peak: i n M arch i s
show n b y t h e c o u n t y t o t a l s f o r a l l t h r e e y e a r s , w i t h o n l y a
s l i g h t te n d e n c y f o r th e p e a k to b e e x te n d e d i n t o
m o n th s e v i d e n t .
th e s p rin g
T h is p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e p eak , h o w ev er i s
q u i t e p r o n o u n c e d i n 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 among t h e M e x ic a n s a n d t h e w h i t e s
seem t o b e a p p r o a c h in g t h e 1 9 2 9-30 c u r v e o f th e M e x ic a n s.
W h i t e s now b e c o m i n g m ore m o b i l e .
The d a t a ,
in
show­
i n g t h e e n r o l lm e n t o f M e x ic a n s and n o n -M e x ic a n s i n te rm s o f
p e r c e n t a g e s o f th e t o t a l m o n th ly e n r o l lm e n t ,
illu stra te
th is
a l m o s t c o m p l e t e r e v e r s a l o f t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two
r a c e s in th e n in e y e a r p e r io d .
s till
E x c e p t t h a t t h e M e x ic a n s
a r r i v e l a t e i n t h e f a l l m o n th s,
i t m ig h t b e s a i d t h a t
t h e w h i t e s a r e now t h e m o re m o b i l e g r o u p .
From D e c e m b e r o n ,
t h e 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 d a t a m o re n e a r l y r e s e m b l e t h e 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 n o n M e x ic a n f i g u r e s
t h e n t h e i r own, a s F i g u r e 26 s h o w s .
T h i s s t a b i l i z i n g o f t h e M e x ic a n e n r o l l m e n t t h r o u g h o u t
th e e n t i r e w i n t e r w ith in I m p e r ia l V a lle y h a s gone f a r to
m ak e p o s s i b l e im p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s f o r th e m .
351
TABLE LIV
COMPARISON OP FLUCTUATION IN ENROLLMENT OP
MEXICAN AND NON-MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ALL
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OP IMPERIAL COUNTY,
CALIFORNIA, 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 AND 1 9 3 8 - 3 9
A l l
M onth
Number
1929-30
C h i 1 d r e n
jPer c e n t o f
A nnual
A verage
1938-39
1 929-30
1934-35
1938-39
A verage
9 ,7 3 7
1 0 ,3 6 3
1 0 0 ,0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
O cto b er
7 ,9 8 0
8 ,4 0 4
8 2 ,0
8 6 .2
8 1 .1
N ovem ber
8 ,6 9 0
9 ,2 2 1
8 9 ,2
9 2 .5
8 9 .0
D ecem b er
9 ,5 9 6
1 0 ,2 1 2
9 8 ,6
9 8 .0
9 8 .5
Jan u ary
1 0 ,2 6 8
1 0 ,9 1 6
1 0 5 .5
1 0 3 .4
1 0 5 .3
F eb ru ary
1 0 ,9 1 6
1 1 ,4 1 6
1 1 2 .1
1 0 6 .7
1 1 0 .2
M arch
1 0 ,7 8 6
1 1 ,4 8 7
1 1 0 .8
1 0 6 .9
1 1 0 .8
A p ril
1 0 ,1 9 6
1 0 ,7 6 1
1 0 4 .7
1 0 5 .5
1 0 3 .8
May
9 ,7 9 4
1 0 ,5 7 5
1 0 0 .6
1 0 5 .1
1 0 2 .1
June
9 ,4 1 0
1 0 ,2 7 7
9 6 .6
9 6 .8
9 9 .2
TABLE LIV (c o n tin u e d )
COMPARISON OP FLUCTUATION IN ENROLLMENT OP
MEXICAN AND NON-MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ALL
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OP IMPERIAL COUNTY,
CALIFORNIA, 1 9 2 9 -3 0 , 1 9 3 4 -3 5 AND 1 9 3 8 -3 9
N o n - M e x i c a n s
Month
T S S S -S O
A verage
O ctob er
November
December
January
F eb ru ary
March
A p r il
May
June
?er cent
Annual
Number
6 ,1 6 1
5 ,2 9 9
5 ,5 6 9
6 ,0 5 2
6 ,2 7 1
6 ,6 3 2
6 ,6 5 0
6 ,4 1 9
6 ,3 2 9
6 ,2 3 1
1 5 3 6 -3 5
6 ,3 6 5
5 ,7 4 6
5 ,9 7 3
6 ,1 6 7
6 ,6 0 0
7 ,1 2 6
7 ,0 2 5
6 ,3 5 1
6 ,2 3 5
6 ,0 6 3
1 5 2 5 - 3 5 ' AI i S f - § 5
100*0
86*0
90*4
9 8 .2
1 0 1 .8
1 0 7 .6
1 0 7 .9
1 0 4 .2
1 0 2 .7
1 0 1 .1
1 0 0 .0
9 3 .8
9 6 .4
9 8 .6
1 0 2 .0
1 0 5 .1
1 0 5 .8
1 0 4 .0
1 0 3 .1
9 3 .1
P er c e n t o f T o t a l
M onthly
1 5 3 5 -3 5
1 0 0 .0
9 0 .3
9 4 .0
9 6 .9
1 0 3 .7
1 1 1 .9
1 1 0 .4
9 9 .8
9 7 .9
9 5 .3
1 9 2 9 -3 § n r ? ^ § i '
6 3 .3
6 6 .4
6 4 .1
6 3 .1
6 1 .1
6 0 .8
6 1 .7
6 3 .0
6 4 .6
6 6 .2
5 8 .7
6 3 .9
6 1 .1
5 9 .1
5 7 .9
5 7 .8
5 8 .0
5 7 .8
5 7 .6
5 6 .4
1 5 3 6 -3 5
6 1 .4
6 8 .4
6 4 .8
6 0 .3
6 0 .5
6 2 .4
6 1 .2
5 9 .0
5 9 .0
5 9 .0
TABLE
LIV( c o n t in u e d )
COMPARISON OP FLUCTUATION IN ENROLLMENT OP
MEXICAN AND NON-MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ALL
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OP IMPERIAL COUNTY,
CALIFORNIA, 1 9 2 9 -3 0 , 1 9 3 4 -3 5 AND 1 9 3 8 -5 9
________________________________ M e x i c a n s
M o n th
Number
1 9 2 9 -3 0
A verage
O ctober
November
December
January
F eb ru ary
March
A p r il
May
June
3 ,5 7 6
2 ,6 8 1
3 ,1 2 1
3 ,5 4 4
3 ,9 9 7
4 ,2 8 4
4 ,1 3 6
3 ,7 7 7
3 ,4 6 5
3 ,1 7 9
1 9 3 8 -3 9
3 ,9 9 8
2 ,6 5 8
3 ,2 4 8
4 ,0 4 5
4 ,3 1 6
4 ,2 9 0
4 ,4 6 2
4 ,4 1 0
4 ,3 4 0
4 ,2 1 4
P er cen ^
Annual
A verage
I&&9-S0 1 9 3 4 -3 6
1 0 0 .1
7 5 .0
8 7 .3
9 9 .1
1 1 1 .8
1 1 9 .8
1 1 5 .7
1 0 5 .6
9 6 .9
8 8 .9
1 0 0 .0
7 5 .3
8 7 .1
9 7 .0
1 0 5 .4
1 0 9 .1
1 0 8 .6
1 0 7 .7
1 0 7 .9
1 0 2 .0
1 9 3 6 -3 9
1 0 0 .0
6 6 .5
8 1 .2
1 0 1 .2
1 0 7 .9
1 0 7 .3
1 1 1 .6
1 1 0 .6
1 0 8 .6
1 0 5 .4
_______________________________
cen t o f T o ta l
M onthly
E n ro llm e n t
1 9 2 9 -3 0 1 9 3 4 -3 5 1 9 3 8 -S F
3 6 .7
3 3 .6
3 5 .9
3 6 .9
3 8 .9
3 9 .2
3 8 .3
3 7 .0
3 5 .4
3 3 .8
4 1 .3
3 6 .1
3 8 .9
4 0 .9
4 2 .1
4 2 .2
4 2 .0
4 2 .2
4 2 .4
4 3 .6
3 8 .6
3 1 .6
3 5 .2
3 9 .7
3 9 .5
3 7 .6
3 8 .8
4 1 .0
4 1 .0
4 1 .0
s .i|,i£ u y s o '| ‘^ a o js jjo o g X jtsja A u x fi 'fXP
355
The r e a s o n f o r t h e i r s t a g i n g t h r o u g h t h e s p r i n g m o n th s
is
n o t e n tire ly
e v id e n t,
a lth o u g h T a y l o r 's c o u n t o f t h e tim e
o f le a v in g Im p e ria l V a lle y ,
s h o w in g t h e m o n th o f g r e a t e s t
e x i t to b e i n J u l y ^ o f f e r s a clu e*
It
seem s p r o b a b l e t h a t
c r o p s f o r m e r l y f o l l o w e d b y th em a r e b e i n g p i c k e d b y w h i t e
l a b o r and th e y s t a y i n
t h e v a l l e y u n t i l t h e w o rk i n t h e
g r a p e s o p e n s up b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no w o r k e l s e w h e r e a n d i t
b e t t e r to s t a y on r e l i e f
r e s i d e n t c o u n ty .
t h a n go a n d b e o u t s i d e o f t h e i r
A n o th er p r o b a b le f a c t o r i n v o l v e s a n o th e r
la b o r d isp la c e m e n t.
la b o re rs in
is
T h ere a r e r e l a t i v e l y
t h e v a l l e y a n y m o re .
few J a p a n e s e
N e a r l y e v e r y o n e i s now
f a r m i n g f o r h i m s e l f , m o s t l y i n t o m a t o e s an d m e l o n s .
le ss
th e M e x ic a n s h a v e f i l t e r e d
th e
e x te n sio n o f th e cu rv e in to
in to
D o u b t­
t h i s l a b o r m a rk e t and
t h e s p r i n g m o n th s i s
an
e f f e c t o f t h e m e lo n h a r v e s t a s w e l l a s t h e r e l i e f p o l i c i e s .
S h i f t i n g o f J a p a n e s e and F i l i p i n o s i n t o N lla n d
to m a to a r e a .
T h is in c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y
among J a p a n e s e i n t h e
g r o w i n g o f c r o p s i s show n b y t h e c h a n g i n g p i c t u r e o f t h e
r a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n N i l a n d S c h o o l ( T a b l e LV).
It
u n f o r tu n a te t h a t d a ta a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r 19 34-35,
b efo re
th e o p e n in g o f t h e w i n t e r to m ato la n d .
is
th e y ear
S u ffic e i t
to
s a y t h a t t h e r e w e r e p r a c t i c a l l y no J a p a n e s e b e f o r e 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 .
2 P a u l S. T a y l o r , M e x ic a n L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .
Mi g r a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s . I l l ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a :
The
U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 ), p. 16.
TABLE LV
CHANGE IN RACIAL DISTRIBUTION
AT NILAND SCHOOL
1 9 3 5 --1 9 3 9
S chool E n ro llm e n t
R aces
1 9 3 6 - 37
1 9 3 5 - 36
A n n u a l Pe r A n n u a l P e r
A verage c e n t A verage c e n t
of
of
to ta l
to ta l
T o ta l
1 6 6 .7
W h ite
M e x ic a n
N e g ro
Japanese
O th e rs
7 1 .3
6 6 .6
1 .6
2 7 .2
100
4 2 .7
4 0 .0
1 .0
1 6 .3
2 0 5 .4
8 1 .3
8 2 .4
1 .1
3 9 .8
.8
1937-38
A nnual P e r
A verage c e n t
of
to ta l
1 9 3 8 - 39
Annual P er
A verage c e n t
of
to ta l
1 9 3 9 - 40
A nnual P e r
A verage c e n t
of
to ta l
160
£ 3 6 .5
loo
2 3 4 .3
IOC)
2 ^ 0 .4
106
3 9 .6
4 0 .1
.5
1 9 .4
.4
1 1 0 .2
7 8 .5
2 .4
4 1 .7
2 .7
4 6 .8
3 3 .3
1 .1
1 7 .7
1 .1
1 0 8 .1
8 6 .1
.8
3 6 .4
3 .0
4 6 .2
3 6 .8
.3
1 5 .5
1 .2
1 5 5 .0
7 9 .1
.6
4 9 .9
5 .8
5 3 .4
2 7 .2
.2
1 7 .2
2 .0
356
NOTE: W h i t e s show a s t e a d y a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e a s w e l l a s b e c o m in g a l a r g e r
p r o p o r tio n of th e t o t a l p o p u la tio n *
J a p a n e s e i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f to m a t o c u l t u r e
i n 1936 *
S i n c e t h e n , w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g , t h e y b ecam e a l e s s i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f
t h e t o t a l u n t i l l a s t y e a r , Mdien t h e y a g a i n sh ow ed a p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e .
T h is
i n c r e a s e c o r r e s p o n d s t o an u n u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l t o m a to y e a r .
F i l i p i n o s ( o t h e r s ) a r e s h o w in g a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e b o t h i n n u m b e r s an d
i n p r o p o r t i o n to th e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .
M e x ic a n s h a v e i n c r e a s e d o n l y s l i g h t l y o v e r t h e f i v e y e a r p e r i o d w i t h
many f l u c t u a t i o n s . R e l a t i v e t o t h e r e s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e y a r e on t h e d e c l i n e .
35?
S in c e th e g ro w in g o f w i n t e r to m a to e s s t a r t e d ,
have in c re a se d
every y e a r ,
w ork a lm o s t e x c l u s iv e ly i n
as have a ls o
th e Jap an ese
t h e F i l i p i n o s , who
to m a to e s i n I m p e r ia l V a lle y .
C r o p s c r e a t e f i v e m a in e n r o l l m e n t t y p e s .
T a b le s L I I I ,
L V I, LVII a n d L V I I I r e p r e s e n t an e f f o r t t o i s o l a t e
r o llm e n t ty p e s c r e a te d by v a r io u s c ro p s .
d iv id e d in to
The s c h o o l y e a r w a s
t h r e e p a r t s o f t h r e e m o n th s e a c h a n d t h e s c h o o l s
w ere c l a s s i f i e d
f e l l in to
t h e en­
a c c o rd in g to w h e th e r th e peak o f e n ro llm e n t
th e f i r s t ,
second o r t h i r d
t h r e e m o n th s p e r i o d .
When t h e d a t a w e r e r e d u c e d t o c o m p a r a b l e f i g u r e s i t w as f o u n d
t h a t th e c u rv e s th e y fo rm ed c o rre s p o n d e d a lm o st e x a c tly w ith
t h e c u r v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s w h e r e a s i n g l e c r o p w as
r a i s e d alm o st e x c lu s iv e ly f o r th e g iv e n y e a r .
It
th u s
seem ed r e a s o n a b le to assum e t h a t th e t h r e e c u r v e s d e r iv e d ,
w ith f a l l ,
th e
w i n t e r and s p r i n g p e a k s a r e a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f
t y p ic a l c u rv e f o r th e c ro p s o r c ro p co m b in a tio n s.
T h a t t h e s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t c u r v e s do n o t c o r r e s p o n d
c l o s e l y w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n c u r v e s f o r t h e c r o p s w i t h w h ic h
th e y a re a s s o c ia te d i s n o t n e c e s s a r ily p ro o f th a t th e
same
t y p e o f e n r o l l m e n t c u r v e w i l l n o t b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e same
c r o p s fro m y e a r t o y e a r .
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c u r v e s ,
c o v e rin g a p e rio d of n in e y e a rs ,
f o r a re a s h a v in g one p e r­
s i s t e n t c r o p s u c h a s M ount S i g n a l f o r m e lo n s a n d C a l i p a t r i a .
f o r p e a s sho w s a r e m a r k a b l e u n i f o r m i t y
fro m y e a r t o y e a r .
TABLE LVI
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, BY MONTHS, IN SELECTED YEARS8,
G ro u p I ,
G roup I I ,
f a l l peako
Y ear
Per cen t of annual Per cen t of t o t a l Per cent of annual
an d
a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
m o n th ly e n r o llm e n t
m o n th
e n ro llm e n t
e n ro llm e n t
( a ll races)
1929-30
7 1 .2
2 7 .9
O cto b er
1 0 9 .5
2 9 .6
8 5 .8
1 2 5 .9
N ovem ber
1 0 8 .2
2 5 .6
1 0 2 .8
D ecem b er
2 5 .0
1 2 3 .4
1 0 0 .0
Jan u ary
1 0 3 .4
2 4 .8
1 3 2 .2
F eb ru ary
1 0 3 .4
2 4 .3
M arch
1 2 3 .0
2 4 .1
1 0 2 .0
1 0 2 .0
A p ril
2 2 .1
8 9 .8
May
8 5 .8
June
5 8 .5
1 6 .8
7 3 .7
1932-33
1 0 6 .3
4 8 .5
O c to b e r
1 1 5 .6
5 0 .3
Novem ber
4 9 .0
1 1 5 .6
D e cem b er
1 1 2 .0
4 7 .9
Jan u ary
1 0 5 .1
4 6 .1
F eb ru ary
9 8 .2
4 4 .6
Mar c h
9 6 .4
4 4 .6
A p ril
9 3 .4
4 4 .3
May
8 8 .3
4 1 .8
June
a . l ) a t a f r o m i m p e r i a l C o u n ty f i l e s ,
b . (See p . 35 7 )
7 5 .8
9 1 .9
9 8 .5
1 0 7 .3
1 1 8 .9
1 1 5 .3
1 0 5 .6
9 7 .9
8 4 .5
p a r t l y by T a y lo r*
w in te r peak^
Per cent of to ta l
m o n th ly e n r o llm e n t
(a ll races)
3 6 .1
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 3 .8
4 4 .2
4 2 .4
3 9 .7
3 5 .8
3 2 .3
3 1 .2
3 4 .8
3 4 .8
3 5 .2
3 7 .4
3 7 .0
3 5 .5
3 5 .8
3 1 .8
358
TABLE LVI (c o n tin u e d )
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, BY MONTHS, IN SELECTED YEARS8,
nr. -----
-- ------- Group"
s p r in g peak**
Group IV,
Year
t e r c e n t o t an n u al t e r c e n t o f t o t a l t e r c e n t o f an n u al
and
a v e ra g e M exican
m onth ly e n r o llm e n t a v e ra g e M exican
e n r o llm e n t
e n r o llm e n t
month
( a ll ra ces)
1 9 2 9 -3 0
6 0 .4
1 8 .7
8 7 .2
O ctober
7 3 .5
2 1 .3
November
9 4 .3
8 7 .6
December
2 3 .4
1 0 0 .1
9 9 .2
January
2 4 .5
1 0 3 .1
1 1 5 .0
2 6 .0
F eb ru ary
1 0 4 .7
1 1 6 .0
2 6 .2
March
1 0 4 .7
1 1 8 .3
2 6 .8
A p r il
1 0 2 .9
1 1 3 .1
2 6 .3
May
1 0 4 .8
June
1 1 7 .5
2 7 .2
9 8 .0
1 9 3 2 -3 3
7 6 .6
3 5 .0
9 4 .2
O ctober
7 5 .4
November
3 3 .8
1 0 0 .1
9 3 .3
3 7 .1
December
1 0 1 .8
9 3 .9
January
9 2 .7
3 6 .5
1 0 2 .5
3 9 .0
F eb ru ary
9 8 .1
1 0 8 .6
March
4 0 .3
1 0 6 .5
1 1 2 .6
4 1 .1
A p r il
1 0 5 .6
1 1 7 .1
4 2 .2
May
1 0 3 .2
1 0 1 .5
June
3 7 .5
9 7 .8
a* D ata from I m p e r ia l County f i l e s , p a r t l y by T a y lo r
b . (S e e p . 35? )
t ’e r c e n t o f t o t i
m on th ly enrolling
( a ll races)
5 1 .6
5 2 .5
5 3 .6
5 3 .7
5 3 .2
5 2 .6
5 2 .2
5 3 .1
5 2 .8
4 6 .5
4 7 .7
4 7 .0
4 2 .6
4 4 .4
4 8 .2
4 8 .4
4 8 .5
4 7 .4
359
TABLE LVI
(c o n tin u e d )
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, BY MONTHS, IN SELECTED YEARS8
G rou p 1 .
r a i l peaku
G roup I I .
P e r c e n t o f a n n u a l l> e r c e n t o f t o t a l P e r c e n t o f a n n u a l
Y ear
and
a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
m o n th ly e n r o llm e n t
a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
e n ro llm e n t
m o n th
( a ll races)
e n ro llm e n t
1934-36
7 3 .1
3 2 .3
O c to b e r
82*6
8 2 .6
N ovem ber
3 3 .6
94*6
D ecem b er
1 0 0 .0
1 0 8 .7
3 6 .9
1 0 7 .7
Jan u ary
105* 4
3 7 .5
1 2 1 .8
3 5 .9
F eb ru ary
101* 1
1 2 3 .9
3 7 .7
1 0 5 .4
M arch
3 8 .8
9 7 .3
A p ril
1 0 5* 4
1 0 2 .0
3 5 .6
May
97*8
9 1 .0
3 6 .8
June
9 8 .9
1938-39
O c to b e r
2 5 .5
1 4 2 .3
N ovem ber
1 2 2 .0
2 2 .5
D ecem b er
2 0 .6
1 1 0 .9
2 0 .1
Jan u ary
1 1 0 .9
1 7 .1
F eb ru ary
9 0 .6
16 . 6
8 6 .9
M arch
1 6 .2
8 5 .0
A p ril
1 4 .7
7 3 .9
May
June
7 7 .8
1 5 .2
TT.” ©st.s-'fTPTrr'-iTiiprbT'lTi:Jr-ffrtmxy ■■
b . ( S e e p . 35*3
5 4 .1
7 4 .6
1 0 0 .9
1 1 2 .1
1 1 6 .9
1 1 9 .2
1 1 2 .0
1 0 7 .2
1 0 2 .9
bly - b y - T a y l o r r "
w in te r peak0
Per cen t of t o t a l
m o n th ly e n r o llm e n t
( a ll races)
2 0 .7
2 2 .4
2 5 .0
2 5 .9
2 7 .2
2 6 .9
2 3 .3
2 4 .9
2 3 .1
3 5 .5
4 1 .8
4 7 .7
4 8 .0
4 6 .2
4 6 .4
5 0 .4
5 0 .7
4 9 .9
360
TABLE LVI
(c o n tin u e d )
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, BY MONTHS, IN SELECTED YEARSa
1938-39
O c to b e r
N ovem ber
D ecem ber
Jan u ary
F eb ru ary
M arch
A p ril
May
June
G rou p iV',
s p r i n g peak*5
P
er cen t of annual
Per cen t of t o t a l
m o n th ly e n r o llm e n t
a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
e n ro llm e n t
( a ll races)
S ta b le u
Per cent of to ta l
m o n th ly e n r o llm e n t
( a ll races)
6 6 .8
9 2 .9
9 3 .8
1 0 6 .3
1 0 9 .1
1 0 8 .4
1 1 4 .0
1 1 3 .1
1 0 5 .5
3 5 .6
4 0 .0
4 2 .7
4 4 .7
4 4 .8
4 4 .5
4 6 .2
4 5 .9
5 0 .1
9 0 .4
9 5 .8
1 0 0 .3
1 0 2 .7
1 0 3 .9
1 0 2 .1
1 0 1 .3
1 0 2 .1
1 0 1 .1
5 1 .0
5 2 .0
5 2 .7
5 2 .7
5 2 .4
5 3 .0
5 1 .6
5 2 .6
5 1 .9
6 2 .7
7 2 .5
9 8 .7
9 7 .4
1 1 2 .3
1 0 9 .6
1 1 4 .9
1 1 9 .4
1 1 2 .3
2 5 .3
2 8 .0
3 4 .2
3 1 .8
3 5 .7
3 5 .2
3 6 .4
3 8 .1
3 6 .6
8 0 .7
9 1 .0
9 9 .6
1 0 4 .0
1 0 4 .1
1 0 5 .4
1 0 5 .2
1 0 5 .3
1 0 4 .7
3 1 .8
3 3 .6
3 5 .1
3 5 .2
3 4 .6
3 4 .9
3 5 .4
3 5 .5
3 6 .1
a . D a t a f r o m I m p e r i a l C o u n ty f i l e s ,
b . (See p . 357 )
p a r t l y by T a y lo r#
IS £
Y ear
and
m o n th
1934-35
O c to b e r
N ovem ber
D ecem ber
Jan u ary
F eb ru ary
M arch
A p ril
May
June
G ro up I I I ,
Per cent of annual
a v e r a g e M e x ic a n
e n ro llm e n t
362
TABLE LVI
(c o n tin u e d )
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF
MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA,
BY MONTHS, IN SELECTED YEiiRS.a
GROUP l b
1932-33
K eber
H ig h lin e
Jasper
Laguna
M a g n o lia
M e lo la n d
N o rth -fin d
Rose
1929-30
Alamo
B ard
E a stsid e
M e lo la n d
llo s e
S u n se t S p rin g s
1934-35
G la m is
N o r th E n d
O g ilb y
R ose
V erde
1938-39
F t • Yuma
H ig h lin e
L a n ta n a
A m e r ic a n
G irl
W in te rh a v e n
GROUP I I
1929-30
A cacia
B raw ley ;
C a lip a tria
E u c a ly p tu s
H eber
H ig h lin e
H o ltv ille
L a n ta n a
M a g n o li a
M e s q u i t e L ak e
M u lb e rry
N ila n d
N o r t h End
S ilsb e e
V erde
( b e s t crop y e a r .
1932-33
A lam ito s
B raw ley
C a lip a tria
E a stsid e
E l C en tro
E u c a ly p tu s
H o ltv ille
L a n ta n a
McCabe
M u lb e rry
N ila n d
P a lm e tto
S ilsb e e
1934-35
C a lip a tria
E l C en tro
E lm
E u c a ly p tu s
Laguna
N ila n d
P a lm e tto
S ilsb e e
W e stsid e
1938-39
A c a c ia
B r a w le y
C a lip a tria
E a stsid e
Elm
H eber
M a g n o li a
N ila n d
O g ilb y
R o se
S e e le y
S ilsb e e
T rifo liu m
R o o se v e lt
)
a . D a t a f r o m I m p e r i a l C o u n ty f i l e s ,
p a r t l y by T a y lo r.
h. F o r l o c a t i o n o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s
see p.
368*
363
TABLE LVI (con tin u ed )
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF
MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA,
BY MONTHS,IN SELECTED YEAES.a
GROUP I I I
1929-30
1932-33
A la m ito s
D ix ie la n d
E l C e n tro
G larn is
Im p e ria l
M t.S ig n a l
S e e le y
T rifo liu m
W e s tm o r l a n d
W e stsid e
A c acia
Alamo
D ix ie la n d
M t.S ig n a l
O g ilb y
S e e le y
T rifo liu m
W e s tm o r l a n d
W estsid e
1934-35
Alamo
B raw ley
E a stsid e
H eber
H o ltv ille
Im p e ria l
L a n ta n a
M a g n o lia
M e lo l a n d
Mt . S i g n a l
M u lb e rry
S e e le y
S unset
S p rin g s
T rifo liu m
W e s t m o r la n d
1938-39
A la m ito s
Alamo
E u c a ly p tu s
Im p e ria l
M e lo la n d
Mt . S i g n a l
P a lm e tto
S unset
S p rin g s
W estm o rlan d
W e stsid e
GROUP IV
1929-30
A n d ra d e
C a le x ic o
C o lo ra d o
Elm
Jasper
Laguna
McCabe
O g ilb y
P a lm e tto
W in terh av en
1 932-33
A n d ra d e
B ard
C a le x ic o
C o lo rad o
Elm
G la m is
Im p e ria l
M e sq u ite Lake
S u n se t S p rin g s
V erde
W in te rh a v e n
1934-35
A c a c ia
A lam ito s
A ndrade
B ard
C ale x ic o
C o lo ra d o
D ix ie la n d
H ig h lin e
Jasper
McCabe
M e sc ju ite
L ak e
W in te rh a v e n
a . D a t a f r o m I m p e r i a l C o u n ty f i l e s ,
1938-39
A ndrade
B ard
C a le x ic o
E l C en tro
G la m is
H o ltv ille
Jasper
McCabe
M esq u ite
Lake
M u lb e rry
N o r t h E nd
V e rd e
p a r t l y by T a y lo r*
364
TABLE LVI (con tin u ed )
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT OF
MEXICAN CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
OF IMPERIAL COUNTY, CALIFORNIA,
BY MONTHS, IN SELECTED YEARS.a
b • The n u m e r i c a l a n n u a l a v e r a g e e n r o l l m e n t s o f M e x ic a n
c h i l d r e n i n e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls w ere as f o l l o w s :
Y ear
1929-30
1932-33
1934-35
1938-39
G ro up I
fa ll
.... “ 14*7
334
92
54
G rou p I I
w in te r
1 ,6 9 2
2 ,0 7 3
547
1 ,9 5 1
G ro up I T I
sp rin g
739
4 75
2 ,1 4 4
550
G roup IV
s ta b le
998
1 ,2 0 9
1 ,2 2 5
1 ,7 7 5
(M etho d o f s e g r e g a t i o n i n t o g r o u p s )
I f t h e maximum
e n r o l l m e n t o f M e x ic a n s o c c u r r e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e m o n t h s ,
s c h o o l s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i n G roup I ; i f i n t h e s e c o n d t h r e e
m o n t h s , t h e y w e r e p l a c e d i n G roup I I ; i f i n t h e l a s t t h r e e
m o n t h s , i n G roup I I I .
I n r a r e c a s e s p e a k s o c c u r r e d i n two
s e a s o n s ; t h e n t h e g r e a t e r e n r o l l m e n t i n a l l t h r e e m o n th s o f
t h e s e a s o n c o m b in e d d e t e r m i n e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l .
I f t h e r a n g e b e t w e e n maximum a n d minimum e n r o l l m e n t s o f
M e x ic a n s w as n o t g r e a t e r t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e a v e r a g e
M e x ic a n e n r o l l m e n t f o r t h e y e a r t h e e n r o l l m e n t was r e g a r d e d
a s ’’s t a b l e ” an d t h e s c h o o l c l a s s i f i e d i n G rou p I V . T h i s
l i m i t was w e l l a b o v e t h e r a n g e o f f l u c t u a t i o n i n e n r o l l m e n t
o f ’’n o n - M e x i c a n ” c h i l d r e n i n a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s :
th e
l a t t e r e x h i b i t e d a ra n g e o f o n ly tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t above
an d b e lo w t h e a v e r a g e i n 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 and i n 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 , o n l y 1 5 . 2
p e r c e n t i n 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 a n d 2 1 . 7 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 . T he
s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w ere g ro u p e d f o r th e v a r i o u s y e a r s a s
f o l l o w s , t h e u n d e r l i n e d d i s t r i c t s b e i n g i n t h e same g r o u p
f o r tw o o r m o re y e a r s o f t h e f o u r :
(see p*368 )
a . D a t a f r o m I m p e r i a l C o u n ty f i l e s ,
T a y lo r.
p a r t l y by
365
TABLE LVI I
FLUCTUATIONS IN
CALIPATRIA SCHOOL
(M o n th ly e n r o llm e n t f o r
o f t h e i r own t o t a l
M o n th
E n ro llm e n t
T o t a l M e x ic a n
ENROLLMENT IN
BY MONTHS, 1 9 3 8 - 3 9
r a c i a l gro u p s In term s
an n u al e n ro llm e n ts)
P e rc e n ta g e s o f t o t a l
A ll c h ild re n
M e x ic a n s
O c to b e r
384
136
8 .2
8 .1
N o v em b er
424
141
9 .1
8 .4
Decem ber
496
185
1 0 .6
1 1 .0
J anuary
576
194
1 2 .3
1 1 .6
F eb ru ary
78 1
241
1 6 .7
1 4 .4
M a rc h
807
244
1 7 .3
1 4 .5
A p ril
418
160
9 .0
9 .5
May
394
157
8 .4
9 .4
June
386
151
8 .3
9 .0
4 , 666
1 ,6 7 9
T o ta l
100.
100.
566
TABL E LVI 11
FLUCTUATIONS IN ENROLLMENT IN
NILAND SCHOOLS BY MONTHS, 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 .
(M o n th ly e n r o l lm e n t f o r r a c i a l g r o u p s i n te r m s
o f t h e i r own t o t a l a n n u a l e n r o l l m e n t s )
M onth
E n ro llm e n t
T o t a l M e x ic a n
P e rc e n ta g e s o f t o t a l
A ll c h ild re n
M e x ic a n s
O c to b e r
159
52
7 .4
6 .0
N o v em b er
174
66
8 .0
7 .7
D ecem ber
215
91
9 .9
1 0 .6
J anuary
2 59
99
1 1 .1
1 1 .5
F eb ru ary
565
107
1 6 .9
1 2 .4
M a rc h
595
130
1 8 .6
1 5 .1
A p ril
254
92
1 0 .8
1 0 .7
May
199
80
9 .2
9 .2
June
186
72
8 .6
8 .4
2 ,1 6 2
861
T o ta l
100.
100.
36?
The f i v e m a in c u r v e s i s o l a t e d
a r e a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e
fo llo w in g cro p s:
G roup I
-
F s . l l p e a k — c o t t o n o r m ilo m a i z e .
G roup I I
-
W i n t e r p e a l:— p r i n c i p a l l y
G ro up I I I
-
S p r in g p e a k — to m a to e s and m e lo n s.
le ttu c e .
G roup IV
- A r e a s o f s t a b l e e n r o l l m e n t w i t h no o n e
d o m in a n t c ro p and l i t t l e f l u c t u a t i o n .
G roup V
- M a rc h p e a k — p e a s .
T h i s c u r v e w as n o t
d e r i v e d i n t h e sam e m a n n e r a s t h e o t h e r f o u r b e c a u s e t h e
p e a - g r o w i n g a r e a s do n o t s h i f t m a t e r i a l l y a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l
i n d u s t r y i s u n q u e s tio n a b ly th e g ro w in g o f p e a s .
T hese f i v e
c r o p c u r v e s a r e shown i n F i g u r e s 2 7 , 2 8 , 29 a n d 3 0 .
The c u r v e s f o r c a r r o t s a n d f o r t o m a t o e s seem t o
re s e m b le th e w i n t e r p eak b u t th e y h a v e n o t b een d e f i n i t e l y
e s t a b l i s h e d b e c a u s e no a r e a s s p e c i a l i z e e x c l u s i v e l y
in th ese
cro p s.
F i g u r e 31 r e p r e s e n t s a n a t t e m p t t o a s s o c i a t e
th e se
f o u r m a in c u r v e t y p e s w i t h a r e a s w h e r e t h e v a r i o u s c r o p s a r e
know n t o b e commonly g row n a s show n o n F i g u r e 2 3 .
c o n c l u s i o n s may b e d ra w n f ro m i t .
C e rta in
C e rta in d i s t r i c t s
appear
to be c o n s i s t e n t g ro w ers o f c e r t a i n c r o p s as e v id e n c e d by th e
e n r o l lm e n t c u r v e , b u t m ost o f th e v a l l e y c o m m u n itie s s h i f t
fro m crop to c ro p a s th e y e a r s p a s s .
c o n s is te n t s p e c ia liz a tio n
The f o u r a r e a s o f
a r e p e a s a t N ila n d and C a l i p a t r i a ,
m e l o n s a n d t o m a t o e s a t W e s t m o r l a n d a n d M ount S i g n a l ,
at
le ttu c e
S ils b e e and a r e s i d e n t s ta b le p o p u la tio n a t C a le x ic o .
A n a ly s is o f e n ro llm e n t c u rv e s .
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f
/Mexicans
'age. Enrol(it
JSKLiSl-l
,ws>«
5313, U n iversity Bookstore, Los A ngeles
GroupUI“5p
J'Aejcic.ari*
JZinrollm&ni*
tfov.
Mat»
n-\%
Epara
Mtxicjns
Averai
iTnrol
OCT
ivoy.
May.
FIlGURE 23
p t m qri.t.t.t e m T i f f 'SGSOOE s H .iv iK a
COMPOSITE FLUCTUATIONS OF MRXT
; MCT O SppojtS ;:;ft
. a n n u a l M e x ic a n e n r o l l m e n t )
6313, U n iv e r s it y B o o k s to re , L o s A n g e le s
*992
S .
'& ( m m
a i q ^ i 0 0 s **i?l,v*°v«°^ooH*««»A,un ‘nra
NW2K2
iTn.Tr
fS s P ll
Wt
3 7S
IMPERIAL
VALLEY
-lEGtHD-
if Ain..
ft*,'lra*Jj f j,1 t f l H
H'-qkeVuyt
3*kaal .
— —
Bovnelaii’ef «—
Trrijmtcd
Arc.ex. jja ssa o b o t
TyP^r
AllPATR
Fall Psetk
U/i n?C>'
1
SjvrrH f Pc.'-tk
•. S ttH r S^tnrt/vKrtff
J 'J->A’ S.r! i ;-^ V
Bn\wi-£Y
>;/- .Vi
i i ^ - z£ a ; i
a
\
iJr
mpetti*
r.iia ivi
JjA j'J'JAMj
S
jv'.iV
EtCENTJT
HEBER
r^ r—
• -
-
■--*-»
ne^tcALi
FIGURE 31
IMPERIAL VALLEY SCHOOL GROUPINGS ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT TYPEa
a.
(see p . 57 3 )
373
(E x p la n a tio n o f F ig u r e 31)
a.
From t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s c h o o l s i n t o f o u r g r o u p s ,
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e a s o n o f t h e p e a k e n r o l l m e n t a s e x p l a i n e d on
page
, F i g u r e 33 was c o n s t r u c t e d , s h o w i n g t h e a v e r a g e
g ro u p in g of th e s c h o o ls i n I m p e r ia l V a lle y o v e r th e n in e - y e a r
p e rio d *
S c h o o l s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t h e same g r o u p i n a l l o f t h e
f o u r y e a r s s tu d ie d h av e b een d o u b le c r o s s - h a t c h e d .
Those i n
t h e same g r o u p f o r t h r e e o f t h e f o u r y e a r s h a v e s i n g l e b a r s .
T h o s e o n l y t w i c e i n t h e same g r o u p a r e s i m p l y o u t l i n e d .
F i g u r e 33 shows o n l y t h e i r r i g a t e d a r e a o f I m p e r i a l C o u n ty
known a s I m p e r i a l V a l l e y .
Ten s c h o o ls i n th e c o u n ty a r e o u t ­
sid e t h i s a r e a .
T h re e , A ndrade, B ard , and W in te rh a v e n a re i n
t h e Yuma P r o j e c t on t h e e x t r e m e e a s t e r n e d g e o f I m p e r i a l
C o u n t y . T h r e e , G l a m i s , L a g u n a , and O g i l b y a r e d e s e r t s c h o o l s .
T h r e e , A m e r ic a n G i r l , F o r t Y u m a,an d R o o s e v e l t a r e new s c h o o l s
and so do n o t h a v e p r e v i o u s y e a r s r e c o r d s f o r c o m p a r i s o n *
C o lo rad o S c h o o l D i s t r i c t h a s .b e e n l a p s e d .
IL may b e n o t e d
t h a t v a r i a t i o n f r o m t h e n o r m a l was t h e r u l e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e
e x c e p tio n .
T h i r t e e n d i s t r i c t s f e l l i n t o G rou p I an d G roup I I I
a t some t i m e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r n o r m a l g r o u p i n g ; e l e v e n i n ­
t o G ro u p s I I an d I V .
O n ly s i x d i s t r i c t s w e r e i n t h e same
g ro u p in g a l l f o u r y e a r s .
Of t h e s e , t h r e e , C a l i p a t r i a , N i l a n d ,
an d S i l s b e e , w e r e i n G roup I I , tw o , Mount S i g n a l a n d W e s tm o r­
l a n d , w e r e i n G roup I I I a n d o n e i n G rou p I V . F i v e o f t h e s i x
r e p r e s e n t a r e a s o f e x tre m e c ro p s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , C a l i p a t r i a and
N ila n d b e in g th e p e a -g ro w in g a r e a , S ils b e e b e in g c o n s i s t e n t l y a
l e t t u c e a r e a , a n d M ount S i g n a l an d W e s t m o r la n d t h e c a n t a l o u p e
an d s p r i n g t o m a to a r e a .
C a le x ic o , th e s ix t h , i s a s p e c ia l c a s e ,
in t h a t i t s t r i b u t a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l a re a i s o v er th e b o rd e r in
M e x ic o .
374
T a b l e s L I I I a n d LVI r e v e a l some I n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s
a b o u t th e
e f f e c t o f c r o p s on m o n th -to -m o n th s c h o o l e n r o llm e n t.
f a l l peak: g r o u p i s
th e s m a l l e s t and m o st u n s t a b l e .
s in g le d i s t r i c t f e l l in to
s tu d ie d .
Not a
t h i s group a l l o f th e f o u r y e a r s
R o s e , w h i c h w as t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t ,
g e n e ra liz e d
The
is
an a r e a o f
f a r m i n g , w i t h no s i n g l e c r o p d o m i n a t i n g .
s e e n two c y c l e s o f l e t t u c e
I t has
s in c e 1923-24, b u t th e y e a r s
c o v e r e d by T a b l e LVI do n o t i n c l u d e a n y o f t h e s e l e t t u c e
y ears,
a lth o u g h i n th e y e a r 1938-39 i t
w i n t e r peak: g r o u p .
d id f a l l in to
th e
I t w as t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s c u r v e
w i t h a f a l l peak: w as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o t t o n b e c a u s e N o r t h
End,
th e o n ly d i s t r i c t w here t h i s i s
ra ise d ,
f e l l in to
s e e m s m ore l i k e l y
t h e o n l y "m oney c r o p "
t h i s g r o u p f o r two o f t h e y e a r s ,
t h a t *m ilo m a i z e i s
th e crop,
s in c e th is i s
t h e o n ly o t h e r im p o rta n t cro p h a r v e s te d a t t h i s
The w i n t e r p e a k i s
a lth o u g h t h i s
own.
curve o f i t s
th e o n ly s c h o o l c o n s i s t e n t l y
g r o u p o u t s i d e N ila n d and C a l i p a t r i a w as S i l s b e e .
s h i f t to a s p r in g peak i n
tim e .
a s s o c i a t e d w ith l e t t u c e and p e a s ,
l a t t e r c r o p sh o w s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
Even h e r e , h o w e v e r ,
but i t
1934-35 i s n o t e a s i l y
ex cep t th a t t h i s la rg e d i s t r i c t , w ith te r r i t o r y
in th e
B ra w le y * s
e x p la in e d
in b o th th e
l e t t u c e — and m e lo n -g ro w in g a r e a s and w ith a p o p u l a t i o n g o in g
t o w ork i n a d j o i n i n g a r e a s ,
may h a v e b e e n s h i f t e d by a g o o d
m elo n y e a r o r p o s s i b l y by r e l i e f p o l i c i e s w h ich t e n d to k e e p
th e f a m ilie s d u rin g th e s p rin g as h a s been d is c u s s e d above.
375
The s p r i n g p e a k i s
a s s o c i a t e d w ith c a n ta lo u p e s and
t o m a t o e s , w i t h t h e two l a r g e s t p r o d u c i n g a r e a s c o n s i s t e n t l y
in
t h i s group.
o f to m ato a r e a s .
The f l u c t u a t i o n s p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t e r e l o c a t i o n s
The i n c l u s i o n o f S u n s e t S p r i n g s , M e l o l a n d ,
A l a i n i t o s an d Alamo i n t h i s g r o u p a r e p r o b a b l y c a u s e d b y
t o m a t o an d c a r r o t a c r e a g e s .
The a r e a s o f s t a b l e
e n ro llm e n t p r i n c i p a l l y
in
th e
so u th e rn p a r t o f th e v a lle y a re c h ie f ly
r e s i d e n c e a r e a s w here
t h e w o rk e rs d ep en d on r e l a t i v e l y
e m p lo y m e n t.
ste a d y
The
num ber o f s c h o o ls i n t h i s g ro u p i s i n c r e a s i n g y e a r l y ,
c a t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n
s ta b ility
o f t h e M e x ic a n p o p u l a t i o n .
P r e d i c a t i n g e n r o l lm e n t from c u r v e s .
y e a rly
at
By a s t u d y o f t h e
e n r o l l m e n t t r e n d s so a s t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e s c h o o l i s
t h e b o tto m o r t h e to p o f a c y c le and w h e th e r i t
av erag e in c re a se o r d ecrease,
p o s s i b l e to p r e d i c t i n r e l a t i v e l y
th e p ro b a b le c o u rse o f th e
a g iv e n y e a r .
sh o w s a n
t o g e t h e r w i t h a k n o w led g e o f th e
p r i n c i p a l cro p s b e in g p la n te d in a g iv e n y e a r ,
in
in d i­
it
sh o u ld be
a c c u r a t e q u a n t i t a t i v e te rm s
e n ro llm e n t c u rv e f o r a g iv e n sc h o o l
T h is s h o u ld be o f a i d to
g o v e r n i n g b o a r d s i n em p lo y in g t e a c h e r s ,
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s an d
o r d e r i n g s u p p l i e s an d
m ak in g lo n g - r a n g e p l a n s f o r t h e i r s c h o o ls .
Summary.
are
L e ttu c e ,
m elo n s, p e a s ,
c a rro ts,
and to m a to e s
t h e I m p e r i a l V a l l e y c r o p s w h ic h h a v e h e a v y s e a s o n a l
l a b o r re q u ire m e n ts.
Each c r o p r e q u i r e s
th e la b o r a t
376
a d iffe re n t
season.
C e rta in crops a re c e n te re d in d e f i n it e a re a s w ith in
t h e v a l l e y a c c o r d i n g to
t h e i r c lim a te and s o i l re q u ire m e n ts .
S c h o o l s i n t h e s e a r e a s h a v e t h e same t y p e o f e n r o l l m e n t c u r v e
fro m y e a r to y e a r .
to
a n o th e r.
O th e r a r e a s f l u c t u a t e
fro m o n e m a in c r o p
School e n ro llm e n ts w i l l lik e w is e f l u c t u a t e
a c c o rd in g to
t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r d o m in a n t c ro p .
M o st l a n d w i l l n o t s u p p o r t v e g e t a b l e s f o r m o re t h a n a
fe w y e a r s .
T h is i s r e s p o n s i b le f o r th e p r i n c i p a l c ro p
flu c tu a tio n s .
A p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t fro m r u r a l to c i t y
areas
h a s a lso been o p e ra tin g .
As t h e p e a k o f l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o n e c r o p p a s s e s
and th a t o f a n o th e r approaches, p o p u la tio n - s h if ts o ccu r w ith ­
in
t h e v a l l e y w h i c h may b e show n b y e n r o l l m e n t c u r v e s ,
o n e c o r r e s p o n d in g to a d o m in a n t c ro p ,
season.
each
m a tu rin g a t a d i f f e r e n t
F i v e m a in c r o p c u r v e t y p e s h a v e b e e n i s o l a t e d ,
m ilo m a iz e - c o tto n cu rv e w ith th e p eak in th e f a l l ,
c u rv e w ith th e peak in th e w in te r,
e a rly
sp rin g ,
a
a le ttu c e
a p e a curve w i t h th e peak
in
th e very
a m e lo n -to m a to c u rv e w i t h th e peak
in
t h e l a t e r s p r i n g a n d a c u r v e n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an y s i n g l e
c r o p an d r e p r e s e n t i n g a r e a s o f m ore s t a b l e e n r o l l m e n t .
M e x ic a n s h a v e b e e n i n
fro m c ro p to c ro p .
in
th e p a s t th e m o b ile g ro u p g o in g
But w ith th e c e n te r in g o f t h i s p o p u la tio n
th e c i t i e s and t h e co m in g o f t h e r e f u g e e w h i t e l a b o r ,
w h i t e s a r e f a s t b eco m in g l e s s
s t a b l e th a n th e M e x ic a n s.
th e
377
It
here
seem s r e a s o n a b l e to assum e t h a t c u r v e s s u c h a s t h o s e
s tu d ie d can be used s u c c e s s fu lly
la tio n
tre n d s.
to p r e d i c t s c h o o l popu­
CHAPTER XIV
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
I.
SUMMARY
B a s i s o f ^ a l i f q r n i . a ’.s m i g r a t o r y l a b o r s y s t e m .
The
m i g r a t o r y l a b o r sy stem I n C a l i f o r n i a d ep en d s f u n d a m e n ta lly
o n two f a c t o r s ;
la n d o w n e r s h ip and a s u c c e s s i o n o f c r o p s .
A g ric u ltu re i s
so o r g a n i z e d t h a t m o s t o f t h e l a n d i s owned
b y a few p e o p l e a n d c o r p o r a t i o n s .
They h a v e made o f f a r m i n g
a b u s i n e s s f r o m w h ic h p r o f i t s m u s t b e m ade,
a lth o u g h th e re
a r e many c a s e s w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l g r o w e r s h a v e s a c r i f i c e d
p r o f i t s f o r th e w e lfa re o f t h e i r w o rk ers.
The c r o p s t h a t
b r in g la rg e p r o f i t s have been in s u c c e ssio n ,
fru it,
sugar b e e ts , p o ta to e s,
c a ttle ,
g ra in ,
t r u c k c r o p s an d c o t t o n .
The c l i m a t e v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e w e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y
w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a h a v e made p o s s i b l e a s u c c e s s i o n o f c r o p s ,
r i p e n i n g a t c o n s e c u t i v e d a t e s a s t h e w o r k e r m oves f r o m s o u t h
to n o rth .
in
The v a r i o u s c r o p s p e c i a l t i e s
a num ber o f c o m p a r a tiv e ly s m a ll a r e a s to w h ic h m ig r a to r y
l a b o r e r s c a n go i n a r e g u l a r o r d e r .
is
are th u s c o n c e n tra te d
c o n fin e d in to
re la tiv e ly
The s t r e a m o f m i g r a t i o n
narrow c h a n n e ls w ith l a r g e
num bers o f w o rk e rs c o n c e n tr a te d i n t o v e ry s m a ll a r e a s .
S ources o f m ig ra to ry la b o r.
w o r k e r s w e r e w h i t e s i n g l e men.
The e a r l i e s t m i g r a t o r y
T hen i n
s u c c e s s i o n h a v e come
379
C h in e s e , J a p a n e s e , M e x ic a n s,
fa m ilie s ,
F i l i p i n o s an d f i n a l l y w h i t e
r e f u g e e l a b o r e r s fro m t h e d r o u g h t ,
c o tto n s ta te s .
and w e s te r n
O t h e r g r o u p s w h ic h h a v e b e e n m i g r a t o r y
l a b o r e r s a r e t h e E a s t I n d i a n s , P u e r to R ic a n s , A rm en ian s,
Ita lia n s ,
S p a n is h and P o r tu g u e s e .
E a ch o f t h e v a r i o u s
r a c i a l g r o u p s f o l l o w e d much t h e same p a t t e r n .
w o r k e d f o r v e r y low w a g e s a n d w e r e w e l l l i k e d .
b e g a n to r a i s e
A t f i r s t th e y
Then a s t h e y
t h e i r own c r o p s , t h u s c o m p e t i n g w i t h w h i t e
g r o w e r s an o u t c r y a r o s e t o h a v e th e m e x c l u d e d *
F in a lly as
t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n g re w u p , many d r i f t e d t o
th e c i t i e s .
M e x ic a n s h a v e b e e n a n e x c e p t i o n i n t h a t few o f th e m b ec a m e
g ro w ers.
One f e a t u r e o f t h e l a b o r s i t u a t i o n h a s a l w a y s b e e n
p re se n t.
W h e th e r by c h a n c e o r by d e l i b e r a t e d e s i g n ,
th e
g ro w e rs h a v e alw ay s h a d a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l an o v e r s u p p ly o f
la b o r,
e n a b l i n g th e m t o d e v e l o p t h e i n d u s t r i e s w i t h no r e ­
g a r d f o r t h e p ro b le m o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f l a b o r .
W h eth er th e
la r g e seaso n al peaks a re n ecessary o r n o t has n o t been
d e f i n i t e l y d e te rm in e d .
I t i s , h ow ever,
tru e t h a t under th e
p r e s e n t sy ste m o f a g r i c u l t u r e a s u f f i c i e n t o v e rs u p p ly o f
l a b o r t o t a k e c a r e o f an y s u d d e n d e m a n d s o f t h e c r o p i s a
v ery d e s ira b le
th in g f o r
th e g ro w er.
L iv in g and w o rk in g c o n d itio n s f o r th e l a b o r e r s .
p r e s e n t m ig ra n ts a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y o l d e r th a n th e
The
380
g e n e ra l p o p u la tio n .
They a r e u s u a l l y m a r r i e d a n d h a v e a
f a m i l y o f fro m o n e to t h r e e c h i l d r e n .
h o m e s among m i g r a n t s .
has
T here a r e f e w e r b ro k e n
They a r e m i g r a n t s b e c a u s e some f a c t o r
e i t h e r d r a w n o r d r i v e n th em fro m t h e i r f o r m e r h o m e s - -
u s u a lly
t h e d e s i r e t o b eco m e o r r e m a i n f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e ­
p e n d e n t.
A t f i r s t t h e y p l a n t o s e t t l e down b u t f i n a l l y
th e y
com e t o p r e f e r t h e m i g r a t o r y l i f e .
The cam p s i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e h a v e u n d e r g o n e a t r a n s ­
fo rm a tio n in
th e p a s t f iv e y e a rs .
W h i l e n o t a l l o f th em a r e
now i m p r o v e d an d w h i l e n o n e o f th e m h a v e a t t a i n e d t h e i d e a l ,
t h e b e t t e r o n e s h a v e m o s t o f t h e n e c e s s i t i e s a n d some o f t h e
c o n v e n i e n c e s o f camp l i f e .
The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e F. S. A.
m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s 1 camp h a s b e e n a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n im ­
p r o v i n g g r o w e r 1s c a m p s.
a t a minimum.
F u r n i t u r e i n t h e m i g r a n t home i s
The f o o d i s n e a r l y a l w a y s t h e sam e a n d p r o v i d e s
a d i e t d e f i c i e n t i n v ita m in s and p r o t e c t i v e m in e r a ls .
hom e l i f e
The
am ong M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o th em
b e c a u s e o f th e la c k o f c o n ta c ts w ith o u ts id e g ro u p s.
The
c o d e o f m o r a l s o f t h e M e x i c a n s c o n d o n e s many t h i n g s n o t
a c c e p t e d b y A m e r ic a n s o c i e t y ,
J u s t a s t h i n g s c o n d o n e d by
w h i t e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d im m o r a l b y t h e M e x i c a n s .
T h ere i s
some
r a c i a l a n t a g o n i s m b e t v / e e n M e x ic a n s a n d w h i t e s and b e t w e e n
m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s end t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h ic h t h e y l i v e .
S c h o o ls a re n o t p o p u la r w ith m ig ra n ts ,
th e
p rin c ip a lly because
c h i l d r e n do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g a n y t h i n g .
381
W o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s *
la b o re rs re q u ire s s k ill
The w o rk d o n e by m i g r a t o r y
and d e x t e r i t y
r a t h e r th a n s tr e n g th .
Women an d c h i l d r e n a r e u s u a l l y t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t w o r k e r s .
W ages a r e u n i f o r m l y lo w , d e p r e s s e d b y t h e o v e r s u p p l y o f
la b o r.
The a v e r a g e m i g r a n t e a r n s b e t w e e n t h r e e h u n d r e d a n d
f i v e hundred d o l l a r s a y e a r ,
d e p e n d in g on th e am ount o f tim e
h e w o r k s , b u t h e l a b o r s o n l y a b o u t T w en ty -tw o t o t h i r t y w e e k s
p e r year.
The a v e r a g e j o b l a s t s a b o u t e i g h t w e e k s , m a k in g
fro m th re e to f o u r jo b s a y e a r f o r th e a v e ra g e w o rk er.
R o u te s and c r o p s .
M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s commonly s h u t t l e
b e t w e e n B r a w l e y a n d F r e s n o ; w h i t e s com m only go i n t o
th e
S a c ra m e n to V a l l e y and c o a s t a l r e g i o n s and th e n b a c k to
C a lip a tria .
Some g r o u p s f o l l o w w h a t e v e r c r o p i s
h a rv e ste d in
t h e n e x t to w n a h e a d .
to be
M e x ic a n s commonly s p e c i a l ­
i z e i n o n e o r two c r o p s a n d h a v e a m o re s e t t l e d m i g r a t o r y
p a tte rn .
The g r o u p t r a v e l i n g f a r t h e s t a r e t h e m i g r a t o r y
p e a - p i c k e r s who o f t e n s t a y w i t h t h e same c r o p a s f a r a s I d a h o
a n d W a s h in g to n and t h e n c e to I m p e r i a l V a l le y o r A r iz o n a .
They g e t t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e n e x t jo b fro m h e a r s a y ,
from l e t t e r s
and fro m l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s .
M e x i c a n s m ore
com m only h a v e j o b s w a i t i n g f o r th e m a t t h e end o f t h e
j o u r n e y t h a n do w h i t e s .
H e a lth , r e l i e f and s t r i k e s .
M i g r a n t s h a v e m ore
p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s t h a n do t h e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n .
The
382
b i g g e s t h e a l t h p r o b le m I s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e women i n
s e l e c t i n g b e t t e r fo o d s and l e a r n i n g b e t t e r w ays o f p r e p a r i n g
t h e i r p r e s e n t foods*
M o s t o f t h e M e x ic a n m i g r a n t s a r e s t i l l
w ith o u t a d e q u a te h e a lth p r o v is io n s ,
s i n c e t h e w o rk o f t h e
A g r i c u l t u r a l W o r k e r s 1 H e a l t h an d M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i s
c o n f i n e d to t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e g o v e rn m e n t cam ps.
M i g r a t o r y w h i t e s a r e m ore com monly on r e l i e f t h a n
M e x ic a n s.
h ig h ,
G row ers r e s e n t th e r e l i e f b u d g e ts a s b e i n g to o
an d r e l i e f a u t h o r i t i e s ,
on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
seem t o b e
t a k i n g t h e s t a n d t h a t u n l e s s a l i v i n g wage i s g i v e n t h e y w i l l
n o t cut c lie n ts o ff r e lie f r o lls
to w ork i n t h e c r o p s .
The s t r i k e s among m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s i n I m p e r i a l
V a l l e y h a v e b e e n u n i f o r m l y p u t down w i t h s t e m
v i g i l a n t e a c tio n b e in g ta k e n in one c a s e .
g ro w e rs w ere p a r t i a l l y
ju stifie d ,
m easu res,
How ever th e
b e c a u s e two o f t h e
s trik e s
w e r e l e d b y avow ed c o m m u n i s t s who w e r e t r y i n g t o d e s t r o y
In d u stry .
th e
T h e r e h a v e b e e n no s t r i k e s among M e x ic a n p e a -
p ic k e rs.
E d u c a tio n a l p ro b le m s .
M ig ra to ry la b o r e r s i n g e n e r a l
and th e p e a - p ic k e r s in p a r t i c u l a r have n o t had a d e q u a te
e d u c a tio n a l o p p o rtu n itie s .
b u ild in g s,
The p r i n c i p a l c a u s e s a r e p o o r
o v ercro w d e d and p o o r ly e q u ip p e d c la s s r o o m s ,
i n e x p e r ie n c e o r in e x p e r t t e a c h e r s and a s h o r t s c h o o l day.
M i g r a t i o n c a u s e s l a t e e n r o l l m e n t a n d many c h a n g e s o f s c h o o l s
w h ic h i n t u r n a r e p a r t l y
re sp o n s ib le
f o r an a v e r a g e
583
r e t a r d a t i o n o f a p p ro x im a te ly
e ig h ty p e r c e n t.
o f th e r e t a r d a t i o n i s th e lo w e r m e n ta l a b i l i t y
M e x ic a n a n d w h i t e m i g r a n t s .
A n o th e r cau se
o f b o th
M i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n h a v e no
f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g i n an y s c h o o l a n d so do n o t l i k e
s c h o o l.
The c o m in g o f t h e m i g r a n t s d i s l o c a t e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
p ro g ra m o f t h e l o c a l c h i l d r e n and c r e a t e s f u r t h e r r e s e n tm e n t
on th e p a r t o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a g a i n s t m ig ra n ts .
So f a r a s t h e p e a - p i c k e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d ,
school d i s t r i c t s
a r e s p e n d i n g a s much money f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n
o f m ig ra n ts as f o r lo c a l c h ild r e n .
c o n d itio n s a r e p ro v id e d ,
w ith
th e lo c a l
A lm o st i d e n t i c a l s c h o o l
except t h a t th e c la s s
t h e m i g r a n t s an d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
s iz e is la rg e r
c la ssro o m s a r e used.
A l l c h ild r e n l i v i n g beyond w a lk in g d i s t a n c e a r e tr a n s p o r te d
to
s c h o o l.
On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
h o t lu n c h e s a t
lo c a l c h ild re n .
m ost o f t h e p e a - p i c k e r s h a v e f r e e
sch o o l and b e t t e r h e a l t h
s u p e rv is io n th a n
The e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f m i g r a t o r y c h i l d r e n
d em an d t h a t ;
1.
C h ild l a b o r and s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e la w s s h o u ld be
r i g i d l y e n fo rc e d th ro u g h o u t th e s t a t e .
E v e ry e f f o r t s h o u l d
b e made t o g u a r d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r i g h t s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n .
2.
B u i l d i n g s and e q u ip m en t s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d i n
s u c h q u a n t i t y a n d o f s u c h s t a n d a r d s a s t o make p o s s i b l e a
c l a s s r o o m m e a s u r i n g up t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n
C a lifo rn ia .
3.
S m a lle r th a n a v e ra g e c l a s s e s and a l o n g e r th a n
a v e r a g e s c h o o l d a y s h o u l d make up f o r t h e l o w e r a b i l i t y o f
th e m ig ra n ts and th e tim e l o s t i n m ig r a tin g .
384
4*
T e a c h e rs s h o u ld be e x p e rie n c e d , o f b e t t e r th a n
a v e ra g e te a c h in g s k i l l and w ith s o c i a l s e rv ic e t r a i n i n g .
T h e y s h o u l d w o r k i n t h e h o m es a s w e l l a s a t s c h o o l .
5.
C h i l d r e n s h o u l d b e made t o f e e l w e lc o m e an d
w a n te d a t s c h o o l.
The s c h o o l s h o u l d c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e
la c k of se c u rity in th e ir liv e s ,
6.
C la s s ro o m w ork s h o u ld be i n f o r m a l w i t h g r a d e
l i n e s e l i m i n a t e d a n d t h e w o rk a d j u s t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r
n e e d s o f th e g ro u p .
7.
A c c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d s s h o u ld f o llo w th e c h i l d r e n
t o m i n i m i z e t h e l o s s o f t i m e i n a d j u s t i n g t o a new s i t u a ­
tio n .
8.
The p h y s i c a l n e e d s fro m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f h e a l t h ,
c l e a n l i n e s s and n u t r i t i o n s h o u ld b e a d e q u a t e l y m et.
n ursery
9.
P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d b e made f o r d a y n u r s e r i e s and
s c h o o l c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n b e lo w s c h o o l a g e .
The e v i d e n c e s e e m s t o show t h a t t h e o n l y way t o
b e t t e r e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s
l i e s in in c re a se d
e x p e n d itu re s,
w h i c h m u s t b e f i n a n c e d f r o m some s o u r c e o t h e r t h a n d i s t r i c t
o r c o u n ty f u n d s .
M ig ra to ry P a t t e r n w ith in I m p e r ia l V a lle y .
T ruck
c ro p s in Im p e ria l V a lle y a r e h a r v e s te d in a s e r i e s o f la b o r
p e a k s w h ic h a r e l o c a l i z e d i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e v a l l e y .
T h e r e i s a r e g u l a r m i g r a t i o n f ro m o n e t y p e o f c r o p t o
a n o th e r w ith in th e v a lle y
w ith in th e s t a t e .
j u s t as th e re i s
These p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t s a r e r e f l e c t e d and
may b e t r a c e d by s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t c u r v e s .
c u rv e s have been d e v e lo p e d ,
d if f e r e n t season.
a la rg e r p a tte rn
F i v e m a in c r o p
each w ith th e peak a t a
W h i t e l a b o r e r s a r e now p r o b a b l y n e a r l y
a s m o b ile a s t h e M e x ic a n s,
a s shown b y t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e
385
e n ro llm e n t curves*
II.
CONCLUSIONS— THE FUTURE OF THE MIGRATORY FAMILY
I s a m lK ra to r .y p o p u l a t i o n n e c e s s a r y ?
C a l i f o r n i a 1s
a g r i c u l t u r e h a s alw ay s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w ith m ig r a to r y l a b o r .
S in c e th e p re se n c e o f t h i s
g r o u p c r e a t e s so many a l m o s t
i n s o l u b l e p ro b le m s th e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s
a s t o w h e t h e r some
o t h e r m ean s m i g h t b e p r o v i d e d t o m e e t t h e s e a s o n a l l a b o r
re q u ire m e n ts o f th e c ro p s.
M o st a r e a s c a n n o t s u p p o r t t h e n e e d e d s e a s o n a l l a b o r
th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r .
c le a rly .
One f a c t h a s show n up r e a s o n a b l y
Few a r e a s c a n a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e p r o v i d e w o rk
d u r in g th e o f f seaso n f o r a f r a c t i o n o f t h e i r s e a s o n a l
needs.
I f th e la b o r i s n o t to m ig ra te th e r e a re th r e e
a lte rn a tiv e s:
(1 )
th e g ro w e rs m ust d i v e r s i f y
t o p r o v i d e w o rk t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r ,
(2)
t h e i r crops
t h e w o r k e r s m u st
b e made s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g d u r i n g t h e o f f s e a s o n ,
o r (3)
r e l i e f m ust b e p r o v id e d to s u p p le m e n t t h e e a r n in g s o f th e
w o rk ers d u rin g o f f seaso n s.
R e l i e f c r e a t e s m o re p r o b l e m s t h a n i t
I n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r X, t h e u s e o f r e l i e f
so lv e s .
As
to ta k e c a r e o f
u n em p lo y ed m i g r a n t s h a s s e r i o u s s h o r tc o m in g s a s a p e rm a n e n t
so lu tio n .
T e m p o ra rily ,
i t h a s been e s s e n t i a l b e c a u se
im m e d ia te n e e d s m u st b e m e t.
But i t
c r e a te s a n o th e r s e t
386
o f p ro b le m s.
The r e l i e f b u d g e t s a r e ,
t h e a v erag e e a rn in g s o f th e m ig ra n ts .
in g e n e ra l,
T h is r a i s e s
l a r g e r th a n
th e fo llo w ­
in g q u e stio n s:
re lie f
1.
How a r e t h e c l i e n t s
t o go t o w o rk a t l e s s money?
2*
w o rk e rs to
a u th o ritie s
th e r e lie f
u n l e s s th e
to be p e rs u a d e d to le a v e
I f a c ro p d o e s n o t pay enough to i n e x p e r ie n c e d
e n s u r e them e v e n a b a r e l i v i n g s h o u l d t h e r e l i e f
( a ) s u p p l e m e n t t h e e a r n i n g s up t o t h e a m o u n t o f
b u d g e t , o r ( b ) r e f u s e t o s e n d c l i e n t s t o w o rk
c r o p p a y s t h e c l i e n t a s much a s a r e l i e f b u d g e t ?
T he f i r s t a n s w e r i s an o u t and o u t s u b s id y to a g r i c u l t u r e ,
p e rm ittin g
t h e g r o w e r t o p a y p r a c t i c a l l y no w age a t a l l w i t h
th e r e l ie f
o f f i c e m a k in g u p t h e d i f f e r e n c e . The s e c o n d
a n s w e r w o u ld h a v e t h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t o f b a n k r u p t i n g l a r g e
n u m b e r s o f c o t t o n an d c a r r o t g r o w e r s b y r e q u i r i n g th em t o
p a y w a g e s t h a t t h e p r o f i t s do n o t j u s t i f y .
3.
W hat i s t h e e f f e c t on t h e w o r k e r o f k n o w i n g t h a t ,
i f h e d o e s n 1t s a v e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i l l t a k e c a r e o f h im
b e tw een se a so n s?
Is th e re not a danger of c re a tin g a c la ss
o f p e r m a n e n t ws e m i - r e l i e f e r s , B who w i l l , i n t i m e , f i n d w ays
o f a v o id in g w o rk in g a t a l l ?
F u tu re o f a g r ic u l t u r e .
a lte rn a tiv e s
A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o t h e r two
t o m i g r a t i o n i s d e p e n d e n t o n k n o w in g t h e p r o ­
b a b le f u tu re o f a g r ic u ltu r e in C a lif o rn ia .
w h a t i s g o in g to happen to
p rim a ry c o n c e rn .
th e l a r g e la n d h o ld in g s i s o f
S in c e t h e d a y s o f H enry G eo rg e,
h a v e b e e n made t o b r e a k up t h e s e r a n c h e s .
b e in g heard .
of
th e f e a t i s
farm ed by th e ow ner,
a tte m p ts
S u ch t a l k
i s a g a in
a c c o m p l i s h e d i t m e a n s t h e end
th e p r e s e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l sy stem .
a c tu a lly
to
If
The q u e s t i o n o f
W ith s m a l l h o l d i n g s
c o o p e r a t i v e s m i g h t b e s e t up
ta k e th e p la c e o f th e p r e s e n t g ro w e r-sh ip p e r o rg a n iz a tio n s
a n d a new d a y i n a g r i c u l t u r e w o u ld r e s u l t .
B e t t e r o r w orse,
387
it
w o u ld c e r t a i n l y b e d i f f e r e n t — b u t i t
depends on a v ery b ig
F u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f m a c h in e f a r m in g .
p r e s e n t e c o n o m ic o r d e r c o n t i n u e s ,
It
"m a c h in e fa rm in g " w i l l b e e x te n d e d .
a lre a d y
If
seem s l i k e l y
th e
th a t
T h is program h a s
e l i m i n a t e d h an d l a b o r from m o st o f th e g ro w in g
p r o c e s s o f t h e c r o p s and w i t h th e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e V essey
sy ste m o f h a r v e s t i n g ,
it
i s now p o s s i b l e f o r s e v e n men t o
do t h e w o r k f o r m e r l y d o n e b y f o r t y .
th e
T he s y s t e m i n v o l v e s
e l i m i n a t i o n o f f i e l d b o x e s w h ich m u st b e p a c k e d i n t h e
fie ld
an d u n p a c k e d i n t h e s h e d s ,
th e re fo r of tr a ile r s ,
and th e s u b s t i t u t i o n
i n t o w h ic h t h e c r o p s a r e m e r e l y th r o w n
I n s t e a d o f b e i n g p a c k e d a n d w h ic h a r e t h e n dumped o n a c o n ­
v e y o r b e l t a t th e shed,
r e d u c in g th e am ount o f l a b o r n e e d e d
a t h a r v e s t tim e i n l e t t u c e ,
s ix -s e v e n th s.
to o th e r c ro p s,
If
c a r r o t and c a n ta lo u p e f i e l d s by
t h i s p ro g ram can b e p e r f e c t e d ,
and a d a p te d
th e p ro b le m o f l a r g e m ig r a to r y p o p u l a t i o n s
may b e e l i m i n a t e d ,
so f a r a s t r u c k c r o p s a r e c o n c e r n e d .
is
p o s s i b l e t h a t s i m i l a r c h a n g e s may come i n f r u i t c r o p s .
If
t h i s p r o v e s to b e th e c a s e ,
w ill
It
th e need f o r m ig ra to ry la b o r
end a n d l o c a l l a b o r c a n do w h a t l i t t l e
w o rk i s n e e d e d .
S u ch a p r o g r a m w o u l d l e a v e t h e l a r g e m i g r a n t g r o u p
w i t h no w o rk t o d o , b u t t h i s p a r t o f t h e p r o b le m i s o n e
f a m i l i a r to r e l i e f a u t h o r i t i e s and c o u ld b e d e a l t w ith as
a p a r t o f th e r e g u l a r r e l i e f program .
The m a in p o i n t h e r e I s
388
t h a t t h e n e e d f o r a m i g r a t o r y p o p u l a t i o n may s o o n b e
o b v ia te d .
T h is,
a g a in , how ever i s
s p e c u la tio n ,
a t le a s t in
p a rt.
W i l l t h e " O k i e s " c o n t i n u e t o com e?
a g r ic u ltu r a l o rg a n iz a tio n i s re ta in e d ,
If
th e p re s e n t
th e n e x t q u e s tio n
a r i s i n g i s w h e th e r th e p r e s e n t s u r p lu s la b o r s u p p ly w i l l
c o n tin u e .
The c o u n t s a t t h e s t a t e l i n e
m ig r a tio n h a s sla c k e n e d
s i z e a b l e v o lu m e ,^
som ew h at b u t i t
e x p e rts,
a lre a d y l e f t .
c o n tin u e s to be a
I t h a s been e stim a te d th a t i f
P l a i n s i s r e t u r n e d to g r a z i n g la n d ,
s o il
show t h a t t h e r e f u g e e
as is
th e G reat
reco m m en d ed by
a s many p e o p l e w i l l h a v e t o move a s h a v e
The r e f u g e e s t r e a m i n t o
c o n tin u e f o r a d e c a d e ,^
C a l i f o r n i a w o u ld t h e n
T h is does n o t ta k e i n t o
acco u n t th e
d is p la c e m e n t o f s h a r e - c r o p p e r s by t r a c t o r s in th e c o tto n
b e lt.
It
seem s s a f e to assum e t h a t t h e p r e s e n t l a b o r
s u rp lu s w i l l c o n tin u e .
S e ttle m e n t p la n s .
p lu s e s c o n tin u e as a lre a d y
S h o u l d e v e n t h e same l a b o r s u r ­
e x ist,
it
seem s e v i d e n t t h a t
m uch o f t h e t i m e some t y p e o f r e l i e f m u s t b e p r o v i d e d .
S in c e
1 P a u l S. T a y l o r a n d Edw ard J . R o w e ll " R e f u g e e L a b o r
M i g r a t i o n t o C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 , " M o n th ly L a b o r R e v i e w . 4 7 : 2 4 0
5 0 , A u g u st, 1938.
2 D a v i s M c E n t i r e a n d N. L. W h e t t e n , "The M i g r a n t s , I .
R e c e n t M i g r a t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , " Land P o l i c y R e v ie w .
2 : 7 - 1 7 , S e p te m b e r-O c to b e r, 1939.
389
m ig ra tio n is
so e x p e n s i v e a n d so w a s t e f u l o f t h e l a b o r r e ­
s o u r c e s o f t h e s t a t e i t h a s seem ed t o many t o b e b e t t e r t o
s e ttle
enough m ig ra n ts i n
e a c h c o m m u n ity n e e d i n g s e a s o n a l
l a b o r to ta k e c a r e o f i t s n e e d s .
in
The p r o b l e m o f w h a t t o do
th e o f f- s e a s o n h as had s e v e ra l su g g e ste d s o lu tio n s .
K e e p i n g t h e g r o u p on r e l i e f h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d .
It
i s b e i n g p r a c t i c e d now;
2 8 . 6 p e r c e n t o f C a l i f o r n i a 1s
s e a s o n a l l a b o r b e i n g s u p p l i e d i n t h i s manner. 3
a re a s n e a rly a l l
in
t h e s e a s o n a l l a b o r co m es fro m t h i s
V a r i o u s p l a n s h a v e b e e n made t o
s e ttle
e a ste rn
source.^
th e m ig ra n ts
o n some t y p e o f s u b s i s t e n c e p r o g r a m w i t h t h e s e a s o n a l l a b o r
p r o v i d i n g t h e c a s h n e e d e d t o r u n t h e hom e.
I n o n e p l a n now
b e i n g t r i e d o u t b y t h e F arm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e
San Jo a q u in V a lle y ,
t h e f a m i l y g e t s a c a b i n an d t h r e e - f i f t h s
o f an a c re w ith w a te r s u p p lie d f o r a r e n t a l o f e ig h t d o l l a r s
t w e n t y c e n t s a m o n th .
e tc .,
is
in c lu d e d .§
A s a n ita ry
c e n te r fo r b a th s,
la u n d ry ,
The s e t t l e r may r a i s e w h a t e v e r h e w i s h e s
p r o v i d i n g h e u s e s i t f o r f o o d an d d o e s n o t s e l l i t .
A n o th er
3 P a u l S. T a y l o r a n d Tom V a s e y , " C o n t e m p o r a r y B ac k ­
g r o u n d o f C a l i f o r n i a F arm L a b o r , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y . 3 1 : 4 1 6 - 1 7 ,
D ecem ber, 1936.
D.
4 J o h n N. Webb, The M ig r a t o r.v - Ca s u a l W o rk e r ( W a s h i n g t o n ,
C . : U n ite d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 107.
5 F r a n c e t t e Mauze1, "A S tu d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s i n
t h e S an J o a q u i n V a l l e y " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s . The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 5 3 .
390
p l a n w o u ld s e t up c o o p e r a t i v e f a r m s u n d e r s t a t e
c o n t r o l w here
s u b s i s t e n c e c r o p s c o u ld be r a i s e d and t h e m i g r a n t s s e t t l e d
dow n.
I t i n c l u d e s a lo n g - r a n g e p u b l i c w orks p ro g ram f o r
Jan u ary ,
F e b r u a r y and M arch,
th e s l a c k e s t m o n th s,
a n d w o u ld
c o s t about f if t e e n m illio n s .6
V o lu n ta ry s e t t l i n g
down i s a l r e a d y
ta k in g p la c e .
An e n t e r p r i s i n g w h e a t f a r m e r Gin S a l i n a s j d i v i d e d h i s
r a n c h i n t o h a l f - a c r e l o t s w h i c h h e o f f e r e d a t two h u n d r e d
f i f t y d o l l a r s a p i e c e , f i v e d o l l a r s down a n d f i v e d o l l a r s
a m o n th .
T h e y E th e m i g r a n t s ] m u s c l e d i n t o t h e l e t t u c e p a c k i n g
gam e a n d now h a v e v i r t u a l l y a m o n o p o ly a r o u n d S a l i n a s ,
e a r n i n g from f i f t y t o s i x t y c e n t s an h o u r f o r e i g h t o r
n i n e m o n th s o f t h e y e a r .
I n t h a t o n e c o m m u n ity , t h r e e
th o u san d m ig ra n ts h a v e a c h ie v e d a r e s p e c t a b l e s ta n d a rd
of liv in g .
T h e ir c h i l d r e n a r e i n t e r - m a r r y i n g w ith th e
n a tiv e s.
O u tw ard ly th e y a r e C a l i f o r n i a n s . ?
A l l o f t h e s e p l a n s a r e e x c e l l e n t a n d w i l l do much t o
r e d u c e t h e v o lu m e o f m i g r a t o r y l a b o r .
But i t
i s d o u b tfu l i f
th e y w i l l c o m p le te ly s to p i t .
The s i t u a t i o n i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y .
In I m p e r ia l V a lle y ,
w i t h i t s p l e a s a n t w i n t e r s a n d v e r y h o t sum m ers t h e m o n th s o f
s l a c k l a b o r d e m a n d s a r e A u g u s t a n d S e p t e m b e r when t h e r e i s
6 C a r e y M c W i ll i a m s , "What* s B e i n g Done A b o u t t h e
J o a d s , ? 8 The New R e p u b l i c , 1 0 0 : 1 7 8 - 8 0 , S e p t e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 3 9 .
7 F r a n k J . T a y l o r 8C a l i f o r n i a * s G-rapes o f W r a t h , 8
F o ru m a n d C e n t u r y , 1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , N o v em b er, 1 9 3 9 , p . 2 3 8 .
391
v ery
l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o do a n y o u t s i d e w o rk .
lik e ly
t h a t a c r o p w h i c h w o u ld
be fo u n d .
to
is
not
m a t u r e i n t h e s e m o n th s w i l l
T h i s m eans t h a t t h e w o r k s p r o g r a m o f M c W i ll i a m s '
p l a n w o u ld b e i n v o k e d ,
lik e
It
c a llin g f o r a p e rio d o f m ig ra tio n
t h e o n e p r a c t i c e d b y t h e B r a w le y M e x ic a n s w hen t h e y go
F re s n o to p i c k g r a p e s .
lik e ly
to f i t w e ll i n t o
Im p e ria l V a lle y ,
th e n ,
is not
a s u b s i s t e n c e p ro g ram .
D iv e rsific a tio n of cro p s.
th a t
th e b e s t s o lu tio n l i e s
crop
sy ste m i n an a r e s and th e
p r o v i d e e m p lo y m e n t l o c a l l y
in
A n o th e r a u t h o r i t y
su g g e sts
th e abandonm ent o f th e o n ed i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f c ro p s to
a l l t h e y e a r a r o u n d .®
a lr e a d y p r a c ti c e d in Im p e ria l V a lle y and,
T h is i s
as h as been seen,
t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s b eco m in g l e s s m o b ile , p a r t i c u l a r l y
crops except peas.
T h is c ro p c r e a t e s
dem ands f o r s e a s o n a l l a b o r t h a t i t
o t h e r c ro p s co u ld be r a i s e d
such trem en d o u s
i s d o u b tfu l i f
t h e v e r y peak, o f t h e l e t t u c e
s i n c e i t dem ands l a b o r
season.
Ad.1 u s t m e n t s t o make m i g r a t i o n
e a sie r.
V a rio u s p la n s
h a v e b e e n ad v an ced to im p ro v e th e l a b o r m ig r a tio n .
in c lu d e
enough
to ta k e c a r e o f th e l a b o r r e ­
q u ire m e n ts o f t h i s cro p , p a r t i c u l a r l y
in
in a l l
They
th e fo llo w in g :
1.
A g o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y m e n t s e r v i c e w h i c h w o u ld r o u t e
8 P l a n o f C. I . B aughm an, K e r n C o u n ty H e a l t h O f f i c e r
a s r e p o r t e d b y MauzeJ, o p . c i t . , p . 6 5 .
392
th e w o rk e rs .9
I t w i l l b e re m e m b e re d t h a t t h i s w as t r i e d u n s u c c e s s ­
f u l l y b e f o r e . 10 I t i s s u b m i t t e d h e r e t h a t no p l a n o f t h i s
s o r t w i l l w o rk u n l e s s e m p lo y m e n t t h r o u g h t h e s e r v i c e i s made
co m p u lso ry upon th e g ro w e rs .
it
2.
Draw o f f s u r p l u s l a b o r f r o m a g i v e n a r e a a n d em p loy
e l s e w h e r e . 11
3.
W h ere n o w o rk e x i s t s ,
s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s . 12
4.
5.
a d u l t s . 14
a s s ig n th e w o rk ers to con-
A id w o r k e r s w i t h t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
B e tte r e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s
c o s ts . ^
f o r c h i l d r e n and
6.
S o c i a l w o rk am ong t h e m i g r a n t s t o h e l p th e m p l a n
t h e i r l i v e s m o re e f f i c i e n t l y , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o
s a v i n g a n d o l d - a g e p e n s i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y w o u ld c o n t r i b u t e . 15
7.
Some m e th o d o f g i v i n g t h e f r a n c h i s e t o
p e r h a p s a m e th o d o f r e g i s t r a t i o n b y c a r d . 16
t h e ra ig ia its;
9 P l a n o f Omer M i l l s , R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , F arm S e c u r i t y
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s r e p o r t e d by H e le n H e f fe r n a n , " R e p o rt o f
C o n fe re n c e on E d u c a tio n o f C h ild r e n o f S e a s o n a l W orkers—
F r e s n o S t a t e C o lle g e , Decem ber 9 -1 0 , 1 9 3 8 ," C a l i f o r n i a
J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry E d u c a tio n , 7 :1 8 1 - 9 1 , F e b r u a r y , 1939;
S e e a l s o W i l l i a m T. C r o s s a n d D o r o t h y E. C r o s s , Newcom ers
a n d Nomads i n C a l i f o r n i a ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a :
S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ), pp. 117-124.
10 2 £ * > P* 101 f f •
11 H e f f e r n a n , l o c . c i t .
12 L o c .
c i t . : C ross and C ro ss,
13 C r o s s a n d C r o s s ,
14 L o c .
c it.
15 L o o ,
c it.
16 Loc. c i t .
lo c . c i t .
lo c . p it.
393
The p r o b le m o f
that
no
to
v o tin g
is
put
the
fra n ch ise
in
sts,k e i n
the
fu tu re
the
of
a se rio u s one.
the hands
state
of
Many
feel
a group w h ich h a s
may w e l l b e
a dangerous
th in g .
The W h i t e H o u se C o n f e r e n c e made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s
ap p ly in g p a r tic u la r ly
A p p e n d i x C.
for
ed u ca tio n
A ppendix D t ,o u t lin e s
m igratory
of
W h a t e v e r may b e n e c e s s a r y
that
ta in ed
by
for
a fu rth er
a large
a ll
to
th e M exican
way h e w i l l h a v e
to
state
T h is
kind
group
found
in
G o v ern m en t’ s new p l a n s
b rin g
exten sion
have h i s
and down a g a i n ;
life
stu d ied
these
of
here
and i t
to
fu tu re
for
be
the fu tu re
in to
of
adapted
to
m ain­
th is
and w i l l ,
Far
homes
oth er nearby
for
it
In
f o r him .
a series
successful
can be
la b o rers.
farm ing.
p lan n ed
thus have
secu rity
the w h ite s,
can o n ly
m ach ine
perhaps
has proven
it
E conom ic
m igratory
secu rity
no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
exten t,
of
of
the
from b e in g h o m e le ss he w i l l
the
the
th e M exican p e a - p i c k e r .
th e m ost c r y in g need
seem s
w h ich w i l l b e
la b o rers.
Future o f
is
to
up
states.
the p a r tic u la r
other
crops
as
w ell.
Problem s v e t
work
out
p eop le
the
problem o f
several
worked out.
to
be
so lv ed .
fin d in g
In
order
secu rity
s m a lle r p r o b le m s m ust b e
in
to
com p letely
change
met and a
for
these
so lu tio n
394
1.
S i n c e i t i s a com m onplace t h a t A m erica i s a
m e lt in g p o t o f a l l p e o p le s , can i t b e ex p e c te d t h a t th e
M e x ic a n s w i l l e v e r becom e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f s o c i e t y o r
w i l l t h e y a l w a y s rem a in i n an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n a s t h e N egro
h a s done?
I s i t p o s s i b l e o r even d e s ir a b l e to A m erican ize
t h e s e M e x ic a n s? 1?
What a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a n e g a t i v e
answ er to t h i s l a s t q u estion ?
2.
A ssu m in g t h a t A m e r ic a n iz a t io n i s n o t p o s s i b l e , th e
s t u d e n t i s f a c e d w i t h two a l t e r n a t i v e s .
E it h e r t h e M exicans
m u st b e r e p a t r i a t e d o r t h e y must rem a in f o r e v e r a p eo n c l a s s .
S i n c e a g r i c u l t u r e dem ands m i g r a t o r y l a b o r e r s and s i n c e i t i s
t h e o p i n i o n o f ma ny t h a t w h i t e s w i l l n o t p e r m a n e n t l y l i v e
u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h ic h h a v e so f a n seem ed an i n t e g r a l
p a r t o f th e l i f e i t w o u ld seem t h a t r e p a t r i a t i o n i s n o t
e n tir e ly d esira b le.
B ut, on th e o th e r hand, i s a peon c l a s s
a n y more so?
D i s r e g a r d i n g th e M e x i c a n h i m s e l f , w h a t i s t h e
e f f e c t o f t h i s econom ic c a s t e sy stem on th e e m p lo y in g group?
A n t e - b e l l u m S o u th and C z a r i s t R u s s i a do n o t seem to o f f e r a
v e r y s h i n i n g exam p le o f th e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s o l u t i o n .
3.
S i n c e i t seem s e s s e n t i a l t o r e t a i n t h e M exican and
a t t e m p t t o A m e r i c a n i z e h i m , i t may b e a s s u m e d , f o r t h e s a k e o f
a r g u m e n t , t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o b e c o m e a s much A m e r ­
i c a n a s t h e J e w s o r t h e I t a l i a n s who cam e a g e n e r a t i o n a g o .
T h en a new p r o b l e m p r e s e n t s i t s e l f :
In becom ing A m erican ized
t h e M exican w i l l b e g i n to r a i s e h i s s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g .
A l­
ready th ere are ev id en ces o f t h i s , e s p e c ia lly in th e la r g e r
c itie s.
A r i s i n g l i v i n g sta n d a r d demands a r i s i n g s c a l e o f
w ages.
What i s t h e c a p a c i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e t o pay h i g h e r
w ages?
An i n c r e a s e o f o n e - f o u r t h c e n t p e r p o u n d t o t h e p i c k e r s
w o u l d o f t e n mean t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r o f i t and l o s s t o t h e
grow er a t th e p r e se n t tim e.
Can s u f f i c i e n t e c o n o m i e s b e
e f f e c t e d so t h a t t h e c r o p w i l l pay b e t t e r w ages?
One a n s w e r
h e r e , perhaps, w i l l be a b e t t e r system o f d is t r ib u t io n , w ith
t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f so me o f t h e c o s t s o f m a r k e t i n g .
4.
I f th e m ig r a to r y M exican f a m i l y i s a p erm an en t
phenom enon w h at m ust e d u c a t io n p r o v id e to m eet th e s p e c i a l
n e e d s o f t h i s group?
Can t h e s c h o o l b e m o v e d a l o n g w i t h t h e
p ick ers?
Or s h o u l d g o o d s c h o o l s b e p r o v i d e d and s t a n d empty
m ost of the year?
17 V i c t o r J o n e s , T r a n s i e n t s and M i g r a n t s . 1939
(m im eographed.
B erk eley C a lifo r n ia [U n iv e rsity o f C aliforn ia!,
February 27, 1 9 3 9 ), p. 58.
395
Who w i l l
fin a n ce
program?
"Any
greater
the n ecessa ry
step
rig id ity
in
in
m eetin g
state
law s
im p rovem en ts
the
situ a tio n
and i n c r e a s e d
in
h is
ed u ca tio n a l
m ust in v o k e
fed eral
ju ris­
d ictio n .
18 L e s l i e 0 . G ordon, " B r e e d in g Grounds f o r S o c i a l
U n r e s t , " The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , 5 7 : 2 3 - 2 4 , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 3 7
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
A d a m s , R. L. , S e a s o n a l L a b o r R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
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tu re B u lle tin 62$.
B erk eley, C a lifo rn ia :
o f C a lifo r n ia , 1938.
67 pp .
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p r e s e n t e d b y c r o p s and b y c o u n t i e s .
C aliforn ia
of A gricu l­
U n iv ersity
requirem en ts
B o g a r d u s , Emory S . , T h e M e x i c a n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .
Los
A n g e le s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ,
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V ol. I I , P a rt 3,
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S t a te s . 1930. P o p u la tio n .
6 v o l s . , V ol. I I ,
G eneral
R e p o r t : V o l . V, O c c u p a t i o n s : V o l . V I , F a m i l i e s .
D w e l l i n g s and Homes.
W ashington , D .C .: U n ited S t a t e s
Governm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933.
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W a sh in g to n , D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s Governm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
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A stu d y o f 500 work h i s t o r i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e and i n ­
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A good acco u n t o f m ig ra to ry r o u te s th ro u g h o u t
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D r a k e , R o l l e n H. , "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e M e n t a l i t y a n d
A c h ie v e m e n t o f M exican and W h ite C h i l d r e n . " U n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los
A n geles, 1927.
72 pp.
Study o f th e la n g u a g e f a c t o r in e d u c a tio n in elem en ta ry
grades.
He f o u n d a d i f f e r e n c e i n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y c a u s i n g
r e ts .r d a .tion i n u p p er g r a d e s .
C harts.
H o g a n , M i l o A r t h u r V a n N o r m a n , "A S t u d y o f t h e S c h o o l P r o g r e s s
o f M exican C h ild r e n i n I m p e r i a l C o u n ty ," U n p u b lish e d
M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s
A n geles, 1934.
94 pp.
A s tu d y , b a s e d on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e e r a t e s t r e s u l t s , i n c l u d ­
i n g some o f t h e c h i l d r e n c o v e r e d b y t h i s s t u d y .
\
H o l l i d a y , J a y N e w t o n , "A S t u d y o f N o n - A t t e n d a n c e i n M i g u e l
H id a lg o S c h o o l o f B raw ley, C a l i f o r n i a . " U n p u b lish ed
M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g ele s, 1932.
76 pp.
A r a t h e r b r i e f stu d y o f t h e l a r g e s t m ig r a to r y M exican
group in Im p er ia l V a lle y .
T ab les, i l l u s t r a t i o n s .
L e i s , Ward W i l l i a m , "Th e S t a t u s o f E d u c a t i o n f o r M e x i c a n C h i l d ­
r e n i n F o u r B o r d e r S t a t e s . " U n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n iv e r s it y o f South ern C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 1 . 78 pp.
An e x a m i n a t i o n o f c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f
M exicans w it h th e r e s u l t i n g a t t i t u d e s o f a d u l t s , b o th
M e x ic a n s and A m e r ic a n s .
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e m ethod f o l l o w e d .
T a b les.
L yon, Laura L u c i l l e , " I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Program f o r t h e
A d ju stm en t o f M exican G i r l s to th e H igh S c h o o ls o f t h e San
F ern a n d o V a l l e y . " U n p u b l is h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n iv e r ­
s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 3 .
74 pp.
S c h o o l p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d b y M e x ic a n c h i l d r e n and t h e
s t e p s ta k e n t o m eet them .
E x cellen t b ib lio g ra p h y .
\
Mauze'J F r a n c e t t e , "A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a m i l i e s i n t h e S a n
J o a q u i n V a l l e y . " U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n iv e r ­
s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1940.
247 pp.
" A p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d f a m i l i e s s e l e c t e d a s b e i n g
t y p i c a l and w e r e u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . "
A
c a r e f u l stu d y c o v e r in g m ost o f th e p h a se s o f th e m ig ra to ry
p roblem , p r i n c i p a l l y from lib r a r y s o u r c e s , b u t in c lu d in g a
t e s t i n g program in a m ig r a to ry s c h o o l n e a r A rvin .
Illu s­
tr a tio n s, graphs, ta b les.
404
R e y n o l d s , E v e l y n D o l o r e s , ”A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y F a c t o r s
A f f e c t i n g E d u c a t i o n i n N o r t h Kern C o u n t y . ”
U n p u b lish ed
M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s , Th e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s , 1932.
96 p p .
Many t a b l e s o f d a t a o f I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ; n o t much
a tte m p t to i n t e r p r e t them.
C on clu sion s n o t n e c e s s a r ily
w a r r a n te d by d a t a .
M igran ts are found in d e c r e a s in g
n u m b e r s up t h r o u g h t h e g r a d e s a n d h i g h s c h o o l .
The
c h i l d r e n a r e l e s s c o o p e r a t i v e and more d e s t r u c t i v e .
A
c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w as f o u n d b e t w e e n m i g r a t i o n and
certa in crops.
M exican s com p rised s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t
o f the f i r s t th r e e g r a d e s .
S p e n c e r , C l a r e n c e , ”A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f a n A g e G r o u p w i t h
a G r a d e G r o u p o f P u p i l s . 11 U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 9 .
100 pp.
R e s e a r c h s tu d y i n T u la r e C ounty.
T a b l e s , g r a p h s and some
m igran t p ro b lem s.
T r e f f , S i m o n L u d w i g , "The E d u c a t i o n o f M e x i c a n C h i l d r e n i n
Orange C o u n t y .*
U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i­
v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 4 .
144 pp.
A su r v e y -ty p e stu dy c o v e r in g background o f p u p ils , re­
t a r d a t i o n , e n r o ll m e n t and a t t e n d a n c e d a t a , a d e q u a c y o f
t h e s c h o o l p l a n t s and t e a c h i n g m eth o d s i n O range C o u n ty ,
C a lifo rn ia .
C.
PERIODICALS
B e a c h , A. W. a n d W. G. B e a c h , " F a m i l y M i g r a t i o n s a n d C h i l d
B e h a v io r ," S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . 2 1 : 5 0 3 - 2 3 ,
J u ly , 1937.
A s t u d y c o v e r i n g s e v e r a l t y p e s o f m i g r a t i o n and on
s e v e r a l eco n o m ic l e v e l s from th e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e
e f f e c t o f m i g r a t o r y l i f e o n a t t i t u d e s "toward l i f e
situ a tio n s.
B e a l s , C a r l e t o n , "M igs— A m e r i c a ’ s S h a n ty t o w n o n W h e e l s , ”
Forum and C e n t u r y , 9 9 : 1 0 - 1 5 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 3 .
A r a th e r p e n e t r a t in g stu d y o f m igratory la b o r e r s , but
w ith the w h ite w orkers p r in c ip a lly c o n sid e r e d .
B r a w le y . ( C a lif o r n ia ) News, January 25,
E d i t o r i a l comment on t h e k i d n a p p i n g
1934.
o f A.
L.
W irin .
405
C a l i f o r n i a D epartm ent o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , R eport to
G o v e r n o r 1s C o u n c i l , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 0 : May, 1 9 4 0 , (m im eo­
gra p h ed ). [n.nj, F ebruary, 1940.
26 pp.
May, 1 9 4 0 .
51 pp.
The F e b r u a r y n um ber c o n t a i n s an e x c e l l e n t r e p o r t o f a
v i s i t t o I m p e r i a l V a l l e y b y E d w a r d A. B r o w n , S u p e r v i s o r
o f Camp I n s p e c t i o n .
T h e May n u m b e r c o n t a i n s r e s u l t s o f i n s p e c t i o n s i n S o l a n o ,
Y o lo and K ern C o u n t i e s .
C a r p e n t e r , W. W. a n d A. G. C a p p s , " U n c l e Sam a n d h i s C h i l d r e n , "
S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e s M a g a zin e, 5 4 : 7 0 - 7 1 , November, 1 9 3 4 .
A s t u d y o f m i g r a t i o n among t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f
S p r in g f ie ld , M isso u ri.
D a w e , D. T h e o d o r e , f,A S t u d y o f M i g r a t o r y C h i l d r e n i n K e r n
C ounty f o r t h e S c h o o l Y ear 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ," S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l
N ew s, 3 4 :1 2 , Septem ber, 1938.
A c a r e f u l s t u d y o f a g r o u p o f m i g r a n t s and one o f
" reg u la rs," w e ll rep o rted .
T a b le s on a b i l i t y and
ach ievem en t o f m ig ra n ts.
D i c k i e , W a lte r M ., "H ealth o f th e M ig r a n t," J o u r n a l o f th e
A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 1 1 1 : 7 6 3 - 7 6 5 , A u g u st 2 7 ,
1938.
A r e p o r t o f t h e work d o n e b y t h e S t a t e D ep a rtm en t o f
P u b l i c H e a l t h among t h e m i g r a n t s .
F a v e r m a n , A n i t a E . , M. D. , "A S t u d y o f t h e H e a l t h o f 1 0 0 0
C h ild ren o f M igratory A g r ic u lt u r a l L ab orers in C a lif o r n ia ,"
R eport o f M ig ra to ry D e m o n str a tio n , J u l y . 1956- J u n e , 1937.
( M im eograp hed) S acram en to: C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D ep a rtm en t o f
P u b lic H ealth , 1937.
42 pp.
M e x ic a n s sn ow ed more d e f e c t s th a n w h i t e s and m ore i l l n e s s e s
due to d ie ta r y d e f ic i e n c i e s .
G a r r e t s o n , 0 . K . , "A S t u d y o f t h e C a u s e s o f R e t a r d a t i o n Among
M exican S c h o o l C h ild r e n in a S m a ll P u b l i c S c h o o l System i n
A r i z o n a , " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 : 3 1 - 4 0 ,
M arch, 1 9 2 8 .
A c a r e f u l s tu d y , though r a t h e r o ld .
The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s
t h a t M e x ic a n s a r e , on t h e a v e r a g e , o f l o w e r m e n ta l a b i l i t y .
G i f f o r d , M yrnie A ., M .D ., " D i s c u s s i o n o f H e a l t h o f t h e M ig r a n t,"
J o u r n a l o f t h e A m erican M e d ic a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 1 1 1 : 7 6 5 ,
A ugust 27, 1938.
D r. G i f f o r d w a s a member o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n p a n e l w h i c h
f o l l o w e d Dr. D i c k i e 1s t a l k b e f o r e t h e A m erican M e d ic a l
A s s o c i a t i o n a t San F r a n c i s c o , J u n e 1 7 , 1 9 3 8 .
406
G - o r d o n , L e s l i e 0 . , " B r e e d i n g G r o u n d s f o r S o c i a l U n r e s t , " Th e
S ch o o l E x e c u t iv e , 5 7 : 2 3 -2 4 , Septem ber, 1937.
A more o r l e s s " p o p u l a r l y s t y l e d a r t i c l e , e v i d e n t l y b a s e d
p r i n c i p a l l y on th e S .R .A . s tu d y , M ig r a n ts i n C a l i f o r n i a
e d i t e d b y Max L e w i s .
\
C r o p p e r , W i l l i a m , "Gypsy L a b o r , " The N a t i o n . 1 4 5 : 3 2 1 , S e p t e m b e r
25, 1937.
A r a th e r p op u lar accou n t o f th e d r o u g h t-re fu g e e m ig r a tio n .
H e f f e r n a n , H e le n , "R eport o f C o n fe r e n c e on E d u c a tio n o f c h i l d ­
ren o f S e a s o n a l W orkers— F resn o S t a t e C o lle g e , Decem ber
9 - 1 0 , 1938," C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E lem en tary E d u c a tio n .
7 :1 8 1 -1 9 1 , February, 1939.
C o n ta in s th e recom m en d ation s o f th e C o n fe r e n c e f o r m igra­
tory sch ool stan dards.
H o ffm a n , C h a r l e s S . , "D rought and D e p r e s s i o n M i g r a t i o n i n t o
O regon, 1930 t o 1 9 3 6 ," M onthly Labor R e v ie w . 4 6 : 2 7 ,
January, 1938.
A sum m ar y o f t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e d u s t - b o w l m i g r a t i o n i n t o
O regon,
H u n t e r , W. S . , a n d E l o i s e S o m m e r m i e r , " T h e R e l a t i o n o f D e g r e e
o f I n d i a n B l o o d t o S c o r e on t h e O t i s I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t , "
J o u r n a l o f C om parative P s y c h o lo g y . 2 : 2 5 7 - 7 7 , J u n e, 1 922.
A s t u d y made a t t h e H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e .
A p o sitiv e
c o r r e l a t i o n was found b e tw e e n i n c r e a s i n g d eg ree o f w h ite
b l o o d and t h e s c o r e on t h e O t i s t e s t .
\
K id n e y , D a n ie l M ., " H arvest
2 4 :4 2 1 , Septem ber, 1935.
A very dram atic a r t i c l e
r e l i e f c lie n t s in to the
w h ere th e pay was below
and R e l i e f , "
S u rvey-G rap h ic.
a n a l y z in g th e problem o f s e n d in g
h a r v e s t f i e l d s o f N orth C a r o lin a ,
l iv i n g stan dards.
K r o h n , M i l d r e d , " M i g r a t o r y H o m e , U n i t e d E f f o r t s t o F i n d a New
Way o f L i v i n g , " S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l N e w s , 3 4 : 2 2 , N o v e m b e r ,
1938.
A sh o rt b u t s tim u la tin g a r t i c l e , d e a lin g p r in c ip a lly w ith
n u t r i t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f th e problem .
Law,
W illia m , "Problem s o f t h e M ig r a to r y S t u d e n t,"
C aliforn ia
J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 4 : 1 7 0 , March, 1 9 3 9 .
An
a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e m i g r a t o r y c h i l d who
t r i e s t o go t o h i g h s c h o o l .
L o w r y , E d i t h E . , " N o t e s on M i g r a n t W ork," TheM i s s i o n a r y
R eview o f t h e W orld , 6 0 : 1 0 0 , F eb r u a r y , 1937.
C o n t a i n s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n " C a l i f o r n i a (i n ] a
s m a l l town[NipomqJ a s a r e s u l t o f a d v e r s e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s
in the peas. "
407
M c E n t i r e , D s . v i s a n d N. L. W h e t t e n , " T h e M i g r a n t s , I . R e c e n t
M i g r a t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , ” Land P o l i c y R e v i e w .
2 :7 -1 7 , Septem ber-O ctober, 1939.
The f i r s t o f a s e r i e s s t u d y i n g r e c e n t m i g r a t i o n to t h e
c o a s t , c o n d u c t e d , i n t h e c a s e o f C a l i f o r n i a , j o i n t l y by
t h e B u reau o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E con om ics and t h e S t a t e
D epartm ent o f E d u ca tio n .
\
M c W i l l i a m s , C a r e y , f,T h e F a r m e r s G e t T o u g h , ” T h e A m e r i c a n
M ercury. 3 3 :2 4 1 -4 5 , O ctober, 1934.
C o m m e n t a r i e s o n t h e v i g i l a n t i s r n t h a t p u t d ow n t h e a g r i ­
c u ltu r a l s tr ik e s o f 1934.
I n t e r e s tin g a n a ly s is o f the
p o s it io n o f th e grower in a g r ic u ltu r e .
\
M cW illiam s,
T h e New
T h e new
in g t e l l
C a r e y , "W hat's B e i n g Done A b o u t t h e J o a d s ? , "
R e p u b lic . 1 0 0 :1 7 8 -8 0 , Septem ber 20, 1939.
c h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f I m m i g r a t i o n and H o u s­
s o f h i s p la n s to m eet th e m ig r a to r y problem .
M i n i , Norman, " T h a t C a l i f o r n i a D i c t a t o r s h i p , ” The N a t i o n .
140:224, February 20, 1935.
C o m p le te d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p e a and l e t t u c e s t r i k e s o f
1934.
O u t l a n d , G e o r g e E. , a n d C. K. M a r t i n , J r . , " T r a n s i e n c y a n d
F e d e r a l A id to E d u c a tio n ," S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . 4 6 : 1 2 6 - 2 8 ,
Ju ly 24, 1937.
C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n ra n k o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a t e s i n edu­
c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s o f t e n
thousand t r a n s ie n t b o y s by th e s t a t e o f o r ig in .
P a s c h a l , F r a n k l i n C. a n d L o u i s R. S u l l i v a n , " R a c i a l I n f l u e n c e s
i n th e M en ta l and P h y s i c a l D ev elo p m en t o f M exican
C h ild ren ,"
C o m p a r a t i v e P s y c h o I ory M o n o g r a p h s . 3 : 1 - 7 6 ,
O ctober, 1925.
R e s u l t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and a n t h r o p o m e t r i c t e s t s o f
c h ild r e n in Tucson, A rizon a.
P en n y , L u c r e t ia , " P ea -p ick er* s C h ild ," S urv ey-G raph1 c .
24:352-53, J u ly , 1935.
A very d ram atic p ic t u r e o f th e d eath o f a c h ild in
camp.
a pea-
P o t t e r , G l a d y s L. , " S p e c i f i c S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n
o f I n s t r u c t i o n i n Em ergency S c h o o ls ," C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l
o f E l em enta r y Educat i o n . 7 : 1 3 8 - 4 8 , F eb ru a ry , 1 9 3 9 .
A d dress a t C o n feren ce on E d u cation o f C h ild ren o f
S e a s o n a l W orkers h e l d a t F resn o S t a t e C o l l e g e , December
10, 1938.
408
P o t t e r , J e w e l l , " T each er and M ig r a n t," S I e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l
N ews, 3 4 :2 6 , O ctob er, 1 9 3 8 .
D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o b le m c r e a t e d b y t h e m i g r a n t s and
a t t e m p t s to m ee t i t i n a Kern C ounty S c h o o l.
Punke, H arold H . , " E d u c a tio n a l I m p li c a t i o n s o f a M o b ile
P o p u la t io n ," E lem entary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 3 3 :5 1 4 -2 6 ,
M arch, 1 9 3 3 .
A d is c u s s io n o f m ig ra tio n in g e n e r a l betw een s e c t i o n s
o f th e U n it e d S t a t e s and from r u r a l a r e a s to c i t i e s .
H e a n s w e r s t h e q u e s t i o n "Why d o t h e y M i g r a t e . "
R o w e l l , Edward J . , " D r o u g h t R e f u g e e a n d L a b o r M i g r a t i o n
C a l i f o r n i a i n 1 9 3 6 ," M onthly Labor R e v ie w , 4 3 : 1 3 5 5 1363, Decem ber, 1936.
F u r t h e r d a t a on t h e stu d y o f m ig r a n t s e n t e r i n g
C a l i f o r n i a , b e g u n by T a y l o r and V a s e y .
S e a g o e , May V . , " T h e T r a n s i e n t C h i l d , "
R esearch , 1 6 :3 5 1 -5 7 , J u ly , 1932.
A s t u d y made i n G a rv e y s c h o o l s .
to
Journal of J u v en ile
T a y lo r , Frank J . , " C a l i f o r n i a 1s 'G rapes o f W ra th ,'"
and C e n tu r y , 1 0 2 : 2 3 2 - 3 8 , Novem ber, 1 9 3 9 .
A w ell-d ocu m en ted a r t i c l e , p r e s e n tin g th e p o in t
o f th e r e s id e n t in m ig ra to ry a r ea s.
Forum
of
view
T a y l o r , P a u l S . , "A gain t h e C o v ered W a g o n ," S u r v e y - G r a p h ic ,
2 4 :3 4 8 -5 1 , J u ly , 1935.
The f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s on th e d u s t - b o w l
m ig ra tio n to
thew e st.
T aylor, Paul S .,
a n d Tom V a s e y , " C o n t e m p o r a r y B a c k g r o u n d o f
C a l i f o r n i a F ar m L a b o r , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 3 1 : 4 1 6 - 1 7 ,
Decem ber, 1 9 3 6 .
An e x c e l l e n t
a c c o u n t o f t h e e n t i r e farm la b o r p ro b lem .
T a y l o r , P a u l S. ,
a n d Tom V a s e y , " D r o u g h t R e f u g e e a n d L a b o r
M ig r a tio n to C a l i f o r n i a , June to Decem ber, 1935,"
M onthly L ab or R e v le w , 4 2 : 3 1 2 - 1 8 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 6 .
C o n ta in s co u n t o f r e f u g e e s e n t e r in g C a l i f o r n i a by
s t a t e s and by r a c e s .
T a y l o r , P a u l S c h u s t e r , " M i g r a t o r y Farm L a b o r i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , " M on th ly L abor R e v ie w , 4 4 : 5 4 0 , March, 1 9 3 7 .
A g e n e r a l su rv ey o f th e e n t i r e problem .
409
T a y l o r , P a u l S . , and Edward J . H o w e l l , " P a t t e r n s o f A g r i c u l ­
t u r a l Labor M ig r a t io n w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a , " M onthly L abor
R e v ie w , 4 7 : 9 8 0 - 9 0 , November, 1938.
C o n t a i n s r o u t e s o f m i g r a t i o n and s e a s o n a l m o b i l i t y i n
I m p e r ia l C ounty.
T a y l o r , P a u l S . , a n d Edwe^rd J . R o w e l l , " R e f u g e e L a b o r M i g r a ­
t i o n to C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 7 ," M onthly L ab or R e v ie w , 4 7 : 2 4 0 - 5 0 ,
A ugust, 1938.
A r e p o r t o f p e r s o n s a d m i t t e d i n t o C a l i f o r n i a and S .R .A .
r e c o r d s i n I m p e r ia l C ounty.
T a y l o r , P a u l S . , and C la rk K e r r , " U p r is in g s on t h e F arm s,"
Survey G rap h ic, 2 4 :1 9 -2 2 , January, 1935.
C o n t a i n s t h e s t o r y o f t h e p e a and l e t t u c e s t r i k e s o f
1933-34 in Im p erial V a lley .
The
Im p er ia l V a lle y P r e s s . (E l C entro,
C on tain s th e t e x t o f th e G la ssfo r d
strik e*
The
Los A n g eles E ven in g H e r a ld . J u ly 26, 1940.
G i v e s , o n p a g e A - 2 4 an a c c o u n t o f t h e h e a r i n g s
H ou se C om m ittee on th e I n t e r s t a t e M i g r a t i o n o f
C h ild ren .
The
\
C a lifo r n ia ) June 2 7 ,1 9 3 4 .
r e p o r t on t h e l e t t u c e
s e t up b y
D estitu te
( E l C e n tr o , C a l i f o r n i a ) M ornin g P o s t , F eb ru a ry 4 ,
Comments o n t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e l e t t u c e s t r i k e
the
1934.
i n B raw iey.
W a lto n , R oger, " E d u c a tin g t h e A s p h a lt A rab ," N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s ,
19:34, A p ril, 1937.
A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s a n d some
s t a t i s t i c a l m a teria l.
" W h a t We Do" ( e d i t o r i a l ) , S u r v e y - G r a p h i c , 2 2 : 1 8 , J a n u a r y ,
A c o n c is e s ta te m e n t o f th e e n t ir e problem o f a su p p ly
lab or fo r a g r ic u ltu r e.
1933.
of
W i l l i a m s , C h e s t e r S . , " I m p e r i a l V a l l e y P r e p a r e s f o r W ar," W orld
Tomorrow, 1 7 : 1 9 9 - 2 0 1 , A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 .
C o n ta in s t h e r e p o r t o f t h e F e d e r a l C om m ittee t h a t i n v e s t i ­
g a t e d th e p e a and l e t t u c e s t r i k e s i n I m p e r i a l V a l l e y i n 1 9 3 4 .
D.
OTHER SOURCES
C a l i f o r n i a S t a te R e l i e f A d m in is tr a tio n , A g r ic u lt u r a l M igratory
L a b o r e r s i n t h e San J o a o u i n V a l l e y . J u l y and A u g u s t . 1 9 3 7 .
( M im eo g ra p h ed ) San F r a n c i s c o : S t a t e R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
1937.
38 pp.
A s t a t i s t i c a l s u r v e y o f a l l m ig r a n t w o r k e r s from M odesto to
B a h ersfield .
410
C a lifo r n ia S ta te R e lie f A d m in istration , S o c ia l S erv ice
D i v i s i o n M anual.
R evised as o f August 18, 1938•
San
F ran cisco: C a lifo r n ia S ta te R e lie f A d m in istra tio n , 1933.
63 pp.
C o n t a in s d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e s i d e n t , a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from
t r a n s i e n t a c c o r d in g to th e r u l e s o f th e S.R .A .
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t u t e s o f 1 9 4 0 . C hapter 12.
' T h e new r e l i e f r e q u i r e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g
a lien s.
( I n pam phlet form a t th e tim e
t i o n w as made)
r e s i d e n c e and
th is in v estig a ­
C a r r a s c o , H. C . , C h i l d L a b o r i n C a l i f o r n i a .
U n p u b lish ed
p a p e r read b e f o r e C e n tr a l Labor C o u n c il o f I m p e r ia l
V a l l e y a t E l C en tro , C a l i f o r n i a , November 23, 1 9 3 9 .
(Copy f u r n i s h e d t o I m p e r i a l C ounty S u p e r v i s o r o f C h ild
W e lf a r e and A t t e n d a n c e )
A b r i e f resume! o f c h i l d l a b o r c o n d i t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a
and what i s b e i n g done t o c o n t r o l them .
D i c k i e , W. M . , T h i r t y - F o u r t h B i e n n i a l
m ent o f P u b l i c H e a l t h , S t a t e o f C
C a lifo r n ia S ta te P r in tin g O ffice]
Report in c lu d e s h ea lth c o n d itio n s
Report of the D epart­
a lifo rn ia .
[Sacram ento:
1936.
268 pp.
among t h e m i g r a n t s .
I n d e x o f R e s e a r c h Pro.1 e c t s .
Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
[n.joT] 1 9 3 9 .
An i n d e x w i t h c o n d e n s e d s u m m a r i e s o f a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d
by v a r io u s governm ent a g e n c ie s .
M c W illia m s , C a r e y , R e p o r t o f D i v i s i o n o f I m m ig r a t io n and
H o u s i n g . Januar.v 1 , 1 9 3 9 - J u l y 1 , 19391 (M im eograph ed )
Los A n geles:
1939.
The f i r s t r e p o r t o f t h e new C h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n , i n
w h ic h h e i n c l u d e s l e g i s l a t i o n a d o p t e d and i n d i c a t e s
th e fu tu re p la n s o f the d iv is io n .
U n ited S ta te s S ec r eta r y
f o r th e F i s c a l Year
D .C .: U n ite d S t a t e s
148 pp.
C on tain s th e annual
m ent S e r v i c e .
o f Labor,
N in e te e n th Annual R eport
E n din g Ju n e 3 0 . 1 9 3 0 .
W ashington ,
G-overnment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 0 .
report
of
the
U n ited
S tates
Em ploy­
A P P E N D I X E S
412
APPENDIX A.
Case o f S a n to s B r a ca m o n te.
from th e c o t t o n f i e l d s o f A rizon a
u n c le * s f a m ily w ith him .
S a n t o s came t o p i c k p e a s
in 1929, b rin g in g h is
The u n c l e , P e r f e t o B r a c a m o n te , was b o r n i n C h ih u a h u a ,
i n 1 8 9 5 and came t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 9 1 7 , c r o s s i n g
i l l e g a l l y a t E a g l e P a s s , and d i e d a t S e g u i n , T e x a s i n 1 9 2 8 .
The a u n t , H ele n a B e c e r r a was b o rn i n C o a h u ila ,
th e U n ited S t a t e s l e g a l l y w ith her p a r e n ts in 1901 a t
N egras.
She m a r r ie d P e r f e t o i n San A n to n io i n 1 9 1 8 .
entered
P ied ras
They had s i x c h i ld r e n , P e r f e t o , born i n 1919, t w in s ,
s t i l l b i r t h in 1 920, A n ton ia born in 1921, H elena born in 1922
and E r n e s t o , b o r n i n 1 9 2 3 .
Upon P e r f e t o * s d e a t h H e l e n a
who w a s t h e n i n A r i z o n a .
U n ited
Santos
S tates
came
to
liv e
w ith S a n to s,
was b o r n i n C h ihu ahua i n 19 0 5 and e n t e r e d
w i t h h i s f a t h e r and P e r f e t o i n 1 9 1 7 .
the
S a n to s* w i f e , Juana V a l d i v i a , was b o rn i n T u cson i n
1908; m arried S a n to s in D o u g la s, A rizo n a in 1 9 2 3 .
They had
f o u r c h i l d r e n , S a n t o s , A u r o r a , and J e s u s , b o r n i n A r i z o n a i n
1 9 2 4 , 1 9 2 5 and 1 9 2 7 r e s p e c t i v e l y and J u a n , b o r n i n C a l i p a t r i a
in 1930.
When t h e f i r s t camp c e n s u s w a s t a k e n i n 1 9 3 1 S a n t o s h a d
a f a m i l y o f t h r e e a d u l t s and e i g h t c h i l d r e n , t h e o l d e s t t w e l v e
years old .
At th e th en p r e v a i l i n g r a t e o f s e v e n t y - f i v e c e n ts
a hundred pounds the t h r e e w orkers w ere e a r n in g about s i x
d o l l a r s a d a y , b u t b y 1 9 3 2 when t h e y came b a c k t h e y h a d d e v e l o p ­
ed s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l t o e a r n fr o m s e v e n d o l l a r s f i f t y c e n t s t o
eig h t d o lla r s a day.
In a d d i t i o n P e r f e t o and A n to n ia w orked,
A n t o n i a , i l l e g a l l y a l l t h e t i m e , and P e r f e t o i l l e g a l l y e x c e p t
on S a t u r d a y s .
I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e a n n u a l incom e was a b o u t
$ 1 3 0 0 .0 0 f o r th e e le v e n p eo p le or about $ 1 3 6 .0 0 per p e rso n .
By 1 9 3 5 t h e r e w e r e f o u r f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s and tw o
S a t u r d a y and h o l i d a y w o r k e r s , and t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y now
numbered t h i r t e e n .
The c h i l d l a b o r la w s w ere i n th e m eantim e
t i g h t e n e d up and t h e in c o m e was a b o u t t h e same a s b e f o r e .
In
1937
the
rate
for
p ick in g
was r a i s e d
to
one
cent per
413
Case of Santos Bracamonte (continued)
pound
and t h e r e w e r e t h e n f i v e f u l l - t i m e p i c k e r s .
It is
e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e a n n u a l incom e was a b o u t $ 1 5 0 0 . 0 0 , th e
r a i s e in the p ic k in g r a t e b e in g o f f s e t by the la c k o f work,
In 1938 H e le n a d i e d and P e r f e t o l e f t hom e.
Juana
s u f f e r e d a m is c a r r i a g e and was u n a b le to w ork .
T h is l e f t
o n l y S a n t o s and t h e two g i r l s t o work, s i n c e t h e g r o w e r had
r u le d a l l c h ild r e n under s ix t e e n out of the f i e l d s a t a l l
tim es.
In January, 1939 A n to n ia g o t m a r r ie d .
It is e s t i­
m ated t h a t th e e a r n in g s f o r t h i s y e a r w ere n o t o v e r $ 9 0 0 .0 0
f o r e le v e n p e o p le or about $ 8 0 .0 0 per y ea r p er p e r s o n .
In
a l l t h i s tim e S a n to s had n e v e r gone n ear any r e l i e f o f f i c e .
On F e b r u a r y 2 , 1 9 3 9 H e l e n a r a n a w a y
le a v in g o n ly Santos to support n in e p e o p le .
a sto m a c h a i l m e n t and fo u n d h i m s e l f u n a b le
s e n t th e f o ll o w i n g l e t t e r , w h ich i s quoted
i t i s s u c h a gem o f an e x a m p le o f t h e l a c k
th e a v e r a g e a d u l t M exican to d a y *
and g o t m a r r i e d ,
He c o n t r a c t e d
t o work so he
verb atim because
of ed u ca tio n of
"february 17-1939
H aelaen Canal L a ta r a l f •
W e l c k e n s o n B r o . Camp.
Mr:
R W. W a l t o n I am s e n d e n g y o w t h i s p a p e r t o L a t you. n o w
t h a t I am s e e c k a n d H a v e B e n s e e c k f o r t h e l a s t 2 W e e c k s
a n d IM n o t a b o u l t o W or k n o w a n d May W a e f f i s t h e S a e m •
Way a n d a l l t h e H a l p I h e v e i s t h i s b o y E r n e s t o a n d I
W e e s h t h e y o u Wood g e v e E r n e s t o a c a r t f o r p e r m e t t o w o r k
o n t h e p e a s o n t a e l I b y a b o u l t o g o t o Work may s a l f . h e
i s t h e o n l y o n e t h a t c a n h a l p Me a n d I W e e s h y o u Wood h a l p
me t h i s Way i f y o u p i e c e a n d He W e e l g o B a c k t o s c h o o l e s
s o n a s I g e t a b o u l t o Wor k s o p i e c e d o t h i s f a v a r f o r m e
your
(sig n ed )
Santos
very
tru ly
B racam onte”
A id f o r S a n to s in t h i s em erg en cy was d i f f i c u l t to s e c u r e .
He h a d b e e n i n t h e h a b i t f o r t h e p r e v i o u s f o u r y e a r s o f g o i n g
t o I d a h o i n t h e summe r a n d h a d n o r e c o r d s t o p r o v e t h a t t h e
l a s t p l a c e he had s p e n t a c o m p le t e y e a r was i n C a l i f o r n i a .
A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e h e w a s a c c e p t e d a s '’s t a t e h o m e l e s s "
and r e c e i v e d a r e l i e f b u d g e t o f $ 3 7 . 2 5 a w e e k .
T h i s came
near to r e s to r in g the standard o f l iv in g o f th e e a r ly y ea rs
414
Case
of
to
of
Santos
B racam onte
(con tin u ed )
t h e c a s e h i s t o r y and i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t
f e e l i n g w e l l en o u g h t o work a g a i n .
to
get
Santos
I n 1 9 3 9 w hen h e came b a c k h e a n n o u n c e d t h a t h e h a d
b e e n o n r e l i e f f o r tw o m o n th s d u r i n g t h e f a l l and w as g l a d
to go to w o r k .
When t h e f a l l p e a s d e a l w a s o v e r , h o w e v e r h e
a g a i n a p p l i e d f o r r e l i e f and was on r e l i e f fro m D ecem ber 14
to February 1 1 .
E r n e s t o , i n t h e m ean tim e was t a k e n fro m
s c h o o l and p u t t o work on h i s s i x t e e n t h b i r t h d a y .
415
APPENDIX B.
case
op
ruth
mesa
When t h e camp c e n s u s w a s f i r s t t a k e n i n N o v e m b e r
1 9 3 1 t h e f a m i l y o f J e s u s M esa w as l i v i n g i n a s q u a t t e r
camp n o r t h o f C a l i p a t r i a .
The t h r e e c h i l d r e n w e r e , Guca,
M anuel and Y s a b e l ; a g ed r e s p e c t i v e l y , e i g h t , s e v e n , and
six years.
None o f t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l .
T h e y h a d come f r o m M c F a r l a n d , w h e r e t h e y h a d a l l h e l p e d
th e ir parents p ick co tto n .
C u ca’ s b i r t h d a t e was g i v e n as
O ctober 31, 1923.
L a t e r t h e same y e a r t h e f a m i l y was
a g a i n v i s i t e d , t h i s t i m e i n W i l k i n s o n B r o t h e r s ’ P e a Camp
and a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n w e r e i n s c h o o l *
The n e x t y e a r t h e y w e r e l i v i n g i n t h e San D i e g o
F r u i t a n d P r o d u c e C o m p a n y ’ s Camp, w h i c h w a s o p e r a t e d b y
W ilk in so n B r o th e r s.
They had b een i n San J o s e p i c k i n g
prunes*
The o l d e s t g i r l ’ s name w as r e p o r t e d a s R e f u g i a
w i t h t h e same b i r t h d a t e g i v e n .
E a c h y e a r t h e camp c e n s u s
fou n d the f a m i l y w ork in g f o r W ilk in s o n B r o t h e r s , the c h i l d ­
r e n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l and R e f u g i a ’s b i r t h d a t e was r e p o r t e d
t h e same*
I n 19 3 6 R e f u g i a a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d a p e r m i t t o
w o rk o n S a t u r d a y s a n d s c h o o l h o l i d a y s , g i v i n g h e r name a s
R u t h Meza and h e r b i r t h - p l a c e a s W i c h i t a , K a n s a s , w i t h t h e
same b i r t h d a t e .
S c h o o l r e c o r d s w e r e com m only a c c e p t e d a s
p r o o f o f a g e f o r a c h i l d and s h e was n o t a s k e d t o p r o d u c e
su p p lem en tary p r o o f o f a g e .
At t h i s tim e , a lth o u g h tw e lv e
y e a r s o ld sh e was o n ly i n th e t h ir d g r a d e .
Her a t t e n d a n c e
r e c o r d was p o o r .
I n 1 9 3 7 s h e r e p o r t e d h e r name a t ' t h e camp c e n s u s a s
R u th M esa and w as n o t a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l .
When p r e s s u r e w a s
b r o u g h t o n h e r t o g o t h e f a m i l y moved and was n o t v i s i t e d
again th a t y e a r .
The c e n s u s o f 1938 fo u n d th e f a m i l y a g a in b a c k a t
t h e o l d camp a n d R u t h o u t o f s c h o o l .
P ressure brought
p r o m is e s b u t R uth d i d n o t go to s c h o o l .
On N o v e m b e r 2 8 ,
1 9 3 8 , a b o y g i v i n g h i s name a s M a n u el R i c o e n r o l l e d i n
s c h o o l a t N i l a n d and h i s s i s t e r , I s a b e l l R i c o s t a r t e d t h e
next day.
No r e c o r d o f t h e M e s a f a m i l y e x i s t e d i n N i l a n d ,
th e f a m i ly h a v in g alw a y s go n e to s c h o o l a t C a l i p a t r i a , so
t h e r e was no s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n w ere n o t g i v i n g
t h e i r c o r r e c t nam es*
B o t h c h i l d r e n a p p l i e d f o r and s e c u r e d
S a tu r d a y work p e r m i t s a t N i l a n d , on J a n u a ry 1 2 , b r i n g i n g
416
APPENDIX B. (continued)
CASE OF RUTH MESA
b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e s g i v i n g t h e i r name a s M esa d e R i c o *
A
d a y o r two l a t e r R e f u g i a R i c o a p p l i e d f o r a f u l l - t i m e w ork
p e r m i t , c l a i m i n g s h e was s i x t e e n y e a r s o l d , b u t w h en , on
January 17, she brought h er b ap tism c e r t i f i c a t e , g iv in g the
b ir t h d a t e as O ctober 3 1, 1923, th e p r i n c ip a l d en ied th e
p e r m i t , t o l d h e r s h e w o u l d h a v e t o c o m e t o s c h o o l a nd
n o t if i e d th e A ttendance S u p er v iso r.
H er home w as v i s i t e d
on t h e 1 8 t h . b u t s i n c e no o n e w as a t home no s u s p i c i o n
a r o s e t h a t i t w as a n y t h i n g b u t a r o u t i n e c a s e and t h e
f o l l o w - u p v i s i t was s e t f o r J a n u a r y 2 6 .
In th e m eantim e
t h e f a m i l y h a d m o v e d t o W i l k i n s o n B r o t h e r s f Gamp a n d t h e
s m a l l c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d t o s c h o o l u n d e r t h e i r n ew name o f
R ico .
One o f t h e o l d e r t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h e c h i l d r e n
and w r o t e t h e nam es i n a s M eza.
She a s k e d c a s u a l l y ab ou t
R u t h and w as t o l d t h a t s h e was l i v i n g i n B r a w l e y and g o i n g
to sc h o o l t h e r e .
A n o t e w a s m ad e f o r t h e A t t e n d a n c e S u p e r ­
v i s o r t o f o l l o w t h i s up w hen h e v i s i t e d C a l i p a t r i a J a n u a r y
27.
On J a n u a r y 2 5 , R e f u g i a R i c o c a m e t o t h e A t t e n d a n c e
S u p e r v i s o r ’ s o f f i c e , a p p l y i n g f o r a f u l l - t i m e work p e r m it
and b r i n g i n g a b a p t i s m c e r t i f i c a t e i n t h a t name w i t h t h e
b ir th d a te O ctober 31, 1922.
R em em bering h e r f a c e b u t n o t
f i n d i n g t h e name i n t h e f i l e s t h e A t t e n d a n c e S u p e r v i s o r
a sk ed a fe w q u e s t i o n s , a l l o f w h ich were answ ered i n a
s a t i s f a c t o r y manner u n t i l th e b i r t h - p l a c e was g i v e n .
M e x i c a n s b o r n i n W i c h i t a , K a n s a s a r e n o t common a n d , b e c o m i n g
s u s p i c i o u s t h a t t h e r e was so m e th in g h e h ad m is s e d h e t e l e ­
phoned C a l i p a t r i a , th e l a s t p la c e th e g i r l had a tte n d e d
s c h o o l, a ccord in g to h er s to r y .
The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a t
C a l i p a t r i a , i n t e n d i n g t o make a r o u t i n e r e p o r t , r e a d o v e r
t h e t e l e p h o n e t h e m em or an d u m l e f t b y h i s t e a c h e r a n d , o f
course ev eryth in g f i t t e d to g e th e r .
The b a p tism c e r t i f i c a t e
proved to have been c le v e r ly changed.
The b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e ,
w hen i t a r r i v e d f r o m W i c h i t a , b o r e t h e name R e f u g i a M esa d e
R i c o and c l i n c h e d th e m a t t e r .
Even t h e n R u th , or R e f u g i a ( t o u s e h e r S p a n is h name)
d id her b e s t to g e t out of g oin g to s c h o o l.
F in a lly the
g r o w e r , i n w h o s e camp s h e l i v e d , w a s n o t i f i e d a n d h e o r d e r e d
J e s u s Mesa t o p u t t h e g i r l i n s c h o o l o r g e t o u t o f t h e cam p .
He c h o s e t o m o v e .
417
APPENDIX B.
(continued)
CASE OF RUTH MESA
B y i n q u i r i n g am ong t h e o t h e r p i c k e r s , M e s a w a s
l o c a t e d i n a l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r ’ s camp w h e r e n e i g h b o r s r e ­
p o r t e d t h a t R u th had w orked f o r o v e r a m onth t h e p r e v i o u s
year*
T h i s t h e c o n t r a c t o r d e n i e d , b u t t o make t h i n g s r i g h t
h e b r o u g h t p r e s s u r e on M esa t o s e n d R u th t o s c h o o l .
She
t h e n l e f t home and a f o l l o w - u p r e v e a l e d t h a t s h e w a s l i v i n g
w ith a f r ie n d in B raw ley.
A f t e r p r e s s u r e w as b r o u g h t on
t h e f r i e n d R u t h a g a i n m o v e d b a c k t o h e r f a t h e r ’ s h o u s e and
f i n a l l y , on, February 13, e n r o lle d in s c h o o l.
T h is o n ly
l a s t e d f o r a s h o r t tim e ; th e f a m i l y m oving o u t o f th e v a l l e y
o n March 17 i n t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p e a s e a s o n .
T h e camp c e n s u s i n t h e f a l l o f 1 9 3 9 r e v e a l e d t h e M e s a
fa m ily n ot y e t in the v a l l e y .
T hey a r r i v e d on N ovem ber 16
and R u th a p p l i e d f o r and r e c e i v e d h e r f u l l - t i m e p e r m i t to
v/ork.
T h is s to r y i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t of l a t e en rollm en t
and i t s a t t e n d a n t r e t a r d a t i o n i n c r e a t i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n
w i t h s c h o o l and a d e s i r e t o q u i t .
I t a l s o shows the e x t e n t
to v iiic h th e y o u n g er g e n e r a t i o n M exicans c o n t r o l t h e i r
f a m i l i e s , R u th h a v i n g c a u s e d h e r f a m i l y to move f i v e t i m e s
a n d h a v i n g m oved two a d d i t i o n a l t i m e s i n an e f f o r t t o e v a d e
th e com p u lsory s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e la w s .
I n p a s s i n g i t may b e
s a id to i l l u s t r a t e the s p le n d id w orking r e l a t i o n s o f s c h o o l
o f f i c i a l s and p e a - g r o w e r s and l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s .
T h is h as
g u a r a n t e e d a p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n t o ma ny w h o w o u l d o t h e r ­
w ise have been a b le to s ta y out of s c h o o l.
418
APPENDIX C.
REC0 MMENDATIONS PROM THE
WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE REPORT9-
The C om m ittee recom m ended
th ati
1.
A n a t io n a l su r v e y o f the m igran t la b o r p rob lem
and t h e r e g u l a t i o n s and s u p e r v i s i o n o f m i g r a t i o n t h a t a r e
dem anded f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n and t h e
com m u n ities th e y v i s i t .
2.
The e n fo rc e m en t o f s c h o o l a t te n d a n c e law s f o r th e
e n t i r e s c h o o l te r m and t h e r e m o v a l o f c o n f l i c t s and c o n t r a ­
d i c t i o n s between s t a t e l a w s on s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and s t a t e
c h ild lab or la w s.
3.
C o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l , s t a t e l a b o r and
s o c i a l o f f i c i a l s to p r e v e n t i n t e r f e r e n c e o f m ig r a tio n w ith
the m igran t c h i l d ’s s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e .
4.
The c o o p e r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a ­
tio n s w ith the s t a t e in p ro v id in g a t h l e t i c , s o c ia l , r e c r e a ­
t i o n a l a n d r e l i g e o u s p r o g r a m s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e camp
sch o o ls.
5.
M e d ic a l i n s p e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f m ig r a n t
c h i l d r e n i n camps b y t h e S t a t e H e a l t h D e p a r tm e n t o r t h e
School H ealth S e r v ic e .
6.
Q u a rterly m ed ica l in s p e c t io n o f a l l c h ild r e n
w o r k in g on p e r m i t s i n camps and on f a r m s , w i t h t h e c o n t i n u ­
a t io n o f th e p erm it dependent upon t h e ir s a t i s f a c t o r y
p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l c o n d i t i o n .
pp.
6-9.
a . Vi/hite H o u s e C o n f e r e n c e o n C h i l d H e a l t h a n d
P r o t e c t i o n , C h i l d L a b o r (N e w Y o r k : T h e C e n t u r y C o m p a n y ,
1932), pp. 6 -9 .
419
APPENDIX D.
"RELIEF PROGRAM MAPPED
TO AID U . S . MIGRANTS
By A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s
v/ a s h i n g t o n , J u l y 2 6
The H ouse
D e stitu te C itizen
v a rio u s p arts of
m ig r a to ry worker
i n Oklahom a C i t y
Los A n g e l e s O c t .
C om m ittee on t h e I n t e r - s t a t e M ig r a t io n o f
s has s e t t e n t a t iv e days fo r h e a rin g s in
th e c o u n tr y to o b t a in in fo r m a tio n on the
and h i s f a m i l y #
The c o m m itte e w i l l m eet
S e p t# 2 3 - 2 5 , San F r a n c i s c o S e p t# 2 7 - 2 8 ,
1*
P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt e x p lo r e d recom m en dations tod ay f o r
b e t t e r in g th e l o t o f th e n a t i o n f s m igran t p o p u la t io n - - t h e
s t o r i e d " O kies" and " A r k i e s " - - t h r o u g h g r e a t e r f e d e r a l f i n a n ­
c i a l a i d and g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t l a b o r e x p l o i t a t i o n #
A s p e c i a l l y a p p o in te d com m ittee su b m itte d i t s f in d in g s
and s u g g e s t i o n s t o h i m i n a r e p o r t w h i c h h e p e r s o n a l l y r e ­
quested#
T h is c o m m itte e , h ea d ed by M iss J o s e p h in e R o c h e ,fo r m e r
a s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y o f th e T r e a su r y , d e s c r ib e d th e problem s
as one o f g r e a t p r o p o r tio n s.
'T h e nomad w o r k e r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y num ber m i l l i o n s , *
the r e p o r t s a id .
rP r o b a b l y 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 o f t h e m l o o k t o
a g r i c u l t u r e f o r a l i v i n g and a t l e a s t a s many t o i n ­
dustry . . .
A t h i r d o f them a r e c h i l d r e n . f
The r e p o r t p r o p o s e d t h a t a " g e n e r a l r e l i e f program
sh o u ld be e s t a b l i s h e d on a f e d e r a l - s t a t e b a s i s , f e d e r a l fu n d s
b e i n g made o n a v a r i a b l e g r a n t b a s i s " s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a l l o ­
ca ted to s t a t e s under the S o c ia l S e c u r ity program .
I t a lso
u r g e d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s s y s t e m
o f m ig ra n t w o r k e r s 1 cam ps.
To p r o t e c t m i g r a n t s a g a i n s t l a b o r e x p l o i t a t i o n t h e
c o m m itte e recom m ended l e g i s l a t i o n "em pow ering t h e f e d e r a l
governm ent to r e g u la te i n t e r s t a t e lab or c o n tr a c to r s."
T h e r e p o r t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t l a b o r f o r many s e a s o n a l
i n d u s t r i e s was r e c r u i t e d a t d i s t a n t p o i n t s , o f t e n t h r o u g h
a lab or c o n tr a c to r .
Because th ese co n tra cto rs u s u a lly
c a r r y t h e i r o f f i c e s u n d e r t h e i r h a t , so to s p e a k , t h e y
escap e s t a t e r e g u la tio n , the r e p o r t s a id .
In t h i s c o n n e c tio n , th e com m ittee a ls o a d v o ca ted
l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r o llin g the i n t e r s t a t e t r a n s p o r t a t io n o f
r e c r u i t e d m ig ra n t w orkers by tr u c k , th e e x p a n sio n o f the
farm p la c em e n t s e r v i c e p r o t e c t i o n of m igran t c h ild r e n
a g a i n s t em p loym ent a t to o e a r l y an a g e , and c o n t i n u e d a p p l i -
420
APPENDIX D.
(continued)
"RELIEF PROGRAM MAPPED
TO AID U . S . MIGRANTS8,
c a t i o n o f t h e w a g e - h o u r l a w t o m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s now
covered#
The c o m m i t t e e p r o p o s e d a s e r i e s o f r e g i o n a l f e d e r a l - s t a t e c o n fe r e n c e s to prom ote p u b lic u n d e r sta n d in g
o f the m ig r a to ry la b o r p rob lem #”
p#
a*
A- 2 4 #
Los A n g e le s E v en in g
H erald ,
Ju ly
26,
1940,
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