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An analysis of the interests, needs and desires of junior high school pupils as revealed by free responses

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND DESIRES OF JUNIOR
HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS AS REVEALED BY FREE RESPONSES
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
*>y
George Miles McNeish
February 1940
UMI Number: EP53873
All rights reserved
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UMI EP53873
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EJU *fo
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f t h e '
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m i t ­
tee a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m ­
m i t t e e h a s been presented to a n d accepted by
the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l
f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a tio n .
June 8, 1940 .........
Guidance Committee
D. Welty Lefever
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
M. M. Thompson
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
I N T R O D U C T I O N ......................
1
Statement of the problem . . . . . . .
4
Definitions of terms -used
. . . . . .
4
• • • • • • • • • • • . •
5
Interests
Desires
• • • • • • • • •
Related studies
.........
. . . . . . . . . . .
Organization of remainder of thesis
II.
III.
5
5
.
13
P R O C E D U R E ...........
14
AN ANALYSIS OF THE AFFECTS OF CHRONOLOGI­
CAL AGE UPON THE INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND
DESIRES OF PUPILS...................
.
18
Problems on which pupils cannot get
enough 1b lp in school • • • • • • •
•
18
What pupils talk about most with their
friends.
• • • • • • • •
••
•••
21
Rights pupils do not have at the pre­
sent time but feel they should have
25
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel
they should have • • • • • • • • • •
Wishes of junior high school pupils.
Summary
IV.
28
.
• • • • . . • • • • • • • • •
32
37
AN ANALYSIS OF THE AFFECTS OF THE OCCUPA­
TIONAL STATUS OF THE FATHER UPON THE
INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND DESIRES OF PUPILS
40
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Problems on which pupils cannot get
enough help in school . . . . . .
40
What pupils talk about most with their
friends • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Rights
pupils do not have at the pre­
sent
time but feel they should have
43
47
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel
they
Wishes
Summary
V.
should have. • • • • • • • •
50
of junior high school pupils
53
..........
58
AH ANALYSIS OP THE AFFECTS OF THE OCCUPA­
TIONAL STATUS OF THE MOTHER UPON THE
INTERESTS, NEEDS,AND DESIRES OF PUPILS
61
Problems on which pupils cannot get
enough help in s c h o o l ...........
61
What pupils talk about most with their
friends • « • • • • • • • • • • •
Rights
pupils do not have at the pre­
sent
time but feel they should have
63
65
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel
they should h a v e ............. ..
67
Wishes of junior high school pupils
69
Summary
72
.................
iv
CHAPTER
VI.
PAGE
AH ANALYSIS OP THE AFFECTS OF THE ORDINAL
POSITION OF THE CHILD IN THE FAMILY UPON
THE INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND DESIRES OF
P U P I L S ...................................
76
Problems on which pupils cannot get
enough help in school
• ..............
76
What pupils talk about most with their
friends
» • • » • • » • • • • » • »
79
Rights pupils do not have at the present
time but feel they should have • • •
82
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel
they should have • • » ...............
Wishes of junior high school pupils
Summary
VII.
.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
SUMMARY,CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Conclusions
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
Recommendations
• • • • • • • • • • •
85
88
93
96
96
101
101
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ................................
APPENDIX
104
110
LIST OF TABLES
, TABLE
I*
PAGE
Percentage of Distribution of Chronological
Age for Boys Acco rding to the Problems
on Which They Cannbt Get Enough Help . •
II#
19
Percentage of Distribution of Chronological
Age for Girls According to the Problems
on Which They Cannot Get Enough Help • .
III#
20
Percentage Distribution of Chronological Age
for Boys According to Their Most Frequent
Topics of Conversation
IV.
• • • • • . # •
22
Percentage Distribution of Chronological Age
for Girls According to Their Most Frequent
Topics of Conversation
V.
...............
23
Percentage Distribution of Chronological Age
for Boys According to the Rights They Do
Not Have at the Present Time But Feel
They Should Have
VI#
• • • # .............
26
Percentage Distribution of Chronological Age
for Girls According to the Rights They Do
Not have at the Present Time But Feel
They Should Have
VII.
• • • • • • • • • • «
27
Percentage Distributions of Chronological Age
for Boys According to the Duties and Res­
ponsibilities Which They Feel They Should
H a v e .....................................
29
Vi
TABLE
VIII.
PAGE
Percentage Distribution of Chronological Age
for Girls According to the Duties and
Responsibilities Which They Peel They
Should Have • • • • • • • • • • • • •
IX.
Percentage
for Boys
Distribution of Chronological Age
According to Their Most Fre­
quent Wishes
X.
Percentage
30
• • • . • • • • • • • •
33
Distribution of Chronological Age
for Girls According to Their Most Fre­
quent Wishes
XI.
Percentage
• • • • • •
...........
35
Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Boys According to
the Problems on Which They Cannot Get
Enough Help
XII.
Percentage
.........................
41
Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Girls According to
the Problems on Which They Cannot Get
Enough Help
XIII.
Percentage
42
Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Boys According to
Their Most Frequent Topics of Conversa­
tion
'4 4‘
vii
TABLE
PAGE
XIV.'
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Girls According to
Their Most Frequent Topics of Conversa­
tion ...................................
XV.
45
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Boys According to
the Rights They Do Not Have at the Pre­
sent Time but Feel They Should Have
XVI.
.
48
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Girls According
to
Rights They Do Not Have at the Present
Time but Feel They Should Have
XVII.
• . • .
49
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Boys According to
the Duties and Responsibilities Which
They Feel They Should H a v e ......... '.
XVIII.
51
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Girls According to
the Duties and Responsibilities Which
They Fell They Should H a v e ...........
XIX.
52
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Boys According to
Their Most Frequent W i s h e s ...........
54
viii
table
XX.
page
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Father for Girls According
to Their Most Frequent Wishes
XXI.
. . . .
56
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Mother for Boys and Girls A c ­
cording to the Problems on Which They
Cannot Get Enough Help
XXII.
• • • • • • •
62
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Mother for Boys and Girls A c ­
cording to Their Most Frequent Topics
of Conversation • • • • • • • « • • •
XXIII.
64
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Mother for Boys and Girls Ac­
cording to the Bights They do not Have
at the Present Time but Feel They
.
Should Have • • • • • • • • • • • • •
XXIV*
66
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Mother for Boys and Girls A c ­
cording to the Duties and Responsibil­
ities Which They Feel They Should Have
XXV.
68
Percentage Distribution of Occupational
Status of Mother for Boys and Girls
According to Their Most Frequent Wishes
70
ix
table
XXVI.
page
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Boys According to the Problems
on Which They Cannot Get Enough Help •
XXVII*
77
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Girls According to the Problems
on Which They Cannot Get Enough Help •
XXVIII.
78
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Boys According to Their Most
Frequent Topics of Conversation
XXIX.
...
80
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Girls According to Their Most
Frequent Topics of Conversation
XXX.
...
81
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Boys According to the Rights
They Do Not Have at the Present Time
But Feel They Should Have
XXXI.
• • • • •
83
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Girls According to the Rights
They Do Not Have at the Present Time
But Feel They Should Have
XXXII.
. . . . .
84
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Posi­
tion for Boys According to the Duties
and Responsibilities Which They Feel
They Should Have
86
TABLE
XXXIII.
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Position
for Girls According to the Duties and
Responsibilities which They Peel They
Should Have
XXXIV.
..............
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Position
for Boys According to Their Most Fre­
quent W i s h e s ...........................
XXXV.
Percentage Distribution of Ordinal Position
for Girls According to Their Most Fre­
quent W i s h e s ................. ..
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Adolescence!
acteristics ?
What is adolescence; what are its char­
What are the problems of adolescents?
can the teacher do to meet these problems?
tion do to meet these problems?
What
What can educa­
What should our objectives
be in meeting these problems?
In the past few years writers and psychologists have
come to regard adolescence as that period of time between
childhood and adulthood*
cent as a miniature adult*
No longer do they regard an adoles­
This period of adolescence
usually exists between the approximate ages of ten and
eighteen.
Boring this period changes occur that are neither
characteristic of a child nor of an adult.
“topsy-turvy11 period of the life of man.
It is the
Baker, in dis­
cussing the characteristics of adolescents, says:
During early adolescence all individuals make the
emotional shift from childhood dependence upon par­
ents and teachers to self dependence of adult life.
It is the breaking of these ties between the
individual and those upon whom he has been Jependent
that emotional strains so frequently arise.
The problems of these youth are many and varied.
^•Baker, 0. Derwood, i;Years of Transition," Progressive
Education!15:546, November, 1938), p. 546.
2
Douglass2 has listed the seven problems which he thinks are
the most pressing*
They are as follows:
(l) to find a
satisfying place among fellow youth,(2) to esp erience per­
sonal achievement,
tional life,
home,
(3) to enter into and succeed in voca­
(4) to be able to establish and enjoy a happy
(5) to understand and improve political and economic
conditions,
(6) to maintain health and maximum physical-
efficiency, and (7) to participate in enjoyable recreational
activities*
To meet these problems the teacher and parent must
recognize them and be trained to help the youth solve them*
To help the youth solve his problems, Reedy states:
The detailed mention of the many problems of adoles­
cents should be valuable to parents, advisers, and
teachers in at least three ways:
(I) In indicating
the difficulties which individuals are very often
meeting, (2) in preventing problems which might arise
if certain changes in the environment were not made,
and (3) in evaluating the relative importance of
existing problems *^
Cole, in discussing how the teacher can avoid some
of the emotional strains that adolescents may have in the
classroom, states:
2Douglass, Harl R*, Secondary Education for Youth in
Modern America (Washington, D. C * : American.Council on
Education,1937), pp. 32-39
^Reedy, Rolla A #, A Study of the Personal Problems of
High School Students 1Unpublished Master's thesis, Univer­
sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1937),
p. 7.
3
#he high school teacher should recognize the symptoms
of emotional stress.
They are danger signals. Wholly
aside from general humanitarian considerations, recog­
nition is essential because emotions are hindrances to
learning*
The above statements lead one to ponder about what
education can do to meet the needs and problems of youth.
Douglass states 11It seems fundamental to assume that second­
ary education must be reformulated so as to be adapted to
the needs, interests, and abilities of the full range of
unselected youth*11®
In discussing youth in modern America, Douglass®
listed several educational objectives for meeting their
problems; some of them are:
education for citizenship,
education for home membership, education for leisure life,
vocational efficiency,physical and mental health, and
preparation for continued learning.
Various schools have made efforts to organize their
curricula to meet the needs of their pupils, but in most
cases they have fallen short of their desired goals because
of not having sufficient information concerning the needs
^Cole, Luella, Psychology of Adolescence (Hew York:
Farrar & Rinehart, Incorporated, 1936), p.91
^Douglass, Harl R., Secondary Education for Youth
in Modern America (Washington, D. C.: American Council
on Education, 1937), pp. 29-30.
6Ibid.. pp. 17-23.
4
of the youths*
This study has made an effort to bring to
the surface some of the needs as expressed by the youth*
I.
STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM
It was the purpose of this study to analyze the
interests, needs, and desires of junior high school
pupils as revealed by free responses.
The study attempted
to answer the following questions:
1.
Does the chronological,
age of a child affect his
interests, needs, and desires?
2*
Does the occupational status of the fatte r affect
the child*s interests, needs, and desires?
3.
Does the occupational status of the mother affect
the child's interests, needs, and desires?
4*
Does the ordinal position of the child affect
his interests, needs, and desires?
The educational organization of the Pasadena City
Schools consists of elementary schools, junior high schools,
and a junior college.
The elementary schools include the
kindergarten and grades one through six; the junior high
schools include grades seven through ten; and, the junior
college includes grades eleven through fourteen.
II.
Needs.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Needs shall be interpreted as ne aning those
things which are regarded asjindispensable, urgent, or nec­
5
essities to inodes or desired modes of living#
Basic needs
mast be interpreted in terms of a set of values or philosopl^
of education#
Interests#
In this study interests shall be inter­
preted as meaning those things which engage one's atten­
tion or awakens one's concern.
Desires#
Desires shall be interpreted as meaning
those things for which one wishes earnestly, craves, or
wishes to possess#
The term shall be used to bridge the
gap between the true needs and the psuedo-needs which the
pupils listed as needs.
III.
RELATED STUDIES
Floyd? in a study based on the same survey as this
study, but on a different phase, discovered that chronolog­
ical age was not a significant factor in determining the
needs and interests of junior high school pupils; that there
was a difference in the needs and interests as expressed by
children whose fathers were engaged in different occupations;
that the mother's occupation was not a significant factor
7
Floyd, Earl Howard, An Analysis of the Expressed Needs
and Interests of Junior High School Pupils (Unpublished
Master's thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1939), pp. 1-102.
influencing the needs and interests of pupils; that the
ordinal position of the child in the family did not affect
the needs and interests of pupils; and that the sex factor
presented a far greater differentiation of needs and in­
terests than did any of the other classifications in his
study.
He found consistent differences in needs and inter­
ests of hoys and girls throughout his study#
Q
Dinneen,
in a study conducted in a union high
school and elementary school in central California with
approximately 250 pupils participating, found that eighth
grade boys and girls were concerned mostly with problems
of school life; that the problems of ninth grade boys
were financial and those of ninth grade girls were about
school life and dates; that for tenth grade boys school
and financial problems were outstanding while those of the
tenth grade girl were schooland social life; and lastly,
that the eleventh grade boys were concerned primarily with
thoughts of the future and eleventh grade girls were concerned
about their life vocations.
He found that there were four­
teen major personal problems and listed them as school,
future, home life, friends, self-consciousness, financial
^Binneen, Oisin James, An Investigation of the Personal
Problems of Adolescents (Unpublished Mas t e r fs thesis,
University of Southern C a H f o m i a , Los Angeles, California,
1938 ), pp. 1-112.
7
dates, conversation, bad habits, girls, sex, athletics,
anger, and lastly, religion#
Jones? in her study of parent-child relationships
in the home, attitudes toward social and ethical questions,
and adolescent problems and attitudes towards parent, in
which 219 girls and 221 boys of a Los Angeles high school
participated, found that sex differences on many problems
were insignificant and that on questions of home and m a r ­
riage, boys appeared to be somewhat more conservative than
girls #
In a study conducted in the State of Oregon involving
four schools with 363 boys and girls participating, Reedy
10
came to the conclusion that high school students do have
problems; that these problems can be determined;
that they
can be measured; that the problems of modern students are
predominantly practical; and, that students lack the proper
advisers to solve their problems.
The Harvard Growth Study, with Dearborn"^ as director
began a study in 1922.
The participants were examined an-
Jones, Maud McCarty, An Inve stigation of the Adjustment
Problems of High School Pun 11s (Unpublished las t e r 1s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California,
1934), pp. 1-95.
-*-®Reedy,Rolla A #, A Study of the Personal Problems of High
School Students (Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of
Southern California, LosAngeles, California, 1937), pp. 1-56
^•Deabom, Walter F. and John W. H. Rothney. Scholastic
Economic, and Social Backgrounds of Unemployed xouuh (Cam­
bridge, Massachusetts!
Harvard University Press, 1938) *
nually on the same day and drew several conclusions in the
year 1935.
The purpose of the study was to discover what
caused unemployment— that is, the causes resulting from
physical,mental and scholastic attainments.
The study r e ­
vealed little difference between sexes, so far as employment
status was concerned; that there were no real differences
between employed, irregularly employed and unemployed; and,
that there were significant differences between employed
and unemployed subjects so far as ethic origin,methods
or securing employment, work for remuneration while at school
and attendence at educational institutions beyond high school
level.
In summarizing their results the authors stated they
found very little significance for differentiation of em­
ployed and unemployed students on the basis of the character­
istics they studied*
Jershildj^ in his study on children, classified
their wishes into twenty-three categories.
They are*
Specific material objects and possessions,
(2) money,
good living quarters,
(l)
(3 )
(4) activities, sports, and diversions,
(5 ) opportunities and accomplishments,
(6) to be independent,
have a vocation,(7) to be bright, smart,
(8) moral self-
■^Jershild, Arthur T.; Children’s Pears, Dreams A Wishes,
Daydreams, Likes, Dislikes, Pleasant and~Urtpleasant Memories
(New York:
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Colum­
bia University, 1933)•
improvement, (9) improved personal appearance,
adventure,
(ll) supernatural power,
(13) to be married to have a lover,
(12) have a baby, siblipg,
(14) parents never die,
retain parents, etc#, (15) companionship,
contacts,
(10) prestige,
friendship, social
(16) relief from irritation and discomforts,
specific benefits for parents and relatives,
(17)
(18) general
inclusive benefits for self, (19) general inclusive im­
munities for self, (20) general benefits for relatives,
(21) general benefits for others, philanthropy, (22) nothing,
no more, and (23) no response, don*t know, unintelligible.
In a survey made by the State of Maryland, which
was started in 1935 including more than 13,000 individuals,
Bell*^ found many social problems and listed the following
ones he considered the most important?
(1) necessity of
equalizing educational opportunities,(2) necessity of find­
ing employment for youth as they emerge from their school
experience,
(3) need for economic security of youth, (4)
the necessity for guidance,
(5) lack of appropriate and
adequate vocational training,(6) reorganization of general
secondary education,(7) the matter of leisure time, (8)
much attention should be given to health education, includ­
ing social and personal hygiene, (9) attitude of young
13Bell, Howard M. Youth Tell Their S t o r y # (Washington
D. C., American Council on Education, 1938).
10
people towards the implications of citizenship, and (10)
need for community planning for youth.
The study also dis­
closes that the lower down in the classification of occupa­
tions the father is, the greater the percentage of youth
drop out of school hy the time they have reached the eighth
grade#
According to Wrenn*^ several organization^ are con­
ducting studies under subventions of the General Education
Board.
He lists them as follows?
The American Youth
Commission, The Progressive Education Association, Shady
Hill School, Cambridge, tinder direction of the Harvard
Psychological Clinic, The General College of the University
of Minnesota, The Child Welfare Clinic of the University of
California at Berkeley,and University High School at Berkeley,
California.
These studies have not been completed as yet
and so only reports of their progress can be given in the
paragraphs following#
IE
Zachry,
in her report, found that adolescence in the
contemporary culture is strongly characterized by strain, con-
14^r enn, Gilbert C., Referred to by G # Derm'ood Baker,
wYear& of Transition,” Progressive Education 15:544,
November, 1938. p* 544.
15
Zachry, Caroline B #, "Some. General Characteristics of
Adolescence,
Progressive Education. 15:591-7, December,
1938.
flict, and ambivalence.
Meek,
in her report, found that
the period of adolescence is marked by rapid physiological
growth and maturing, that the activities they engage in
change, that hetrosexual interests arise, and the desire
for independence increases.
Jones}17 at the Institute of Child Welfare at the
University of California at Berkeley, found that adolescents
ha*©
a desire to achieve independence, are developing hetro-*
sexual interests, and are building themselves into integrated
individuals.
Thayer**-® and Zachry-**^ were studying some 650 cases
including groups from junior high schools, senior high schools
and colleges.
Their aim was to secure data on the same
individuals bearing upon their physical, Intellectual, social,
and emotional development.
•**®Meek, Lois H., 11The Intermediate Social Relations of
Students in Junior and Senior High Schools,” Progressive
Education. 15:610-616, December, 1938.
Jones, Mary C,, “Guiding the Adolescent,
Education. 15:605-616, December, 1938.
Progressive
18
Thayer, V. T., ffA Basis for a New Secondary Curriculum,
Progressive Education. 12:478-483, November, 1935*
TQ
Zachry, Caroline B.,MA Progressive Report on the
Study of Adolescents,” Progressive Education, 12:484-488,
November, 1935*
---- ------------------
12
A study by the General Educational Board*^ revealed,
after an intensive study of 200 cases, that adolescents were
preoccupied with social activities; that they tended to
avoid adults; and that girls began to display social aware­
ness and interest in the opposite sex approximately a year
sooner than boys*
In a study at the Berkshire Industrial Farm, in
which 100 boys participated, Speer
21
found many interesting
facts regarding the wishes of truant and delinquent boys.
In regards to truants, the study revealed that they wished
to be someone of importance;
that they feared being hurt;
and that they disliked work in general and wanted recrea­
tion.
22
Hothney,
in a study involving 306 eleventh grade
boys in eight public high schools in Massachusetts, found
a great variety of interests, with the main interests b e ­
ing in sports*; arid recreational activities.
^°Stoltz, Herbert R., Mary C. Jones, and Judith
Chaffey, ”The Junior High School A g e , ” Progressive Educa­
tion. 15:63-72, January, 1937.
^ S p e e r , George S #, wWishes, Fears,Interests and
Identifications of Delinquent Boys,” Child Development.
8:289-294,December, 1937.
22
Rothney, J.W. M., ”lnterests of Public Secondary
School Boys,” Journal of Educational Psychology. 28:561594, November, 1937.
13
IV.
ORGANIZATION OP REMAINDER OP THESIS
The organization of this study is as follows:
Chsp ter I#
Introduction, statement of problem, de­
finition of terms used, and organization of remainder of
thesis.
Chapter II,
Procedure,
Chapter III,
Analysis of the affects of chronolo­
gical age upon the irfc erests, needs and desires of pupils.
Chapter IV.
Analysis
of the affects of the
tional status of father upon the interests, needs,
occupa­
and
desires of pupils.
Chapter V,
Analysis of the affects of the occupa­
tional status of the mother upon the interests, needs, and
desires of pupils.
Chapter VI.
-analysis of the affects of the
ordinal
position of the child in the family upon the Interests,
needs, and desires of pupils.
Chapter VII.
tions ,
Summary, conclusions, and recommenda­
CHAPTER II
PROCEDURE
The present study was a part of the major growth need
survey made in the five junior high schools in the City of
Pasadena in May of 1938.
The questionnaire method of re­
search was employed in this study*
In the fall of 1937 a steering committee was appointed
to guide the survey that was to follow*
This group appoiit ed
five research committees to consider the implications of our
present understanding of growth needs of the individual for
the administm tive, supervisory, and guidance organization*
A committee to study the growth needs of pupils was
one of the groups selected.
This committee immediately made
a study of the research done in this field, and summarized
all the studies involving pupil needs and interests that had
been made by the schools -of Pasadena.
The committee prepared a comprehensive check list for
pupils.
This list was examined by other committees, teacher^,
and administrators.
The check list was also given to two
groups of pupils in different schools.
After these various
groups had marked the check list revisions and corrections
were made, the final list went to press.
The complete ques­
tionnaire will be found in the Appendix.
The questionnaires were administered to the pupils by
the teachers of the five junior high schools, under the
supervision of their principals, in the month of May,1938,
The questionnaire was administered at the same time in all
the schools.
The questionnaire, being very long, was ad­
ministered on two successive days.
The pupils were allowed
one hour each day to complete the questionnaire.
The pupils
were assured that there were no marks of identification on
the questionnaires; that they were to answer the questions
freely asto what they thought;
that they need not sign it;
and that they could destroy the first page, upon which they
had signed their names to identify their own when they were
returned to them on the second day.
At the close of the
first session, the pupils in each room placed their ques­
tionnaires in a large envelope,^ the envelope was then sealed
in their presence and taken to the principal, to be kept by
him or her, until the next day when they were returned to
the respective rooms and the seal broken in the presence
of the pupils.
A random sai pie of the 5,892 questionnaires returned
was taken; by taking every fourth one a sample of 1,473
cases was obtained.
The present study employed only a portion of the com­
plete questionnaire.
T.
The following questions were used:
Have you problems on which you cannot get enough
help in your school?
Yes__ No____
If you r answer is yes,
16
what are these problems?
U.
What do you talk about most with your friends?
V.
What l,rights” which you do not have at the pres­
ent time, do you think you should have?
W.
What responsibilities or duties do you think
boys and girls of your age should have?
X.
If you could have three wishes, what would you
choose?
The present study arranged the five free response
questions into four distinct groupings of (l) chronological
age, (2) occupational status of the father,
(3) occupational
status of the mother,and (4) ordinal position of the child
in the family#
The questions were first grouped and tallied accord­
ing to chronological age and included the age groups of
twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, and sixteen years*
The number of cases falling outside of these groups were
omitted because they i?ere so few in number#
The questions were then regrouped and tallied accord­
ing to the occupational status of the father; this classi­
fication included the following occupational groupings:
unemployed, unskilled, skilled, semi-professional, and
professional#
The questions were reclassified and tallied accord­
ing to the occupational status of the mother; this grouping
17
Included?
mother employed outside the home and housewife*
And lastly,the questions were classified and tallied
according to the ordinal position of the child in the fam­
ily; this grouping included:
oldest child, middle child,
youngest child, and only child*
The classifications were all tallied separately with
the ahove groupings classified according to hoys and girls*
The author used Floyd’s'*' groupings in his organiza­
tion of classification of the four groups.
Inconsistencies of percentages appear throughout
the study; this was caused hy incomplete pupil replies
of some of the questions.
,
Ployd.Earl Howard, An Analysis of the Expressed Needs
Weif.
n 1 ?* ' ?niv®rslty of Southern California,Los
Angeles, California, 1939;, pp. 8-9.
CHAPTER III
AN ANALYSIS OP THE AFFECTS OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE UPON THE
INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND DESIRES OF PUPILS
Does chronological age affect or cause any differ­
ences in problems on which pupils cannot get enough help?
In their topics of conversation?
According to the "rights11
they think they should have that they do not have at the
present time?
According to the duties and responsibilities
which they feel they should have?
In what they wish for?
This chapter attempts to answer the questions above.
Problems on which pupils cannot get enough help In
school.
The outstanding problem on which pupils cannot
get enough help as indicated in Tables I and II, pages
19 and 20 respectively, was concerned with their school
subjects.
Fifty-two percent of the boys and forty-eight per
cent of the girls answering indicated this difficulty.
The
largest group of boys expressing this opinion were the
thirteen year olds with the twelve year olds close behind;
the largest number of girls were among the twelve year
olds, with the thirteen year old group close behind.
The
sixteen year old girls and the fifteen year old boys seemed
to have the least trouble in getting help on school sub­
jects.
The trend seems to indicate that the older the
pupils, the less difficulty they apparently have in getting
19
TABLE I
PERCENTAGE OP DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE POR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THE PROBLEMS ON WHICH THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
Problems
12
13
14
15
-
-
3
3
-
4
5
5
5
All
16 Bojs
Social problems:
1. Etiquette
2* Friends of opposite sex
3* How to choose friends
4* How to get along with others and under­
stand people
5. How to win approval and merits
6* Meeting people
7. How to adjust to society
8. Sex education
9* Miscellaneous social problems
Financial problems:
1* Earning money
School problems:
1* Help on school subjects
2* Explanations
3* More definite help from teacher
4* More study time
5* Desire to talk to counselor about work
6* Not enough courses offered when desired
7. Learning how to study
8. Homework
Teacher problems:
1* Teachers not willing to help
2* Teachers sarcastic
3* Teachers prejudiced
4* Too many pupils per teacher
Home problems:
1.* Home life
2* Parents
Personal problems:
1. Health
4
-
-
2
-
67
8
56
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
2
38
14
5
2
5
—
50
13
—
—
70
10
-
2
5
-
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
-
4
4
-
.
-' 4
.8
- 2
2
- 4
mm
13
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
13
-
5
.
_-** 12
2
—
5
3
5
-
10
-
-
7
-
-
-
—
—
2
—
24
20
32
42
.8
.8
-
8
2
52
mm
9
2
.8
2
2
*8
4
2
2
-
2
1
132
Those problems listed by less than one percent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted*
20
TABLE II
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE FOR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THE PROBLEMS ON WHICH THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
Problems
Social Problems $
1. Etiquette
2. Friends of opposite sex
3, How to choose friends
4. How to get along with others and under­
stand people
5. How to win approval and merits
6. Meeting people
7. How to adjust to society
8. Sex education
9. Miscellaneous social problems
Financial problems!
1. Earning money
School problems!
1 . Help on school subjects
2. Explanations
3. More definite help from teacher
4, More study time
5. Desire to talk to counselor about work
6. Not enough courses offered when desired
7. Learning how to study
8. Homework
Teacher problems!
1 . Teachers not willing to help
2. Teachers sarcastic
3. Teachers prejudiced
4. Too many pupils per teacher
Horae problems!
1. Home life
2. Parents
Personal problems!
1 . Health
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
12
13
14
15
All
16 Girls
-
7
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
18
-
7
-
9
6
12
6
-
10
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
—
mm
6
3
3
3
6 17
-
-
-
-
-
53. 50 39
7
9
6
- 13
6
- • 6
7
3
3
3
3
3
-
—
-
3
- ■ —
—
— * —■ 3
-
6
17
30
-
3
32
17
-
-
.8
5
- -
45 34 46
-' 7
6
9
8
2
—
3 17
4
3
6
2
6
7
-
6
6
3
2
8
3
-
33
—
-
4.:
.8
•8
-
-
.8
.8
** '
6
118
Those problems listed by less than one percent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted.
21
help on school subjects, or the less they worry about these
subjects*
More fifteen year old boys and thirteen year old girls
appear to need definite help from their teachers but ho
trend is apparent according to chronological age,
“Getting along with others, and understanding people”
was mentioned most frequently by fifteen year old boys and
twelve year old girls, but again no trend is shown*
None of the boys indicated needing more help on
explanations while seven per cent of all the girls indicated
they did, but again no trend is revealed#
Eight per cent of all girls wrote of a need for more
help in choosing friends, while none of the boys seemed to
have this need*
What pupils talk about most with their friends #
School life is the most outstanding topic of conversation
among junior high school pupils as shown in Tables III and
IV, pages 22 and 23 respectively*
Sixty per cent of all
girls but only twenty-seven per cent of all boys indicated
this topic of conversation*
Both fourteen year old boys
and fourteen year old girls mentioned school life, as the
most frequent topic of conversation, the greatest number
of times*
age#
No trend is indicated according to chronological
22
TABLE III
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE POR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST PREQUENT TOPICS OP CONVERSATION
Topic of conversation
12
13
14
15
16
All
Boys
1* School life
Sports, diversions, and hobbies:
1. Motion pictures and movie stars
2. Sports (football, basketball, baseball,etc.)
3. Vacations
4* Cars, airplanes, etc.
5. Scouts and various clubs
6* Trips we have taken or are planning to take
7. Hobbies
8. Radio programs
9. Hunting, fishing, camping, etc.
10. Music and art
11. Bicycle riding, horses, hiking, etc.
Personal interests:
1 . Things we do outside of school
2. Clothes and styles
3. What we are going to do in the future
4. Plan for a good time
5. Things in which I am interested
6. Reminiscences
Social interests:
1. Boy friends and girl friends
2. Dances and parties
3. Opposite sex
4. Current events and world problems
5. Talk about others
6. Things in which others are interested
Miscellaneous
1 . Everything, things in general, etc.
2. Punnyisms, and irrelevant responses
17
26
37
24
31
27
17
19
11
8
2
2
4
5
. 1
5
9
8
25 24
7
9
9
11
6
6
3
9
4
4
4
2
4
2
5
10
26
11
16
6
3
4
6
.7
5
8
34
8
23
2
2
5
3
2
2
10
25
9
13
5
2
5
4
2
4
10
3
11
2
3
6
3
4
2
3
Total number answering this question
NOTES
5
5
1
4
5
5
4
3
3
3
1 3
1 2
4 11
7
4
3
.8
1
18
4
14
7
6
6
.7 1
5
2
.7 3
3
2
-
-
5
4
11
9
6
2
12
5
12
6
2
6
12
5
10
8
2
2
6
3
10
7
3
3
15
4
12
6
11
2
14
5
152
84 122 139 :
61 558
Those topics of conversation listed by less than one per cent of all
junior high school pupils have "been omitted*
23
TABLE IV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE FOR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT TOPICS OF CONVERSATION
Topic of conversation
12
13
14
56 56 67
1. School life
Sportis, diversions, and hobbies:
24 15 20
1. Motion pictures and movie stars
9• 6
2. Sports (football, basketball, baseball, etc) 9
4
3
4
3. Vacations
.6
1
4. Cars, airplanes, etc.
4
4
1
5. Scouts and various clubs
4
6
6. Trips we have taken or are planning to take 7
.7 .6
7. Hobbies
4
1
8. Radio programs
6
.7 9. Hunting, fishing, camping, etc.
1
10. Music and art
5
.7 .6
11. Bicycle riding, horses, hiking, etc.
1
Personal interests:
8 10
1. Things we do outside of school
4
7 10
2. Clothes and styles
10
3. What we are going to do in the future
1
2
4
4. Plan for a good time
8 12
4
5. Things in which I am interested
4
3
6
6. Reminiscences
4
4
4
Social interests:
9 11 12
1. Boy friends and girl friends
2. Dances and parties
9 12 15
3. Opposite sex
9 10
6
4. Current events and world problems
3
4
5
5. Talk about others
8 15
6
6. Things in which others are interested
4
3
Mi scellane ous:
1. Everything, things in general, etc.
21 11 13
2. Funnyisms, and irrelevant responses
2
4
1
Total number answering this Question
NOTE:
15
16
All
Girls
63
41
60
23
9
3
.7
7
2
1
6
2
29
15
2
2
21
9
3
-
4
2
9
-
.5
2
5
.9
3
.2
4
1
9
12
10 13
3
9
8
9
3
4
5
9
10
2
9
4
4
9
16
17 13
7 11
4 15
10
2
2
2
12
14
8
5
10
2
tm
7
2
11
*•
12
2
95 142 156 138
46
577
Those topics of conversation listed by less than one per cent of all
junior high school pupils have been omitted.
24
Less than half as many hoys as girls referred to
motion pictures and movie stars as the most frequent topic
of conversation.
The trend seems to reveal that the older
the hoys become the less they talk ahout movies and movie
stars while the older the girls become the more they talk
about these topics.
Although nearly three times as many boys as girls
mentioned conversing about sports, the trend indicates
that the older boys and girls become the more they talk
about sports and games.
Twelve and fifteen year old boys indicated they dis­
cuss vacations more than the boys in the other age groups,
and twelve and thirteen year old girls indicated they talk
about vacations more than do the girls of other age groups.
No chronological pattern, however, is exhibited for either
the boys or girls.
Twenty-six times as many boys as girls indicated they
talk about automobiles and airplanes, etc.
No trend is
indicated so far as the girls are concerned but it appears
that the older the boys become the more they talk about
cars and airplanes.
Fifteen year old girls and thirteen year old boys
indicated that they most frequently talk about hobbies.
None of the boys signified talking about cloth©s
and styles but ten per cent of the girls twelve years old,
25
seven per cent of the girls thirteen years old, ten per cent
of the girls fourteen and fifteen years bid, and thirteen
per cent of the girls sixteen years old mentioned that they
talked about clothes and d;yles.
The pattern revealed by
chronological age indicates that boys do not discuss
clothes and styles but that girls of all the ages do#
It was shown that sixteen year old boys and fourteen
year old girls discuss planning for a good time more than
any other age group, but no definite trend is indicated#
Rights -pupils do not have at the present time but
feel they should have#
The outstanding "right" that
pupils thought they should have, as revealed in Tables
V and VI, pages 26 and 27.respectively, was more freedom
in class and school.
The most frequent request for more
freedom in class and school, for the boys, was made by
the fourteen year olds, and for the girls, by the same
group, the fourteen year olds; twenty-nine per cent of the
boys and twenty-two per cent of the girls in this age group
desired this "right."
There is no apparent chronological
pattern#
Only five per cent of the girls compared to ten per
cent of the boys said they thought they should be able to
leave the school ground at noon.
Three times as many boys as girls said the right to
26
TABLE! V
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE POR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO MOT HAVE AT THE PRESENT TIME BUT PEEL THEY SHOULD
HAVE
12
Rights
13
All
Boys
14
15
16
9 12
9
4
3 10
6 3
4
3
4
6
-
15
3
2
4
6
1
3
1
19 12
4
5
3
4 ■5
2
4
3
.8
-
Personal rights:
1, Drive a car
2. Make own decisions
3. Go out when I please
4. Stay up later at night
5. Express self more freely
6. Have rights of others my own age
7. Be away from home after dark
8, More responsibilities
9. More time for rest and sleep
Social rights:
1, Be with friends more often
2, Go to parties and shows when I please
3. Choose own associates
4. Be allowed to go to movies
5. Be allowed to go to school dances
Home Rights:
1. less discipline
2, More money - regular allowance
3. Be able to use family car
4. Pewer home duties
5. Go out without younger relatives
School rights:
1, More freedom in class and school
2, Leave school grounds at noon
3. Mot wear uniform
4. Better choice of classes
5. Be able to tell own side of story
6. Longer lunch period
7. Less home work
8. More time between classes
91 Another free period
10. Hold office
13 12
3
6
3
3
3 21
9
3
6
2
3
29
12
6
6
4
6
6
-
8 12 14
11 12 10
3
4
4
1
5
3 12
5
2
2
3
2
2 12
1
*“ 2
Total number answering this question
32
51
96
MOTE:
3
3
10
6
3
3
3
3
6
3
6
-
3
3
3
-
34
4
4
6
-
2
1
2
3
-
4
6
2
2
-
1
1
5
1
-
4
8
4
4
3
2
1
3
.4
3
.8
3
.4
.4
26 239
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high school
pupils replying have "been omitted.
27
TABLE VI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO NOT HAVE AT THE PRESENT TIME BUT PEEL THEY SHOULD
HAVE
12
Rights
13
Personal rights;
1. Drive a car
2. Make own decisions
3. Go out when I please
4. Stay up later at ni#it
5. Express self more freely
6. Have rights of others my own age
7. Be away from home after dark
8. More responsibilities
9. More time for rest and sleep
Social ri^itsj
1. Be with friends more often
2. Go to parties and shows when I please
3. Choose own associates
4. Be allowed to go to movies
5, Be allowed to go to school dances
Home rights;
1. Less discipline
2. More money - regular allowance
3. Be able to use family car
4. Pewer home duties
5. Go out without younger relatives
School rights:
1. More freedom in class and school
2, Leave school grounds at noon
3. Not wear uniforms
4. Better choice of classes
5. Be able to tell own side of stury
6. Longer lunch period
7. Less home work
8. More time between classes
9. Another free period
10. Hold office
21 20
«. 3
8
8
3
2
2
2
2
5
4
2
Total number answering this question
48
NOTE5
14
- ■3
7
8
5
2
3
2
3
2
2
-
7
2
-
-
-
2
11
2
5
5
5
-
5
8
5
9
-
-
2
-
5 29
7
1
5
-
-
-
-
8
3
1
«•
3
•
22
6
14
5
-
20
8
9
5
•*
-
2
3
—
1
1
1
**"
65
75
14
5 •6
3
-
61
16
7
9
17 12
7
11 11 29
3
4
•
3
3
7
7
3
7
3
4
3
7
2
2 ■-
2
-
4
2
6
2
2
15
-
-
-
7
-
7
•
mm
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have heen omitted.
All
Girls
4
10
10
3
3
4
3
2
1
7
2
3
•
2
5
5
•4
3
2
19
5
10
3
,4
1
18
2
1
•8
263
28
drive a car was desired.
There is no definite trend so far
as the girls are concerned, but the trend for boys indicates
that the older they become the more they think they should
have the right to drive a car. . This might be explained by
the fact that it is customary for a boy to take the girl
in his car whenever they go out.
Twice as many girls as boys mentioned that they
thought they should have the right to go out when they
please.
The trend shows that the older the girls become
the more they think they should have the right to go out
when they please.
This might be explained by the fact
that girls, as a rule, are controlled more and for a longer
period of time than are boys.
Ten per cent of the girls responded that they thought
they should have the "right” not to wear uniforms to school,
and, of course, none of the boys mentioned this right.
Mo trend is evident according to chronological age for the
girls indicating this right.
Duties and resnonsibilities nunils feel they should
have.
The outstanding duties and responsibilities that
junior high school pupils feel they should have, as dis­
closed in Tables VII and VIII, on pages 29 and 30 respectively,
were those related to the home.
Thirty-eight per cent of the
boys and forty-four per cent of the girls felt that they
29
TABLE VII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE POR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WHICH THEY PEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
Responsibilities and duties
Personal responsibilities!
1* Taking care of self ~ keeping neat and
clean
2* Making own decisions
3. Be dependable in all work
4. Respect and love our parents
5* Learn to run a home
6* Choose own associates
Social responsibilities!
1* Be of service to others
2* Be ladies and gentlemen
3* Should get along with others
Home duties!
1* Various duties
2* Keep house clean
3* Work in yard
4. Wash dishes
5. Take care of own room
6. Care of younger children in family
7. Care of pets
8 * Make beds
9. Help with meals
10*
Wash and mend clothes
School responsibilities!
1* Should be successful in work
2. Be a leader
3* Homework prepared
4* Cooperate with and help teacher
Financial duties!
1* Earn own spending money
2* Work for pay
3* Earn money to buy clothes
4* How to spend money
5* Help the family financially
6* Have a regular allowance
Total number answering this question
NOTEi
12
13
14
15
16
8
15
1
1
3
17
2
3
3
11
3
1
2
23
-
5
2
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
—
1-—
mm
1
3
5
2
2
-
1
1
2
-
1
1
10
10
35
2
11
3
2
2
4
2
1
1
52
34 48
17
2
25 17
24
8
7
8
7
5
12
2
4
8
5
1
—
2
40
3
14
9
3
2
7
1
1
4
1
1
1
4
1
1
—
8
7
-
2
«■»
-
-
59
—
-
2
3
-
6
3
-
14
2
2
3
•
3
• '
2
38
5
15
9
4
4
5
3
1
-
3
mm
-
3
-
11
3
3
2
1
1
8 12
14 12
3
5
1
1
1
10
10
6
3
6
"•
•“
92
92
97
-
All
Boys
*«
1
4
2
•
<
9
8
4
1
1
• J
31
371
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two per cent
of all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted*
30
TABLE VIII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE FOR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WHICH THE!? REEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
Responsibilities and duties
12
13
14
15
27
1
4
1
18 22 25
3
9
5
2
3
6
.9 .8 3
.8 .9
2
4
Personal responsibilitiesS
1. Taking care of self - keeping neat and
clean
2. Making own decisions
3. Be dependable in all work
4* Respect and love our parents
5. Learn to run a home
6. Choose own associates
Social responsibilities;
1* Be of service to others
2. Be ladies and gentlemen
3. Should get along with others
Home duties;
1. Various duties
2. Keep house clean
3. Work in yard
4. Wash dishes
5. Take care of own room
6. Care of younger children in family
7. Care of pets
8. Make beds
9. Help with meals
10* Wash and mend clothes
School responsibilities;
1* Should be successful in work
2. To be a leader
3. Homework prepared
4. Cooperate with and help teachers
Financial duties!
1. Earn own spending money
2, Work for pay
3* Earn money to buy clothes
4* How to spend
5. Help the family financially
6* Have a regular allowance
3
•5
1
1
1
Total number answering this question
73 115 120 113
NOTE;
-
5
1
*-4
.9 3
2 2
3
42 40 50
4
8
5
7
5 10
19 11 13
10 13 12
7
8
6
3
5
3
7
8
4
7
5
4
3
3
2
1
1
5
-
-
2
6
3
3
3
3
3
.9
*9
34
11
3
8
23
5
4
1
.9 3
.9
4
-
2
53
5
8
5
5
-
44
4
7
11
12
7
3
5
4
2
43
3
6
7
13
7
.9
.9
.9
4
.9
2
3
5
3
4
3
4
.9
9
3
3
3
8
5
5
8
3 16
2
5
.9 3
5
4
•4
2
-
5
3
4
2
-
All
Girls-
16
mm
-
38
.
4
2
3
1
5
4
4
3
•6
3
459
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two per cent of
all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted.
31
should take care of the various duties about the house*
The greatest frequency for both boys and girls fell in the
age group of the sixteen year olds.
No trend is indicated.
Another outstanding responsibility referred to that
of rttaking care of oneself**1
Fourteen per cent of the boys
and twenty-three per cent of the girls agreed with this
thought.
The general chronological pattern indicates that
the older the boys and girls become the more they think
they should take care of themselves.
More than twice as many girls as boys expressed the
thought that they should make their own decisions.
The
largest group so signifying were the sixteen year old girls
and fifteen year old boys.
There is no definite trend for
the boys; there is a definite one for girls, revealing that
the older they become the more they think they should make
their own decisions*
Seven per cent of the girls and fifteen per cent of
the boys think they should work in the yard.
There is no
definite trend for the girls, but there is a decided trend
for boys ?7hich very forcibly indicates that the older they
become the less they think they should work in the yard.
In regards to washing dishes there is also a very
definite trend for both boys and girls which shows that
the older they become the less they think they should wash
dishes.
32
More sixteen year old boys and girls expressed cer­
tain financial duties than any other age group*
Wishes of .junior high school pupils.
Junior high
school pupils wishes, as exhibited by Tables IX, on pages
33 and 34, X, on pages 35 and 36; are more frequently con­
cerned with vehicles of one kind or another.
Thirty-one
per cent of the boys compared to twelve per cent of the girls
wishes for vehicles.
There is no definite pattern for girls,
but there is a general pattern for boys indicating that the
older they become the more they wish for vehicles of one
kind or another.
Eight per cent of all girls and seven per cent of
all boys wish for pets or animals.
Twelve per cent of the
girls, who were twelve years old, and fifteen per cent of
the boys, ?/ho were twelve years old, desired pets.
the greatest frequency for each sex.
This was
The trend reveals that
the older boys and girls become, the less they wish for pets.
More than four times as many boys as girls wished for
good jobs.
Both boys and girls in the sixteen year old age
group wished more for a good job than did any other group.
There is no definite pattern for the girls making this wish,
but there is a decided one for the boys indicating that the
older they are the more they desire a good job.
Twice as many boys as girls revealed a desire for
33
TABLE IX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
Wishes
13
13
14
15
16
Specific material objects and possessions;
1. Vehicles — cars, bicycles, airplanes,etc.22 37 35 37 33
3, Pets and animal's
4
15
6 3
3
.7 3
3, Clothes and personal adornment
1
1
3
4. Furniture and home equipment
7
5
3
5. Toys
5
5
3
1 Money!
1. Plenty of money
10 16 35
3 12
—
—
3. Have an allowance
3
5
Good living quarters;
1. Have a nice home, ranch, farm, etc.
7
8 6
6 5
3, Live in a certain locality
3
1
6 3 Activities;
1. Travel in the United States and abroad
3
5
4
6
4
3, Hunting, fishing, etc.
3
3
3
,6 —
3* Go on a vacation
6 1 —
3
Educational accomplishments?
1, Make good grades
5
4
4
3
4
3, Go to college
1 3
3
3
9
_
3, Get a good education
5
3
3
3
4, More advanced in school and/or age
3
1
3
Vocational accomplishments;
1, Have a good job
5 13 13 30 39
3, Specific job (doctor, nurse, secretary,
etc.)
7 10
7
7
5
3, Be a writer, dancer, singer, etc.
.7 1
1
1
3
To be independent
1
5
1 3
All
Boys
31
7
3
4
4
31
1
8
4
5
2
2
5
4
4
2
17
9
2
2
To become famous— be an outstanding athlete •
1
4
3
4
9
4
To be happily married and have own home
1
3
6
4
3
4
To have a girl friend or boy friend
3
6
8
9
3
8
(continued on following page)
34
TABLE IX (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
12 13
Wishes
Social objectives;
1 . To have many friends
2. Make this a better world to live in
3. Be a friend to all people
Specific benefits for parents;
1 . Family had plenty of money
2, Health
3. Happiness
4. Help support the family
5. All the family could be together
General benefits for self:
1 . Health
2 . Happiness and long life
3. All my wishes come true
4. To be smart
5. Successful
6, M0re leisure time
7. To be attractive
8. Pleasing personality
School program, schedule, and equipment:
1. Improvement in school schedule (longer
lunch period, no uniforms, etc.)
2 . School out, no school, qtc.
3. New gym, swimming pool, etc.
4, Broader curriculum
5 . Better teachers (younger, more under­
standing, etc.)
Personal handicaps or limitations:
1 . To be shorter, taller, big enough for
football, have curly hair, did not
stutter, etc.
Mis cellaneous
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
15
16
All
Boys
.7 2
.7 2
1 ~
5
2
2
2
14
-
2
3
-
2
1
1
-
2
♦6
3
.6
.7 2
1
6
;7 2
6
5
2
10
4
2
3
mm
1
3
.4
-
2
2
-
9
7
4
3
7
9
2
5
7
9
4
2
7
1
4
5
.7 .6 3
1
.7 1
3
3
1 .7 3
2
2
2
•6
1
7
6
7
5
2
2
1
.6
12
6
5
4
11
5
1
4
9
4
9
4
13
6
6
4
4
4
8
6
3
6
1
3
2
2 3
.7 .7 3
3
3
3
3
9
3
7
2
.6 3
2
3
97 139 145 164
59 504
All wishes listed less than two per cent of all the junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted.
35
BABES X
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP CHRONOLOGICAL AGE POR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
12
Wishes
Specific material objects and possessions:
1* Vehicles — cars, bicycles, airplanes, etc.
2. Pets and animals
3* Clothes and personal adornment
4. Furniture and home equipment
5* Toys
Money:
1* Plenty of money
2. Have an allowance
Good living quarters:
1. Have a nice home, ranch, farm, etc.
2m Live in a certain locality
Activities:
1. Tavel in the-United States and' abroad
2. Hunting, fishing, etc.
3. Go on a vacation
Educational accomplishments:
1. Make good grades
2. Go to college
3. Get a good education
4. M0re advanced in school and/or age
Vocational accomplishments:
1. Have a good job
2. Specific job (doctor, nurse, secretary,etc)
3. Be a writer, dancer, singer, etc.
13
14
15
16
All
Girls
7 15 15
15 11
9
2
5
12 11
7 12 12 13 15
7
3
5
2 5
1
3- -
12
8
12
4
2
11
4
20 15
.8 11
15
3
12 16
3
3
7
.7
7
5
2
5
.8 -
6
3
2
2
15
8
1
9
3
12 11
2 -
8
7
2
1
4
6
4
.7
1
9
5
.7
1
3
4
9
2
3
5
7
9
7
4
3
4
To be happily married and have own home
To have a girl friend or boy friend
To be independent
To become famous —
be an outstanding athlete
(continued on following page)
6
8
8
5
2
2
4
-
7
4
1
2
4
11
8
8
6
8
4
7
7
9
3
2
5
7
9
9
8
8
5
2
3
7
13
5
3
5
5
2
4
4
4
4
56
TABLE X (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE FOR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
12 13
Wishes
Social objectives:
1 * To have many friends
5
2. Make this a better world to live in
1
3* Be a friend to all people
Specific benefits for parents:
1. Family had plenty of money
4
2* Health
4
7
3. Happiness
4* Help support the family
3
5* All the family could be together
General benefits for self:
1.
Health
5
8
2*
Happiness and long life
5
3*
All my wishes come true
3
4*
To be smart
5.
Successful
1
1
6* More leisure time
2
7.
To be attractive
2
8. Pleasing personality
School program, schedule, and equipment:
1. Improvement in school schedule (longer
11
lunch period, no uniforms, etc.)
6
2 * School out, no school, etc.
6
3. New gym, swimming pool, etc.
4.- Broader curriculum
3
5. Better teachers (younger, more understanding
5
etc.)
Personal handicaps or limitations:
1. To be shorter, taller, big enough for
football, have curly hair, did not
3
stutter, etc.
Miscellaneous
1
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
14
15
16
All
Girls
5
4
.7
1
6
8
-
-
2
-
3
2
.8
.8
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
3
4
2
7
5
5
2
3
5
3
2
.7
.7
1
1
6
3
1
3
1
3
5
1
8
,7
3
4
5
2
3
5
6
4
2
4
2
4
2
6
5
3
3
2
2
3
3
7
4
4
2
11
4
5
4
9
2
3
8
11
2
6
10
3
4
5
3
9
2
4
5
3
.8 2
2
1
47
577
3
-
2
1
4
-
2
1
.7 .7
98 148 151 :
133
.2
.9
.3
3
All wishes listed less than two per cent of all the junior high school
pupils replying have Been omitted*
37
school to be out or that there would be no school.
There
is no definite trend for the boys but the trend for the
girls reveals that the older they become the less they wish
there were no school.
Sumna r y .
A summary of the affects of chronological
age upon the needs, interests, and desires of pupils
follows:
1.
The older junior high school pupils become the
less help they feel they need in school subjects.
2.
Fifteen year old boys and twelve year old girls
expressed the need for help in ,fgetting along with others
and understanding people” more than any other age group.
3.
The most outstanding topic of conversation among
boys and girls is about school life.
4.
As girls increase in age their talk about movies
and movie stars increase, but as boys increase in age, their
talk about movies and movie stars lessens.
5.
The older boys and girls become the more they
talk about sports.
6.
The older the boys, the more they talk about
automobiles and airplanes.
7.
Girls in all age groups talk a great deal about
clothes and styles, but boys do not mention them.
8.
Boys and girls revealed that the most important
38
“right” they think they should have is more freedom in class
and school*
9#
Boys revealed that the older they become the
more they think they should have the right to drive a car*
10*
The girls signified that the older they were
the more they think they should have the “right” to go out
when they please*
11*
duty
Both boys and girls think the most important
they should have is the general duties about the home.
12.
Boys and girls indicated that the older they
become the more they think they should take care of themselves.
13.
The older girls become the more frequently they
mention they think they should make their own decisions.
14.
they
The girls agreed that the older they are the less
think they should wash dishes.
15*
The boys indicated that the older they become
the less they tjiink they should work in the yard or wash
dishes.
16.
The greatest wish of a junior high school pupil
is to have a vehicle of one kind or another, and the older
the boy the more he wishes to have one.
17.
Boys and girls agreed that the older they become
the less they wish for pets.
18.
Boys indicated that as they grew older the more
they wish for a g> od job*
39
19.
Girls revealed that the older they become the
less they wish there would be no school
be out*
'or
for school to
CHAPTER IV
AN ANALYSIS OF THE AFFECTS OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF
THE FATHER UPON THE INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND DESIRES
OF PUPILS
The present chapter attempts to answer the following
questions:
Does the occupational status of the father
affect the problems on which pupils cannot get enough
help?
Their topics of conversation?
The “rights” they
think they should have that they do not have at the present
time?
The duties and responsibilities they think they
should have^
What they wish for?
Problems on which pupils cannot get enough help in
school*
The outstanding problem on which pupils cannot
get enough help In school, as noted on Tables XI and XII,
on pages 41 and 42 respectively, was expressed as help on
school subjects*
Fifty-three per cent of the boys and
forty-two per cent of the girls indicated they cannot
get enough help on school subjects.
Boys,whose fathers
are engaged in skilled labor, signified with the greatest
frequency (sixty per cent of those replying in that group)
that they cannot get enough help on their subjects; girls,
whose fathers are engaged in semi-professional and pro­
fessional occupations (fifty per cent of each group reply­
ing) mentioned that they cannot get enough help on their
41
TABLE XX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL-STATUS OF FATHER FOR BOYS
ACCORDING TO THE PROBLEMS OH WHICH THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
Problems
Social Problems :
1. Etiquette
2, Friends of opposite sex
3, How to choose friends
4. How to get along with others and under­
stand people
5, How to win approval and merits
6. Meeting people
7, How to adjust to society
8. Sex education
9, Miscellaneous social problems
Financial problems:
1. Earning money
School problems:
1, Help on school subjects
2, Explanations
3, More definite help from teacher
4, More study time
5. Desire to talk to counselor about work
6, Hot enough courses offered \*hen desired
7, Learning how to study
8. Home work
Teacher problems:
1, Teachers not willing to help
2. Teachers sarcastic
3, Teachers prejudiced
4, Too many pupils per teacher
Home problems:
1. Home life
2. Parents
Personal problems:
1. Health
Total number answering this question
NOTE*
All
Boys
1
2
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
11
1
-
-
3
3
«
3
3
6 11
3
3
6
5
2
50
4
4
4
4
ii
-
4
3
-
-
2
50
-
57
9
—
9
4
60
6
3
3
-
50 33
14 11
3
6 3 .- '—
-
53
10
2
2
2
2
1
—
-
4
-
3
3
3
-
3
—
-
11
11
11
4
2
2
—
-
—
4
3
—
-
—
—
1
1
2
23
34
36
9
104
—
-
2
2
Those problems listed by less than one per cent of all junior
high school pupils replying have been omitted,
_(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-nrofessional, and
(5) professional.
42
TABLE XII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OR OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OR RATHER ROR GIRLS
ACCORDING TO THE PROBLEMS ON WHICH THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
Problems
1
Social Problems
1. Etiquette
2. Rriends of .opposite sex
3. How to choose friends
' 4. How to get along with others and under­
29
stand people
mm
5. How- to win approval and merits
6. Meeting people
7. How to adjust to society
8 . Sex education
14
9* Miscellaneous social problems
Einancial problems;
1 * Earning money
School problems;
43
1. Help on school subjects
2, Explanations
14
3. More definite help from teacher
4. More study time
5. Desire to talk to counselor about work 6, Not enough courses offered when desired 7, Learning how to study
8. Homework
Teacher nroblems;
1. Teachers not willing to help
2. Teachers sarcastic
3. Teachers prejudiced
4. Too many pupils per teacher
Home problems;
1. Home life
—
2. Parents
Personal problems:
1. Health
—
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
2
3
4
5
All
Girls
—
5
6
■“*
-
8
—
4
1
-»
8
11
•
4
1
5
*•
—
50
—
—
8
42
6
6
2
4
3
3
10 11 14
8 «
5
5
4
—
mm
39
10
5
—
5
5
35
4
6
2
4
2
4
10
-
2
—
2
•
-
5 ■.—
- ■—
-
4
**
46
22
—
7 21
.
-*
50
5
10
5
-5
5
-
tr*K»
8
3
1
-
1
8
—
2
—
2
12
108
Those problems listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted,
(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) Skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional.
43
subjects.
No occupational status of the father pattern
is evident for either boys or girls.
Twenty-nine per cent of the girls, whose fathers
were unemployed, said they cannot get enough help on
Mhow to get along with others and understand people,” while
only eleven per cent of the boys, whose fathers are pro­
fessional men, expressed the same difficulty.
These two
groups made this indication more frequently than any of the
other occupational groups.
No trend is discerned for either
of the groups.
Six per cent of all the girls and none of the boys men­
tioned having difficulty on explanations.- No pattern is
evident.
Vi/hat -pupils talk about most with their friends.
School life, as noted in Tables XIII and XIV on pages
and 45
44
respectively, was mentioned the greatest number of
times by both the boys and girls.
Twenty-seven per cent
of the boys and fifty-nine per cent of the girls agreed
that school life is the most frequent topic of conversa­
tion.
A faint trend for boys and girls seems to indicate
that the higher up on the scale of occupations the father is
the more they talk about school life.
Twice as many girls as boys mentioned they talked
about movies and movie stars, and in each case the
44
TABLE XIII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF FATHER FOR BOYS
-ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT TOPICS OF 'CONVERSATION
All
Boys
Topic of conversation
1
2
3
4
5
1. School life
Sports, diversions, and hobbies:
1. Motion pictures and movie stars
2. Sports (football, basketball, baseball,
etc.)
3. Vacations
4, Cars, airplanes, etc#
5. Scouts and various clubs
6. Trips we have taken or are planning to
take
Hobbies
7.
8. Radio programs
9 # Hunting, fishing, camping, etc.
10. Music and art
11. Bicycle riding, horses, hiking, etc#
Personal interests:
1. Things we do outside of school
2. Clothes and styles
3. Yftiat we are going to do in the future
4 . Plan for a good time
5. Things in which I am interested
6. Reminiscences
Social interests:
1. Boy friends and girl friends
2. Dances and parties
3. Opposite sex
4. Current events and world problems
5. Talk about others
6 • Things in which others are interested
Miscellaneous
1. Everything, things in general, etc#
2. Funnyisms, and irrelevant responses
6
30
25
25
38
27
6
6
12
8
13
10
17
17
-
20
15
8
3
25
7
12
5
23
6
12
6
32
13
7
7
24
8
11
5
17
6
11
6
2
5
5
5
3
3
1
3
5
3
1
mm
3
7
9
6
7
6
9
3 -2
5
5
2
6
5
5
2
4
6
6
6
-
8
6
5
-
2
4
3
'5
3
4
4
2
2
4
4
6
2
4
2
4
mm
8
2
11
6
3
7
7
10
5
4
1
6
3
10
5
2
3
13
4
9
5
4
7
4
10
6
3
2
11
6
18
2
13
9
16
3
11
2
14
5
Total number answering this question
18
67 150 166
55
456
NOTE:
6
11
6
-
7
.6
4
3
5
Those topics of conversation listed by less than one per cent of all
junior high school pupils replying have been omitted#
(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional.
45
TABLE XIV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF FATHER FOR GIRLS
ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT TOPICS .OF CONVERSATION
Topic of conversation
1. School life
Sports, diversions, and hobbiess
1. Motion pictures and movie stars
2. Sports (football, basketball, baseball,
etc.C)
3. Vacations
4. Cars, airplanes, etc.
5. Scouts and various clubs
6. Tripes we have taken or are planning
to take
7. Hobbies
8. Radio programs
9. Hunting, fishing, camping, etc*
10. Music and art
11. Bicycle riding, horses, hiking, etc.
Personal interests;
1. Things we do outside of school
2. Clothes and styles
3. T/¥hat we are going to do in the future
4. Plan for a good time
5. Things in which I am interested
6. Reminiscences
Social interests:
1. Boy friends and girl friends
2. Dances and parties
3.
Opposite sex
4. Current events and world problems
5. Talk about others
6. Things in which others are interested
Miscellaneous s
1. Everything, things in general, etc.
2. Funnyisms, and irrelevant responses
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
All
Girls
1
2
3
4
5
44
48
58
67
60
59
21
18
11
27
' 20
7
-
8
3
5
8 10 12
4
4
4
.6 .6 2
2
6
1
9
4
4
4
-
7
5
-
3
•6
2
3
-
2
4
2
-
5
.
4
4
7
7
7
-
12
9
1
3
10
8
2
12
4
7
15
11
15
4
4
7
16
14
5
5
13
1
8
7
7
7
8
3
7
4
13
27
4
7
1
3
•6
6
•6
10
11
1
10
2
3
8
8
4
8
18
4
4
8
.6
2
.8
2
.2
4
.2
10
9
2
9
3
5
8
8
12
8
9
11
2
10
-
10
12
8
7
10
2
11 13
.6 2
13
6
12
2
76 167 ;171
52
493
4
Those topics of conversation listed by less than one per cent of all
junior high school pupils replying have been omitted*
(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional.
46
pupils, whose fathers were professional men, referred to it
the greatest number of times.
No definite pattern of occu­
pational status, that affected their topics of conversation,
is present.
Three times as many boys as girls said they talked
most about sports.
A definite trend appears to indicate
that the higher up in the classification of occupations
that the pupil's (both boys and girls) father is, the more
they talk about sports.
Girls, whose fathers were professional men, and boys,
whose fathers were unemployed, mentioned they talk most
frequently about cars and airplanes.
No trend can be
found .
Boys and girls, whose fathers are employed as un­
skilled labor, revealed they talk about things they do
outside school oftener than the boys and girls,whose fathers
are in other classifications of occupations.
Although more than twice as many girls as boys in­
dicated they talk about planning for a good time, there
is no pattern of the father's occupational status for the
girls, but the higher the father's status in the occupa­
tional grouping the less the boys talk about planning for
a good time.
Three times as many girls as boys mentioned they
talk about parties and dances.
Boys,whose fathers are
47
unskilled laborers, and girls, whose fathers are semiprofessional men, signified talking about parties and dances
most frequently.
No definite trend is present.
Rights pupils do not have at the present time but
feel they should h a v e .
The most frequent right mentioned
by junior high school pupils is, as revealed by Tables XV
and XVI, on pages 48 and 49 respectively, to have more
freedom in class and school.
Twelve per cent of the boys
and seventeen per cent of the girls mentioned this right.
It appears that the boys, from semi-professional families,
and girls, from skilled families,signified this right often­
er than any other age group.
There is no occupational
trend.
Almost four times as many girls as boys stated
they think they should have the right to go out Tdien they
please.
The groupings that mentioned this right most
frequently are the girls from skilled families and the boys
from professional families.
No pattern can be noted.
Approximately three times as many boys as girls
signified that they should have the right to leave the
school grounds at noon.
Boys, whose fathers are semi-
professional men, and girls, whose fathers are skilled,
mentioned this right oftener than any of the other groups.
However, there is no pattern evidenced according to the
48
TABLE XV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF FATHER FOR BOYS
ACCORDING TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO NOT HAVE AT THE PRESENT
TIME BUT FEEL THEY SHOUID HAVE
1
2
3
4
5
-
3
5
5
3
3
3
5
3
-
15
2
3
3
8
2
-
17
6
2
6
6
2
9
-
8
4
12
4
8
4
8
- ■
-
-
3
5
50
-
5
-
5
2
2
-
5
2
3
-
Rights
Personal rights:
1. Drive a car
2. Make own decisions
3. Go out when I please
4. Stay up later at night
5. Express self more freely
6. Have rights of others my own age
7. Be away from home after dark
8. More responsibilities
9. More time for rest and sleep
Social rightss
1. Be with friends more often
2. Go to parties and shows when I please
3.
Choose own associates
4. Be allowed to go to movies
5. Be allowed to go to school dances
Home rights:
1. Less discipline
2. More money - regular allowance
3. Be able to use family car
4. Fewer home duties
5. Go out without younger relatives
School rights*
1. More freedom in class and school
2. Leave school grounds at noon
.3. Not wear uniforms
4. Better choice of classes
5. Be able to tell own side of story
6. Longer, lunch period
7. Less home work
8. More time between classes
9. Another free period
10. Hold office
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
mm
3
3
3
5
3
-
5
2
3
-
25
25
11
5
5
3
5
5
3
10
11
5
5
2
5
3
2
20
15
3
5
5
5
2
3
4
37
61
66
1
-
4
4
8
4
-
All
Boys
10
3
3
3
5
1
5
•4
3
2
1
3
-
mm
3
4
■-
2
-
17
12
8
4
4
4
24
•9
•4
12
9
4
4
3
3
3
•9
2
232
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high school
pupils replying have been omitted.
(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional.
TABLE XVI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF FATHER FOR GIRLS
ACCORDING TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO NOT HAVE AT THE PRESENT
TIME BUT FEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
Rights '
Personal rightss
1.. Drive a car
2. Make own decisions
3. Go out when I please
4. Stay up later at night
5. Express self more freely
6. Have rights of others my own age
-7. Be away from home after dark
8. More responsibilities
9. More time for re-sib and sleep
Social rights*
1. Be with friends more often
2. Go to parties and shows when I please
3.
Choose own associates
4. Be allowed to go to movies
5. Be allowed to go to school dances
Home rights:
1. Less discipline
2. More money - regular allowance
3. Be able to use family car
4. Fewer home duties
5. Go out without younger relatives
School rights;
1. More freedom in class and school
2. Leave school grounds at noon
3.
Not wear uniforms
4. Better choice of classes
5. Be able to tell own side of story
6. Longer lunch period
7. Less home work
8. More time between classes
9. Another free period
10. Hold office
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
1
2
3
4
5
All
Girls
12
6
12
6
6
-
2
7
7
2
7
3
2
-
2
6
15
5
3
2
3
5
4
16
11
7
4
7
5
-
9
9
9
3
6
£
9
3
-
4
10
11
4
3
4
5
2
1
6
6
6
7
2
2
13
3
2
11
4
4
-
6
3
8
2
3
1
2
12
-
2
3
2
-
2
5
2
2
4
1
3
1
3
9
3
25
14
2
2
5
5
5
2
—
26
11
6
6
2
2
2
14
1
10
1
1
3
1
9
9
3
3
3
*■
16 .42
62
mm'
-
6
6
■*
.
73
4
4
.4
2
.9
35
17
4
7
3
.4
1
2
2
1
.4
228
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high school
pupils replying have been omitted.
(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional.
50
fatherfs occupation.
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel they should
have.
Various duties about the house, as noted in Tables
XVII and XVIII, on pages 51 and 52 respectively, was men­
tioned most frequently by junior high pupils as the duties
they should have; thirty-nine per cent of the boys and
thirty-four per cent of the girls signified this right.
It appears that the higher up on the occupational classi­
fication the father is, the more the pupils (boys and girls)
think they should do these various duties about the home.
The re xt most frequently mentioned responsibility
is taking care of oneself.
One fifth of the girls and one
seventh of the boys referred to this responsibility.
Boys,
from semi-professional families, and girls, from unemployed
families, mentioned it most frequently in their respective
groups.
No definite occupational trend can be found.
Eleven per cent of the girls and six per cent of
the boys wrote about the duty of washing dishes.
Although
there is no trend for the girls, there is a definite trend
for boys indicating the higher up on the classification of
occupations the father is, the less the boys mention wash­
ing dishes as a duty they think they should have.
Four times as many girls as boys said they think
they should be successful in school work.
No definite trend
51
TABLE XVII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP PATHEE POE BOYS
ACCORDING- TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WHICH
THEY PEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
AIT
Responsibilities and duties
Personal responsibilities:
1* Taking care of self - keeping neat and
clean
2* Making own decisions
3. Be dependable in all work
4. Respect and love our parents
5* Learn to run a home
6. Choose own associates
Social responsibilities:
1. Be of service to others
2. Be ladies and gentlemen
3* Should get along with others
Home duties:
1. Various duties
2* Keep house clean
3. Work in yard
4* Wash dishes
5* Take care of own room
6* Care of younger children in family
7, Care of pets
8 • Make beds
9. Help with meals
10. Wash and mend clothes
School responsibilities:
1* Should be successful in work
.2,* Be a leader
3. Homework prepared
4. •Cooperate with and help teachers
Pinancial duties:
1* Earn own spending money
2* Work for pay
3. Earn money to buy clothes
4* How to spend
5. Help the family financially
6. Have a regular allowance
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
1
2
3
4
-
14
2
14
2
1
3
1
15
2
3
5
1
7
2
4
3
-
1
1
2
«
33
17
17
32
16
11
39
2
17
49
29
5
40
2
15
5
33
2
2
2
2
1
3
6
2
2
8
1
nK*
I
6
3
6
-
1
—
-
-
mm
mm
mm
-
5
-
17
17
17
5
«
-
2
3
1
w
.2
5
Boys
9
14
1
2
3
1
3
-
6
3
3
3
2
1
39
1
18
6
3
2
6
2
1
1
-
7
5
-
-
2
2
2
2
-
*-
-
18
8
9
3
9
17
2
5
9
8
9
8
5
2
3
3
1
2
ew
6
6
1
5
3
2
-
4
1
1
-
2
"•
*•
mm
44
97 106
35
•7
.3
288
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two per cent of
all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted*
(1) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) sirai-professional, and
(5) professional*
52
TABLE XVIII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP FATHER FOR GIRLS
ACCORDING TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WHICH
THEY PEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
Responsibilities and duties
Personal responsibilities;
1. Taking care of self - keeping neat
and clean
2* Making own decisions
3* Be dependable in all work
4* Respect and love our parents
5* Learn to run a home
6* Choose own associates
Social responsibilities!
1. Be of service to others
2, Be ladies and gentlemen
3* Should get along with others
Home duties;
1. Various duties
2. Keep house clean
3* Work in yard
4. Wash dishes
5* Take care of own room
6. Care of younger children in family
7. Care of pets
8. Make beds
9* Help with meals
10* Wash and mend clothes
School responsibilities;
1* Should be successful in work
2. Be a leader
3, Homework prepared
4, Cooperate with and help teachers
Financial duties;
1. Earn own spending money
2. Work for pay
3* Earn money to buy clothes
4, How to spend money
5* Help the family financially
6. Have a regular allowance
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
1
2
45
5
12
7
-
-
-
7
-
-
«■*
2
3
-
3
2
.8
3
30
5
10
10
15
10
15
5
5
18
12
8
15
13
3
5
2
5
3
«
10
3
3
2
-
**
.«
2
-
5
-
20
7
5
7
—
5
22 22 28
7
5
7
5
5
.8 .7 am
2
—
1
2
5
—
10
4
2
2
5
2
.7
5
22
5
4
1
.5
1
3
4
2
-
as*
.7
2
1
40
2
34
4
8
11
11
35 38
2
5
7
9
10
9
9 13
7
5
.8 4
4
4
3
3
3
2
4
4
All
Girls
7
3
2
8
3
5
9
16
7
7
2
12
5
5
2
—
12
2
7
2
-
3
2
.8
2
-
60 130 150
.2
6
3
5
3
3
4
2
3
1
5
3
4
2
*5
5
3
43
405
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two per cent of
all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted*
(l) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional*
53
pertaining to occupational status of the father is evidenced.
More boys than girls mentioned financial duties,
but nothing of a trend, according to the occupational
status of the father, can be found.
Wishes of .junior high school pupils.
The most fre­
quent wish mentioned by junior high school pupils is revealed by Tables XIX and XX on pages
for vehicles of one kind or another.
54 and
56 respectively,
Only one eighth of the
boys, from the -unemployed group, compared to one fourth
of the boys, from the other groups, expressed this choice.
Girls, whose fathers were either professional men or u n ­
employed, mentioned more frequently than girls in other
groups the desire for vehicles.
More boys, in the unemployed group, signified they
wish for pets oftener than the boys in any other group.
The trend indicates the higher the occupational status of
the father the less boys wish for pets.
Girls, in the semi-
professional and professional groups, expressed the ?/ish for
pets oftener than the girls in the other groups.
The girls in the unemployed group mentioned they
wish for clothes and personal adornment more frequently
than the girls in other groups.
THe trend indicates the
higher the occupation the father has the less they wish for
these things.
54
TABLE XIX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP PATHER POR BOYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQpENT WISHES
Wishes
1
2
3
4
5
Specific material objects and possessions!
1. Vehicles— >cars, bicycles, airplanes,etc,12 25 25 28 .26
2 . Pets and animals
18 11 • 5
3
6
—
3. Clothes and personal adornment
3
1
2
‘4. Furniture and home equipment
6
2
4
2
6
5. Toys
3
3
6
6
2
Money:
1, Plenty of money
6 23
8 25 12
2. Have an allowance
2
.6 .6 **
G66d living quarters!
1* Have a nice home, ranch, farm, etc.
11
4
3
8
2 . Live in a certain locality
3
6
2
3
5
Activities:
1. Travel in the United States and abroad
6
2
3
2
4
2. Hunting, fishing, etc.
6
2
3
•6
2
3. Go on a vacation
6
3
.6 3
2
Educational accomplishments:
1. Make good grades
7
3
6
2
5
2. Go to college
—
3
2
5
3
3. Get a good education
3
4
2
2
—
—
4. More advanced in school and/or age
1
2
2
Vocational accomplishments:
1. Have a good job
12 14 14 14
7
2. Specific job (doctor, nurse, secre­
tary, etc.)
7
12
9
6 10
_
3. Be a writer, dancer, singer, etc.
12
5
1
To be independent
3
2
•6
«
All
Boys
26
6
2
3
3
17
•6
6
3
3
2
2
4
3
3
1
13
7
1
1
To become famous— be an outstanding athlete
-
3
2
7
5
4
To be happily married and have own home
6
3
3
3
-
3
To have a girl friend or boy friend
6
9
5
6
9
6
(continued on following nase)
55
TABLE XIX (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP FATHER POR BOYS
ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
Wishes
Social objectives:
1* To have many friend
2* Make this a better world to live in
3. Be a friend to all people
Specific benefits for parents:
1. Family had plenty of money
2 . Health
3.
Happiness
4. Help support the family
5. All the family could be together
General benefits for self:
1 * Health
2. Happiness and long life
3* All my wishes come true
4, To be smart
5. Successful
6 , More leisure time
7. To be attractive
8 . Pleasing personality
School program, schedule, and equipment:
1 * Improvement in school schedule (longer
lunch period, no uniforms, etc*)
2 . School out, no school, etc*
3. New gym, swimming pool, etc*
4. Broader curriculum
5. Better teachers (younger, more under­
standing, etc.)
Personal handicaps or limitations:
1. To be shorter, taller, big enough for
football, have curly hair, did not
stutter, etc*
Miscellaneous
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
All
Boys
1
2
3
4
5
6
«
2
2
—
2
.6
«
3
—
1
2
.6
2
2
.6
2
3
2
.6
4
6
4
3
3
.6
.6
.1
7
7
3 10
7
7
5
1
.6 5
2
*6 «
•6 -
6
5
6
3
2
1
10
5
5
5
6
4
7
1
-
6
5
4
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
8
6
8
5
—
-
-
—
2
-
«.
•
sm
2
2
1
1
—
1
2
1
.2
•6
*6
•6
12
6
6
6
3
11
2
2
6
5
5
3
5
2
5
4
1
1
7
3
3
2
64 167 183
58
489
—
17
-
2
-
All wishes listed less than two per cent of all the junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted*
(l) unemployed,(2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional*
56
TABLE XX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF FATHER FOR GIRLS
ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
Wishes
1
Specific material objects and possessions;
1. Vehicles— cars, bicycles, airplanes,
19
etc.
2. Pets and animals
10
3. Clothes and personal adornment
22
4. Furniture and home equipment
3
5. Toys
6
Money:
1. Plenty of money
13
2. Have a n .allowance
6
Good living quarters:
1. Have a nice home, ranch, farm, etc.
3
2. Live in a certain locality
10
Activities:
1. Travel in the United States and abroad6
—
2. Hunting, fishing, etc.
«o»
3. Go on a vacation
Educational accomplishments:
1. Make good grades
2. Go to college
3. Get a good education
4. More advanced in school and/or age
Vocational accomplishments:
1. Have a good job
10
2. Specific job (doctor, nurse, secre­
tary, etc.)
10
3. Be a writer, dancer, singer, etc.
16
All
Girls
2
3
4
5
8
10
21
5
4
8
?
9
1
1
14
13
13
6
2
19
13
8
6
2
12
10
13
4
2
15
4
10
3
20
1
21
'4
16
3
4
4
3
1
11
3
8
4
6
3
4
8 16
.6 «
1
2
10
10
1
.2
—
1
10
3
4
4
8
3
3
1
8
5
2
1
-
-
-
4
2
2
8
3
5
—
5
8
10
6
6
7
12
6
-
7
9
3
3
5
4
4
4
13
8
8
8
11
9
To be happily married and have own home
-
4
5
7
6
5
To have a girl friend or boy friend
(continued on following page)
-
1
6
5
-
4
To be independent
To become famous— be an outstanding ath­
lete
8
-
.
57
TABLE XX (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP FATHER FOR GIRLS
ACCORDING TO THEIR HOST FREQUENT WISHES
Wishes
1
Social objectives:
6
1. To have many friends
2. Make this a better world to live in
3. Be a friend to all people
Specific benefits for parents:
16
1. Family had plenty of money
2. Health
3. Happiness
4. Help support the family
10
5* All the family could be together
General benefits for self:
1. Health
2. Happiness and long life
3, All my wishes come true
3
4. To be smart
5, Successful
6 , More leisure time
7. To be attractive
3
8 . Pleasing personality
School program, schedule, ana equipment:
1 . Improvement in school schedule
(longer lunch period, no uniforms)
6
2, School out, no school, etc.
■6
3. New gym, swimming pool, etc.
3
4. Broader curriculum
5. Better teachers (younger, more
3
understanding, etc.)
Personal handicaps or limitations:
1 . To be shorter, taller, bi& enough
for football, have curly hair,
did not stutter, etc.
3
Miscellaneous
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
31
All
Girls
2
3
4
5
1
1
-
8
-
5
.7
3
4
4
3
4
1
1
3
2
3
1
5
5
4
6
3
4
2
2
-
6
3
4
1
3
1
8
3
10
7
2
5
3
4
3
3
6
8
3
3
3
2
2
2
8
4
4
2
2
•
4
6
7
6
3
3
3
2
3
3
10
6
1
8
3
3
7
12
3
5
7
15
2
6
4
10
4
4
5
3
5
7
3
1
•6
1
3
4
-
—
73 155 153
5
.4
1
5
3
3
.4
3
5
53
2
.6
465
All wishes listed less than two per cent of all the junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted,
(1) unemployed, (2) unskilled, (3) skilled, (4) semi-professional, and
(5) professional.
58
Boys, in the unskilled and semi-professional groups,
and girls, in the semi-professional and professional groups,
agreed they wish for plenty of money oftener than do boys
and girls in other groups.
More than three times as many girls as boys indicated
that they wish to travel in the United States and abroad;
the girls, whose fathers were semi-professional men, signi­
fied this wish most frequently#
The higher the occupational standing of the fathers
of boys and girls, the less the pupils wish that there
would be no school or that school was out.
i
be strengthened by the findings of Bell,
This might
who, in a study
carried on in Maryland, found that the lower down in the
classification of occupations the father is, the greater
the percentage of youth to drop out of school by the time
they reached the eighth grade.
Summary.
A summary of the affects of the occupa­
tional status of the father upon the needs, interests, and
desires of pupils followss
1.
There is no apparent occupational pattern for
problems on which pupils cannot get enough help in school.
2.
Sixty per cent of the boys from skilled families
indicated they cannot get enough help on school subjects.
3.
Fifty per cent of the girls, in semi-professional
^■Bell, Howard M. Youth Tell Their S t o r y . (Washington
D.C., American Council on Education, 1938), p. 58.
59
and professional groups, mentioned they cannot get enough
help in school*
4.
There are occupational trends for the most fre­
quent topics of conversation as stated by the boys and
girls.
5.
The higher the occupational classification of
the father of both boys and girls, the more they said they
talk about school.
6.
Pupils, whose fathers are professional men, men­
tioned they talk about movies and movie stars oftener than
the pupils, whose fathers are in different occupational
classifications.
The same trend holds true for talking
about sports.
7*
Girls, from professional families, and boys,
from unemployed families agreed they talk most frequently
about cars and airplanes.
8.
Boys and girls, whose fathers are employed as
skilled labor, talk about the things they did outside
school more frequently than any other group.
9.
The boys indicated that the higher their father’s
occupation is, the less they talk about having a good time.
10.
Boys, from semi-professional families, and
girls, from skilled families, signified more frequently
than any other groups the desire for more freedom in class
and school*
v
60
11 .
There is no occupational trend for pupils ac­
cording to the rights they do not have at the present time
hut feel they should.
12.
Some of the duties and responsibilities pupils
feel they should have was evidenced by occupational pat­
terns .
13.
Pupils, whose fathers are in a higher occupational
grouping, indicated they think they should do various duties
about the home, oftener than pupils in other groups.
14.
The higher the classification of the father, the
less frequently the boys said they think they should wash
dishes •
15.
Pupils wish more frequently for vehicles of one
kind or another than for anything else.
IS.
Boys, from the unemployed group, wish for vehicles
less than one half the number of times as boys in any of the
other groups.
17.
There are trends for the occupational status of
the fathers of pupils who wished for pets— the trend being
that the higher the status of the father the less the pupils
/■
wish for pets.
18.
More than three times as many girls as boys wish
to travel.
19.
The higher the occupational standing of the pupilfs
father, the less he wishes there would be no school or that
school was out.
CHAPTER V
AN ANALYSIS OP THE AFFECTS OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS
OF THE MOTHER UPON THE INTERESTS, NEEDS, AND
DESIRES OF PUPILS
Does that fact that the mother is employed outside
the home, or the fact that she is a housewife affect the
problems upon which pupils cannot get enough help4?
topics of conversation?
have?
Their
The rights they think they should
The duties and responsibilities they think they
should have?
What they wish for?
The present chapter at­
tempts to answer the questions stated above.
Problems on which pupils cannot get enough help in
school.
The outstanding problem on which pupils cannot
get enough help in school is, as noted in Table X3CE, on
page 62, on school subjects.
Forty-eight per cent of the
boys, whose mothers are employed outside the home, and fiftyfour per cent of the boys, whose mothers are housewives,
mentioned this difficulty.
Forty-six per cent of the girls,
whose mothers are employed outside the home, and forty^one
per cent of the girls, whose mothers are housewives, signi­
fied not being able to get enough help on school subjects.
No definite pattern is revealed.
Boys and girls, whose mothers are housewives,
in­
dicated more frequently that they need more definite help
from the teacher than boys and girls, whose mothers are
62
TABLE XXI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF HOT HER FOR
BOYS AND GIRLS ACCORDING TO THE PROBLEMS ON WHICH
THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
Problems
Boys
1
2
Social problems:
1; Etiquette
2. Friends of opposite sex
10
3. How to choose friends
3
4. How to get along with others and
3
understand people
5. How to win approval and merits
S. Meeting people
7. How to adjust to society
3
8. Sex education
3
—
9. Miscellaneous social problems
Financial problems:
3
1. Earning money
School problems:
48
1. Help on school subjects
2. Explanations
3. More definite help from teacher
6
4. More study time
3
5. Desire to talk to counselor about work 6.
Not enough courses offered when desired7.
3
Learning how to study
—
8. Homework
Teacher problems:
1. Teachers not willing to help
2. Teachers sarcastic
3. Teachers prejudiced
3
3
4. Too many pupils per teacher
Home Problems:
3
1. Home life
2. Parents
Personal problems:
6
1. Health
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
31
-
-
5
1
4
-
•
All
Girls
Girls
1
2
All
Boys
.9
8
.9
5
5
5
6
7
1
2
.9
5
2
5
1
2
«
1
7
3
3
-
-
-
54
1
10
1
5
3
52
46
3
5
3
3
8
3
41
8
13
1
43
6
12
1
2
1
2
5
2
3
3
-
«
2
3
5
-
2
2
1
1
4
2
1
2
2
8
3
1
3
—
2
5
—
2
80
111
39
78
117
1
2
-
-
1
1
•
3
2
.
.9
.9
9
.9
.9
.
4
.9
2
-
■3
.9
-
.
3
4
2
.9
S
.9
.9
-
2
1
4
1
.
Those nroblems listed "by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted.
(l) mother employed outside the home (2) Housewife.
63
employed outside the home#
Three
girls,
per cent of the boys and eight per cent of the
whose mothers are employed outside the home, expressed
having home difficulties, while only one per cent of the boys
and girls, whose mothers are housewives, mentioned the same
difficulty#
This indicates that the pupils, whose mothers
are housewives, have fewer home difficulties#
None of the boys or girls, whose mothers are house­
wives,
wrote about not being able to get enough help on
health problems, while six per cent of the boys and five
per cent of the girls, whose mothers are employed outside
the home, referred to this difficulty#
This reveals that
pupils, whose mothers are employed outside the home, have
difficulties about health problems that pupils, whose mothers
are housewives, do not have#
What pupils talk about most with their friends #
School life, as noted in Table XXII on page
pressed most frequently#
64 $
ex­
Fifty-seven per cent of the girls
and twenty-eight per cent of the boys agreed they talked
about school life#
whose mothers a ®
The trend seems to indicate that pupils,
housewives, talk more about school life
than those pupils, whose mothers are employed outside the
home#
Twice as many girls as boys said they talk most
64
TABLE XXII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP MOTHER FOR
BOYS AND GIRLS ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT
TOPICS OP CONVERSATION
Topic of conversation
Boys
1
2
24
1. School life
Sports, diversions, and hobbies;
9
1. Motion pictures and movie stars
2, Sports (football, basketball,
26
baseball, etc)
11
3, Vacations
6
4. Cars, airplanes, etc.
5
5, Scouts and various clubs
6. Trips we have taken or are plan­
4
ning to take •
7
7. Hobbies
2
8. Radio programs
4
9. Hunting, fishing, camping, etc.
10. Music and art
2
11. Bicycle riding, horses, hiking.
Personal interests;
4
Things we do outside of school
1
2. Clothes and styles
3. What t-/e are going to do in the
4
future
4
4. Plan for a good time
3
5. Tilings in .which I am interested
2
6 Reminiscences
Social interests;
9
1 Boy friends and girl friends
4
2. Bances and parties
7
'3. Opposite sex
4. Current events and world problems 6
5. Talk about others
4
6. Things in which others are inter­
.7
ested
Miscellaneous
1 Everything, things in general,etc .21
2. Punnyisms, & irrelevant responses 6
.
.
.
.
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
All
spys
Girls
2
1
All
Girls
30
28
47
61
57
10
10
22
19
20
26
6
12
6
26
8
10
5
3
6
6
6
3
4
9
5
8
7
.7
4
9
4
.6
4
4
6
4
6
2
3
6
1
4
1
6
-
6
1
4
3
.8
6
1
4
5
-
5
-
8
8
9
6
9
7
1
1
2
4
2
2
5
8
3
6
3
5
3
5
4
6
3
5
8
4
10
8
3
8
4
9
7
3
13
9
9
5
9
13
12
5
9
11
13
11
6
8
10
3
2
2
4
13
5
16
5
13
5
14
1
14
2
142 352
494
138 370
• 508
3
1
.5
4
.4
4
•6
4
Those topics of conversation listed "by less than one per cent of all
the junior high school pupils replying have "been omitted,
(l) mother employed outside the home (2) housewife.
65
frequently about motion pictures and movie stars.
Boys and girls, whose mothers are housewives, signi­
fied, they talk less about vacations than pupils, whose
mothers are employed outside the home.
The pattern reveals
that pupils, whose mothers are housewives, talk less about
vacations than the other pupils.
Although none of the boys said they talk about clothes
and styles, eight per cent of the girls, from families
where the mother is employed, and six per.cent of the girls,
from families where the mother is a housewife, mentioned
this topic of conversation.
More girls and boys, whose mothers are housewives,
responded that they talk oftener about current events and
world problems than pupils, whose mothers are employed out­
side the home.
Rights pupils do not have at the present time but
feel they should have.
The outstanding nrightrf the pupils
thought should have is, as revealed in Table XXIII, on page
66 9 more freedom in class and school.
Twenty per cent of
the boys and eighteen per cent of the girls, whose mothers
are employed outside the home, expressed the thought they
should have more freedom in class and school, but only ten
per cent of the boys and girls, whose mothers are housewives,
mentioned this right.
This seems to indicate that pupils
66
TABLE XXIII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION Of OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP MOTHER POR
BOYS AND GIRLS ACCORDING TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO HOT HAVE
AT THE PRESENT TIME BUT PEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
Eights
........
- .............................
Personal rights;
14
1. Drive a car
7
2. Make own decisions
3. Go out when I please
11
4. Stay up later at night
5. Express self more freely
2
6. Have rights of others my own age 2
7. Be away from home after dark
4
8. More responsibilities
4
9. More time for rest and sleep
Social rights;
1. Be with friends more often
5
2. Go to parties and shows when I
please
2
3. Choose own associates
2
4. Be allowed to go to movies
4
5. Be allowed to go to school dances
Home rights:
2
1. Less discipline
2. More money - regular allowance
3. Be able to use family car
4
—
4. Pewer home duties
5. Go out without younger relatives School rights:
1. More freedom in class & school
20
2. Leave school grounds at noon
7
3. Hot wear uniforms
4. Better choice of classes
2
5. Be able to tell own side of story 7
6. Longer lunch period
5
7. Less home work
8. More time between classes
5
4
9. Knother free period
10. Hold office
4
Total number answering this question
NOTE;
All
Boys
Girls
o
1
13
7
5
6
7
2
4
.7
2
13
7
7
4
6
2
4
1
1
6
6
6
2
5
6
3
5
-
3
8
11
3
8
7
5
3
1
4
7
10
3
7
7
5
3
5
5
8
5
6
3
.7
2
2
1
2
2
3
'2
4
1
1
2
4
2
10
3
~
2
2
3
7
2
2
1
5
6
1
2
1
18
8
5
3
5
10
4
11
4
2
4
3
2
2
Boys
2
1
-
5
7
5
.7
1
4
5
4
.5
1
10
11
13
10
—
-
7
4
4
6
5
4
—
—
1
—
2
1
1
56 150
206
-
-
■
—
2
2
-*
62 160
All
Girls
.9
.9
2
12
5
9
4
1
1
3
3
2
1
222
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have teen omitted.
(l) mother employed outside the home,(2) housewife.
67
whose mothers are housewives, have enough freedom in class
and school while pupils, whose mothers are employed, think
they should have more freedom.
The right to express oneself more freely was re­
ferred to oftener by boys and girls, whose mothers are
housewives, than by pupils, whose mothers are employed.
The right to tell their own side of the story was
expressed oftener by pupils, whose mothers are employed,
than by those whose mothers are housewives.
This appears
that the pupils, whose mothers are house?/ives, have more
opportunities to tell their side of the story than do
those pupils, whose mothers are employed.
Eleven per cent of the boys, whose mothers are house­
wives, and eight per cent of the girls, whose mothers are
employed, agreed that they thought they should have the
t!rightn to leave the school grounds, while only seven per
cent of the boys, whose mothers are employed, and four per
cent of the girls, whose mothers are housewives, mentioned
the sane right.
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel they should
have♦
on page
Boys and girls mentioned, as noted in Table XXIV
68 * various duties about the house more frequently
than any other duty.
The pupils agreed that when their
mothers are housewives they think they should have these
68
TABLE XXIV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP MOTHER POR
BOYS AND GIRLS ACCORDING TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
WHICH THEY FEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
Rpsuonsibilities and duties
Boys
1
2
Personal responsibilities:
1. Taking core of self - keeping
17
neat and clean
2
2, Making own decisions
3. Be dependable in all work
5
5
4, Respect & love our parents
5, Learn to run a home
6. Choose own associates
3
Social responsibilities:
2
1. Be of service to others
2. Be ladies and gentlemen
1
3, Should get along with others
1
Home duties:
1, Various duties
29
2. Keep house clean
13
3. Work in yard
15
4, Wash dishes
6
5. Take care of own room
1
6. Care of younger children in
8
family
7. Care of pets
2
8. Make beds
3
9. Help with meals
—
10, Wash and mend clothes
0
School responsibilities:
1, Should be successful in work
1
2, Be a leader
5
«,
3, Homework prepared
4. Cooperate with and help teach­
ers
1
Financial duties:
1. Earn own spending money
9
2. Work for pay
15
3. Earn money to buy clothes
3
4, How to spend
3
5. Help the family financially
6
6. Have a regular allowance
16
4
2
2
1
1
2
.9
1
35
5
17
7
5
Girls
1
2
All
Girls
17
3
3
3
1
2
27
10
4
4
1
4
2
1
2
7
34
7
17
6
4
36
20
7
8
14
44
9
9
13
12
42
12
8
12
13
1
22
5
3
1
2
2
1
,7
2
24
7
3
1
1
2
1
.5
3
2
7
3
1
.4
3
6
3
1
*3
5
2
4
3
6
8
3
5
4
3
7
3
5
3
3
1
4
.4
1
4
•3
8
5
-
5
3
4
6
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
8
8
2
2
1
1
8
10
2
2
3
1
8
5
3
2
2
5
6
4
4
1
4
5
6
3
3
106 297
403
Total number answering this question 86 229
N(TTE:
All
Boys
315
,7
3
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two ner cent
of all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted,
(l) mother employed outside the home, (2) housewife.
69
various duties oftener than when their mothers are employed.
More boys and girls, whose mothers are employed,
signified they think they should respect and love their
parents than those boys and girls mhose mothers are house­
wives.
The same is true for the ”right” to choose their 'own
associates.
The children (both boys and girls) of mothers who are
employed outside the home noted far more frequently the duty
of keeping the house clean than did the children of mothers
who were housewives.
Twice as many boys, whose mothers are employed, as
boys, whose mothers are housewives, said they think they
should work for pay; the same holds true for the ,fdutyrf to
help the family financially.
The children of mothers who are housewives signified
with greater frequency, the desire to have a regular allow­
ance, than did the children of employed mothers.
Wishes of .junior high school pupils.
The greatest
wish as expressed by boys, is, as noted in Table XXV on
page 70, for vehicles, while the greatest wish as mentioned
by girls, is for plenty of money.
Both boys and girls, from
families where the mother is a housewife, wish more freouently
for plenty of money than do boys and girls, from families
where the mother is employed outside the home.
70
TABLE XXV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OE MOTHER EOR
BOYS AND G-IRLS ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST EREQJJEITT WISHES
Wishes
1
2
Specific material objects and possessions:
1. Vehicles— cars, bicycles, air­
planes, etc.
29 28
7
5
2* Pets and animals
3
1
3. Clothes and personal adornment
1
3
4. Eurniture and home equipment
4
1
5. Toys
Money:
1. Plenty of money
22 14
.7 .8
2. Have an allowance
Good living quarters:
7
1. Have a nice home, ranch, farm
8
2. Live in a certain locality
2
4
Activities:
1. Travel in the United States &
3
3
abroad
2. Hunting, fishing, etc.
3
.3
.7 2
3. Go on a vacation
Educational accomplishments:
4
1. Make good grades
5
2. Go to college
3
4
3. Get a good education
1
4
4. More advanced in school and/or
2
age
1
Vocational accomplishments:
1. Have a good job
18 13
2. Specific job (doctor, nurse,
9
secretary, etc.)
4
3. Be a writer, dancer, singer, etc. 1
2
All
Boys
1
2
All
Girls
10
-6
10
4
2
14
9
14
5
3
11
8
12
4
2
18
2
16
3
15
2
7
2
8
4
7
2
6
3
3
1
2
3
13
10
-
-
-
2
2
2
4
3
3
5
6
.8
7
3
1
6
3
1
2
3
2
2
14
5
4
4
8
2
6
7
8
8
7
7
28
o
2
3
3
16
.8
To be independent
2
2
2
6
3
4
To become famous— be an outstanding
athlete
3
5
5
7
10
8
To be happily married and have own home 4
2
3
8
5
4
To have a girl friend or boy friend
5
6
5
3
3
(continued on following page)
11
71
TABLE XXV (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIEUTIQ1T OP OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OP MOTHER POR
BOYS AMD GIRLS ACCORDING TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
Boys
Wishes
1
2
"All"..
Boys
Social objectives?
2
.8
1
1,. To have many friends
2. Make this a better world to live
.7 2
in
2
-»
3. Bet a friend to all people
Specific benefits for parents:
1
1
1
1. Family had plenty of money
2
2
2
2. Health
i
1
1
3. Happiness
1
.8
.9
4. Help support the family
General benefits for self:
7
6
6
1. Health
6
5
Happiness
and
long
life
5
2.
7
6
6 .
3. All my wishes come true
2
4
4. To be smart
5
.9
1
.8
5. Successful
.7
2
6 More leisure time
2
.9
7. To be attractive
1
1
.3
.6
8. Pleasing personality
School programs, schedule, and equipment:
Improvement in school schedule (longer lunch
1
11
8
9
period, no uniforms, etc.)
7
2. School out, no school, etc.
6
6
3. Hew gym, swimming pool, etc.
4
5
4
3
4. Broader curriculum
5
4
5. Better teachers (younger, more
understanding, etc.)
6
5
5
Personal handicaps or limitations:
1
To be shorter, taller, big enough for foot
ball, have curly hair, did not
3
stutter, etc.
1
2
.7 2
Miscellaneous
2
.
Girls
2
1
Ail
Girls
7
•6
2
.8
.8
.8
2
1
6
2
3
4
4
4
5
3
4
3
4
3
6
5
2
6
2
2
4
2
7
5
3
2
2
2
3
4
6
5
3
3
2
2
3
3
11
6
6
5
10
3
5
6
10
3
5
5
5
4
4
1
1
2
128 371
499
.4
.
*
.
Total number answering this question
NOTE:
144 387
531
3
—
•
.8
All wishes listed less than W o per cent of all the junior high school
pupils replying have “been omitted.
(l) mother employed outside the home, (2) housewife.
72
Children, from families where the mother is employed
outside the home, expressed the wish to live in a certain
locality oftener than did the children, from families where
the mother is a housewife.
Pupils, from families where the mother is employed
outside the home, referred to the desire to go to college
more frequently than did the pupils, from families where
the mother is a housewife.
Boys and girls, whose mothers are employed outside
the home, expressed the wishes to have a good job, to have a
girlfriend or boyfriend and to have many friends, more fre­
quently than did boys and girls whose mothers are housewives;
the reverse holds true for wishes to have a specific job,
and to become famous*
Pupils, whose mothers are employed outside the home,
wish more frequently that school vtrould be out than did pupils
whose mothers are housewives; the same holds true for wishes
that refer to the desire for better teachers.
Summary.
A summary of the affects of the occupation
of the mother upon the needs, interests, and desires follows:
1.
Boys and girls, whose mothers are housewives*, ex­
pressed the desire for more definite help from the teachers
than did boys and girls, whose mothers are employed.
2.
Fewer home difficulties x^rere mentioned by pupils,
73
whose mothers are housewives, than by pupils, whose mothers
are employed outside the home,
3.
It appears that children, whose mothers are em­
ployed outside the home, have more difficulties getting
enough help on health problems, than do.children, whose
mothers are housewives.
4.
Pupils, whose mothers are housewives,
said they
talk about school life oftener than did pupils, whose
mothers are employed.
5.
Pupils, from families where the mother is em­
ployed, talk about vacations oftener than did pupils, from
families where the mother is a housewife.
6.
Children, from families where the mother is a
housewife, revealed they talk about current events and ?<rorld
problems more than did children, from families where the
mother is employed.
7.
Pupils, whose mothers are employed, expressed
the desire for more freedom in class and school more fre­
quently than did children, whose mothers are housewives•
8.
The right to express oneself more freely was re­
ferred to oftener by boys and girls, whose mothers are house­
wives, than by boys and girls, whose mothers are employed.
9.
The right to tell their own side of the story
was mentioned oftener by children, from families where the
mother is employed than by children, whose mothers are
74
housewives #
10.
Various duties about the house were signified as
a duty to have, oftener by children whose mothers are house­
wives, than by children,, whose mothers are employed.
11.
The “duty” to respect and love their parents and
the right to choose their own associates was mentioned
more frequently by children, from families where the mother
is employed, than by children, from families where the
mother is a housewife.
12.
Pupils, whose mothers are employed, indicated
more frequently the duty to keep the house clean, than did
pupils, whose mothers are housewives.
13.
Boys and girls, from families where the mother
is a housewife expressed oftener the wish for plenty of
money,
than did boys and girls, from families where the
mother is employed.
14.
Children of employed mothers expressed the wish
to live in a certain locality oftener than did children of
housewives.
15.
Children of employed mothers signified their
wish to go to college more frequently than children of
housewives•
16.
The desire to have a good Job, to have girl
friends and boy friends, and to have many friends, was mentioned oftener by children, whose mothers are housewives,
75
than by children, whose mothers are employed.
17.
Wishes to have a specific job, to become famous,
and that school would be out was referred to oftener by
children, from families where the mother is employed, than
by children, from families where the mother is a housewife.
CHAPTER VI
AN ANALYSIS OF THE AFFECTS OF THE ORDINAL POSITION OF THE
CHILD IN THE FAMILY UPON THE INTERESTS NEEDS AND
DESIRES OF PUPILS
Does the ordinal position of the child in the family
affect the problems upon which he or she cannot get enough
help?
His or her topics of conversation?
she think they should have?
The rights he or
The duties and responsibilities
he or she think they should have?
What he or she wishes for?
The present chapter attempts to answer the above questions.
Problems on which pupils cannot get enough help in
school.
Fifty-four per cent of the boys and forty-nine
per cent of the girls said, as revealed in Tables XXVI
and XXVII on pages 77 and 78 respectively, they cannot get
enough help on school- subjects.
Fifty-eight per cent of
the boys and fifty-five per cent of the girls replying,
who are the youngest in their families, mentioned, more
frequently than any of the other boys and girls, this
problem of not being able to get enough help on their
school subjects.
No pattern of ordinal position is re­
vealed according to difficulty in getting help on school
subjects.
Middle and youngest girls in a family and the
77
TABLE XXVI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OR ORDINAL POSITION FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THE PROBLEMS ON WHICH THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
O l d -
M i d -
Y o u n g -
A l l
S = « i« = « = = « * s = 3 s s = B s a a = a s s r s a 3 s s a B 3 s * M s s a a r a s s s = = a B a 5 iB = a B * » § « ^ = a * = s H ^ 3
S o c i a l
p r o b l e m s ;
1 *
E t i q u e t t e
2 *
F r i e n d s
2
o f o p p o s i t e
-
s e x
3 *
H o w
t o
c h o o s e
4 *
H o w
t o
g e t
a l o n g
o t h e r s
a n d
u n d e r s t a n d
w i n
a p p r o v a l
2
f r i e n d s
-
3
2
H o w
6 *
M e e t i n g
? •
H o w
8 #
S e x
9 *
t o
&
a d j u s t
t o
1 *
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
2
3
—
-
1
s o c i a l
4
-
-
-
1
4
<-»
3
-
2
5 8
5 5
5 4
6
-
H e l p
m o n e y
o n
M o r e
s c h o o l
s u b j e c t s
5 0
d e f i n i t e
h e l p
3
o r
t o
a b o u t
N o t
e d
t o
w h e n
6
c o u r s e s
8 .
H o m e w o r k
h o w
t o
1 5
-
3
—
3
s t u d y
6
3
-
-
2
—
-
* 7
3
-
. 7
-
-
. 7
p r o b l e m s :
1 *
T e a c h e r s
n o t
2 .
T e a c h e r s
s a r c a s t i c
3 .
T e a c h e r s
p r e j u d i c e d
4 .
T o o
p u p i l s
m a n y
w i l l i n g
p e r
t o
h e l p
2
t e a c h e r -
—
6
5
2
3
3
5
2
3
« •
-
1
3
-
-
* 7
P r o b m e m s ;
1 *
H o m e
2 *
P a r e n t s
P e r s o n a l
l i f e
-
-
-
-
—
2
5
-
—
2
—
—
* ■
5 4
4 1
p r o b l e m s :
H e a l t h
n u m b e r
a n s w e r i n g
t i o n
NOTE:
-
o f f e r ­
d e s i r e d
L e a r n i n g
T o t a l
8
c o u n s e l ­
w o r k
e n o u g h
7 .
T e a c h e r
t a l k
2
f r o m
6
D e s i r e
6 .
5 6
-
t e a c h e r
5 *
1 ,
. 7
-
p r o ­
E x p l a n a t i o n s
3 *
H o m e
3
2
p r o b l e m s ;
1 *
2 *
* 7
p r o b l e m s ;
E a r n i n g
S c h o o l
-
-
s o c i e t y
b l e m s
F i n a n c i a l
-
3
-
2
e d u c a t i o n
M i s c e l l a n e o u s
-
-
m e r i t s
p e o p l e
t o
* 7
3
w i t h
p e o p l e
5 *
-
8
t h i s
5
* 7
q u e s ­
3 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 0
1 4 6
Those problems listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted.
TABLE XXVII
78
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINAL POSITION FOR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THE PROBLEMS ON WHICH THEY CANNOT GET ENOUGH HELP
P r o b l e m s
S o c i a l
1 .
2 .
F r i e n d s
3 *
H o w
4 .
o f
o p p o s i t e
t o
c h o o s e
H o w
t o
g e t
a n d
u n d e r s t a n d
5 *
H o w
t o
6 *
M e e t i n g
7 .
H o w
d l e
Y o u n g ­
A l l
O n l y
e s t
G i r l s
w i n
a p p r o v a l
a d j u s t
S e x
9 .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s
7
5
€■»
5
4
-
2
-
2
8
2
2
mm
3
m
5
5
m
3
-
2
o t h e r s
a n d
m e r i t s
t o
4
£
2
-
mm
-
6
• 8
-
—
-
6
• 8
-
5
•
6
-
-
-
mm
s o c i e t y
s o c i a l
p r o b l e m s
2
5
4
e d u c a t i o n
F i n a n c i a l
2
p r o b l e m s :
E a r n i n g
S c h o o l
w i t h
p e o p l e
p e o p l e
t o
8
s e x
f r i e n d s
a l o n g
8 .
m o n e y
-
p r o b l e m s :
1 .
H e l p
2 .
E x p l a n a t i o n s
3 #
M o r e
d e f i n i t e
4 .
M o r e
s t u d y
5.
D e s i r e
o n
a b o u t
6 *
M i d ­
e s t
p r o b l e m s :
E t i q u e t t e
1 #
O l d ­
N o t
s c h o o l
t o
s u b j e c t s
h e l p
f r o m
t e a c h e r
t i m e
t a l k
t o
c o u r s e s
o f f e r e d
L e a r n i n g
8 .
H o m e w o r k
T e a c h e r
h o w
t o
5 5
3 8
7
2
-
5
4
1 2
1 2
6
9
4
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
8
2
2
-
4
2
5
6
4
4
2
-
6
2
4
7
-
mm
3
2
• 8
w h e n
d e s i r e d
7 .
4 6
8
c o u n s e l o r
w o r k
e n o u g h
4 9
5 2
s t u d y
3
p r o b l e m s :
1 .
T e a c h e r s
n o t
2 .
T e a c h e r s
s a r c a s t i c
—
2
2
6
2
3 .
T e a c h e r s
p r e j u d i c e d
4
-
2
6
2
T o o
p u p i l s
-
-
5
-
-
3
~
2
6
2
16
129
4.
H o m e
m a n y
w i l l i n g
p e r
t o
h e l p
t e a c h e r
’
2
p r o b l e m s :
1 .
H o m e
2.
P a r e n t s
P e r s o n a l
l i f e
4
5
4
-
2
2
4
—
* *
p r o b l e m s :
1#
H e a l t h
T o t a l
n u m b e r
a n s w e r i n g
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
25
4 4
4 4
.
s s s a s s s s s s 5 s s s * s s
NOTE:
Those problems listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted#
79
only boys in a family agreed having the most difficulty
in getting enough definite help from the teacher#
Boys, who are the only child in a family, were
the only boys that said they cannot get enough help on
health problems.
What pupils talk about most with their friends.
The most frequently mentioned topic of conversation is,
as noted in Tables XXVIII and XXIX on pages
respectively,
school life.
and
The oldest and middle boys in
a family and the oldest and youngest girls in a family
referred to school life, as a topic of conversation, more
frequently than did boys and girls of other ordinal posi­
tions.
Middle boys and youngest girls in a family revealed
that they talk about movies and movie stars oftener than
boys and girls of a different ordinal position.
Only children in a family talk about sports less
frequently than other children.
This evidence is sub-
1
stantiated by M u r p h y fs
findings that an only child is
not likely to participate in athletics.
■^Murphy, Gardner, Experimental Social Psychology.
(New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1931), p. 709.
80
TABLE XXVIII
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINAL POSITION FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THEIR' MOST FREQUENT TOPICS OF CONVERSATION
i
T o p i c
o f
1 .
c o n v e r s a t i o n
S c h o o l
S p o r t s ,
,
r
1 *
l i f e
d i v e r s i o n s ,
a n d
1 .
M o t i o n
p i c t u r e s
2 .
S p o r t s
( f o o t b a l l ,
b a s e b a l l ,
o n s
4 .
C a r s ,
a i r p l a n e s ,
5 .
S c o u t s
6 .
T r i p s
w e
h a v e
p l a n t
t o
t a k e
a n d
d l e
Y o u n g ­
e s t
O n l y
3 1
3 1
3 0
2 1
2 9
7
1 2
1 0
9
1 0
2 2
2 2
2 4
1 5
2 2
1 1
1 4
1 0
1 0
1 1
1 0
8
1 4
1 0
6
6
2
5
2
A l l
B o y s
m o v i e
s t a r s
b a s k e t b a l l ,
e t c # )
V a c a t i
M i d ­
e s t
h o b b i e s :
a n d
3 .
O l d ­
e t c #
v a r i o u s
c l u b s
t a k e n
o r
^
5
a r e
3
3
2
1
7 .
H o b b i e s
8
2
6
1 0
6
8 .
R a d i o
3
4
4
6
4
9 #
H u n t i n g ,
p r o g r a m s
1 0 .
M u s i c
1 1 .
B i c y c l e
P e r s o n a l
f i s h i n g ,
a n d
c a m p i n g ,
e t c .
a r t
r i d i n g ,
h o r s e s ,
8
3
7
6
2
1
5
2
3
2
4
3
3
6
2
7
3
5
-
-
-
-
-
3
4
3
1
3
6
2
2
6
3
2
2
1
1
3
2
2
2
1 0
6
3
1 0
7
4
5
4
5
4
8
h i k i n g
i n t e r e s t s :
1 .
T h i n g s
2 .
C l o t h e s
a n d
s t y l e s
3 .
W h a t
a r e
g o i n g
w e
w e
d o
o u t s i d e
t o
o f
d o
s c h o o l
i n
t h e
f u t u r e
4 .
P l a n
5 .
T h i n g s
6 .
R e m i n i s c e n c e s
S o c i a l
7
1
f o r
a
g o o d
i n
t i m e
w h i c h
I
a m
i n t e r e s t e d
♦ 6
3
i n t e r e s t s :
1 .
B o y
2 .
D a n c e s
f r i e n d s
3 .
O p p o s i t e
4 .
C u r r e n t
5 .
T a l k
6 .
T h i n g s
a n d
a n d
g i r l
f r i e n d s
p a r t i e s
s e x
e v e n t s
a b o u t
i n
a n d
w o r l d
6
1 2
8
2
p r o b l e m s 1 0
3
8
8
7
4
3
4
2
4
1
1
2
2
2
o t h e r s
w h i c h
o t h e r s
a r e
i n ­
t e r e s t e d
M i s c e l l a n e o u s :
1 .
E v e r y t h i n g ,
2 .
F u n n y i s m s ,
T o t a l
n u m b e r
t h i n g s
&
i n
a n s w e r i n g
t h i s
1 3
2 0
1 4
1 5
2
3
7
7
5
1 5 7
1 6 0
1 8 3
8 6
5 8 6
g e n e r a j , e t c . 1 2
i r r e l e v a n t
r e s p o n s e s
q u e s t i o n
ju ■ ; _ i
Note;
nsm,
Those topics of conversation listed by less than one per cent of
dLl the junior high school pupils replying have been omitted#
81
TABLE XXIX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINAL POSITION FOR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT TOPICS OF CONVERSATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T o n i c
o f
S c h o o l
1 .
S p o r t s ,
a n d
M o t i o n
p i c t u r e s
2 .
S p o r t s
( f o o t b a l l ,
b a s e b a l l ,
V a c a t i o n s
4 .
C a r s ,
5 .
S c o u t s
T r i p s
w e
7 .
8 *
8 0
4 9
6 1
m o v i e
2 0
2 3
2 5
2 1
2 3
s t a r s
b a s k e t b a l l ,
e t c .
9
7
1 4
5
9
4
6
4
5
5
1
mm
-
1
3
2
2
4
3
5
c l u b s
t a k e n
o r
a r e
p l a n ­
2
6
4
1
-
1
R a d i o
1
2
4
5
3
-
-
3
1
5
7
2
6
mm
p r o g r a m s
B i c y c l e
f i s h i n g ,
a n d
c a m p i n g ,
e t c .
a r t
r i d i n g ,
h o r s e s ,
h i k i n g .
. 7
w e
d o
o u t s i d e
C l o t h e s
a n d
s t y l e s
t S h a t
a r e
g o i n g
w e
o f
t o
s c h o o l
4
. 9
d o
i n
1 0
6
9
7
8
1 0
9
1 1
1 0
1 0
t h e
f u t u r e
P l a n
f o r
a
g o o d
5 .
T h i n g s
6.
R e m i n i s c e n c e s
S o c i a l
. 2
-
. 6
i n t e r e s t s : .
T h i n g s
4 .
• 5
mm
1 1 .
3 .
4 7
8
P e r s o n a l
•
6 5
G i r l s
3
M u s i c
2
O n l y
H o b b i e s
1 0 .
1 .
e s t
t a k e
H u n t i n g ,
9 *
a n d
v a r i o u s
h a v e
t o
A l J .
“ Y o u n g - .
h o b b i e s :
a i r p l a n e s ,
a n d
M i d ­
d l e
e t c . )
3 .
n i n g
d - ,-
e s t
l i f e
d i v e r s i o n s ,
1 .
6 .
O l
c o n v e r s a t i o n
i n
t i m e
w h i c h
I
a m
7
3
8
4
5
7
3
4
4
5
5
5
5
3
5
1
7
2
6
4
i n t e r e s t e d
i n t e r e s t s :
1 .
B o y
2 .
D a n c e s
f r i e n d s
3 .
O p p o s i t e
4 .
C u r r e n t
5 .
T a l k
6 .
T h i n g s
a n d
a n d
g i r l
f r i e n d s
p a r t i e s
7
1 5
1 1
1 3
1 1
1 6
a b o u t
i n
a n d
w o r l d
o t h e r s
1 2
1 3
7
8
8
7
p r o b l e m s 5
6
8
7
6
8
2
1 4
9
8
3
4
2
4
3
1 3
1 8
1 4
2 4
1 6
2
1
1
1 6 9
8 2
5 7 3
o t h e r s
w h i c h
1 8
1 1
5
s e x
e v e n t s
f
a r e
i n ­
t e r e s t e d
M i s c e l l a n e o u s :
1 .
E v e r y t h i n g ,
2 .
F u n n y i s m s
T o t a l
NOTE*
n u m b e r
t h i n g s
&
i n
i r r e l e v a n t
a n s w e r i n g
t h i s
g e n e r a l
r e s p o n s e s
q u e s t i o n
1 4 9
. 7
. 6
1 7 3
Those topics of conversation listed by less than one per cent of
all the junior high school pupils replying have been omitted*
82
Only children in a family responded that they talk
more frequently about music and art than do children of
other ordinal positions.
Girls, who are the youngest in a family, mentioned
talking about clothes and styles more frequently than did
other girls.
Middle boys and youngest girls in a family, indicated
they talk more frequently about dances and parties than did
other children.
Rights -pupils do not have at the present time but feel
they should have.
Pupils mentioned the "right” to have more
freedom in class and school oftener than, as noted in Tables
XXX and XXXI on pages
and
respectively, any other right.
The youngest children in a family referred to this right more
frequently than did children of other ordinal positions.
The right to drive a car was noted oftener by young­
est boys and only girls than by boys and girls of a different
ordinal position.
Youngest boys in a family were the only boys to write
about the "right” to have more responsibilities.
Youngest boys and girls in a family expressed oftener
the "right /to leave the school grounds at noon," than did
other boys and girls of a different.ordinal position.
85
TABLE XXX
i
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINAL POSITION FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO NOT HAVE AT THE PRESENT TIME
BUT FEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
E i g h t s
P e r s o n a l
M i d ­
e s t
d l e
e s t
1 4
1 0
1 7
6
1
5
A l l
O n l y
B o y s
r i g h t s :
1 .
D r i v e
2 .
M a k e
3 .
G o
4 *
S t a y
5 ,
E x p r e s s
6 .
H a v e
7 .
B e
8 .
M o r e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
9 .
M o r e
t i m e
R o c i a l
Y o u n g ­
O l d ­
a
c a r
o w n
o u t
d e c i s i o n s
w h e n
u p
I
p l e a s e
6
a t
6
l a t e r
s e l f
r i g h t s
a w a y
n i g h t
m o r e
o f
f r o m
f r e e l y
o t h e r s
h o m e
f o r
a
y
o w n
a f t e r
r e s t
6
d a r k
8
4
2
-
a n d
s l e e p
7
6
5
-
4
3
3
m
-
a g e
1 3
6
7
9
6
9
5
3
4
6
3
3
2
-
1 4
4
2
3
2
2
2
—
3
6
2
5
-
3
3
3
**
r i g h t s :
1 .
B e
w i t h
2 .
G o
t o
f r i e n d s
s h o w s
m o r e
a n d
o f t e n
p a r t i e s
w h e n
I
p l e a s e
3 .
C h o o s e
a s s o c i a t e s
6
4
3
4 .
B e
a l l o w e d
t o
g o
t o
m o v i e s
3
4
3
B e
a l l o w e d
t o
g o
t o
s c h o o l
-
1
-
m
2
4
2
3
3
2
-
7
6
3
8
3
5
3
-
1
-
3
. 9
2
m
2
»
. 9
5 .
H o m e
o w n
L e s s
d i s c i p l i n e
2 .
M o r e
m o n e y
3 .
B e
4 .
F e w e r
5 .
G o
S c h o o l
a b l e
-
t o
r e g u l a r
u s e
h o m e
o u t
1 .
M o r e
L e a v e
3 ,
N o t
f a m i l y
c a r
d u t i e s
w i t h o u t
y o u n g e r
f r e e d o m
s c h o o l
w e a r
i n
c l a s s
g r o u n d s
r e l a t i v e s
B e t t e r
5 .
B e
6 ,
L o n g e r
7 ,
L e s s
h o m e
w o r k
8 .
M o r e
t i m e
b e t w e e n
9 .
A n o t h e r
c h o i c e
a b l e
H o l d
a n d
a t
s c h o o l
5
t o
o f
t e l l
l u n c h
f r e e
1 9
1 5
1 0
1 2
6
9
c l a s s e s
o w n
s i d e
6
o f
s t o i y
p e r i o d
c l a s s e s
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
1 4
-
-
-
-
3
7
-
4
2
9
5
7
5
9
p e r i o d
a n s w e r i n g
1 7
6
—
o f f i c e
n u m b e r
6
n o o n
u n i f o r m s
4 .
NOTE:
a l l o w a n c e
r i g h t s :
2 .
T o t a l
# 4
r i g h t s :
1 .
1 0 .
d a n c e s
4
3
6
-
3
2
6
5
3
2
2
4
3
2
•
4
3
6
3
—
4
2
—
2
6 4
6 9
3 4
2 2 6
5 9
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted#
84
TABLE XXXI
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP ORDINAL POSITION POR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THE RIGHTS THEY DO NOT HAVE AT THE PRESENT TIME
BUT PEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
E i
g h
P e r s o n a l
O l d ­
M i d ­
e s t
d l e
e s t
2
5
3
7
4
6
8
8
1 3
8
p l e a s e
7
6
4
1 0
6
a t
4
1
4
3
3
7
1
7
6
1
5
-
1
5
7
3
.
t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D r i v e
2 .
M a k e
3 *
G o
4 .
S t a y
a
c a r
o w n
o u t
d e c i s i o n s
w h e n
u p
I
l a t e r
s e l f
n i g h t
5 .
E x p r e s s
6 .
H a v e
m o r e
7 .
B e
8 .
M o r e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
9 .
M o r e
t i m e
r i g h t s
a w a y
o f
f r o m
f r e e l y
o t h e r s
h o m e
f o r
m y
o w n
a f t e r
r e s t
a n d
a g e
d a r k
*
B e
w i t h
2 .
G o
t o
f r i e n d s
s h o w s
6
-
-
2
5
3
3
-
3
&
m o r e
o f t e n
p a r t i e s
w h e n
9
7
7
9
1 2
-
I
8
7
3
7
6
3
5
7
5
a l l o w e d
t o
g o
t o
m o v i e s
1
1
mm
-
a l l o w e d
t o
g o
t o
s c h o o l
1
5
-
-
4
6
1
7
4
-
6
7
3
4
2
-
-
-
2
1
3
3
2
1
1
3
1
4 .
B e
5 .
B e
o w n
d a n c e s
. 7
2
r i g h t s :
1 .
L e s s
d i s c i p l i n e
2.
M o r e
m o n e y
3 *
B e
4 .
P e w e r
5 .
G o
S c h o o l
a b l e
-
t o
u s e
h o m e
o u t
r e g u l a r
a l l o w a n c e
f a m i l y
c a r
d u t i e s
w i t h o u t
y o u n g e r
r e l a t i v e s
. 7
r i g h t s :
1 .
M o r e
2 .
L e a v e
3 *
N o t
f r e e d o m
s c h o o l
w e a r
4.
B e t t e r
5 .
B e
6.
L o n g e r
i n
c l a s s
a t
n o o n
u n i f o r m s
c h o i c e
a b l e
t o
o f
t e l l
l u n c h
c l a s s e s
o w n
L e s s
h o m e
w o r k
M o r e
t i m e
b e t w e e n
9 .
A n o t h e r
f r e e
s i d e
s t o r y
p e r i o d
a n s w e r i n g
1 2
1 5
4
3
1 1
7
8
1 2
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
1 3
«■»
2 0
13
5
1 0
1
-
1
1
1
mm
1
2
-
1
mm
1
5
3
-
mm
2
1
1
7
2
1
1
3
-
1
1
2
3
—
2
86
73
30
270
1
c l a s s e s
o f f i c e
n u m b e r
1 1
5
o f
p e r i o d
8 .
H o l d
s c h o o l
&
g r o u n d s
7 .
NOTES
4
4
6
C h o o s e
T o t a l
4
a s s o c i a t e s
3 .
10.
•
r i g h t s :
1 .
H o m e
G i r l s
1
s l e e p
p l e a s e
-
A l l
O n l y
r i g h t s :
1 .
S o c i a l
Y o u n g ­
81
rn ■
. 4
Those rights listed by less than one per cent of all junior high
school pupils replying have been omitted#
Only girls in a family noted, far more frequently,
the right not to have to wear uniforms to school than did
the other girls; one out of five only girls replying signi­
fied this right•
None of the only children mentioned the f,right to have
better choice of classes,” but children of other ordinal
positions did*
Duties and responsibilities pupils feel they should
have*
Various duties about the home was the most frequently
expressed r,duty and responsibility” that, as revealed by
Tables XXXII and XXXIII on pages
pupils think they should have.
and
respectively,
Middle boys in a family and
oldest girls in a family referred to this duty oftener than
did other boys and girls.
The middle children in a family indicated the res­
ponsibility of taking care of self more frequently than did
the other children, while the only child in a family men­
tioned it the least frequently of any of the children.
The oldest girl in a family and the only boy in a
family signified the "responsibility of making their own
decisions” oftener than did other boys and girls of a
different ordinal position.
More than one fifth of the boys and girls, who are
the oldest child in a family agreed that the "duty of
86
TABLE XXXIX
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINAL POSITION FORIDYS ACCORDING
TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES WHICH THEYF
FEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
P e r s o n a l
a n d
c a r e
o f
M a k i n g
3 ,
B e
4 ,
R e s p e c t
5 .
L e a r n
6 .
C h o o s e
o w n
a n d
t o
B e
o f
l a d i e s
3 .
S h o u l d
H o m e
d u t i e s :
e s t
A l l
1 5
2 1
2 0
5
1 7
1
2
3
7
3
O n l y
B o y s
w o r k
1
mm
2
4
1
l o v e
o u r
p a r e n t s
2
2
5
2
3
1
mm
. 5
2
mm
. 5
-
-
o t h e r s
2
2
4
4
g e n t l e m e n
2
1
-
mm
. 8
-
-
1
4
• 8
a
s e r v i c e
1
h o m e
t o
a n d
g e t
a l o n g
V a r i o u s
2 .
K e e p
h o u s e
3 .
W o r k
i n
4 .
W a s h
d i s h e s
5 *
T a k e
c a r e
C a r e
o f
w i t h
o t h e r s
d u t i e s
c l e a n
y a r d
o f
o w n
y o u n g e r
r o o m
c h i l d r e n
7 .
C a r e
o f
8 *
M a k e
b e d s
H e l p
w i t h
W a s h
a n d
S c h o o l
p e t s
m e a l s
m e n d
3
3 0
2 3
4 0
2 6
3 5
2 1
9
9
4
1 2
2 4
1 0
1 3
2 2
1 4
7
4
6
7
3
4
3
4
3
3
6
i n
f a m i l y
c l o t h e s
5
5
2
2
7
3
3
1 3
2
-
5
7
6
3
mm
2
1
2
. 8
-
1
--
2
• 5
1
5
4
2
6
3
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
2
1
1 1
1 2
1 0
7
1 0
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s :
1 .
S h o u l d
2.
B e
3 .
H o m e w o r k
4 .
C o o p e r a t e
a
F i n a n c i a l
b e
s u c c e s s f u l
i n
w o r k
l e a d e r
p r e p a r e d
w i t h
a n d
h e l p
t e a c h e r s
4
3
3
mm
d u t i e s :
1 .
E a r n
o w n
s p e n d i n g
2 .
W o r k
f o r
p a y
3 .
E a r n
m o n e y
4 .
H o w
5 .
H e l p
6 .
H a v e
NOTE;
Y o u n g ­
a l l
a s s o c i a t e s
1 .
T o t a l
d l e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
B e
9*
M i d ­
e s t
i n
r u n
o w n
2.
1 0 .
O l d ­
n e a t
d e c i s i o n s
d e p e n d a b l e
1 .
6.
s e l f - k e e p i n g
c l e a n
2 .
S o c i a l
d u t i e s
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s :
T a k e
1 .
a n d
t o
n u m b e r
8
b u y
c l o t h e s
s p e n d
t h e
a
t o
m o n e y
f a m i l y
r e g u l a r
f i n a n c i a l l y
a l l o w a n c e
a n s w e r i n g
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
2
2
2
1
1 0 2
6
3
9
5
7
8
4
3
2
2
3
2
2
•m
-
mm
3
9 3
1 2 3
5 5
. 3
3 7 3
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two per cent
of all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted.
87
TABLE) m i l l
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP ORDINAL POSITION POR GIRLS AGGORDING
TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 1HIGH
THEY PEEL THEY SHOULD HAVE
R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
P e r s o n a l
1 *
a n d
c a r e
M a k i n g
3 .
B e
4 *
R e s p e c t
5 *
L e a r n
6 *
C h o o s e
o w n
s e l f
a n d
t o
o w n
d l e
Y o u n g ­
A l l
O n l y
e s t
G i r l s
n e a t
a l l
w o r k
l o v e
o u r
p a r e n t s
a
2 5
S '
2 6
2 3
1 7
5
6
8
9
7
4
3
1
4
1
1
1
. 8
. 9
3
3
2
h o m e
* 8
5
a s s o c i a t e s
2 6
3
6
3
3
3
3
4
3
2
1
1
*■*
1
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ;
o f
2 *
B e
l a d i e s
s e r v i c e
S h o u l d
g e t
o t h e r s
* 9
g e n t l e m e n
. 9
t o
a n d
a l o n g
w i t h
o t h e r s
3
• 8
-
2
2
4 1
3 2
4 2
2 1
1 6
1 8
d u t i e s :
1 *
V a r i o u s
d u t i e s
2 *
K e e p
h o u s e
3 .
f o r k
i n
c l e a n
y a r d
4 *
W a s h
d i s h e s
5 *
T a k e
c a r e
6 *
C a r e
o f
C a r e
o f
8 *
M a k e
b e d s
9 *
1 0 *
H e l p
f a s h
S c h o o l
o f
o w n
y o u n g e r
7 *
r o o m
c h i l d r e n
i n
f a m i l y
p e t s
a n d
m e n d
3 7
1 7
5
8
7
1 0
7
1 4
1 1
3
1 0
1 0
1 5
1 2
7
1 2
7
1 4
1
3
6
3
2
3
4
3
3
2
m e a l s
3 0
D
9
* 9
w i t h
* 9
c l o t h e s
5
5
1
4
5
4
4
4
4
1
3
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s :
1 *
S h o u l d
2 *
B e
3 *
H o m e w o r k
4 *
C o o p e r a t e
a
F i n a n c i a l
b e
s u c c e s s f u l
i n
w o r k
l e a d e r
p r e p a r e d
w i t h
a n d
h e l p
t e a c h e r s
5
3
4
3
2
2
3
3
,
4
2
5
4
4
-
4
4
2
3
3
3
d u t i e s :
1 .
E a r n
o w n
s p e n d i n g
2 *
W o r k
f o r
p a y
3 *
E a r n
4 .
H o w
5 *
H e l p
6 *
H a v e
NOTE*
k e e p i n g
i n
r u n
B e
T o t a l
-
d e c i s i o n s
d e p e n d a b l e
1 *
3 *
o f
c l e a n
2 *
H o m e
d u t i e s
M i d ­
e s t
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ;
T a k i n g
S o c i a l
a n d
O l d -
m o n e y
t o
n u m b e r
b u y
c l o t h e s
s p e n d
t h e
a
t o
m o n e y
f a m i l y
r e g u l a r
f i n a n c i a l l y
5
5
6
4
5
4
5
6
1
4
5
3
4
-
3
4
-
5
8
4
1
1
a l l o w a n c e
a n s w e r i n g
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
. 9
1 1 1
. 7
* 8
4
2
3
1 3 3
1 5 4
2
7 1
4 6 9
Those responsibilities and duties listed by less than two per cent
of all junior high school pupils replying have been omitted*
88
keeping the house clean," is a duty to have.
These groups
were the ones mentioning this duty the most frequently.
“Only children” referred to this duty the least frequently
of any of the groups.
Oldest boys and only girls are the ones that men­
tioned the "duty to work in the yard" the most frequently.
Oldest girls and middle boys indicated they think it
is* their responsibility to be successful in school work
oftener than did other boys and girls.
Youngest boys and girls agreed that they think
financial duties are duties they should have more frenuently
than any other ordinal grouping.
Wishes of .junior high schoolnuoils.
The most fre­
quent wish of junior high school pupils mentioned is, as
noted in Table XXXIV on pages 89 and 90 > and Table XXXV
on pages 91 and
92* for vehicles.
Oldest boys and only
girls expressed the wish for vehicles more frequently than
did other boys and girls.
Almost one-third of the oldest
boys and more than one-fifth of the only girls signified
this wish.
Oldest boys and girls referred to the wish for toys
oftener than did children in a different ordinal position.
Only children mentioned oftener the wish
for plenty
89
IABLE XXXIV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP ORDINAL POSITION FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
W i s h e s
S p e c i f i c
1 .
m a t e r i a l
V e h i c l e s —
o b j e c t s
c a r s ,
a n d
P e t s
a n d
3 *
C l o t h e s
4 ,
F u r n i t u r e
5 .
T o y s
M i d ­
e s t
d l e
e s t
3 2
2 5
2 8
4
7
p e r s o n a l
a n d
h o m e
A l
l
O n l y
B o y s
2 1
2 7
7
6
a i r p l a n e s -
a n i m a l s
a n d
Y o u n g ­
p o s s e s s i o n s :
b i c y c l e s ,
e t c *
2 *
O l d ­
a d o r n m e n t
6
2
. 5
2
1
1
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
3
1 9
1 4
1 7
2 2
1 7
—
2
1
e q u i p m e n t
3
M o n e y :
1 .
P l e n t y
2 *
H a v e
G o o d
o f
a n
l i v i n g
1 *
H a v e
2 .
L i v e
m o n e y
a l l o w a n c e
* 8
q u a r t e r s :
a
n i c e
i n
a
h o m e ,
r a n c h ,
c e r t a i n
f a r m
l o c a l i t y
9
4
9
3
7
2
4
3
2
3
A c t i v i t i e s :
1 .
T r a v e l
2 *
H u n t i n g ,
3 .
G o
o n
a
E d u c a t i o n a l
1 ,
M a k e
2 .
G o
3 *
G e t
4 .
M o r e
i n
t h e
U .
S .
f i s h i n g ,
&
5
4
4
1
4
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
A b r o a d
e t c *
v a c a t i o n
g o o d
t o
$
g r a d e s
2
5
3
c o l l e g e
4
3
4
g o o d
3
2
2
4
3
3
1
—
1
1 5
1 4
1 7
1 4
7
1 1
8
7
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
4
2
5
6
4
h o m e 4
4
2
3
3
5
8
6
4
6
e d u c a t i o n
a d v a n c e d
i n
s c h o o l
. 6
H a v e
2 .
S p e c i f i c
3 *
B e
a
g o o d
b e
T o
b e c o m e
j o b
j o b
s e c r e t a r y ,
T o
w r i t e r ,
1 2
( d o c t o r ,
n u r s e .
e t c * )
d a n c e r ,
s i n g e r , e t c *
i n d e p e n d e n t
f a m o u s —
b e
a n
b e
T o
h a v e
( t o
b e
h a p p i l y
a
m a r r i e d
g i r l f r i e n d
c o n t i n u e d )
a n d
o r
* 6
o u t s t a n d i n g
a t h l e t e
T o
4
3
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s :
1 ,
a
6
a n d / o r
a g e
V o c a t i o n a l
2
• 5
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s :
h a v e
o w n
b o y f r i e n d
90
TABLE XXXIV (continued)
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ORDINAL POSITION FOR BOYS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
W i s h e s
S o c i a l
T o
2 *
M a k e
t h i s
3 *
B e
f r i e n d
h a v e
a
S p e c i f i c
m a n y
1 .
F a m i l y
H e a l t h
3 ,
H a p p i n e s s
4 .
H e l p
5 *
A l l
G e n e r a l
a
b e n e f i t s
2 *
h a
d
H e a l t h
H a p p i n e s s
3 .
A l l
4 .
T o
p e o p l e
m y
b e
B o y s
l i v e
p l e n t y
t h e
o f
2
2
3
b e
t o g e t h e r
4
1
• 6
1
. 6
1
2
1
-
1
2
• 8
-
• 5
♦ 6
w i s h e s
c o m e
t r u e
5
7
8
4
5
4
4
4
4
1
-
—
1
1
1
2
1
1
—
• 8
# 5
1
* 3
7
7
2
t i m e
• 6
1
s c h e d u l e ,
i n
o u t ,
a n d
s c h o o l
n o
n o
s c h o o l ,
1 2
e t c #
p o o l ,
e t c #
( y o u n g e r ,
o r
h a v e
6
1 1
6
5
7
4
3
2
2
4
6
9
1 0
6
3
4
1
2
4
4
5
3
2
2
5
. 2
u n d e r ­
l i m i t a t i o n s :
s h o r t e r ,
f o o t b a l l ,
m o r e
e t c * )
h a n d i c a p s
5
5
( l o n g e r
e t c * )
c u r r i c u l u m
t e a c h e r s
-
1 1
e q u i p m e n t ;
s c h e d u l e
u n i f o r m s ,
s w i m m i n g
• 5
mm
p e r s o n a l i t y
s t a n d i n g ,
t a l l e r ,
c u r l y
b i g
h a i r ,
e n o u g h
d i d
e t c * )
a n s w e r i n g
n o t
f o r
s 4 u t
1
M i s c e l l a n e o u s
n u m b e r
2
1
4
g y m ,
b e
3
# 6
# 6
s e l f ;
p e r i o d ,
B e t t e r
-
7
p r o g r a m ,
B r o a d e r
—
5
I m p r o v e m e n t
5 *
-
8
P l e a s i n g
4 .
-
3
8 .
N e w
2
mm
J h m i l y
a t t r a c t i v e
3 *
1
4
T o
S c h o o l
1
5
7 .
2 *
3
2
m o n e y .
c o u l d
f o r
l e i s u r e
l u n c h
2
2
p a r e n t s ;
s m a r t
b e
2
1
i n
l i f e
S u c c e s s f u l
NOTE;
A l l
O n i p
e s t
l o n g
M o r e
T o t a l
Y o u n g ­
a n d
6 *
t e r ,
a l l
t o
3
5 *
T o
t o
f o r
b e n e f i t s
P e r s o n a l
w o r l d
f a m i l y
1 *
1 .
d l e
f r i e n d s
b e t t e r
s u p p o r t
t h e
2 .
1 .
M i d ­
e s t
o b j e c t i v e s ;
1 .
S c h o o l
O l d ­
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
3
1
3
2
2
2
1 6 3
1 8 4
1 9 9
8 9
6 3 5
All wishes listed less than two per cent of all the junior high school
pupils replying have been omitted#
91
TABLE XXXV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP ORDINAL. POSITION POR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST FREQUENT WISHES
O l d ­
M i d ­
e s t
d l e
W i s h e s
S p e c i f i c
m a t e r i a l
1 ,
V e h i c l e s —
2 .
P e t s
3 ,
C l o t h e s
a n d
o b j e c t s
c a r s ,
a n d
4 .
F u r n i t u r e
5 •
T o y s
p e r s o n a l
a n d
h o m e
e s t
O n l y
G i r l s
p o s s e s s i o n s ;
b i c y c l e s ,
9
1 5
1 0
2 2
5
7
1 1
1 1
8
1 2
1 5
7
1 4
1 1
2
5
3
6
4
3
2
1
1
2
a i r p l a n e s
a n i m a l s
a n d
All
Y o u n g ­
a d o r n m e n t
e q u i p m e n t
1 3
M o n e y :
1 *
P l e n t y
2 .
H a v e
G o 8 d
o f
a n
L i v i n g
m o n e y
a l l o w a n c e
1 4
1 1
1 6
2 0
1 5
4
2
2
5
3
q u a r t e r s :
1 #
H a v e
a
2 •
L i v e
i n
n i c e
a
h o m e ,
r a n c h ,
c e r t a i n
f a r m ,
7
1 0
6
4
3
3
2
3
8
1 0
1 1
7
1 0
-
-
-
-
4
2
2
e t c , ►
l o c a l i t y
6
2
A c t i v i t i e s :
1 *
T r a v e l
2 .
H u n t i n g ,
3 .
G o
o n
M a k e
2 .
C o
3 .
G e t
4 .
M o r e
g o o d
S p e c i f i c
T o
b e
T o
b e c o m e
. 7
i n
s c h o o l
a n d / o r
a g e
a
g o o d
j o b
j o b , ( d o c t o r ,
n u r s e ,
T o
h a v e
1 0
5
1
6
4
4
5
4
2
-
1
i m
3
3
1
2
3
5
4
5
4
5
7
1 0
4
7
8
6
7
7
7
4
2
4
9
5
8
6
5
5
4
2
. 6
s e c r e ­
e t c . )
w r i t e r ,
d a n c e r ,
s i n g e r ,
e t c .
f a m o u s —
5
b e
a n
o u t s t a n d i n g
1 1
h a p p i l y
a
g i r l
m a r r i e d
f r i e n d
a n d
o r
h a v e
b o y
o w n
f r i e n d
(to be continued on following page)
3
a t h ­
l e t e
b e
6
3
1
e d u c a t i o n
i n d e p e n d e n t
T o
2
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s :
2 .
a
-
g r a d e s
a d v a n c e d
H a v e
B e
a b r o a d
&
e t c .
c o l l e g e
1 .
3 .
S .
a c c o n q p l i s h m e n t s :
a
t a r y ,
U .
v a c a t i o n
g o o d
t o
V o c a t i o n a l
t h e
f i s h i n g ,
a
E d u c a t i o n a l
1 .
i n
h o m e
6
3
5
4
2
3
TABLE XXXV (continued)
92
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OP ORDINAL POSITION POR GIRLS ACCORDING
TO THEIR MOST PKEQUENT WISHES
Wishes
S o c i a l
Y o u n g ­
O l d ­
M i d ­
e s t
d l e
e s t
5
2
6
2
mm
mm
1
1
1
4
A l l
O n l y
G i r l s
o b j e c t i v e s :
1 .
T o
2 *
M a k e
h a v e
m a n y
t h i s
l i v e
3 .
B e
a
S p e c i f i c
f r i e n d s
a
b e t t e r
w o r l d
.6
1
i n
f r i e n d
t o
b e n e f i t s
a l l
f o r
4
t o
. 7
p e o p l e
1
. 5
p a r e n t s :
1 .
f a m i l y
3
6
5
2 .
H e a l t h
3
1
4
2
3
3 .
H a p p i n e s s
3
3
5
5
4
4 .
H e l p
5 .
A l l
G e n e r a l
h a d
s u p p o r t
t h e
b e n e f i t s
2 .
H a p p i n e s s
3 .
A l l
4 .
T o
5 *
S u c c e s s f u l
m y
b e
6 *
M o r e
T o
8 •
P l e a s
1 .
l i f e
w i s h e s
c o m e
t r u e
s c h e d u l e ,
i n
2 .
S c h o o l
o u t ,
3 .
N e w
4 .
B r o a d e r
5 .
B e t t e r
g y m ,
s c h o o l
n o
n o t
p o o l ,
e t c )
h a n d i c a p s
s h o r t e r ,
f o o t b a l l ,
s t u t t e r ,
NOTE:
n u m b e r
1
1
3
3
7
2
.6
h a v e
4
2
1
'
. 6
3
4
1
3
1 1
1 0
8
1 4
1 0
2
3
4
2
3
e t c .
2
3
5
2
3
7
6
4
4
5
3
7
2
7
4
( y o u n g e r
m o r e
e t c * )
o r
2
2
• 6
2
e t c .
l i m i t a t i o n s :
t a l l e r ,
c u r l y
b i g
h a i r ,
e n o u g h
d i d
e t c .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s
T o t a l
3
4
( l o n g e r
c u r r i c u l u m
u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,
b e
s c h e d u l e
s c h o o l ,
t e a c h e r ®
3
4
e q u i p m e n t :
u n i f o r m s ,
s w i m m i n g
6
5
4
5
a n d
7
1 2
1
6
p e r s o n a l i t y
6
5
6
3
t i m e
p e r i o d ,
3
6
2
a t t r a c t i v e
i n g
. 7
1
. 5
3
4
4
1
l e i s u r e
b e
• 6
1
3
s e l f :
l o n g
I m p r o v e m e n t
T o
t o g e t h e r
s m a r t
l u n c h
1 *
b e
a n d
p r o g r a m ,
P e r s o n a l
. 7
f a m i l y
c o u l d
f o r
. 7
m o n e y
7
H e a l t h
7 .
o f
t h e
f a m i l y
1 .
S c h o o l
p l e n t y
a n s w e r i n g
t h i s
q u e s t i o n
f o r
n o t
2
1
3
1
2
—
1
1
2
1
1 5 2
1 7 9
1 9 2
8 3
6 0 6
All wishes listed less than two per cent of all the junior high
school pupils replying have "been omitted.
93
of money; middle children signified this wish with the
least frequency.
The only boy in a family and the middle girl in a
family noted the wish to make good grades more frequently
than did other boys and girls.
The wish to have a good job was written about by
oldest children, less frequently than by other children.
Youngest children in a family expressed the wish to
have many friends oftener than did other boys and girls.
Only children indicated, with greater frequency,
the wish for specific benefits for their parents than did
other children;
the same holds true for the wish for general
benefits for oneself.
Youngest children said they have less trouble fol­
lowing the school schedules than any other ordinal group of
children.
Summary.
A summary of the affects of the ordinal
position of the child in the family upon the needs, interest^
and desires of pupils follows:
1.
Youngest children revealed they have the greatest
difficulty in getting enough help on school subjects.
2.
Only boys and the middle and youngest girls
signified they have more difficulty getting definite help
from teachers than any other ordinal groupl.
m
3.
Only boys were the only ones that mentioned
they cannot get enough help on health problems.
4.
Oldest and middle boys and oldest and youngest
girls revealed they talk about school life oftener than
did other children.
5.
Only children in families indicated they talk
about sports less freqtiently than did other children.
6.
Only children in families revealed they talk
about music and art oftener than did other children.
7.
Girls, who are the youngest in a family,
signified they talk about clothes and styles more frequently
than other girls.
8.
Youngest children expressed oftener they think
they should have more freedom in class and school than did
other children.
9.
The 11right to leave the school grounds at noon”
was mentioned more frequently by youngest boys and girls
than other boys and girls in different ordinal groupings*
10.
The duty to take care of oneself was indicated
by middle children oftener than by children in other ordin­
al groupings.
11.
Only children revealed, oftener than other
children, the duty to take care of pets about the home.
12.
Youngest children signified, more frequently
than other children, financial duties as one of the duties
they think they should have* *
13.
The most frequent wish of children is revealed
as the wish for vehicles.
14.
Oldest children signified the wish for toys
more frequently than did other children.
15.
Only children said they wish for
plenty of money
more frequently'than did other children.
16.
other
Oldest children mentioned, less frequently than
children, the wish for a good job.
17.
The wish for many friends was expressed
oftener
by youngest children than by other children.
18.
Only children signified they wish oftener for
specific benefits for their parents and themselves than
other children did.
96
CHAPTER Eli
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to analyze the interest^
needs, and desires of junior high school pupils as revealed
by free responses*
The study attempted to find whether or
not chronological age, occupational status of the father,
occupational status of the mother, and ordinal position of
the child in the family affect the interests, needs, and
desires of junior high school pupils.
Questionnaires were administered to the pupils of the
five junior high schools in Pasadena in the month of May, 1988.
The questionnaires were carefully collected, studied,
discussed, and tallied.
I.
SUMMARY
A few of the findings, the ones that seemed most signi­
ficant, are as follows:
1.
The greatest problem on which pupils cannot get
enough help in school was indicated as school subjects.
2.
The three most frequent topics of conversation,
noted by pupils, are school life, sports, and motion pictures
and movie stars.
3.
The 11right” pupils referred to the most frequently
as a ^right” they think they should have is the right to
97
have more freedom in class and school.
4.
Various duties about the home are the most fre­
quently mentioned of the duties and responsibilities pupils
think they should have.
5.
Vehicles and plenty of money are the ?/ishes ex­
pressed most frequently by boys and girls.
6.
As pupils increased with age, the less they said
they could not get enough help on school subjects.
7.
As girls increased in age, they indicated an in­
crease in conversation about movies and movie stars, but boys
signified that with an increase in age there is a decrease In
talk about
8.
movies
Pupils
and movie stars.
responded that with an
increase inagethere
is an increase in talk about sports.
9.
Boys indicated the older they become, the more
they talk about cars and airplanes.
10.
think
Boys signified the older
they should
11.
have the right to
they become,themore they
drive a car.
The older the girl, the oftener she mentions the
right to go out when she pleases.
12.
As boys and girls increased with age, the oftener
they mention they should take care of themselves.
13.
Girls revealed that, with an increase of age,
there is an increase in their desires to make their own de­
cisions.
98
14.
The older boys become, the less frequently they
mention washing dishes and working in the yard as a duty
to have.
15.
Girls indicated the older they become the less
they think they should wash dishes.
16.
Boys and girls revealed that with an increase in
age there is a decrease in the desire for pets.
17.
Boys signified that with an increase in age there
is an increase in wishing for a good job.
18.
Boys, from skilled families, agreed that they
have the greatest difficulty in getting enough help on school
subjects.
19.
The higher the occupational classification of the
father,the oftener the pupils mention talking about school
life.
20.
Children of professional men signified they talk
about movies and movie stars and sports oftener than other
children.
21.
As the occupation of the father advanced to higher
classifications, the oftener the pupils revealed they think
they should do the various duties about home.
22.
The higher in the classification of occupations
the father is, the less frequently boys mention washing
dishes as a duty they think they should have.
99
23.
The higher the occupational status of the father,
the less the pupils s ignified they wish for pets and the
less they wish there would he no school.
24.
More than three times as many girls as boys
signified they wish to travel.
25.
Fewer home difficulties and health problems were
mentioned by children, whose mothers are housewives, than
by children, whose mothers are employed outside the home.
26.
Pupils, whose mothers are housewives expressed a
greater need for help in sdhool subjects and talk more about
school life than do pupils, whose mothers are employed out­
side the home.
27.
Children, whose mothers are housewives, referred
to the right to express oneself more freely than did child­
ren, whose mothers are employed.
28.
The duties- to keep the house clean and to res­
pect and love onefs parents were noted oftener by pupils,
whose mothers are employed, than by pupils, whose mothers
are hous ewive s •29.
Wishes to have a specific job, to become famous,
and that school was out was expressed more frequently by
children, whose mothers are employed, than by children,
whose mothers are housewives.
30.
Children of employed motfce rs signified oftener
than children of housewives, the wishes to go to college
100
and to live in a certain locality#
31.
The desire to have a good job, to have girl
friends and boyfriends, and to have many friends was men­
tioned more frequently by boys and girls, whose mothers
are employed, than by boys and girls, whose mothers are
housewives.
32.
Youngest children in families indicated most
frequently, the need for more help on school subjects.
33.
Only boys in families mentioned, most frequently,
the problems of not being able to get enough definite help
from the teachers and not being able to get enough help on
health problems.
34.
Only children in families signified they talk
less frequently about sports and oftener about music and
art than other children do.
35.
Youngest pupils in families revealed, more
frequently than other children, the desires to have more
freedom in class and school, the right to leave the school
grounds at noon, and financial duties as duties to have.
36•
Oldest children in families mentioned, oftener
than other children, the wish for toys.
37.
Only children signified they wish, more fre­
quently than other children, for plenty of money and spec­
ific benefits for their parents and themselves.
38.
Oldest children in families indicated they wish
100
and to live in a certain locality#
31*
The desire to have a good job, to have girl
friends and boyfriends, and to have many friends was men­
tioned more frequently by boys and girls, whose mothers
are employed, than by boys and girls, whose mothers are
housewives.
32.
Youngest children in families indicated most
frequently, the need for more help on school subjects•
33.
Only boys in families mentioned, most frequently,
the problems of not being able to get enough definite help
from the teachers and not being able to get enough help on
health problems.
34.
Only children in families signified they talk
less frequently about sports and oftener about music and
art than other children do.
35.
Youngest pupils in families revealed, more
frequently than other children, the desires to have more
freedom in class and school, the right to leave the school
grounds at noon, and financial duties as duties to have.
36•
Oldest children in families mentioned, oftener
than other children, the wish for toys.
37.
Only children signified they wish, more fre­
quently than other children, for plenty of money and spec­
ific benefits for their parents and themselves.
38#
Oldest children in families indicated they wish
101
less frequently than other children, for a good job*
II.
CONCLUSIONS
From the data presented in this study, the following
conclusions seem equitable:
1.
Chronological age is a factor in determining the
interests, needs, and desires of junior high school pupils,
but not conclusive enough to revise or change the present
educational program.
2.
The occupational status of the father seems to
be a factor in affecting the interests, needs, and de­
sires of junior high school pupils, but not a large enough
one to be given any special consideration so far as alter­
ing the present programs.
3.
The occupational status of the mother, although
not a significant factor affecting the .interests, needs,
and desires of pupils, does present some interesting dif­
ferences.
4.
The ordinal position of the child in the family
does not appear to be an important factor affecting the
interests, needs, and desires of junior high school pupils.
Ill.
RECOMMENDATIONS
As a result of the findings of this study the follow­
ing recommendations are made:
102
1.
The fact that the greatest problem on which pupils
indicated they cannot get enough help is on school subjects
should stimulate teachers to put forth a greater effort to
meet this need,
2.
The fact that the most frequent topic of conversa­
tion is about the school should help the teachers to create
a good wholesome atmosphere about the school that will make
it the most envied place to be,
3.
Pupils mentioned the ’’right11 to have more free­
doms in class and school more frequently than any other
right tbey desire to have.
This fact should offer a
challenge to the teachers to determine ways and means to
give the pupils this desired freedom and still retain
orderly and well behaved classes,
4.
Various duties about the home are the most fre­
quently mentioned of the duties and responsibilities pupils
think they should have.
This fact should offer a challenge
to the administrators and teachers to find and offer to the
pupils various responsibilities about the school to create
among the pupils a more active interest in the school.
5.
The fact that pupils wish for vehicles and plenty
of money, more frequently than for anything else, should
stimulate the teachers to instill in the children the honor­
able, ethical, and moral way of obtaining these wishes.
6.
The fact that there are differences in the
103
interests, needs, and desires of pupils according to their
age, the occupation of the father, the occupation of the
mother, and their ordinal position in their family should
stimulate and inspire the teacher to discover what these
differences are, and ho(
w to treat them#
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 05
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arlitt,Ada Hart, Adolescent Psychology*
Book Co., 1933. 250 pp.
Hew Yorks
American
This book deals with all phases of adolescent changes,
tendencies, emotions, maturing, learning, reasoning,
growth, personality, etc.
Baker, G. Derwood, "Years of Transition," Progressive Educa­
tion. 15:540-552, November, 1938.
Bedford, James H., Vocational Interests of Secondary School
Students. Los Angeles, California:
Society for Occu­
pational Research, Ltd., University of Southern Cal­
ifornia, 1938.
140 pp.
This book presents the facts concerning modern youth,
his vocational interests, attitudes, and abilities.
Bell, Howard M., Youth Tell Their Story. Washington,D.C.f
American Council on Education, 1938. 273 pp.
Bell discusses the youth and home and school, and
church, youth at play and work, and the attitudes of
youth.
Boynton, Paul L., "The Wishes of Elementary School Children,"
Peabody Journal of Education. 13:165-174, January, 1936.
Cole, Luella. Psychology of Adolescence. Hew York:
Rinehart, Incorporated, 1936.
503 pp.
Farrar
This book discusses the normal adolescence, the types
of adolescence, adolescent’s environment, and draws
conclusions on the end cf adolescence.
Dearborn, Walter F., and Rothney, John W.
Scholastic.
Economic. and Social Backgrounds of Unemployed Y o u t h .
Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press,
1938.
172 pp.
This was a study to find the causes of unemployment,
that is,the causes as resulting from the physical,
mental, and scholastic attainments.
Dimock, Hedley S #, Rediscovering the Adolescent.
Association Press, 1937.
287 pp.
Hew York:
&
106
An intensive study of that period of time in youth
that is known as the period of adolescence.
Dinneen, Oisin James, An Investigation of the Personal
Problems of Adolescents. Unpublished Ma ster *s'the sis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Cal­
ifornia, 1938. 112 pp.
An investigation carried on in Central California to
determine the problems of high school pupils.
Douglass, Harl H #, Secondary Education for Youth in Modern
America. Washington, D. C.: American Council on
Educ at ion, 1937 • 137 pp .
This book gives an overview of education— its theories,
oTj ectlves, changes, and trends, and implications for
the secondary school.
✓
Hall, G. Stanley, Adolescence— Its Psychology.
New Yorks
D. Appleton and Company, 1905.
Vol. II.,
784 pp.
Discusses adolescence, its psychology and its relations
to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime,
religion, and education.
Harley, D.L., "Surveys of Youth," American Connell on Educ­
ate on Studies. Washington,D. C.s American Council on
Education, Series IV, 1927. 106 pp.
This pamphlet Is entirely devoted to listing studies
or surveys of youth that have taken place throughout
the United St ates.
Hopkins, L. Thomas, "Curriculum' Development," Teachers
College Record. 37s441-447, February, 1936.
Jershild, Arthur T., Children1s Fears. Dreams. Wishes. Day­
dreams . Likes. Dislikes. Pleasant and Un-pleasant Mem­
ories . New Yorks
Bureau of Publications, Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1933.
172 pp.
A study delving into the mird s of the subjects to find
their wishes, likes, dislikes, etc.
Jones, Mary Cover, "Guiding the Adolescent,"
Education. 15S605-609, December, 1938.
Progressive
107
Jones, Maud McCarty, An Investigation d* the Adjustment
Problems o£ High School Pupils. Unpublished M a s t e r fs thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1934*
95 pp#
A study on parent-child relationships in the home,
attitudes toward social and ethical questions, and
adolescent problems and attitudes towards parents.
Kirkendall, Lester A.,Factors Related to the Changes in
School Ad.iustmerfc s of High School Pupils. Hew York:
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1937. 90 pp.
A study to determine what factors caused or were
present in adjusting to school.
Meek, Lois Hayden, “The Intermediate Sobial Relations of
Students in Junior and Senior High School, 11 Pro­
gressive Education. 15:610-616, December, 1938#
Murphy, Gardner, Experimental Social Psychology. Hew
York:
Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1931.
709 pp#
The three parts of this book discuss the basic prin­
ciples, a genetic study of social behavior, and the
general laws of social interaction in our own society#
Pechstein, L. A., and McGregor, A. Laura, Psychology of
the Junior High School Pupil. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1924.
280 pp#
The first section of the book deals with the general
psychology of the junior high school pupil and the
second section discusses applied psychology of junior
high school pupils#
Pringle, Ralph W., Adolescence and High School Problems.
Hew York:
D. C. Heath & Co., Publishers, 1932. 386 pp.
The first part of this book discusses the psychology
of adolescence and the second high school problems#
Reedy, Rolla A., A Study of the Personal Problems of High
School Students# Unpublished Master*s thesis, Univ­
ersity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California,
1937.
56 pp.
108
A study to determine if high school students do have
problems, if they can be determined, if they can be
measured, and how to advise them#
Richmond, Winifred, “The Dilemmas of Adolescence,”
Study. 13s174-176, March, 1936.
Child
Rothney, John W. M., "Interests of Public Secondary S chool'
Boys,” Journal of Educational Psychology. 28?561-594,
November, 1937.
Speer, George S., "Wishes, Pears, Interests, m d Ident-'
ifications of Delinquent Boys,” Child Development.
8:289-294, December/ 1937.
Stoltz, Herbert R., "Growth Needs of Children in the Inter­
mediate' Grades," Educational Method. 17*157-162,
J anuary, 1938.
. Jones, Mary Cover, and Chaffey, Judith,
"The High School Age," University High School Journal.
15:63-72, January, 1937.
Strong, Edward K., Change of Interests with A g e . Stanford
University, California:
Stanford University Press,
1931. 235 pp.
Discusses the change of interests, likes, and dislikes
with age, and in terms of various groupings, etc.
Sytnonds, Percival M., "Changes in Sex Difference in Problems
and Interests of Adolescents with Increasing Age,”
Pedagogical Seminar. 50:83-89, March, 1937.
Thayer, V. T., "A Basis for a New Secondary Ctr riculum,"
Progressive Education. 12:478-483, November, 1935.
Wiles, Ira S. and Jones, Anna B . ? "Ordinal Position and the
Behavior of Young Children,1 Journal of Genetic
Psychology. 51:61-93, September, 1937.
Witty, Paul A., "Only and Intermediate Children in Senior
High School, " Journal of Educational Psychology. 6*ISO186, December, 1937.
109
Zachry, Caroline B., ,fA Progressive Report on the Study of
Adolescents,” Progressive Education. 12:484-488,
November, 1935,
.
__________ , “Some General Characteristics of Adolescence,”
Progressive Education. 15:591-597, December, 1938.
APPEHDIX
N a m e ......... ....................
(This is the page which you will later destroy)
C H E C K LIST F O R PUPILS
W e are asking you to take part in a very important and interesting project.
Parents and teachers are also being called upon to give their help. W e feel
that the combined efforts of parents, teachers, and pupils will give very
great assistance in improving the service of our schools to all boys and
girls.
This check list is being given to boys and girls of grades 7, 8, 9, and 10 in
the Pasadena City Schools. W e are asking that you give each item careful
consideration before answering it and that you check or write in your
honest opinions or judgments, based on your own thinking.. Since you are
not to sign this check list, no one will know your opinions. Furthermore,
the information which you give cannot in any way affect your grades or
standing in your school.
In order that you may have your same check list to work on again within
the next day or two, we ask you to write your name on this page (which
you will destroy later). At the end of the first day’s work your conference
room president or teacher will collect all check lists and seal them at once in
a large envelope provided. This will remain sealed until the next day’s
work, when the envelope will be opened in class and your paper returned to
you for further work. At the end of the second or last day, when the check
list is completed, you m a y destroy the page with your name on it, and turn
in the unsigned check list.
CHECK LIST FOR PUPILS
I. G E N E R A L I N F O R M A T I O N
Check (x) or fill in the items which apply to you:
1. Boy.
Girl
Age
*..
Grade
2. What is the name of your school ?.......................................... .
3. Do you live with both parents?.....
with mother?........
with father? .........
with guardian?.....
Other situation (specify) ...... ....... ................ .........
4. H o w many older brothers have you ?.....
younger brothers ? ..........
older sisters? .............
younger sisters?....... .....
H o w many of your brothers and sisters are now living at home ?.......
H o w many relatives other than parents, brothers and sisters, are living in your home?.
5. Do you assist with home duties? Yes
About how many hours a week?
No.....
hours a week.
6. Do you receive a regular allowance? Yes....... No.....
7. Do you work for pay outside your home? Yes
If so, how many hours a week?
N o .....
hours a week.
On the average, how much pay do you earn per week ? $...... . per week.
Type of work...........................-............. -................
8. Is your father Employed (includes own business,
business of others, and W.P.A.)........
Unemployed......................
Retired..........................
If employed, what is his present occupation?.................................
9. Is your mother Employed (includes own business,
business of others, and W.P.A.).....
Unemployed.....................
If employed, what is her present occupation?.............. ..................
-1-
A. (Continued)
A. Check in the columns to the
right,theway you feelaboutany
of the following subjects which
you have takenorarenow taking
SEVENTH
I like
I neither
like nor
dislike
Iam having
1 dislike. (or have
had) diffi­
culty with
Reasons for difficulty
GRADE
English
Social science
Arithmetic
Physical education
Clothing
Foods
Woodshop
Mech. drawing and printing
Art
General music
Band
-
Orchestra-
- !
Choir
Piano
1
:
:
r
EIGHTH GRADE
English
Social science
General science
>'
-
Arithmetic
Physical education
Art
Junior art craft
Penmanship and spelling
Typing
Exploratory language
(Broadening and Finding in
French, Latin, and Spanish
■ -
;
'
.
'
;
-
1
-
■
:
A. (Continued)
Check in the columns to the
rig h t, the w ay you feel about any
of the follow ing subjects which
you have taken or are now takin g
EIGHTH GRADE (Cont.)
Hom em aking, Clothing
I like
I neither
like nor
dislike
I dislike
I am having
(o r h ave
had) d if f i­
culty w ith
Reasons fo r difficu lty
Hom em aking, Foods
Electric & sheet m etal shop
Elem en tary mechanics
L ib ra ry c ra ft
Junior glee
Band
Orchestra
............... ..
N IN TH GRADE: REQUIRED SUB.
English
—
Social science
.., .
,
„ . ....
. Physical education
T EN TH GRADE: REQUIRED SUB.
English
Biology.
-----
-
..
.. ... .
..
. . .
....
. ...........
.
Illu s tra tio n
Budget keeping
Bookkeeping
Dram atics \
News w ritin g
.....
.. ----
.
......
Design and decoration
Typing
, - - - •
-
Commercial a rt
Business tra in in g
..
'■
Physical education .....................
N IN TH & TE N T H ELECTIVES
A r t c r a f t .................. ..........-
Stage a r t
-
,
.
.
._
.......
.....
.....
Check in the columns to the
right,theway you feelaboutany
of the following subjects which
you havetakenorarenow taking
I like
I neither
like nor
dislike
Iamhaving
1 dislike (or have
Reasons for difficulty
had) diffi­
cultywith
N IN T H & T E N T H E L E C T IV E S Cont.
Public speaking
French
German
Latin
Spanish
World history
Homemaking, Clothing
Homemaking, Foods
Advanced clothing
Advanced foods
Home craft
Architectural drawing
Auto mechanics
-
Electricity
Machine drawing
Machine shop
Mechanical drawing
Printing
General metal work
Woodshop
Algebra
'
Geometry
Senior glee
Band
Orchestra
Note: On the above list cheek, at the left, those subjects which you are now taking. Do not include clubs.
A. (Continued)
1. Name three subjects you have taken that seem most worthwhile or valuable to you :
2. Name any which seem of little value to you:
B. List below any of the ways in which you think junior high has helped you.
1
.
2
'
...........
.
3...................... .................................. .................
.
4......................................................... .................
.
5......................... ............................... ..... ............
C. Check, at the left, possible causes of your present difficulties with school subjects, as listed below:
1. A m not interested
2. Do not understand the work
3. Do not get along well with some teachers
4. Have difficulty with reading
5. Explanations not clear
6. Not enough explanation
7. A m bored
8. Poor work habits
9. Too much home study
10. Earlier preparation poor
11. See no reason for taking this subject
12. Have fear of failing
13. Worry over grades
14. Do not have quiet study place at home
15. Do not like to speak before group
16. Do not like some teachers
17. Hard to keep mind on work
18. Textbooks are too difficult
19. Textbook is uninteresting
20. Too much to do
Other reasons (please name)
21
....................
22
.
23................l......:.......................................... ..
24...........................-............
,.....
.....
25................................................................................................................ ...................................
-5-
D. For the most part, are your grades:
Above average
'
Average
- Below average
E. List any subjects not given at your grade level that you would like to have taken.
.
1
2
:
....
:
.
3.. _■........ ........
..................
r... ;.. ..........._.... ... .... ....... ..... ...
.
4............................ ..... .............. ................ ........
..........
5
.. .......... .... ...... ..... ......................
F. List any hobbies or interests which you especially enjoy.
,.......
1
2..........................
3..................... 1....
4..........................
5..........................
Note: Go back over your list and check, at the left, any for which you would like more time or
help in school.
G. H o w much home study do you average per school day?..... ...hours per day.
H. Do you find it difficult to follow the daily school program or schedule? Yes
Check, at the left, possible reasons for any difficulty.
...
N o .....
1. Transportation difficulties due to distance from school
2. Outside job
3. Home duties
4. Outside private lessons
5. Outside clubs or groups
6. Length of lunch period
7. Length of passing period between classes
8. Length of dressing period in physical education
9.
...... ........ .
................................................. . .................................. .. .........................
........
10
-6-
I. Are you often absent from school? Y e s . . . N o . .
If so, check or write in below the reasons.
1. Illness of self
2. Illness of others in family
'
3. Duties at home
4. Work (outside of home)
5. Transportation difficulties
6. Cutting
7.............................................
8
.
-.
....................................
J. What qualities or traits in teachers do you like?
1
....
2.
...........................................
.
3.. ................... ............ .......................... .............
.
4................. .............. .................. .......................
.
5....................................... ......................... .... ....
K. What qualities or traits in teachers do you dislike?
1
......
2
.........................
.
3................. .•..........
-......... -........ ............. ..........
.
4.........
-............ .......
.
5..... ..................... ....... ..... ..................................
L. In general, would you rather have women teachers?
and women teachers ?.....
; men teachers?
; both men
M. Check, at the left, any of the following in which you would like more help.
1. Making friends
.... 2.Getting along well with others
3. Conduct between boys and girls
4. Etiquette and social conduct (introductions, letter-writing, entertaining, etc.)
5. Social dancing
6. H o w to talk interestingly and easily
7. Personality development (good sportsmanship, co-operation, sincerity, etc.)
8. Personal attractiveness
9. The human body and how it functions
10. Sex education
11. Getting along at home
12. H o w to choose and prepare for life work
.... 13. H o w to plan your school course
.... 14. H o w to study
15. H o w to use the library
16. H o w to choose and judge what is best in radio programs, drama, music, comedy,
current events, etc.)
17. H o w to choose and judge motion pictures
— .... 18. H o w to judge the truth and value of what you read and hear
19. H o w to buy wisely
20. H o w to use art in your daily life (in your home, room, dress, etc.)
Others
21
....
22
.
Note: Place a second check by the three on which you especially wish help.
N. Would you like special help in any subject (for example, spelling? If so, list the subjects in
which you would like help.
1
-
-
2
.
3.....................
.
-
-
.
-... ............. ... ... .
.
4............................................ -.............
- .... - .. .
0. List the ways in which you would like to take a more active part in school life.
1.
-
2
-
................
.
3..................................-....
.
1..... ....... ...............
.
4.................... ........... ...........................................
.5...............................................................................................................................................................
E N D O F FIRST D A Y ’S W O R K
-8-
o
P.'Check, at the left, the ways in which you now spend your leisure or spare time.
1. Outdoor activities
a. Team games
b. Individual or small group activities
2. Indoor games (cards, checkers, etc.)
...... 3.Care of pets
4. Reading
5. Music
6. Art
,v......
7. School organizations and clubs
8. Community organizations and clubs (Scouts, Church, “Y,” etc.)
.. 9. Motion pictures
10. Dances
11. Radio programs
Others
12.
......
....
..........
13... .............. ........... .................. ...... .......
14........ .... ............... ......................... .........
15.............................................................
Q. List in order of your choice,,ways in which you would like to spend your leisure time.
1
................................
2
..................
3.................................. .................................
4.
.................. ... .............. .................... .
....
R. Check any of the following which worry you or with which you have difficulties:
1. Getting along with:
...
a. Parents
b. Brothers and sisters
c. Other people in the home
d. Neighbors
e. Friends and school mates
f. Girl friends
g. Boy friends
h. Teachers
i. Others (Specify) .......... ..................... ..........
2. Work:
a. In the home (regular duties)
b. Outside the home (jobs)
3. H o w to earn money
4. Lack of freedom in making choices (decisions)
5. Enough rest
6. Enough of the right kinds of food
7. Enough “free” time
-9-
S. List any other personal problems or worries.
1
..........
..............................
.
2............................ '......- ..— ............... ... :..... .
....................................
3
........ .... .......... .... . ...
T. Have you problems on which you cannot get e nough help in your school? Yes
If your answer is yes, what are these prob lems?
.
No.
1
...
2
..
.
3................................ ............................. .......
...T.... ...... ......
.
.
4...........................
5
. , ... .......:.....
U. What do you talk about most with your friends?
1
....
2. ...
.......
......
......
......
..
3...................................... ....................................
V. What “rights” which you do not have at the present time, do you think you should have?
1
..........
.
2................. :.....................I................ ..... ...........
3
:.........
i..... ... ...
W. What responsibilities or duties do you think boys and girls of your age should have?
.;.......:
..,.......... .......
.
..........................
1
.
2.................................
3
............. ...
......:.. ..... r.
.
4.............................................. .... .......... ....... .. .
.5.....
- ..................................................
-10-
X. If you could have three wishes, what would you choose?
..............................
1
.........
.
2. ................... ........ .... .
............
3
..................... :........
Y. What do you like best about your school ?
What do you like least about your school ?
Z. Below are listed some school services and activities.
These are duties and responsibilities of the:
Abbreviations
Principal
..................................................................... i
(Prin.)
'Assistant Principal for Boys
............................
....(A.Prin.Boys)
Assistant Principal for Girls................................................... (APrin.Girls)
Counselor.....
— .............................. ...... (Cbuns.)
Home room or conference teacher.............
.....(H.R.Teacher)
Teachers...........
.
.
......
.
....................................... ............
Others (name position)
Activities
and
services
C h ec k w h e th e r y o u
a re sa tisfie d w ith
th e se activities
a n d services
Y es
P a rtly
What suggestions
can you make for
improvement of these?
No
1
. Care in case of
illness or accident
2. Opportunities for
rest and corrective
physical education.
3. Welfare (clothing,
free lunches, etc.)
4. Part-time work
for pay
5. Assemblies
6. School clubs
7. School parties,
dances, ■
and teas
«
8. Student Council
or Court
9. Girls and
Boys Leagues
10. Student offices
11. After-school
sports
12. Intramural sports
(between classes
in own school)
13. Athletic and
other awards
-12-
To whom would you
go for advice about
these things? (Use
abbreviations given
above.)
Activities
and
services
C h ec k w h e th e r y o u
a re sa tisfie d w ith
th e se activities
a n d services
Y es
P a rtly
What suggestions
can you make for
improvement of these?
No
To whom would you
go for advice about
these things? (Use
abbreviations given
above.)
14. Honor societies
15. Merits or
service points
16. Graduation
activities
17. School
traffic rules
18. Detention
19. Uniforms
20. Training
in etiquette
21. Home room (or
conference)
periods.
22. Securing informa­
tion about the
school
23. Conferences on
personal problems
24. Help with
home difficulties
25. Settling disputes
with other pupils
26. Adjusting your
difficulties with
teachers
'
*
27. Help in
choosing subjects
4
28. Changes of
program
29. Vocational talks
30. Preparation for
Muir or
Junior College
-13-
Activities
and
C h ec k w h e th e r y o u
a re s a tisfie d w ith
th e se activities
a n d services
services
Y es
P a rtly
To whom would you
go for advice about
these things? (Use
abbreviations given
above.)
What suggestions
can you make for
improvement of these?
No
31. Number of
subjects required
32. Number of
electives allowed
33. Special help
in subjects
34. Excursions
35. Home work
36. Make-up work
37. Study periods
38. Grades, marks,
and report forms
39. Failure notices
40. Cafeteria
41. School library
42. Attendance and
tardiness service
43. Bus and car
service
44. Furniture and
equipment
45. After-school and
summer play­
grounds
46. Finding places in
summer camps
47. Summer school
-14-
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