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M a r g a r e t Panfcaefcie
A d i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m i t t e d I n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th©
r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r th e d e g re e o f d o c t o r o f P h ilo so p h y
i n t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y , i n t h e G r a d u a te
C o l l e g e o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a
F e b r u a r y * 1041
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a n o te will in d ica te th e d eletio n .
uest.
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Published by ProQ uest LLC (2017). Copyright o f th e Dissertation is held by th e Author.
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AOKBOWI^D0MKHT
fh© a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s a p p r e c i a ­
t i o n t o Dr* Dewey B* S t u i t f o r s u g g e s t i n g
th© p r o b le m a n d f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m
a n d e n c o u ra g e m e n t a s W e il a s f o r m a k in g a v a i l a b l e
r e c o r d s o f fresh m en t e s t s c o r e s th ro u g h t h e
p e r s o n n e l H e s e a r c h O f f i c e , w i t h o u t w h ic h th©
s t u d y c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t*
E s p e c i a l t h a n k s i s d u e Dr* G. K* MeC loy
f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and a d v ic e i n ea riy in g
o u t th e f a c t o r a n a ly s e s .
ii
f a b l e o f C o n te n ts
.
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lo tro q u e tIo n to th© Problem* * * *
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d eterm in atio n of F acto rs Measured
by Beading feet©* * * * * * *
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t
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16
C o rre la tio n o f P a e te re In Heading
and imt ©XHgenoe * * * * * * * 55
f a c t o r A n a l y s t & o f th© T e n t a t i v e
Prim ary F a c to rs In Heading
and In te llig e n c e * * * * * * *
42
Summary and Conclusions* * * * * *
59
B ibliography * * * * * * * * * * *
64
A p p e n d ix
A # #„
. * , * , * ' .
Appendix
B ,
A p p e n d ix
C * *. # * * * * * * *
* * 67
............... .... * * . . 67a
Appendix X > * * * .
iii
* * • * « . . *
* 6S
70
1
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I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P ro b le m
The f a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t may b e
d e s c rib e d as b ein g c e n tr a l o r p e r ip h e ra l in c h a ra c te r*
P e r ip h e r a l f a c t o r s a re g e n e ra lly d e fin e d as th o se p e r ta in in g
t o such p h y s ic a l a s p e c t s o f th e re a d in g p r o c e s s a s e f ­
f i c i e n c y o f ey e m ovem ents, ey e m u s c le b a l a n c e , a c c o m m o d a tio n ,
v i s u a l a c u i t y , i n t e r p u p i l a r y d i s t a n c e and r e f r a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s .
o f t h e ey es*
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l y m e a s u r e d b y m eans o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s s u c h a s memory
s p a n , p e r c e p t u a l s p e e d , v o c a b u l a r y , an d t h e a b i l i t y t o
c o m p re h en d , i n t e r p r e t and o r g a n i s e , v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s ,
Some
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c e n tra l fa c to rs .
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c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e tw o t y p e s o f
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v a r i o u s r e a d i n g t e s t s and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f
t h e s e f a c t o r s t o c e r t a i n e l e m e n t a l c o m p o n e n ts o f i n t e l l i ­
g e n c e a s m e a su re d by T h u r s to n © 1s T e s t s f o r P r i m a r y R e n t a l
2
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t e s t s a& eq ta ate ly m e a s u r e s t h e c e n t r a l f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g .
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o f human a b i l i t i e s ,
i t w ould seem t h a t some o f t h e f a c t o r s
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l o w e r t h a n h i s a c h ie v e m e n t a g e I n t h o s e f a c t o r s o f m e n t a l
a b i l i t y w h ic h a r e known t o b e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g
a c h ie v e m e n t*
F o r e x a m p le , I f f o u r o f T h u r s t o n e ’ s p r i m a r y
m e n ta l a b i l i t i e s s h o u l d b e f o u n d t o c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h
r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t # a c o m p o s ite s c o r e b a s e d upon m e a s u r e s
o f t h e s e f o u r a b i l i t i e s s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a more a c c u r a t e
p r e d i c t i v e in d e x o f a c h ie v e m e n t l e v e l and s h o u l d e n a b l e
t h e c l i n i c i a n t o d e s c r i b e a r e a d i n g c a s e much more p r e c i s e ­
l y t h a n c a n b e don© a t th© p r e s e n t t i m e .
As i m p l i e d i n th© p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , c e n t r a l
f a c t o r s I n r e a d i n g h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by
mean® o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s .
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s u r e s o f th e a b i l i t i e s In v o lv e d be r e f i n e d
and t h a t c a u s e s o f v a r i a t i o n I n t h e d e g r e e
o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e d e t e r m in e d *11 p . 4 8 ,
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f o r g e r e o n and Shuman?
r e p o r t a s t u d y I n w h ic h t h e
3 T o r g e r s o n , T. 1* a n d Shuman, I r e n e . The v a r i a b i l i t y o f
th© a c c o m p lis h m e n t o f p u p i l s o f t h e same m e n t a l l e v e l *
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o f Educ* R e s . F e b . 1 9 2 5 , X I, 1 3 2 - 1 3 6 ._______
T h o r n d i k e M cCall S i l e n t R e a d in g S c a l e , Form 1 , was a d ­
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c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e D e t r o i t F i r s t G rade I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i s
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p u p i l s fro m t h e f i f t h t h r o u g h t h e t w e l f t h g r a d e s o f a v e r a g e
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c a s e s , a n d t h e n a t i o n a l G roup I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t , D e t r o i t
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re m a in d e r o f th e o a s e s .
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c o m p le tio n o f th e r e a d i n g r e t r a i n i n g ,
w e re a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d *
1*
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fh e r e s u lts In d ic a te d :
Ho c o r r e s p o n d i n g Im pro vem ent i n I n t e l l i g e n c e
a s w o u ld b e e x p e c t e d i f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t ® w e r e l a r g e l y
d e p e n d e n t upon r e a d i n g *
2*
A lo w c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n I n i t i a l r e t a r d a t i o n
3.
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4.
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i n i t i a l r e t a r d a t i o n a n d am ount o f im p r o v e m e n t,
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11
o b ta in e d m e a su ra b le ch an g e I n i n t e l l i -
o f improvement i n r e a d i n g
upon t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f H egro c h i l d r e n *
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D o c t o r a l Dissertation, tJ n lv , o f K a n sa s B u l l , o f E&uc.
11 ' ~ S c ru g g s, Shuman
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t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g * - He u s e d b o t h i n d i v i d u a l an d g r o u p i n t e l l 1g e n e e t e s t s ,
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t m i u r n ,. m x ^ M i r i M
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C o m p o site s c o r e s o f t h r e e r e a d i n g t e s t s show more a g r e e m e n t
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S h in n e r o o n clu d eas
*Xt l a p o s s i b l e t h a t s c o r e s on r e a d ­
i n g a b i l i t y b a s e d on s e v e r a l t y p i c a l
c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s w o u ld b e a much b e t t e r
I n d e x o f a c h ie v e m e n t t h a n an y t e s t o r
c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e s t s now I n u s e .* p . 138
H o b ln so n ^
i n s tu d y in g fresh m en I n th e lo w e s t
%Z R ob in so n# r* P . Can c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n I n t h e l o w e s t
■ tenth I n r e a d i n g b e a i d e d s c h o l a s t i c a l l y ?
S o b , and B o o . >
Deo. 1 9 . 1 9 3 1 . XXXIV. 8 4 5 * 8 4 6 .
t e n t h p e r c e n t i l e o f c o lle g e a p t i t u d e t e s t sc o re s# fo u nd In ­
t e l l i g e n c e t o b e h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o im p ro v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g
except in th e c a se o f r a t e .
H ow ever, 57 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e
l o w e s t i n i n t e l l i g e n c e e x c e e d e d I n amount o f Im p ro v em en t
th o se in th e h ig h e r I n t e l l i g e n c e g ro u p .
He c o n c l u d e d t h a t
I n t e l l i g e n c e i s n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r t h a t a f f e c t s im p r o v e ­
ment} c o o p e r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t i s p e r h a p s a s
Im p o rta n t a s I n t e l l i g e n c e .
fh e t r a i n a b l l l t y o f th e m e n ta lly r e ta r d e d h a s been
14
i n v e s t i g a t e d b y K irk # '
He r e p o r t s s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s
1
'"X T 'W feSSl^
on th e "
e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s and p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s t m e n t o f h i g h g r a d e m e n t a l l y deficient p r o b le m c h i l d r e n *
J.
, J u l y , 1934# XV1XI, 1 4 0 - 1 0 2 .
I n r e a d i n g o f IQ h i g h g r a d e m e n ta l d e f e c t i v e s {IQ 7 5 ) .
In
8
f a c t , h a r e p o r t s 1,2 y e a r s o f p r o g r e s s I n r e a d i n g I n f i v e
m o n th s t r a i n i n g ,
Hegge
says th a t m e n ta lly d e f ic ie n t
II
Hegge i T h o r l 1e f &. S p e c i a l" r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y ' w i t h
p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to th e m e n ta lly d e f i c i e n t , P ro c eed in g s
o f t h e P tf t y - H ilg h k h A n n u al S e s s i o n o f t h e A m erican
A s s o c i a t i o n on M e n ta l D e f i c i e n c y , h e l d a t Hew f o r k C i t y ,
May £6 -29* 1 9 5 4 , 2 9 7 « » 3 4 5 . __________________
s p e c ia l r e a d in g d i s a b i l i t y c a s e s can u s u a lly a c q u ire s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y r e a d in g a b i l i t y t t h a t is * th e y can a c h ie v e a t ab o u t
f o u r t h grad® l e v e l ,
T an Wagenen
18
- co m p ared t h e m e n ta l a b i l i t y an d
llp .- ’Y a n
_114'; '3*7 r a ; c o ra p a ri so n ""of " t h e '' me n t a i ’" ab ill 'ty * " ’ 1
a n d s c h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e b r i g h t an d d u l l p u p i l s i n t h e
s i x t h g r a d e o f a l a r g e s c h o o l system * .£♦ E&uc* P s y o h o l *,
T__
_
s c h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t o f b r i g h t an d d u l l p u p i l s .
_
He u s e d t h e
Tenu&n G roup f e e t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g m e n ta l a b i l i t y and t h e
T h o r n d i k e M cCall S i l e n t H e a d in g s c a l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e a d ­
i n g a b i l i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Tan Wagenen A m eric an H i s t o r y
s c a l e , P o s e y - T a n W&genen g e o g r a p h y s c a l e a n d m o d i f i e d fo rm s
o f t h e Woody A r i t h m e t i c S c a l e a n d t h e B uckingham S c a l e f o r
P ro b le m s i n A r i t h m e t i c *
He f o u n d t h a t t h e w ork o f t h e
b r i g h t e r p u p i l s was a s good a s o r b e t t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e
d u l l e r p u p i l s e x c e p t i n t h o u g h t p h a s e s o f g e o g r a p h y , w h e re
t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d u l l g r o u p was b e t t e r *
H is s u b j e c t s w ere
s i x t h grad© c h i l d r e n , one g ro u p o f whom h a d m e n ta l a g e s o f
11 y e a r s 3 m on th s o r l e s s , t h e o t h e r g ro u p h a v i n g m e n t a l
a g e s o f 14 y e a r s 3 m o nths o r h i g h e r *
9
B r o r a a n d L in d
a l s o co m pared s c h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t
W ' " ' W c S , ' Andrew
and "X"i n d # IJ'hr I s t i n e .
School a c h ie v e ­
ment I n r e l a t i o n t o m e n ta l a g e — a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y . J .
P s y c h o l . , Hov. 1 9 3 1 , XXIX, 5 6 1 - 5 7 6 .
______
I n r e l a t i o n t o m e n ta l a g e .
T h e i r s u b j e c t s h a d t h e same
m e n ta l a g e h u t d i f f e r e d i n I Q * s .
They c o n c l u d e d t h a t .
" t h e r e l a t i o n o f a c h ie v e m e n t t o m e n ta l
a g e depend® n o t so much upon t h e l e v e l
o f i n t e l l i g e n c e b u t upon t h e p o s i t i o n o f
t h a t l e v e l ' i n t h e group r e c e i v i n g
i n s t r u c t i o n . n p . 5 74 .
IS
O ate® , '
In a stu d y o f th e r o l e o f v i s u a l p e r 18 S a t e s #'
’ '"A^Study^'S'f t h e r o l e o f v i s u a l ' p e r ­
c e p t i o n # i n t e l l i g e n c e # and c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s
i n ” r e a d i n g and c o d l i n g *
J* S d u o . P s y c h o l . . O c t . 1926#
XTOC. 435-445..
________ ____________________________________ _
ce p tlo n #
in te llig e n c e #
an d a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s e s I n r e a d i n g
a n d s p e l l i n g fo u n d t h a t "w ord p e r c e p t i o n " I s m ost c l o s e l y
r e l a t e d t o a c h ie v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g an d s p e l l i n g an d t h a t i n ­
te llig e n c e y ie ld e d th e next h ig h e st c o rre la tio n *
The
c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n w ord p e r c e p t i o n an d r e a d i n g was .69#
b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d r e a d i n g #
. 5 0 , w h ic h r e d u c e d t o
.4 7 when t h e I n f l u e n c e o f w ord p e r c e p t i o n w as e l i m i n a t e d .
P re sto n ^
found t h a t speed o f p e r c e p tio n o f b o th
:
i t s r e l a t i o n to re a d in g a b i l i t y . '
1935. X I I I . 1 9 9 -2 0 3 .
■-p.e r o ep t ' i o n^a^nd
gen ,. P s v c h o . 1 J u l y #
_______
f a m i l i a r an d u n f a m i l i a r w o rd s I s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s p e e d o f
r e a d i n g an d t o v o c a b u l a r y k n o w le d g e .
L ite re r
20
found t h a t
20 L i t e r e r # O s c a r F . An e x p e r i m e n t a l a t u d y o f v i s u a l a p p r e ­
h e n s i o n i n r e a d i n g . J . A r p . P s y c h o l . , J u n e , 1933# X V II,
2 6 6 - 2 7 6 .__________________________________;_________ _______________
10
p e r c e p t i o n o f b o t h m e a n i n g l e s s an d m e a n i n g f u l m a t e r i a l I s
s l i g h t l y more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o I n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n t o r e a d ­
in g*
T h is i s c o n tr a r y to d a t e s 1 f in d in g s a t th e e le m e n ta ry
le v e l*
T r & x le r
ill
s t u d i e d t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n r a t e o f
§1 ulT r S l e r , r ' ^ ^ h u r ' ^ T ’T ? e la W J^
an d s p e e d o f a s s o c i a t i o n *
&S7-5SB.
"of ' r e a ^ r i g ^
£* E d u c * Z i a M l * # 1 9 3 4 , XXV,
' . . .
r e a d in g and sp eed o f a s s o c i a t i o n .
He
u se d b o th f r e e and
c o n t r o l l e d a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s on c h i l d r e n i n th© s e v e n t h
a n d n i n t h g r a d e s a n d w i t h c o l l e g e fre sh m e n *
ev id en ce o f
a d ire c t re la tio n
speed o f a s s o c i a t i o n .
M e n ta l
He o b t a i n e d
b e tw e e n r a t e o f r e a d i n g a n d
a b i l i t y an d k n o w le d g e o f
v o c a b u l a r y w e re h e l d c o n s t a n t b y p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n *
The
r e l a t i o n s h i p was p o s i t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t t h o u g h n o t h i g h .
B u r lo o k a n d Bewm&rk^
s t u d i e d memory s p a n i n
'22 ' Buriock"^" 'f f i'iz a b e th "B.^'and ’W ew & rk 7' 1E l & ' ©T "" f h e memory^
span o f p re s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .
P a d . B op, a n $ J* ^ a n e t .
V # J u n e , 1 9 3 1 , XXXIX, 2 , 1 5 ? - 1 ? 3 V
r e l a t i o n t o i n t e l l i g e n c e a t t h e p r e s c h o o l l e v e l and f o u n d a
c o r r e l a t i o n o f *59 f o r d i g i t s .
O th e r t e s t s
o f a u d i t o r y an d
v i s u a l memory s p a n u s e d I n t h i s s t u d y w e re r e c a l l a n d
r e c o g n i t i o n o f p i c t u r e s * l o g i c a l memory, a n d p a r a g r a p h s ,
and d ir e c tio n ® te st© *
The c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e
a n d t h e s e t e a t s ran ge® fro m *72 t o
.8 2 , i n d i c a t i n g a r a t h e r
h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n memory sp a n and i n t e l l i g e n c e .
I t 1® e v i d e n t fro m t h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e
11
t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n c e n t r a l f a c t o r s a n d r e a d i n g
a c h ie v e m e n t h a s n o t b e e n f u l l y c l a r i f i e d *
The l a c k o f
a g r e e m e n t among t h e s t u d i e s I s i n p a r t due t o t h e f a c t
t h a t I n many I n s ta n c e ® t h e e x p e r i m e n t s h a v e n o t b e e n s e t
up t o
s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n r e a d i n g an d i n t e l l i ­
g en ce*
T h a t 1s | t h e e x p e rim e n t® h a v e b e e n s e t up t o s t u d y
o t h e r p r o b le m s # a n d d a t a on t h i s p ro b le m have, b e e n s e c u r e d
i n c i d e n t a l l y , h e n c e t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t a p p r o a c h a n d
no s p e c i f i c s t u d y o f g iv e n t e s t s *
T h u rs to n ® ,^
K e lle y ,^
Thomson, ^
,
34 "’T f e i l e y " 'fru m a n '’X .
gLfcflgaJ^su^.JEDBLLgja^--^^
^_
^
have a l l c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to th e c o m p le x ity o f
.Miu
in te llig e n c e
...................
"W © ”f ^ e t o r i 5 l ' " a n a l y s i B of^ human
§ 6 ' S tJearm an,’ C . ^ h ^ " S i T l t T e ^ s
m zu M
,
" C r o s s r o a d & i n Yhe"*m¥n& o f 'man ,1
’*
.JLSjSSU.... SSBu b r *____________ _________
g ^ ' ’X h o m ^ n * ’’G o d f r e y 1'H
S p earm an ^
and
^ ___ ~ __________
*r^ S e w '^ o rk i" ^ a o m i l ^ a n ,
_ _____
.
a n d h a v e p r o p o s e d m eth o d s f o r i s o l a t i n g i t s
f u n d a m e n t a l com ponent**
I n v ie w o f t h i s i t
i s perhaps to
b e e x p e c t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t t e s t ® e m p h a s is e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s
o f w h at I®, i n c o m p o s ite * m e a s u re d a s I n t e l l i g e n c e .
In.
s t u d i e s \*rh®re t h e same i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w e re u s e d , d i f f e r ­
e n t m e a s u r e * o f r e a d i n g w ere em p lo y ed , so a g a i n i t
I m p o s s i b l e t o make c o m p a r is o n s fro m s t u d y t o s t u d y .
Is
12
A n o th e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n I s t h e f a i l u r e t o
s t a t e d e g r e e s o f r e a d i n g r e t a r d a t i o n o r am ount o f i n c r e a s e
In r e a d in g a b i l i t y w ith r e tr a in in g *
For in s ta n c e , in
H a w th o r n e ’ s s t u d y w h ere no i n c r e a s e i n i n t e l l i g e n c e
sco res
w as f o u n d w i t h s u c c e s s f u l r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g , t h e r e i s no
a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e c a s e s w e re n o t , ©yen a t th© end o f t h e
t r a i n i n g p e rio d ,
s t i l l more o r l e s s r e t a r d e d I n r e a d i n g *
Xt w o uld a p p e a r t h a t a d i s c o v e r y o f t h e b a s i c
f a c t o r s m e a s u re d b o t h I n r e a d i n g a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e w o u ld
f a c i l i t a t e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h ich may e x i s t
b e tw e e n them*
By t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f some r e c e n t w ork on
p r i m a r y m e n ta l a b i l i t i e s , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r h o p e d t o f i n d
t e n t a t i v e a n s w e rs t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :
1 * Vh&t a r e t h e f a c t o r s m e a s u r e d by r e a d i n g
t e s t s a t th e c o lle g e le v e l?
2 * How a r e t h e s e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o each, o t h e r
an d t o f a c t o r s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e ?
Q u e stlo n e c o n c e rn in g f a c t o r s i n I n t e l l i g e n c e
a r i s e a t t h i s p o in t*
S p earm a n , Thomson, K e l l e y , a n d
T h u rs to n © h a v e p e r h a p s b e e n t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l worker®
i n t h l® a r e a *
S p e a m a n 1© i d e a i s t h a t o f a
fa c to r or
g e n e r a l com ponent s u p p le m e n t e d by a n i n d e f i n i t e num ber o f
s p e c if ic fa c to rs*
The d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t e s t s
i s d e te rm in e d by th e e x te n t of th e s a t u r a t i o n o f each t e s t
w i t h *g**
The a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n among
t e s t s o f m e n ta l a b i l i t y I s , t h e n , a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h i s
13-
common f a c t o r *
H ow ever, S pearm an an d h i s s t u d e n t s do a d m it
t h a t some o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n two t e s t s may b e d u e
t o some f a c t o r common t o t h e tw o t e s t s i n q u e s t i o n w h ic h
w ou ld n o t b e common t o o t h e r t e s t s o f m e n ta l a b i l i t y ,
T h is
t y p e o f f a c t o r was te r m e d b y them a * g r o u p f a c t o r , *
Thomson h a s p r o p o s e d a s a m p lin g t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i ­
g en c e*
Be was. a b l e t o show t h a t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f
s e v e r a l t e s t s a p p r o a c h e d t h # ’h i e r a r c h i a l 1 o r d e r when i t w as
known t h a t t h e t e s t s h a d no common f a c t o r o r wg . H Thomson
p o s t u l a t e ® many s e p a r a t e a b i l i t i e s an d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n t e s t s i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e num ber o f t h e s e s e p a r a t e
a b i l i t i e s w h ic h t h e y h a v e i n common*
The t o t a l s c o r e i n a
t e s t b a t t e r y i s r e g a r d e d a s an a v e r a g e o f a l l t h e a b i l i t i e s *
K e l l e y an d T h u r s t o n # h a v e b o t h p r o p o s e d m e th o d s o f
f a c t o r a n a ly s is to be used in th e d e te rm in a tio n of f a c t o r s
in in te llig e n c e *
B o th K e l l e y a n d T h u r s to n # seem I n c l i n e d
t o r e d u c e human a b i l i t y t o m r a t h e r l i m i t e d number o f b r o a d
g r o u p f a c t o r s , w i t h no s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s *
A c c o r d in g t o t h i s
v ie w e v e r y t e s t c o n s i s t s o f g ro u p f a c t o r s a n d e r r o r s o f
m e a su re m e n t *
T a k in g t h i s v i e w p o i n t t h e n , t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e i s
c o n s i d e r e d a s com posed o f a g ro u p o f f a c t o r s , i t was d e s i r e d
i n t h i s s t u d y t o d i s c o v e r t h e f a c t o r s I n r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t
an d t o com pare them w i t h t h o s e f a c t o r s d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s mak­
in g up g e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e *
In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e p r o b le m
was t o t h r o w some l i g h t on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n r e a d i n g
14
a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e , b y o b s e r v i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h ic h
o b t a i n b e tw e e n t h e f a c t o r s w h ic h o p e r a t e i n e a c h .
The s t u d y i s d i v i d e d I n t o t h r e e p a r t s ?
th e f i r s t
d e a ls w ith a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f e le v e n m easures o f r e a d i n g
a t th e c o lle g e le v e l,
t h e s e c o n d deal© w i t h t h e c o r r e ­
l a t i o n o f t e s t s w h ic h p u r p o r t t o m e a su re t h e s e f a c t o r s , ,
w ith f a c t o r s in in te lli g e n c e *
S in c e th e s e a r c h I s f o r th e
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n f a c t o r s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a
t e s t of fa c to rs in in te llig e n c e *
The t h i r d p a r t o f t h e
s tu d y d e a l s w i t h a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f a l l t h e m e a s u re s
o b t a i n e d on t h e g r o u p , n am e ly , t h e o r i g i n a l e l e v e n m e a s u r e s
o f r e a d i n g , t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g w h ic h
p u r p o r t t o m e a s u re t h e f a c t o r s a s fo u n d i n th© f i r s t p a r t
o f t h e s t u d y , and th© s e v e n p r i m a r y a b i l i t i e s s c o r e s a s
o b t a i n e d fro m t h e b a t t e r y © e l e c t e d t o m e a s u r e t h e s e f a c t o r s .
The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e
w h e t h e r t h e f a c t o r s a s fo u n d i n t h e f i r s t
s t u d y r e m a in e d
i n v a r i a n t and w h e t h e r any o f t h e f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g w ere
i d e n t i c a l w ith any o f th e f a c t o r s in i n t e l l i g e n c e *
The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s w ere c a r r i e d o u t b y th©
u s e o f T h u r s to n © 1© e e n t r o i d m e th o d .
T h u rsto n e
2 *?
2? r¥K urstone, L. L. Surr'eiit ' i s s u e b '-ln™Fao^
p.pyc^oX. jjall,* A p r il, 1940, XXXVIX, 4 , 1 8 9 -2 3 6 .
h a s em p lo yed
s
' vnn,r '
_ _
f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n h i s s t u d i e s o f t h e P r i m a r y A b i l i t i e s and
h a s p r e s e n t e d an e x c e l l e n t c r i t i q u e o f t h e m ethod i n an
15
a r t i c l e r e c e n t l y p u b lish e d *
W r ig h t
38
em p lo y ed t h e t e c h n i q u e
W ,,miw^ ' r l ,gStT»"TSuSfTTS?+ A^TactcTr a n a l y s e s " o ’f 'th e ' o r i g i n a l
S tan fo rd -* B in © t S c a le * Fa vohem© t r l h a * S ep t* 1 9 3 9 , I ? , 3 ,
In a s t u d y o f t h e f a c t o r # o f I n t e l l i g e n c e i n v o l v e d i n th®
v a r i o u s t e s t ® i n th® m id d l e r a n g e s o f th® S t a n f o r d - B i n e t *
Th® c r itic is m - © l e v e l e d a g a i n s t T h u r s t o n ©1s t e s t s
pc
by d ta ln a te e r
an d o t h e r s , w h ic h seem, t o c e n t e r a r o u n d t h e
If1
' '" " 'W a in a k e rfn>'"’f fT m T 1“"Frlm ary"fm e n t a l " ^ i l l t l e a * io h T ^ a S d
1939, fc,
fa c t th a t th e a b i l i t i e s t e s t s in th e i r p re se n t fo ra are not
u n c o r r e l a t s d , do n o t i n v a l i d a t e t h e i r u s e fo r t h e p r o b le m
h e re stu d ie d *
T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s co n cern ed c h i e f l y w ith
t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g an d I n i n t e l l i ­
gence*
As s u c h , i t
i s n e c e s s a r y t o us® d i f f e r e n t i a l m e a s u r e s
o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , b u t I t i s n o t dem anded t h a t t h e m e a s u r e s
th e m se lv e s be c o m p le te ly u n e o rre la te d *
16
C h a p te r I I
d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s M e a su re d b y H e a d in g T e s t s
I n o r d e r t o I d e n t i f y some o f t h e f a c t o r s i n r e a d ­
i n g a c h ie v e m e n t a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l , T h u r s to n © 1© c e n t r o i d
m e th o d o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o a n a l y z e a r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i v e g ro u p o f r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s *
By m eans o f
t h i s t e c h n i q u e I t i s p o s s i b l e t o I s o l a t e t h e number and
k i n d o f f a c t o r s m e a s u r e d b y t h e t e s t b a t t e r y and t o d e t e r m i n e
th e s a t u r a t i o n o f each t e s t w ith each f a c to r *
A f t e r c a r e f u l s t u d y i t was c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h e
r e a d i n g t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iow a
f r e s h m e n a s p a r t o f t h e Q u a l i f y i n g E x a m in a tio n c o n s t i t u t e a
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sa m p le o f t h e r e a d i n g t e s t s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d
on th e c o l le g e le v e l*
The d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f
t h e t e s t s c o r e s of. 5 0 0 , 1 9 5 9 , f i r s t
s e m e s t e r fre sh m en *
T h e s e s c o r e s w e re o b t a i n e d from t h e P e r s o n n e l R e s e a r e h
O f f i c e o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Io w a, an d c o n s i s t o f
t h e s u b - t e s t s c o r e s o f th© Iow a S i l e n t H e a d in g T e s t , P a r t
IV o f t h e E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g E x a m in a tio n and P a r t *V o f t h e
M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e T e e t*
The c a s e s w ere s e l e c t e d a t
random e x c e p t f o r h o l d i n g c o n s t a n t th© I n t e r v a l o f t i m e
e l a p s i n g b e tw e e n h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e
( t h o s e e a s e s f o r whom t h e I n t e r v a l was l o n g e r t h a n one y e a r
J&elng r e j e c t e d ) ,
and th© s e l e c t i o n o f an e q u a l number o f
m a le s and f e m a l e s .
17
A Obi S q u a r e fcest o f ” g o o d n e s s o f f i t ” , a p p l i e d
t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s o f t e s t 2, C o m p re h e n s io n ,
r e s u l t e d i n a C hi S q u a r e o f 2 1 . 1 7 , w h ic h f o r 21 d e g r e e s
o f f re e d o m i means t h a t b e t w e n 50 and 30 p e r c e n t o f s a m p le s
draw n fro m t h i s p o p u l a t i o n w ould d e v i a t e a s much o r more
fro m t h e wn o r m a l1* a s d o e s t h i s one*
th e p o p u la tio n i s
Th© h y p o t h e s i s t h a t
" n o r m a l” can n e i t h e r b e a c c e p t e d n o r
r e j e c t e d w ith c o n fid e n c e *
The Io w a B i l e n t h e a d i n g T e s t c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w ­
in g su b -te s te rs
T@gt 1 *
r a t© - c o m p r e h e n s i o n , w h ich y i e l d s a
s e p a r a t e s c o r e f o r e a c h p a r t ; T e s t 2, a t e s t o f d i r e c t e d .
reei&ingi f e e t 3 , p o e t r y c o m p re h e n s io n ; f e a t 4 , word m e a n in g ;
T e s t 5 , s e n t e n c e m e a n in g ; T e s t 6 , p a r a g r a p h c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
w h ic h a l s o y i e l d s tw o s c o r e s , one f o r c e n t r a l i d e a and a
s e c o n d f o r d e v e lo p m e n t o r o u t l i n i n g ; T e s t 7 , a l o c a t i o n o f
i n f o r m a t i o n t e s t w h ic h a l s o y i e l d s two s c o r e s , one f o r u s e
o f t h e i n d e x an d a s e c o n d f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f h e y w ords*
H ow ever, t h e t o t a l s c o r e f o r T e s t 7 was u s e d s i n c e t h e t\^o
p a r t s seem ed t o t e a t t h e same, t h i n g .
Parj£ IV o f t h e Iow a
E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g K & am ination i s a s e n t e n c e t y p e o f v o c a b u ­
l a r y t e s t and P a r t IV o f t h e M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e T e s t i s
a t e s t o f r e a d i n g m a th e m a tic s and d o e s n o t i n v o l v e any
m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p u ta tio n *
The t e a t b a t t e r y , th e n , c o n t a i n e d
11 v a r i a b l e s , m e a s u r i n g v a r i o u s a m e e t s o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e ­
ment .
Th© f i r s t
s t e p i n a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s t h e compu-
18
t a t i o n o f th® c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h e
I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p * b e tw e e n a l l o f t h e v a r i a b l e 8 t o b e
a n a ly se d .
The I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e e l e v e n v a r i a b l e s
d e s c r i b e d a b o v e w ere co m pu ted by t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t
li'bment m eth od an d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b le 1 *
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and r a t © t e s t s show t h e l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h th© o t h e r
v a ria b le s.
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i n f a b l e Xla*
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p r i n c i p l e recom m ended by T h u r s t o n s ; n a m e ly , t o o b t a i n
20
s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e , o r a s many z e r o l o a d i n g s a s p o s s i b l e
f o r each f a c to r ,
S im p le s t r u c t u r e was o b t a i n e d a f t e r
th e fo u rth r o ta tio n ,
The r e s u l t i n g l o a d i n g s a r e shown
in f a b le lib *
f a b l e XXh
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except f e a t 10, a b i l i t y to
show h i g h l o a d i n g s on f a c t o r one*
These
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S e n ten ce M eaning
P a ra g ra p h C om prehension, 'C e n tra l Id e a
P a ra g ra p h Oompreh&nslon,Development
h o c a tlb n of In fo rm a tio n
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^ a c t o r 1 was t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m p r e h e n s io n .
T h i s f a c t o r w ould seem t e b e i n v o l v e d i n any t y p e o f r e a d i n g
21
so i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t n e a r l y a l l o f t h e t e s t s s h o u ld
h a v e h e a v y l o a d i n g s on t h i s f a c t o r .
To p u t I t a n o t h e r way,
r e a d i n g i s u s u a l l y m e a s u re d I n t e r m s o f c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
it
so
i s d i f f i c u l t t o I s o l a t e c o m p re h e n s io n fro m t h e t o t a l
p ro cess.
The s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g I s t h a t t h e t e s t o f a b i l i t y
t o r e a d m a th e m a tic s i s n o t h e a v i l y l o a d e d on t h i s f a c t o r .
One e x p l a n a t i o n may b e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f c o m p re h e n s io n
i s I n v o lv e d *
P e r h a p s t h e r e a d i n g and c o m p re h e n d in g o f
m a t h e m a t i c a l sym b ols i s d e p e n d e n t upon a d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y
t h a h t h a t w h ic h i s i n v o l v e d i n r e a d i n g t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l
s y m b o ls .
I f o t h e r t e s t s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e h ad b e e n
in c lu d e d i n th e b a t t e r y , i t I s c o n c e iv a b le t h a t a n o th e r
f a c t o r r e p r e s e n t i n g , t h i s a b i l i t y w ould h a v e a p p e a r e d .
The f o l l o w i n g t e s t s h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s
on F a c t o r I I l
5.
6.
9.
X®*
11.
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S e n t e n c e M eaning
b c o a tlo n o f In fo rm a tio n
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E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g *v o c a b u l a r y )
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F a c t o r XI was i d e n t i f i e d a s a v o c a b u l a r y o r word, m a n i p u l a t i o n
fa c to r.
T e s t 5 was c o n s t r u c t e d by i t s a u t h o r s a s a t e s t o f
v o c a b u la ry .
u s a g e so I t
T e s t 11 was c o n s t r u c t e d a s a t e s t o f v o c a b u l a r y
seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t t h e s e two t e s t s s h o u ld
show w e i g h t i n g s on t h e same f a c t o r s * : -Test, , 9.,:*Xt3catV pn„:*of
*•
*.
I n f o r m a t i o n , was p r e s u m a b ly n o t d e s i g n e d * t p ^ t e s t v o c a b u l a r y
22
bu t i t n e v e r t h e l e s s seem© t o do s o .
T h is d o e s n o t seem
s t r a n g e , h o w e v e r, s i n c e one c a n n o t l o o k f o r i n f o r m a t i o n
o r u s e an i n d e x w i t h o u t k n o w led g e o f t h e m e a n in g s o f t h e
w o rd s i n v o l v e d .
On© w i l l n o t l o o k f o r I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t
c o a l u n d e r t h e t o p i c " m in in g *1 u n l e s s one h a s some k n o w led g e
o f w h at c o n c e p t s t h e two w ords h a v e i n common.
In reg ard
t o T e s t s 6 an d 10 , I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o s e e t h a t
s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e s e t e s t s d e p e n d s t o a
c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t on a k n o w led g e o f t h e w o rd s e m p lo y ed .
The f o l l o w i n g t e s t © h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s
on F a c t o r I l l s
3.
4*
9.
10.
d i r e c t e d H e a d in g
P o e t r y C o m p re h en sio n
l o c a t i o n of In fo rm a tio n
M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e
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I t was a t f i r s t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y t h i s f a c t o r u n t i l
in s p e c tio n of th e p h y sic a l a sp e c ts of th e s e fo u r t e s t s
d i s c l o s e d a common t e c h n i q u e , t h a t o f a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s
b y f i n d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e u n d e r l i n e d o r num bered p h r a s e s i n
th e re a d in g m a te ria l.
That i s ,
a l l o f t h e s e t e s t s and none
of t h e o t h e r s i n t h e b a t t e r y a r e so c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e
q u e s t i o n s a r e a n s w e re d by f i n d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p h r a s e i n
a p aragraph*
Some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s can b e a n s w e re d w i t h o u t
c o m p re h e n d in g f u l l y e i t h e r q u e s t i o n o r an sw er*
A c c o rd in g ly ,
F a c t o r I I I was t e n t a t i v e l y I d e n t i f i e d a s t h e a b i l i t y t o
f i n d a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s a p a r t from t h e a b i l i t y t o u n d e r .fl.tj.and b o t h q u e s t i o n s and a n s w e r s .
I t apneared to be a
23
f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e em ployed i n t h e t e s t s r a t h e r
th a n a f a c t o r in g e n e r a l re a d in g a b i l i t y .
Th© f o l l o w i n g t e s t s h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t l o a d i n g s
on F a c t o r 1^*
1*
4.
6.
H a t©
P o e t r y C o m p re h en sio n
Centeno© M eaning
*3320
.3 1 1 3
.4 2 9 4
T h i s f a c t o r was t e n t a t i v e l y I d e n t i f i e d a s a r a t e f a c t o r .
I t I s l e s s c l e a r t h a n F a c t o r s 1 and 11 .
The s e n t e n c e
m e a n in g t e s t m ig h t o p e r a t e a s a t e s t o f s p e e d , s i n c e t h e
te s t is
q u i t e e a s y an d t h e s p e e d w i t h w h ich d i f f e r e n t
s u b j e c t s r e a d may b e t h e f a c t o r w h ich i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g
m easured.
I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e why t h e t e s t o f p o e t r y
c o m p r e h e n s io n s h o u l d h a v e h e a v i e r w e i g h t i n g I n s p e e d t h a n
some o f t h e o t h e r c o m p re h e n s io n t e s t s .
B in o e o n ly one
t e s t o f r a t e a e s u c h was I n c l u d e d i n t h e b a t t e r y , an d
sin c e i t
i s d i f f i c u l t to e stim a te e i th e r s u b je c tiv e ly
o r o b j e c t i v e l y J u s t how much t h e s c o r e on an y t e s t m ig h t
h a v e b e e n I n f l u e n c e d by s p e e d o f r e a d i n g , t h e r e Jtfk r e a l l y
i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e r a t©
fa c to r.
A f te r th e f e e t o r lo a d in g s have b een o b ta in e d ,
t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e v a r i o u s t e s t s b a n b e r e ­
c a l c u l a t e d fro m t h e l o a d i n g s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a
r a b « a |b |+ a g b g v a n b n
/
24
w h e re a and b a r e t h e tw o t e s t s t o h e c o r r e l a t e d .
The
sy m b o lism u s e d i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r e a c h
t e s t i s a s fo ilo w e s
si is
th e lo a d in g of
te s t a
on f a c t o r 1 #
hi Is
th e lo a d in g of
te st b
on f a c t o r 1 ,
a2 is
th e lo a d in g of
te s t a
on f a c t o r 1 1 , e t c .
The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e tw e e n t h e o r i g i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s an d
t h o s e r e c a l c u l a t e d fro m t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s a^© shown I n
T ab le I I I *
A l l d e c im a l p o i n t s h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d fro m t h e
ta b le .
The nu m bers i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e t h e o r i g i n a l
c o r r e l a t i o n s and a r e r e p r o d u c e d h e r e t o f a c i l i t a t e
son.
c o m p a r i­
On t h e w h o le , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s when r e c a l c u l a t e d fro m
th e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , ap p ro x im a te th e o r i g i n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s
v ery c lo s e ly .
The e o m m u n a lity o f a t e s t ,
a s d e s ig n a te d by t h e
symbol ^ h ^ 1*, I s e q u a l t o t h e sum o f t h e s q u a r e s o f t h e
f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , w h ic h f o r p e r f e c t t e s t s s h o u l d e q u a l u n i t y .
S i n c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t h e s e communa lltie s
a r e unknow n, some e s t i m a t e o f them m ust b e made.
T h u r s to n © 1® m eth o d i s t o us© t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n I n
t h e colum n f o r e a c h t e s t ,
so t h a t t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n
i n t h e colum n b eco m es t h e d i a g o n a l v a l u e f o r t h a t colum n
f o r t h e c o m p u ta tio n o f th e f i r s t f a c t o r ,
F o r th e c o m p u ta tio n
o f s u c c e e d i n g f a c t o r s , t h e h i g h e s t r e s i d u a l i n e a c h colum n
b ec o m es t h e d i a g o n a l v a l u e .
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I t I s d e s i r a b l e upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s
t o c o m p a re t h e co m p u ted c o m m u n a l I tl e s w i t h t h e e s t i m a t e d
c o m m u n a l i t l e s t o g e t an e s t i m a t e o f t h e am ount o f e r r o r
w h ic h a c c r u e s i n u s i n g t h e h i g h e s t num ber i n t h e colum n
a s an e s t i m a t e ,
I n T a b l e IV a r e shown t h e co m p u ted
communal i t l e s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e g u e s s e d e o m n n m a l l t l e e a n d
t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e tw e e n th e m .
T a b l e IV
Communal i t l e e o f T e s t e
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3
4
5
6
7
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.634:0
♦5889
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♦1033
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-.0870
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W h ile f o u r o f t h e g u e s s e d communal i t l e e show f a i r l y l a r g e
d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i t h t h e co m pu ted o o m m u n a lltle © , t h e u s u a l
p r a c t i c e w i t h more t h a n t e n v a r i a b l e s i s n o t t o r e c a l c u l a t e ,
s u b s t i t u t i n g th e o b ta in e d f o r th e guessed c o m m n a litie s ,
s i n c e t h e e r r o r I n v o l v e d w i l l b e s m a l l , and w i l l c a u s e
o n l y a n e g l i g i b l e am ount o f d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s .
The co m p u te d c o m m u n a lity o f a t e s t ,
th e n , r e p r e ­
s e n t s t h a t p a r t o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e s t w h ich h a s
27
been I d e n tif ie d th ro u g h th e a n a ly s is *
T he r e m a i n d e r
o f t h e t e s t w h ic h h a s n o t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e
a n a l y s i s I s te r m e d u n i q u e n e s s ,
o f th e c o m p o sitio n o f a t e s t ,
i t s c o m m u n a lity i s i m p o r t a n t .
To g e t a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e
i t s u n i q u e n e s s a s w e ll a s
U n iq u e n e s s i s com p uted b y
t h e f o r m u l a , 1 ** h&, o r o n e m in u s t h e c o m m u n a lity .
It
I s t h e te rm a p p lie d t o t h a t p a r t o f t h e v a r ia n c e o f th e
. t e s t w h ic h I s d u e t o a s p e c i f i c f a c t o r o r f a c t o r s an d t o
e r r o r s i n sa m p lin g *
The t o t a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f a t e s t i s ,
t h e n , t h e sum o f t h e s q u a r e s o f t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s * h^*
p l u s I t s u n iq u e n e s s * 1 * h ^ , t h e t o t a l c o m p o s i t i o n equal**
l i n g u n ity *
f a b l e V sh o w ® t h e c o m m u n a lit j a n d u n i q u e n e s s
of each t e s t .
fa b le V
T o t a l C o m p o s itio n o f f e a t s
T est
1
2
3
4
5
©
7
a
9
X©
11
.1610
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.2860
.2801
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*6162
.210©
.0600
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mz
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*0380
.0346
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.2871
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.0183
.0392
*2364
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.0000
.0025
.0545
*1076
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m2
*1245
.0616
.0705
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*0000
*0001
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G&Xoueness
.315© 1.6844 .5826 *4174
.6275 .372©
.5417 ,4583 '
*8298 *1702
.7089 *®11 *5234 .476©
.674© .3255
.6054 .3946
.3222 *6778
.6288 .3712
I t w i l l b e rem em b ered t h a t &1, o r f a c t o r 1 , was i d e n t i f i e d
28
a* comprehension,
XXX m
or Factor IX as vocabulary, Factor
ability to find answer® to questions, and Factor
IV, Tory tentatively a® rate,
feat X Is then composed
of *16 comprehension,*13 of what was tentatively identified
a® rate, and *03 is contributed by the other two factors*
T h is a c c o u n t s f o r *32 o f i t s total composition* t h e
r e m a i n d e r o r *88 I s u n i q u e n e s s , w h ic h may b© e r r o r © o r
may be due t o some f a c t o r w h ic h was n o t discovered I n
t h i s a n a ly sis*
A f a c to r cannot appear u n le ss i t Is c a lle d
f o r In s e v e r a l t e s t s , w h ich m eans t h a t a g i v e n t e s t m u st
show h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r t e s t s i n t h e
b a tte ry .
I t c a n - b e s e e n fro m t h e t a b l e o f i n t e r o o r r e l a t l o n s
t h a t t h e r a t e t e s t 'sh o w s, i n g e n e r a l , lo w c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h
th e o th e r t e a t s In t h i s b a tte ry *
Low c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n
t e s t s may in t u r n b e c a u s e d b y e r r o r s i n s a m p lin g o r i n
poor t e s t construction o r l a c k o f v a l i d i t y *
The c a u s e o f
t h e h i g h u n i q u e n e s s c a n n o t h® d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e s e d a t a .
It
s h o u l d fee f u r t h e r s t u d i e d by i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l t e s t s o f
r a t© o r s e v e r a l t e s t s o f some s o r t w h ich c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y
w ith I t*
T h ro u g h a more e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s ,
th e n ,
some
c l u e a s t o th© r e m a i n d e r o f I t s c o m p o s i t i o n may b e d i s c o v e r e d *
fe e ® 2, C o m p re h e n s io n , I s com posed o f *44 o f w hat
was c a l l e d c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
*14 o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r
t h r e e f a c t o r ® , l e a v i n g .4 2 o f i t s
f o r by u n iq u e n e ss.
c o m p o s i t i o n t o b e a c c o u n te d
T h i s a g a i n may b e .due t o e r r o r s o r t o t h e
f a c t t h a t I t c a l l s f o r a b i l i t i e s w h ic h a r e u n i q u e t o t h i s
b a tte ry of te ste *
T e s t 3 , P i p e c t e d H e a d in g , i s com posed o f *29
o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s io n f a c t o r ,
*24 o f F o o t e r I I I ,
Id e n tifie d
a s t h e a b i l i t y t o l o o k f o r answer© t o q u e s t i o n © , and .10
t o F a c to r ® I I and IV com bined*
I s due to
s p e c ific ity ,
T hus *37 o f i t s c o m p o s i t i o n
e i t h e r m easu rem en t a n d s a m p lin g
e r r o r s , # # t o abilities n o t c a l l e d f o r i n t h i s b a t t e r y .
T e s t 4 , P o e t r y C o m p re h e n sio n , 1© com posed o f
.2 8 o f F a c t o r I ,
.1 3 o f F a c t o r I I I ,
*13 o f F a c t o r s I I an d
IV c o m b in e d , *46 o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n t o b e a c c o u n t e d f o r a s
u n iq u e n e ss.
T e s t 5 , Word M e an in g , i s co m p o sed /'o f *46 o f t h e
c o m p r e h e n s io n f a c t o r , *31 o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y f a c t o r ,
*06
c o n t r i b u t e d b y f a c t o r © I I I and XV, l e a v i n g *17 t o unique**
ness*
H e ia tlv e ly l i t t l e
o f th e co m p o sitio n of t h i s t e s t
i s d u e t o u n iq u e o r s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o r t o e r r o r s .
T e s t 6 * S e n t e n c e M e an in g , l a com posed o f *36 o f
F a c t o r X, .1 7 o f F a c t o r IX , an d *18 o f F a c t o r XV, l e a v i n g
.8 9 -of I t s c o m p o s i t i o n t o b e a s c r i b e d t o uniqueness*
T e s t 7 , P a r a g r a p h Comprehension, C e n t r a l I d e a ,
is com posed o f .5 2 o f t h e comprehension f a c t o r .
Kone o f
th e o t h e r f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o th e c o m p o sitio n of th e
t e s t , h e n c e the r e m a i n i n g .4 8 m ust b e a t t r i b u t e d t o u n i q u e ­
n e s s , w h ic h a g a i n may b® e r r o r f a c t o r s o r some f a c t o r o r
30
f a c t o r s w h ic h arc- u n i q u e t o t h i s b a t t e r y *
T e s t 8 , P a r a g r a p h C o m p re h e n sio n , d e v e l o p m e n t ,
i s com po sed o f *62 o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s io n f a c t o r and ,0 5
of fa c to r I I I ,
The r e m a i n d e r o r *53 l a d u e t o u n i q u e n e s s .
T o s t '9 , L o c a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n , i s com posed o f
#21 o f F a c t o r 1 , c o m p r e h e n s io n i
l a r y o r w ord m a n i p u l a t i o n ,
*29 o f F a c t o r X I, voe&bu~
.11 o f F a c t o r XIX, a b i l i t y t o
look f o r a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s *
The r e m a i n d e r , *39, i s
r e f e r r e d t o a s u n iq u a a s *
T e s t 10 , M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e , P a r t CT, is
com posed o f *06 o f t h e c o m p r e h e n s io n f a c t o r ,
*09 o f voeabu**
l a r y , and .1 7 o f F a c t o r XXX, a b i l i t y t o f i n d a n s w e rs t o
q u e stio n s*
3£ons o f t h e s e w e i g h t i n g s i s significantly l a r g e ,
w h ic h means t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s b r i n g s t o l i g h t l i t t l e
c o n c e r n i n g t h e composition o f t h i s t e s t *
The com m um ality
o f this t e s t I s v e r y lo w , b e i n g . 3 2 , l e a v i n g
composition t o u n iq u e n e s s * .
t o n e e d scats e x p l a n a t i o n *
.68 o f i t s
T h is v e r y h i g h u n i q u e n e s s seem s
I f a t e s t c a l l s f o r one o r m ore
a b i l i t i e s w h ich a r e u n i q u e in t h a t t h e y do n o t seem t o b e
r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e I n any o t h e r t e s t s i n
t h e b a t t e r y , t h e s e u n i q u e a b i l i t i e s com bine w i t h t h e e r r e r
v a ria n c e In to a s in g le s p e c if ic v a ria n c e f o r th a t te s t*
T e s t 10 u n d o u b t e d l y c a l l s f o r some a b i l i t y o r a b i l i t i e s
w h ic h a r e n o t r e q u i r e d by a n y o t h e r t e s t i n t h e b a t t e r y ,
h en ce th e h ig h u n iq u e n e ss*
T h i s s h o u ld n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d
31
t o mean t h a t t h e t e s t 1*$ u n r e l i a b l e ,
The f a c t o r s o r
a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e on T e s t 10
sh o u ld b e f u r t h e r s tu d ie d by I n s e r t i o n I n t o o th e r
b a t t e r i e s I n w h ic h a r e i n c l u d e d o t h e r t e s t e o f a s i m i l a r
n atu re *
The earn® t h i n g h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f
th e o th e r t e s t s in th e b a t te r y ,
sin c e I t i s n o t li& e ly
t h a t any s i n g l e t e s t w i l l be c o m p le te ly d e s c rib e d , in
t a n a s o f t h e f a c t o r s w h ic h i t h a s i n common w i t h o t h e r
t e s t s in a sin g le b a tte r y ,
T e s t 11# E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g , P a r t XV, i s com posed
o f ,3 4 o f F a c t o r X# c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
+2 7
o f F a c t o r XX# vo­
c a b u l a r y , and *02 o f F a c t o r IV , w h ic h was t e n t a t i v e l y
I d e n tif ie d as ra te #
I t s u n i q u e n e s s Is # t h e n ,
*37 o f i t s
to ta lity *
From a s t u d y o f t h e s e p a r a t e t e s t s ,
th e n , th e r e
i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c o m p r e h e n s io n t e s t s c o r r e l a t e w i t h
e a c h o t h e r r a t h e r w e l l and a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e i r
c o m p o s i t i o n was a n a l y s a b l e th ro u g h , t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .
Ho t e s t i s , h o w e v e r, w i t h o u t some u n iq u e n e s s * t h a t i s ,
in th e c a s e o f each t e s t ,
some p a r t o f i t s c o m p o s i t i o n i s
d u e t o e r r o r v a r i a n c e o r t o some f a c t o r o r f e n t e r s w h ic h
a r e s p e c if ic to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r b a tte ry *
The lo w c o m m u n a lity o f T e s t X, r a t e , and T e a t 10#
M a th e m a tic s A p titu d e ,
s u g g e s t s c i t h e r o f tw o c o n c l u s i o n s *
38
firs t,
th a t th e t e a t s
u n i q u e n e s s i s due t o
u n r e lia b le , hence th a t th e h ig h
e r r o r v a r i a n c e ; and s e c o n d , t h a t t h e
t e a t s c a l l f o r some a b i l i t y o r a b i l i t i e s n o t c a l l e d f o r
by o t h e r t e s t s i n t h i s b a tte r y *
The s e c o n d o f t h e s e
p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s may b e i n v e s t i g a t e d by i n c l u d i n g them
l a a b a t t e r y w h ich i n c l u d e s o t h e r t e s t s w i t h w h i c h . t h e y
c o r r e l a t e highly.*
I n t h i s way, I f s e p a r a t e o r d i f f e r e n t
a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l p erfo rm an ce a r e r e q u ir e d ,
some c l u e a® t o t h e t y p e o f a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d may b e
o b ta in e d *
The f a c t t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e w as d i s c o v e r e d
a s t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f T e s t s 1 an d 10 p o i n t s t o t h e n e e d
f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t e s t s o f t h e s e ty p e s *
The f a c t t h a t
T e s t 10 , M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e , d o e s n o t a o p e a r h e a v i l y
w e i g h t e d on an y f a c t o r ,
and t h a t i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h
o t h e r t e s t s o f r e a d i n g i s I n g e n e r a l q u i t e lo w , l e a d s t o
th e assu m p tio n t h a t a d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y i s r e q u ir e d f o r
th e a d e q u a te m a n ip u la tio n o f m a th e m a tic a l c o n c e p ts , th a n
I s r e q u ir e d In re a d in g l i t e r a r y m a te ria l*
I t w ould seem
n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t o m e a s u re s e p a r a t e l y t h e a b i l i t y t o
r e a d m a th e m a tic a l o r s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l ,
on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l a t l e a s t ,
t e s t s of t h i s ty p e ,
a b i l i t y I® d e s i r e d *
R e a d in g t e s t s ,
s h o u ld p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n
i f a more a d e q u a t e p i c t u r e o f r e a d i n g
C e r t a i n l y i n sp e a k in g o f r e a d in g a b i l i t y ,
t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d m a t h e m a t i c a l an d s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l
c a n n o t b e Ig n o re d *
33
4®
t h e r a t e t e s t , t h e m e a su re m e n t o f r a t e of
r e a d i n g h a s g e n e r a l l y been l e e s r e l i a b l e t h a n t h e m e a su re *
ment o f vee& bul& ry or c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
U s u a l l y some e v i d e n c e
th a t th e su b je c t has a c tu a lly re a d th e m a te ria l i s re q u ire d ,
^ h i s e v i d e n c e i s o b t a i n e d i n t h e fo rm of some s o r t o f
c o m p r e h e n s io n © z e r o i s e , w h ic h , i f n o t a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y ,
p e n a lis e s th e su b je c t in h is r a t e
sco re,
Tfclc m eans t h a t
l a m e a s u re d i n term © o f c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
o f th e l o w
^h© a u t h o r s
Silent B e a d in g f e e t h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o c i r c u m v e n t
t h i s d i f f i c u l t y b y I g n o r i n g t h e a c c u r a c y boo fm o f t h e
c o m p r e h e n s io n © z e r o i s e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r a t e s c o re *
The s u b j e c t i s m o t i v a t e d b y k n o w in g t h a t h e w i l l b e r e q u i r e d
t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s over t h e c o n t e n t r e a d , b u t h e d o e s n o t
know t h a t t h e s c o r e on t h e a n s w e r s I s n o t u s e d I n c o m p u tin g
h i s ra t® sco re*
In t h i s t e s t , t h e n , r a t e i s m e a su re d
s e p a r a t e l y , n o t i n t e r m s o f c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
fh© i m p o r t a n t
q u e s t i o n i s w h e th e r a p u r e t e s t o f r a t e o f r e a d i n g i s
d e s ira b le or u s e fu l,
s i n c e i t i s speed o f c o m p re h e n s io n
th a t i s th e im p o rta n t f a c t o r ,
f h e most d e s i r a b l e t e s t
w ou ld p r o b a b l y b e o n e t h a t s e p a r a t e s s p e e d o f c o m p re h e n s io n
from a c c u r a c y o f c o m p r e h e n s io n .
In t h i s p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y , f o u r f a c t o r ® w e re
i s o l a t e d a n d t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m p r e h e n s io n , v o ­
c a b u l a r y , lo o k in g f o r answ ers to q u e s tio n s ,
and rat© *
W hile
t h e r e s u l t s a r e i n a s e n s e n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e y do s u g g e s t
34
c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p p i n g i n t h e a b i l i t i e s measured by
m eans o f v a r i o u s r e a d i n g t e s t s ,
f h e y a l s o i n d i c a t e that
c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s w h ic h p r o b a b l y s h o u l d b e m e a s u r e d , a r e
n o t now m e a su re d by r e a d i n g t e a t a .
I t s h o u l d b e rem em bered,
h ow ever* that t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n
1© l i m i t e d t o a g r o u p o f u n i v e r s i t y f r e s h m e n .
I t is
p o s s i b l e that d i s s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w o uld b e o b t a i n e d a t
o th e r e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l s .
35
Chapter 111
C o r r e l a t i o n o f F a c t o r s i n H e a d in g an d I n t e l l i g e n c e
A f t e r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e a d i n g t e s t s was
c o m p l e t e d , i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n s t r u c t t e s t s w h ich w o uld
m e a s u re t h e f a c t o r s a s i d e n t i f i e d ,
o r t o em ploy t e s t s
a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e w h ic h seem ed t o m e a su re t h e s e f a c t o r s
an d t o c o r r e l a t e s c o r e s I n t h e s e t e s t s w i t h m e a s u re s o f
f a c t o r s in in te llig e n c e *
I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e K e ls o n -
Denny H e a d in g T e a t f o r H ig h S c h o o l and C o l l e g e met t h e
c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d f a c t o r s ; t h e r e f o r © ,
I t was s e l e c t e d a s a t e s t o f v o c a b u l a r y an d c o m p re h e n s io n .
The K elso n ^ D e n n y v o c a b u l a r y t e s t c o n t a i n s 100 w ords a r ­
r a n g e d i n o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y w h ic h a r e s c a l e d
bo
t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e i n d i f f i c u l t y from one word t o t h e
n e x t I s a p p ro x im a te ly e q u a l, th e s c a lin g b e in g d e te rm in e d
b y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e r r o r f o r e a c h item *
The v o c a b u l a r y
t e s t I s o f th e m u ltip le c h o ice ty p e , th e r e b e in g f iv e
c h o i c e s , one o f w h ic h I s c o r r e c t .
o f e x e r c i s e s an sw ered c o r r e c t l y .
The s c o r e i s t h e num ber
The p a r a g r a p h t e s t
c o n t a i n s n i n e p a r a g r a p h s , e a c h a b o u t 200 w o rd s i n l e n g t h ,
and s c a l e d i n d i f f i c u l t y by t h e ©am© m ethod em ployed i n
th e v o c a b u la ry t e s t .
The p a r a g r a p h s r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s
t y p e s o f r e a d i n g , e x c e p t t h a t no t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y i s
In c lu d e d *
38
A t e s t o f s p e e d o f r e a d i n g was a d d e d t o t h e
b a t t e r y e v e n th o u g h t h e s p e e d f a c t o r was n o t c l e a r l y
i d e n t i f i e d In th e f a c t o r a n a ly s is *
The M in n e s o ta S peed
o f H e a d in g T e s t was c h o s e n a s a m e a s u re o f r e a d i n g r a t e .
T h i s t e s t c o n t a i n s 38 p a r a g r a p h s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 w ord s
e a c h , e a c h p a r a g r a p h c o n t a i n i n g an a b s u r d p h r a s e o r s t a t e ­
ment w h ic h 1® t o b e c r o s s e d o u t*
The p h r a s e i s a b s u r d i n
r e l a t i o n t o t h e m e a n in g o f t h e p a r a g r a p h * n o t i n r e l a t i o n
to i t s g ra m m a tic a l s t r u c t u r e .
T h is f a c t a g a in b rin g s to
mind t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f m e a s u r in g r a t e o f r e a d i n g w i t h o u t
c o m p l i c a t i n g i t w i t h t h e m e a su re m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s io n .
The
s c o r e i s t h e num ber o f a b s u r d p h r a s e s c o r r e c t l y c r o s s e d
o u t*
S in c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e d i f f e r e n t i a l mea­
s u r e s o f m e n ta l a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n a. s i n g l e s c o r e w h ich
w ould i n d i c a t e t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
T h u r s t o n e 1®
T e s t s f o r P r im a r y M e n ta l A b i l i t i e s seemed t h e b e s t o f su c h
t e s t s t o em p lo y .
b a t t e r y ares
The f a c t o r s m e a s u re d i n T h u r s to n e * e
p e r c e p t i o n , n u m b er, v e r b a l ,
s p a c e , memory,
i n d u c t i o n and d e d u c t i o n .
Th© p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s t h e
a b i l i t y to p e rc e iv e q u ic k ly e i t h e r v is u a l o r v e rb a l d e t a i l .
The a b i l i t y t o s c a n a p a g e , t o f i n d some s m a l l b u t s i g n i f i ­
c a n t d e t a i l , t o c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s q u i c k l y , a r e ex a m p le s o f
5?
w hat i s m e a s u r e d by t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r *
Number a b i l i t y
c o n s i s t s I n f a c i l i t y w i t h s i m p l e n u m e r i c a l w ork su c h a s
ra p id c a lc u la tio n *
The v e r b a l f a c t o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by-
t e s t s t h a t i n v o l v e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f la n g u a g e *
It
r e f l e c t s an a b i l i t y t o d e a l r e a d i l y w i t h v e r b a l m a t e r i a l *
The s p a c e f a c t o r c o n s i s t s o f t h e a b i l i t y I n v o l v e d i n t e s t e
o f v i s u a l i z i n g space*
I t i s m e a su re d by t e s t s w h ich
r e q u i r e t h e s u b j e c t t o t h i n k v i s u a l l y o f fo rm s and o b j e c t s
in space.
o f memory*
The memory f a c t o r i s m e a su re d s im p ly by t e s t e
The t e s t s m e a s u re o n l y im m e d ia te memory and do
n o t a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e r e c a l l o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h ich t h e
s u b je c t d id not in te n d to r e t a i n f o r f u tu r e r e c a l l .
I n d u c t i o n i s t e s t e d b y d em an d in g t h a t t h e s u b j e c t d i s c o v e r
a r u l e o r p r i n c i p l e in th e m a te r ia l o f th e t e s t .
T h is
f a c t o r may b e t e s t e d f o r I n n u m e r i c a l , v i s u a l o r v e r b a l
m a t e r i a l , an d p e r h a p s o t h e r t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l .
That I s j
I t i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o a n y one t y p e o f m a t e r i a l .
The
d e d u c t i v e f a c t o r I© a t e s t o f r e s t r i c t i v e t h i n k i n g , o f
fo rm al re a s o n in g ,
o r s y l l o g i s t i c re a s o n in g .
T h urston©
f e e l s t h a t t h i s f a c t o r I s l e s s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d th a n th e
o t h e r f a c t o r s , henc© c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s f a c t o r
m ust b e i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u tio n *
The new t e s t b a t t e r y c o n s i s t e d , t h e n , o f t h r e e
m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g : v o c a b u l a r y , c o m p r e h e n s io n , and r a t e ,
and t h e s e v e n m easure© o f f a c t o r © i n i n t e l l i g e n c e d e s c r i b e d
above*
38
T h i s b a t t e r y o f t e s t s was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 87
$ t a t e H n i v e r e i t y o f Iow a f r e s h m e n , who v o l u n t e e r e d t o
s u b m it t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e h o u r s o f t e s t i n g .
In v ita tio n s
t o p a r t i c i p a t e I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t w ere e x t e n d e d t o t h e
fresh m an sp eech c l a s s e s .
The t e s t s w ere a d m i n i s t e r e d
I n tw o s e s s i o n s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o ^ a n d - o n e - h a l f h o u r s
e a c h , t h e s u b j e c t s b e i n g t e s t e d I n g ro u p s*
To I n c r e a s e
m o t i v a t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s w e re p r o m is e d i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s
o f t h e i r s c o r e s on t h e t e s t s *
I t I s r e a s o n a b l e t o assum e
t h a t u n d e r s u c h c o n d i t i o n © m o t i v a t i o n was q u i t e h i g h and
c o n s ta n t th ro u g h o u t th e t e s t p e r io d s .
How ever, I t a l s o
b r i n g s up t h e q u e s t i o n o f noimnalaoy o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l
grou p*
A Chi S q u a r e t e s t o f *g o o d n e s s o f f i t ” , a p p l i e d
t o t h e © co res on t h e P e r c e p t i o n t e s t r e s u l t e d i n a Chi
S q u a re o f 1 8 * 8 3 , w h ic h f o r 18 d e g r e e s o f fre e d o m means
t h a t b e tw e e n 50 and. 30 p e r c e n t o f su ch s a m p le s w ould
d e v i a t e from a n o rm a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a s much a s o r more
th a n t h i s e x p e rim e n ta l group.
I t w i l l b e rem em bered from
C h a p t e r I I t h a t t h e Qhi S q u a re t e s t o f ”g o o d n e s s o f f i t ”
r e s u l t e d i n a Ohi S q u a r e o f t h e same m a g n itu d e *
From
t h i s we c a n assu m e t h a t t h e 87 v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s o f t h i s
s t u d y show , I n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t e s t o f P e r c e p t i o n ,
a d i s t r i b u t i o n c o m p a r a b le t o t h a t w hich t h e 300 s u b j e c t s
©how i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Oom-orehenslon t e s t *
In
r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o m p r e h e n s io n , h o w e v e r, t h e v o l u n t e e r
39
s u b j e c t s a r e definitely s u p e r i o r , 78 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s
b e i n g i n t h e u p p e r q u a r t l i e i n t h e N e ls o n -D e n n y v o c a b u l a r y
an d c o m p r e h e n s io n t e s t s .
I n s p e e d o f r e a d i n g t h e y show
i n f e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e , 50' p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s b e i n g b e lo w
the 3 0 t h percentile*
The I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n e a c h o f t h e r e a d i n g
" f a c t o r s * an d e a c h o f t h e p r i m a r y - a b i l i t i e s t e s t s c o r e s
w ere co m p u ted b y t h e P e a r s o n p r o d u c t-m o m e n t m ethod, w i t h
r e s u l t s a s shown i n T a b l e V I .
T a b l e VI
C o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e
H e a d in g M e a s u re s a n d P r i m a r y A b i l i t i e s S c o r e s
P . B
V
H e a d in g C o m p re h e n sio n .3 1 .1 4 .7 1
V o c a b u la r y
*30 *10 .8 3
S peed o f H e a d in g
*31 .1 5 .6 3
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The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n ® a r e b e tw e e n t h e t h r e e
m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g an d t h e v e r b a l f a c t o r , w h ic h i s w hat
o ne m ig h t l o g i c a l l y e x p e c t .
A ll o f th e m easures of re a d ­
i n g h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s ' 3- w i t h t h e p e r c e p t u a l
^G K dqul st
fa c to r,
1■
t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e i n g , h o w ev e r, much lo w e r t h a n
w ith th e v e r b a l f a c t o r .
I f t h e p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r m e a su re d
c h i e f l y speed of n e r c e o tio n ,
I t w ould seem l o g i c a l t h a t
t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h sp e e d o f r e a d i n g s h o u ld b e h i g h e r t h a n
w ith o t h e r m easures o f r e a d i n g .
However, i f i t a l s o me a -
40
s u r e a a c c u r a c y o f p e r c e p t i o n , a s I t p r e s u m a b ly d o e s , t h e n
I t m ig h t h e e x p e c t e d t o c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h a l l m e a s u re s
of re a d in g .
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h e v e r y low
c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g and t h e number
an d s p a c e f a c t o r s , ’ The lo w c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e number
f a c t o r i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p r o c e d u r e w hich h a s b e e n f r e q u e n t ­
l y em p lo y ed i n s e g r e g a t i n g r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , nam ely
t h a t o f u s in g a r ith m e ti c a b i l i t y in l i e u o f , o r In co n ju n c tio n
w ith ,
an I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t a s an i n d i c a t o r o f r e a d i n g
c a p a c ity ,
s h o u ld b e v ie w e d w i t h some s k e p t i c i s m .
T&© low
c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s p a c e f a c t o r o f f e r s tw o p o s s i b l e
in te rp re ta tio n s#
H e a d in g d i s a b i l i t y c a s e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y
t o l d th a t v i s u a l i s i n g th e m a te r ia l read w ill f a c i l i t a t e
c o m p r e h e n s io n ,
One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may b e t h a t s i n c e t h e r e
i s no r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e tw o , t h e u s e o f s p a t i a l v i s u a l ­
i s a t i o n w i l l h a v e nil e f f e c t upo n c o m p r e h e n s io n .
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seem s a s l i k e l y , h o w e v e r.
An o p p o s i t e
I f th e a b i l i t i e s
u s u a l l y em ployed i n r e a d i n g a r e p o o r , and o t h e r a b i l i t i e s
a re h ig h , i t
i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y can b e
i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a n o t h e r medium,
T h at i s ,
w h i l e a goo d r e a d e r may n o t n e e d t o r e s o r t t o v i s u a l ! n a t i o n ,
a p o o r r e a d e r may p r o f i t from su c h a p r a c t i c e #
Speed i s t h e o n l y r e a d i n g f a c t o r w h ic h i s s i g ­
n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e memory f a c t o r ,
T h is m ig h t
41
I n d i c a t e t h a t a lo w r e a d e r s a r e a lo w p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y
must r e r e a d , du e t o f o r g e t t i n g some o f t h e m a t e r i a l .
^on e
of t h e r e a d i n g m e a s u r e s c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e
In d u c tIt® f a c t o r ,
significance*
a lth o u g h th e v o c a b u la ry t e s t approaches
The v o c a b u l a r y t e s t I s t h e o n l y r e a d i n g
t e s t w h ic h c o r r e l a t e s significantly w i t h t h e d e d u c t i v e
fa c to r*
T h is r a is e © i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c u la tio n s c o n c e rn in g
m e th o d s o f v o c a b u l a r y d e v e lo p m e n t.
I t w ould seem t h a t
l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g h a s some b e a r i n g upon v o c a b u l a r y d e v e lo p ­
m e n t.
P e r h a p s t h e u s e o f r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g m e an in g s o f
r o o t s , p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s a r e u s e d more e x t e n s i v e l y
th a n i s th o u g h t g e n e r a l l y .
I t may b e t h a t d e d u c t i o n s
c o n c e r n i n g m e a n in g s o f w o rd s a r e d e r i v e d m a in ly from c o n t e x t ,
a p r i n c i p l e w h ic h i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f p o o r
r e a d e r s and. h a s l o n g b e e n recognised a s one o f t h e b e s t
m e th o d s o f i n c r e a s i n g v o c a b u l a r y .
I f th e re a d in g t e s t s used in t h i s p a r t of th e
s tu d y a r e v a l i d m e a s u r e s o f t h e f a c t o r s i s o l a t e d i n t h e
f i r s t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , I t w ould seem t h a t o n l y t h e p e r c e p t u a l
and v e r b a l f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a© mea­
s u r e d b y t h e M e ls o n -b e n n y t e s t s *
T h ese r e s u l t s w ould seem
to su g g e st th a t th e use of g e n e ra l in te llig e n c e t e s t s to
m easure r e a d in g c a p a c i t y I s n o t f u l l y J u s t i f i e d .
42
C h a p t e r XV
F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f t h e T e n t a t i v e P r im a r y F a c t o r s
i n H e a d in g and I n t e l l i g e n c e
Thb o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e s tu d y a r e :
To d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f i n v a r i a n c e o f
th e r e a d in g t e a t s a n a ly z e d In t h e '. f i r s t s tu d y ;
2.
To s e e how h i g h l y t h e t e s t s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s ,
a s u se d in th e second stu d y , a r e s a tu ra te d w ith th e f a c t o r
w h ic h t h e y p u r p o r t t o m e a s u r e ; an d
5*
To s-ee w h e t h e r a n y o f t h e f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g
a r e i d e n t i c a l w ith any of th e f a c t o r s in i n t e l l i g e n c e a s
i s o l a t e d b y T h u r s t o n e I n h i s P r im a r y A b i l i t i e s b a t t e r y .
The b a t t e r y o f t e s t s upon w hich t h i s
based c o n ta in e d th e fo llo w in g v a ria b le s*
s tu d y i s
t h e . r a t e , com pre­
h e n s i o n , d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g , p o e t r y c o m p re h e n s io n , word mean­
in g ,
s e n t e n c e m e a n in g , p a r a g r a p h c o m p re h e n s io n c e n t r a l i d e a ,
p a r a g r a p h c o m p r e h e n s io n d e v e lo p m e n t, and l o c a t i o n o f
i n f o r m a t i o n t e s t © fro m t h e Iow a S i l e n t H e a d in g T e s t ; P a r t
IV of t h e Iow a E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g E x a m in a tio n ; F a r t Tv o f
t h e M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e T e s t ; t h e M in n e s o ta Speed o f Head­
i n g T e s t ; a n d t h e v o c a b u l a r y and c o m p re h e n s io n t e s t s fro m
t h e Nelson-B@ nny H e a d in g T e s t f o r H igh S c h o o l and C o lle g e *
To t h e s e 14 t e s t s o f r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t was added t h e
P r i m a r y Mental- A b i l i t i e s B a t t e r y w h ich c o n t a i n s t e s t s o f
P e r c e p t i o n , Number, V e r b a l , B-oace, Memory, I n d u c t i o n ,
and
43
d e d u c tio n a b i l i t i e s *
m a k in g a t o t a l o f 21 v a r i a b l e s ,
The e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d
o f 8 3 o f t h e ©7 s t u d e n t s who fo rm e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p
f o r t h e s e c o n d s t u d y and f o r whom Iowa B i l e n t H e a d in g ,
E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g * a n d M a th e m a tic s A p t i t u d e s c o r e s w ere
a v a ila b le *
The c e n t r o i d m ethod o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was u s e d
to a n a ly se t h i s b a t t e r y of t e s t s ,
The I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s
w ere co m■-p u ted b yV t h e t e t r & o h o r l c m ethod i n o r d e r t o fo re ®
t h e r a w s c o r e s i n t o a n o rm a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ,
i
sl
}
f .~
m
? X
3.h e t e t r & c h o r l c V\
c o e f f i c i e n t i s i n e s s e n c e an e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t -
^
moment c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e n o r m a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s . '£/
^ h u r s t o n e , ' ^ '. n' 'ET"
f o r t h e H g y a h o m e tr ie S o c i e t y b y t h e u n i v e r s i t y o f C hicag o
...
S i n c e t h e s i m p l e s t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t ca n b e made r e g a r d i n g
r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s t h a t i t I s n o r m a ll y d i s t r i b u t e d , t h e us©
o f t e t r a c h o r l c c o e f f i c i e n t s seemed a p p r o p r i a t e .
The I n t e r -
c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e t e s t s a r e shown I n T a b le V I I .
In s p e c tio n of t h i s ta b le of I n te r c o r r e la tio n s
d i s c l o s e s s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s , t h e m o st s t r i k i n g
one b e i n g t h a t 8© o f t h e 210 i n t e r o o r r e l a t i o n a l a c k s i g ­
n i f i c a n c e a t t h e \% l e v e l *
H ow ever, e a c h t e s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t ­
l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h on© o r more o f t h e o t h e r t e s t s so t h a t no
t e s t e w a re d i s c a r d e d f o r t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .
F a c to rs can
a p p e a r o n l y t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t e s t s ,
so
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44
f e a t s u sed In T ab le 7IX
1*
M in n eso ta Speed o f H eading T est
2*
B©ison~0eiingr V o cab u lary
3 * Mel son**Denny Com prehension
4*
■ft*
Io w a S i l e n t H e a d in g Hat©
Iowa S i l e n t H eading, Com prehension
0*
Iowa S i le n t H eading, P ir o c ted H eading
7*
Iowa S i l e n t H eading, P o e try Com prehension
8*
Iowa S i l e n t H ead ing, Word Meaning
9,
Iowa S i le n t H ead ing, S e n te n c e Meaning
'10*
Iowa S i l e n t B ead in g , C e n tra l Id e a
11*
Iow a S i l e n t B ead ing, P a ra g ra p h Development
12,
Iowa S i l e n t H ead in g , L o c a tio n o f In fo rm a tio n
13*
M ath em atics A p titu d e T e s t, P a r t 17
14*
E n g lis h T r a in in g E x am in atio n , P a rt* 17
13*
P e rc e p tu a l f a c to r
16*
Humber A b i l i t y F a c to r
17*
V erb al F a c to r
18.
Space P e r c e p tio n
19*
Memory F a c to r
20*
I n d u c tio n
21*
D ed u ctio n
th o s e t e s t s w hich show no c o r r e l a t i o n w ith o th e r t e s t s in
th e b a t t e r y may a s w e ll be e lim in a te d from th e b a t t e r y ,
b e f o r e t h e a n a l y s i s i s begun s in c e th e y can a p p e a r o n ly
45
as sp ecific® .
%gfrt negative co rrela tio n s appear in the
ta b le but non# of th ese 1® sig n ifica n t*
from the co rrela tio n matrix i t w ill be noted
that th e c o rre la tio n between the two rat# t e s t s i s . 20*
With no more rela tio n sh ip than t h is occurring in the
correlation®* nothing eloareut by way of a rate fa cto r can
be expected in a fa c to r an alysis*
The Minnesota Speed o f
Heading show® i t s h igh est co rrela tio n with the Verbal
factor* i t being . 64s the next highest co rrela tio n s are
with th© I©X#©n-P©*my vocabulary and comprehension te sts*
the correlation® being *52 and *61* respectively*
It©
correlation® with Induction# deduction# and Humber fa cto rs
approach sera*
I f speed of reading 1® a ctu a lly measured
by t h is te st* and i f the Primary A b ilitie s t e s t s are high-*
l y dependent upon speed* a® has been asserted by some
w riters# then higher co rrela tio n s between them would be
expected.
A very high correlation* . 79, i s found between
the two M#lson*Benny te sts* vocabulary and comprehension.
This make© i t appear doubtful that two separate a b i l i t i e s
©re required fo r th ese two test® , at le a s t for t h is popu­
la t io n .
However# the experimental group fo r th is study
showed very high reading scores* and I t Is conceivable
that even I f two separate a b i l i t i e s are c a lle d for* the
m ajority of t h is group may w ell be superior performers In
both a b ilit ie s *
45
I n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r s o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n b e tw e e n t h e
f e w t e s t s w h ic h m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d f o fo rm a v o c a b u l a r y
f a c t o r i n a m e ly , t h e ^ e ls o n ^ D e n n y v o c a b u la r y * Iow a S i l e n t
B e a d in g Word M e a n in g , E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g , a n d t h e V e r b a l
fa c to r»
The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s :
Helscn^hegny vocabulary and Iowa C lient Beading Word Meaning .70
:
?
tt E nglish T rain in g
.49
*
*
•
* V erbal F a c to r
Io w a S i l e n t H e a d in g Word M eaning and E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g
*
*
*
*
•
* V erbal F a c to r
E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g an d V e r b a l F a c t o r
*7?
.3 9
.5 9
.20
T he E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g t e s t shows c o n s i s t e n t l y
lo w e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w ith a l l th e o th e r v o c a b u la ry t e s t e
t h a n do t h e o t h e r v o c a b u l a r y t e s t s w i t h e a c h o t h e r .
T h is
m eans t h a t e i t h e r t h e t e s t I s l e s s r e l i a b l e t h a n t h e
o th e r te s ts *
o r t h a t I t r e p r e s e n t s some a b i l i t y o t h e r
t h a n t h a t r e q u i r e d b y t h e o t h e r t h r e e t e s t s w h ich d e a l
w i t h word, m a n i p u l a t i o n .
The Mat h e m a tic ® A p t i t u d e t e s t i s o f s p e c i a l
i n t e r e s t in t h i s stu d y s in c e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e
d is c o v e r e d c o n c e rn in g i t In th e f i r s t s tu d y .
was
I t s two
h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e w i t h t h e B e l son-43 enny c o m p re h e n s io n
te s t,
a n d w i t h t h e I n d u c t i o n t e s t w i t h e a c h o f w h ich I t
c o rre la te ®
.4 8 .
I t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h Humber a b i l i t y i s
.08 , a n d w i t h t h e P e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r ,
.0 7 .
I t has a
c o r r e l a t i o n o f .3 8 w i t h t h e S p ace f a c t o r w h lo h may b e
c o n sid e re d a s lig h t in d ic a tio n th a t th e a b i l i t y to v is u a lis e
4?
J.& s p a c e c o n t r i b u t e s t o f a c i l i t y i n m a t h e m a t i c a l r e a s o n -
fh e V erbal f a c to r show® s ig n if ic a n t c o rre la tio n s
w ith a l l o f th e re a d in g t e s t e except 10 a n t 14# as might
h&v# bean p re d ic te d * th e dumber f a c to r does not c o r r e la te
s ig n if i c a n tl y w ith any read in g te s t*
th e P ercep tu al
f a c t o r c o r r e la te s s ig n if i c a n tl y w ith nine o f th e fo u rteen
re a d in g te s ts # %>aee w ith f i v e , Memory w ith five# Induction
w ith n in e , and D eduction w ith th re e of th e read in g te s ts *
Ho on© read in g t e s t seems to have a g re a te r tendency th an
any o th e r to show h ig h c o r r e la tio n s w ith th e Primary
Mental A b i l i t i e s as me&mred*
The- fo llo w in g s ig n if ic a n t c o r r e la tio n s o b tain
between th e Prim ary A b ili tie s them selves**
between P and ?
P an d 0
P an d X
H and I
¥ and M
V and S
▼ and X
5 and X
6 an d h
X and D
36
51
39
31
39
53
31
t m o f t h e S I I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t h e s o - c a l l e d
i n d e p e n d e n t a b i l i t i e s t h e n show s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e la tio n © *
t h i s i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e num ber o f
s i g n i f i c a n t I n t e r c a r r e l a t I o n s f o u n d by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s
a n d may b e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l
g r o u p w as q u i t e s m a ll*
'However# w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l
48
group showed c o n c e n tra tio n at the upper end of the re ad in g
scale*. they were d istrib u ted in a f a i r l y normal fashion on
th e P r i m a r y A b ilit ie s te a ts *
Table VTXX shows th e comparisons o f th e oorre*
l a t l o n s between the- eleven measures o f read in g which were
need in both th e f i r s t and t h i r d f a c to r analyses* namely*
th e n in e safesteat & o f th e Iowa Silent heading t e s t , th e
E nglish T rain in g te s t* and th e Mathematics A p titu d e te s t*
The number® in p a re n th e se s a re th e c o r r e la tio n s o b tain ed
in th e f i r s t study and m
th ey o r ig in a lly were shown in
Table 1* except th a t they a re given here only in two
places*
Of th e 5b In te rc o r re la tio n s * eleven a re co n sid er*
ab ly M g h er In- th e t h i r d study than l a th e f i r s t * 58 a re
eem aiderably lower* and e ig h t remain e s s e n ti a lly th e same*
I t w ill be remembered th a t th e I n i t i a l c o r r e la tio n s were
computed by th e Pearson P w duot^om eiit method on 500
randomly s e le c te d c o lle g e freshmen* w hile th e second ta b le
of in te r o o r r e la tio n s was computed by th e t© tra e h o rie
method* th e subject® b ein g §5 v o lu n te e r s u b je c ts .
t h i s s h i f t in c o rrela tio n ® might be expected*
Hence
I t is
curious* however* t h a t eleven of th e c o r re la tio n s should
be so markedly in c re a se d sin ce w ith a more homogeneous
p o p u la tio n th e c o rre la tio n s o r d in a r ily would be expfeefeed
to d s o r e a t r t because o f th e sm aller range o f score®*
With
t h i s change in th e c o r r e la tio n matrix* a change in th e
c o n s te lla tio n o f f a c to r s might be expected.
48a
T«tol« Till
C o m p a ris o n o f C o r r e l a t i o n s B e tw ee n H e a d in g T e s t s
tls e d t n F i r s t an d T h i r d S t u d i e s
( C o r r e l a t i o n ® i n f i r s t s t u d y b a s e d on 500 u n s a l s o t s d ,
o a s e s * i n se o e n d s t u d y b a s e d on 85 v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s )
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f h e f a c t o r a n d y a i * w as c a r r i e d o u t u n t i l e l e v e n
fa cto r® had been e x tra c te d *
A f te r an u n s u c c e s s fu l a tte m p t
t o a r r i v e a t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n in g f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f $ h # f a o t o r e # I t w as d e c i d e d t o a p p l y t u c k e r * e ^
e m p iric a l
% f h u r s t o n ® , P r i m a r y M e n ta l A b i l i t i e s , pp.* 6 6 -6 ?* Psycho**
m e t r i c M o n o g rap h s, S o . 1* P u b l i s h e d f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f
C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 $ , 121 p p .
r u le to t e s t th e s ig n ific a n c e o f th e fa c to rs *
S in c e i n
f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t h e r e i s a s y e t no m ethod o f c o m p u tin g t h e
m a g n itu d e o f t h e e r r o r s , i t 1© i m p o s s i b l e t o know how much
e r r o r a c c u m u l a t e s a s m ore a n d m ore f a c t o r s a r e e x t r a c t e d *
A c c o r d i n g t o f u c k e r 1© r u l e , when a l l t h e s i g n i f i c a n t
f a c t o r s h a v e b e e n e x t r a c t e d so t h a t o n l y c h a n c e v a r i a t i o n
r e m a i n s i n t h e r e s i d u a l s , m em pirical c r i t e r i o n t a k e s a
l i m i t i n g v a l u e w h ic h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e equation
TZSHT
r - f t
W h e re£/%i s t h e sum o f t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s o f t h e r e s i d u a l s
a f t e r S f a c t o r s , a n d t ^ T\ i s t h e sum o f t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s
o f t h e r e s i d u a l s a f t e r St-1 f a c t o r s ,
w h ic h & a p p r o a c h e s I s
th e l i m i t i n g v a lu e
, w h e re n i s t h e num ber o f
v a r ia b le s in th e c o r r e la tio n m a trix ,
t h i s t e s t , a p p lie d
t o a l l t h e f a c t o r s b e y o n d t h e t h i r d , showed t h e f a c t o r s
beyond th e f o u r th to be o f d o u b tfu l s ig n if ic a n c e (se e
a p p e n d ix ).
F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a n d b e c a u s e t h i s number was
found in th e f i r s t a n a ly sis *
it
seemed d e f e n s i b l e t o make
m
t h e a n a l y s t s an d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y
i n t e r m s o f f o u r f a c t o r a#
I n f a b l e X%a a r e p r e s e n t e d t h e u n r o t a t e d l o a d ­
i n g s o f t h e t e s t e on th ee© f o u r f a c t o r s .
ro ta tio n *
A f t e r in d e p en d en t
t h e l o a d i n g s a s shown i n f a b l e IXb w ere o b t a i n e d .
f e a t s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t lo a d in g © on F a c t o r I a r e s
5.
7*
0.
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15.
17,
19*
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.6 3 8 0
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Iow a S i l e n t H e a d in g ,
S e n t e n c e M ean in g
.5 8 4 ?
Iow a S i l e n t H e a d in g , L o c a t i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n
.4 3 8 6
Perceptual F a c t o r
.4 8 8 2
V erbal F a c to r
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Memory F a c t o r
.6 9 7 2
In d u c tio n F a c to r
.4 7 6 0
I t i s c o n c e iv a b le t h a t a l l o f th e s e t e s t s have
s o m e th in g i n common, t h a t t h e a b i l i t i e s t h e y r e p r e s e n t
all c o n t r i b u t e t o a b i l i t y t o co m p reh end w hat i s r e a d .
H o w ev er, a c c o r d i n g t o th© r e s u l t © o f t h e f i r s t s t u d y ,
t e s t s 4 , 6 , 8 , 1 0 , 1 1 , and 14 w ou ld b e e s p e o t e d t o ©how
w e i g h t i n g s on t h i s f a c t o r i f i t i s t o r e p r e s e n t a com pre­
h e n sio n f a c t o r .
A ls o t e s t s 2 an d 3 , w h ich ar© t h e N e ls o n -
Denyy v o c a b u l a r y an d c o m p r e h e n s io n t e s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
w o u ld b© escpeoted t o show c o n s i d e r a b l e w e i g h t i n g on t h i s
fa c to r*
f e s t 1 , w h ic h i s t h e M in n e s o ta S p eed o f H e a d in g
t e s t , b u t w h ic h r e q u i r e d c o m p re h e n s io n o f t h e p a r a g r a p h
b e f o r e a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e c o u l d b e made, w o u ld l o g i c a l l y
a lso be re p re se n te d h e re .
f e s t s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t lo a d in g © on F a c t o r XI a r e :
2.
3*
H e le e n -D e im y V o c a b u la r y
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Iowa B ile n t
Io w a C lie n t
Iowa B iie n t
Iowa B iie n t
Iowa % le n t
Io w a S ile n t
Heading Hate
H e a d in g C o m p re h en sio n
Heading D irected Heading
Heading ^ord Meaning
Heading Sentence Meaning
H e a d in g , C en tral I d e a
Io w a S i l e n t H ead in g * P a r a g r a p h d e v e lo p m e n t
E nglish T ra in in g
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T h is f a c t o r c o r r e s p o n d s m ore n e a r l y t o t h e c o m p re h e n s io n
f a c t o r fo u n d i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y .
I t c o n ta in ® a l l o f t h e
sam e t e s t s w ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t e s t s o f H o e try Gompre*
h e n s io n an d L o c a t i o n o f I n f o r m a tio n *
In a d d itio n , t e s t s 2
a n d 3 , H elson~ & enny V o c a b u la ry an d C o m p re h e n sio n , a r e fo u n d
h e r e a s w o u ld l o g i c a l l y b e e x p e c t e d .
H ow ever, i t I s s u r p r i s e
i n g t h a t n o n e o f t h e P rim a r y M e n ta l A b i l i t i e s show s i g n i f i c a n t
w e ig h tin g s *
I t seem s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t a t l e a s t t h e
V e r b a l f a c t o r w o u ld a p p e a r .
T e a ts w h ic h show s i g n i f i c a n t w e ig h t in g s on
F a o t o r I I I a re *
6.
13*
18.
80*
81 *
J
Io w a B i l e n t H e a d in g d ir e c t® d H e a d in g
M athematics A ptitude
Space F a c to r
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T h is f a o t o r seem s t o h a v e a c e r t a i n am ount o f p s y c h o lo ~
g io a l m e a n in g fu ln e s s .
I t seem s r e a s o n a b l e t h a t t h e a b i l i t y
t o m a n i p u l a t e and r e a d m a th e m a tic a l m a t e r i a l w ith under-*
s ta n d in g r e q u ir e s re a s o n in g a b i l i t y
su ch a s i s p re s u m a b ly
m e a s u re d b y t h e I n d u c t i o n an d D ed u ct io n t e s t s .
I t a ls o
d o e s n o t r e q u i r e to o g r e a t a s t r e t c h o f t h e im a g in a tio n
t o se e th a t th e a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i s e In sp a c e , th e a b i l i t y
m
w h ic h 1 * p r e s u m a b ly m e a su re d b y t h e S p ao e p e r c e p t i o n t e s t ,
i s c o n d u c iv e t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of m a th e m a tic a l
fo rm u la # *
3 in o e t h e M a th e m a tic s a p t i t u d e t e s t i s a t e s t
of r e a d i n g , i t
seem s l o g i c a l t h a t a f a c t o r w h ic h m ig h t
b e c o n s id e re d a s d e s c r ip tiv e o f th e a b i l i t i e s re q u ire d
fo r i t s
s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u ld i n c l u d e some fo rm
o f r e a d i n g c o m p re h e n s io n *
$ h y t h i s s h o u ld b e r e p r e s e n t e d
by t e s t 6 , d i r e c t e d H e a d in g , r a t h e r t h a n b y a n y o t h e r t e s t
or c o m b in a tio n o f c o m p re h e n s io n t e s t s i s n o t c l e a r .
&t
a n y r a t e # t h i s g ro u p o f t e a t s doe® seem t o h a v e s o m e th in g
i n common, e v e n th o u g h I t i s difficult t o a s s i g n a
m e a n in g fu l- nm o t o t h e f a c t o r *
I t m ig h t b e c a l l e d an
“ability t o v i s u a l i s e a b s t r a c t i o n s * “
f h e follow in g t e s t s h a v e sig n ific a n t loadings
on Factor IF:
1*
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.4 1 1 3
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.5 1 9 9
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f h is fa o to r contains a l l f i v e of t h e v o c a b u la r y o r w ord
manipulation t e s t s , n a m e ly , 2, 8 , 12, 1 4 , a n d 1 7 .
r a t e t e s t a # 1 and 4 , a l s o a p p e a r ,
B o th
^wo t e s t s , 3 an d 6,
w h ic h show ed w e i g h t i n g s on t h e c o m p re h e n sio n f a o t o r XI#
an d t e s t 7 # p o e t r y c o m p re h e n s io n , w h ich a p p e a r e d i n
f a c t o r X* a l s o a p p e a r h e r e *
A s im ila r s itu a tio n e x is ts
I n t h e f i r s t a n a ly s t® ! t h a t i s #
a t l e a s t one o f th e s o -
c a l l e d c o m p re h e n s io n t e s t s a p p e a r e d In t h e v o c a b u la r y
f a o t o r # an d a l l t h e v o c a b u la r y t e s t s a p p e a r e d on t h e
c o m p re h e n s io n f a c t o r *
Even th o u g h t h e r e I s some o v e r l a p ­
p i n g o f t e s t e I n t h e f a c t o r s # i t a p p e a r s on t h e w hole
t h a t v o c a b u la r y o r w ord k n o w le d g e i s t h e m oat d e s c r i p t i v e
name w h ic h c o u ld b e a s s i g n e d t o t h i s f a c t o r *
i n r e g a r d t o t h e p ro b le m o f i n v a r i a n c e o f t e a t a#
th e r e s u l t s o f t h i s
s tu d y a r e n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y *
There a r e . s e v e r a l r e a s o n s w h ic h may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s
fa c t-
One o f t h e s e I s t h e d i f f e r e n c e I n t h e tw o e x p e r i ­
m e n ta l p o p u l a t i o n s -
T h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t s tu d y
w as l a r g e r an d l e s s s e l e c t i v e .
I n so f a r &e a p p l i c a b i l i t y
o f t h e m e th o d i s c o n c e rn e d # t h e q u e s tio n o f t h e norm al& oy
o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i s n o t p e r t i n e n t s i n c e t h e t e c h n iq u e
o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s I s n o t l i m i t e d t o d a t a d e r i v e d from
n o rm a l p o p u la tio n s * '^
However# I f I n v a r i a n c e o f t e s t s
3 T h u r s to n s # L* L* The F e e t o r e o f Mind* C h ic a g o : The
U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o F r e e s , 1 9 3 6 , 266 p p .
I s t o b e s t u d i e d , i t w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t t h e b a t t e r i e s ,
w h ic h c o n t a i n t h e t e s t s i n q u e s t i o n , s h o u ld b e a d m i n i s t e r e d
t o t h e sam e o r t o c o m p a ra b le p o p u l a t i o n s .
A n o th e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r may b e t h e f a c t t h a t
55
fcetraohoria correlations were used in the second study
and Pearsoa Product**%ment co rrela tio n s In the f i r s t
study*,
4® pointed out e a r lie r tetr&chorte correlation
0 o w f f te la n te
have certa in a ttr ib u te s which make them
desir&bl® m a study of th is kind but i t should also be
remembered that «meh coefficients give only a rough mea­
sure of the degree o f rela tio n sh ip e x istin g between t h e
variables*
SSven though the use of tetraoh orie corre­
la tio n s forces the raw scores in to a normal d istrib u tio n
in an absolute sen se, i t la neverth eless evident that
sin ce the c o rre la tio n s of the same te s ta in t h e two stu d ies
do not correspond very c lo s e ly , the fa cto r an a ly sis w ill
also be in disagreement *
4 th ird reason fa r b e lie v in g that the data are
not f u lly sa tis fa c to r y fo r a comparison with the f i r s t
study i s that the group was r e la tiv e ly small*
Coefficient©
of co rre la tio n based upon such a small group have fa ir ly
large probable errors*
One would expect t h is to a ffe c t
the fa o to r analysis and probably to reduce the lik elih o o d
o f fin d in g c lo se agreement between the f i r s t and second
fa o to r analyses*
F in a lly , i t should not be overlooked that some
of the t e s t s are short and consequently th e ir r e l i a b i l i t i e s
may b® open to question*
T h is
would be p a rticu la rly true
o f the subpmrfcs o f the Iowa S ilen t Heading test*
in the
lig h t o f a l l th ese fa c ts i t i s not too surprising to find
some lack of agreement between the f i r s t and second faotor
56
a n a ly s e s *
I n d e e d , o n e w o u ld a n t i c i p a t e t h a t a c e r t a i n
d e g r e e o f f l u c t u a t i o n i n r e s u l t s w o u ld o c c u r ,
H s in g
otrlctly comparable p o p u l a t i o n s and l o n g e r t e s t s w ould
p r o b a b l y b e m ore l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n c o m p a ra b le r e s u l t s .
W ith the t y p e of t e s t s u s e d I n t i l l s investigation, o n ly
a rough s u r v e y o f t h e f a c t o r s l a r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t on
th e c o l le g e l e v e l c o u ld p o s s ib ly b e a c h ie v e d .
In regard to the second ob jective of th is part
o f the study, namely, to see how highly the Nelson-Benny
and Minnesota 6p#e& of Heading t e s t e are saturated with
the fa c to r s which they purport to measure,
fa b le XXb i s en ligh ten in g,
a
glance at
fe e t 2, Neleon-^ermy Vocabu­
la r y , sh o w a w eighting of .7?
on
factor IV, which was
id e n t ifie d as vocabulary, and a weighting of *46 on
fa c to r II which is--apparently some aspect of comprehension*
f h ls t e s t
m m ®
to b e, thep, r e la tiv e ly h igh ly saturated
with what i t purports to measure*
fa s t 5, Nelso»-d?en»jr
Oomprehens 1on, does net show quite as neat a picture yet
1® f a i r l y clear*
It® weighting on factor I I i s .66 and
I t s w eighting on fa o to r P i s ,56*
I t 1® r e la tiv e ly
h igh ly saturated w ith what i t purport® to measure, but
n ev erth eless contain® an appreciable amount of what 1®
her® te n ta tiv e ly I d e n tifie d a® vocabulary.
With present
method® o f te s tin g reading i t i s probably Impossible to
measure comprehension without also measuring what i s c a lle d
vocabulary.
On the whole the Neison-Penny test® seem to
measure f a ir ly w ell what they are intended to measure.
m
Xt 1« a l e c I n t e r e s t i n g to not® t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e Kelson**
D enny t e s t e show s a p p r e c i a b l e w e ig h t in g o n a n y e t h e r
fa c to r,
t h e i r c o m p o s itio n b e i n g a lm o s t e n t i r e l y c o n f in e d
t o t h e s e tw o f a c t o r s *
T he M in n e s o ta Speed o f H e a d in g show s a weight**
I n g o f *60 on f a o t o r IV , i t s o n ly h ig h 'w e ig h t in g *
t h e r e w as s o l i t t l e
B inoe
a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e s p e e d o f r e a d i n g
t e s t s I t l a n o t s u r p r is in g th a t th e a n a ly s is in re g a rd to
t h i s a s p e c t o f re a d in g i s n o t c le a re r*
T he t h i r d o b j e c t i v e In t h i s
was t o
p a r t o f t h e s tu d y
s e e w h e th e r a n y o f t h e f a c t o r s m e a su re d I n T hurston© * s
P r im a r y A b i l i t i e s t e s t s a r e Id en tica l with a n y o f t h e f a c t o r s
m e a s u re d i n r e a d in g *
‘f a b l e IXb shows t h a t t h e Humber f a c t or
h a s ho a p p r e c i a b l e w e ig h tin g ; on a n y o f t h e r e a d i n g f a c t o r s *
’P h is seem s r e a s o n a b l e s i n c e no r e a d i n g i s in v o lv e d i n th is
t e s t b e y o n d b a r e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e num bers*
P e s ts IS ,
t h e P e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r , and 1 9 , Memory* show w e ig h tin g s o f
*4? a n d *?0 r e s p e c t i v e l y , on f a c t o r X*
and 21,
T e s ta
12, S pace,
D e d u c tio n , show w e i g h t i n g s o f *62 a n d *?4 respec-*
iv e ly , on f a o t o r 111*
I t w i l l b e rem em bered t h a t t h i s
fa c to r w as t e n t a t i v e l y I d e n t i f i e d a s ®a b ilit y t o v i s u a l ! &e
a b s tr a c tio n ® ®
a b ility .
an d seem.® t o b e so m e th in g a p a r t from r e a d i n g
N o th in g s i m i l a r t o t h i s f a o t o r wm
fo u n d i n t h e
f i r s t a n a ly s is *
T e a t 20, I n d u c t i o n , ha© w e ig h tin g s o f *48 on
08
f a o t o r %t an d ,68 fen f a o t o r I I I ,
fh© h e a v i e r w e ig h t in g
i s h a r e a g a i n on the- f a o t o r t h a t so erne t o b e s o m e th in g
o t h e r t h a n on© o f t h e m ore common r e a d i n g f a c t o r © ,
f e e t 17* t h e V erb al f a o t o r * ha© a w e ig h t in g o f
'.,"03 on f a o t o r X> an d ,68 on f a o t o r XV,
The m a jo r p o r t i o n
o f t h e c o m p o s itio n o f t h e v e r b a l f a o t o r * t h e r e f o r e * f a l l ©
I n t o w h at v an t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s r e a d i n g com pre­
h e n s io n . and v o c a b u l a r y ,
fh e V erb al f a o to r I s th e
o n ly
o n e o f t h e P r im a r y A b illf e i e e w h ic h ca n b e s a i d to h a v e
c o n s i d e r a b l e I n common w ith w hat i s m e asu red by r e a d i n g
te s ts ,
59
Oha.pt e r V
Summary an d C o n c lu s io n s
The m a jo r p u r p o s e o f t h e s tu d y was t o I d e n t i f y
some o f t h e f a c t o r s i n r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t a t t h e c o l l e g e
le v e l*
M ore s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t w as d e s ig n e d t o fee a s tu d y
o f t h e f a c t o r s m e a s u re d fey r e a d i n g t e s t e and a c o m p a riso n
o f th o s e f a c t o r s w ith f a c t o r s In I n te llig e n c e *
The s tu d y w as d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s ? t h e
firs t,
a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f e l e v e n m e a su re s o f r e a d i n g ,
n a m e ly , t h e n in e s u b - t e s t s o f t h e Iow a S i l e n t H e a d in g
T e s t f o r H ig h S c h o o l an d C o l le g e , F a r t
o f t h e Iow a
E n g l i s h T r a i n i n g E x a m in a tio n w h ich i s a v o c a b u la r y u s a g e
te s t,
an d F a r t IV o f t h e M a th e m a tic s A p titu d e t e s t w h ich
i s a t e s t o f a b i l i t y t o r e a d m a th e m a tic s and d o e s n o t
i n v o l v e a n y m a th e m a tic a l c o m p u ta tio n *
Th® d a t a f o r t h i s
a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e ra w s c o r e s o f 300 S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y
o f Io w a fresh m en , c h o s e n a t random from t h e 1939 fre sh m a n
c la s s *
The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e e le v e n v a r i a b l e s
r e s u l t e d i n f o u r f a c t o r s w h ich w ere t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d
a& c o m p re h e n s io n , v o c a b u l a r y , a b i l i t y t o l o o k f o r a n s w e rs
t o q u e s t i o n s , an d r a t e o r s p e e d o f r e a d in g *
The I d e n t i ­
f i c a t i o n o f t h e r a t e f a c t o r i s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e a s o n ly
o n e s o - c a l l e d r a t e t e s t was I n c lu d e d i n t h e b a t t e r y and
t h e m e a su re m e n t o f r a t e o f r e a d i n g i s a t b e s t q u i t e un­
re lia b le *
6Q
The s e c o n d p a r t o f th # s tu d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h
t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e f a c t o r s I n r e a d i n g , a s fo u n d
l n t h e f i r s t s t u d y , and f a c t o r s i n I n t e l l i g e n c e f a s i s o ­
l a t e d b y T h u r s to n e i n t h e P rim a ry C e n ta l A b i l i t i e s b a t t e r y *
T m s u b je c t© f o r t h i s s tu d y w ore 8? S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f
lowm fre s h m e n who v o l u n t e e r e d t o a c t a s s u b j e c t s *
The
r e a d i n g t e s t s w h ich seem ed m ost r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e
f a c t o r s a s fo u n d i n t h e f i r s t
s tu d y w ere t h e ^ e ls o n - ^ e n n y
H e a d in g t e s t s f o r H igh S ch o o l and C o lle g e , f o r t h e com p re­
h e n s i o n and v o c a b u la r y f a c t o r s ,
H e a d in g
and t h e M in n e s o ta S p eed o f
a s a m e a su re of r a t e o f r e a d i n g .
The t h i r d
f a c t o r , a b i l i t y t o f i n d a n s w e rs t o q u e s t i o n s , w as n o t
I n c lu d e d s i n c e t h i s f a o t o r seem ed t o b e b a s e d upon t h e
p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e t e s t s and b e c a u s e a b i l i t y t o a n sw e r
q u e s t i o n s i s in c lu d e d in t h e r e a d i n g t e s t s u sed *
T h e se
t e s t s w e re a d m i n i s t e r e d t c t h e 87 v o l u n t e e r s , a n d t h e s c o r e s
o f t h e r e a d i n g t e r t s w ere c o r r e l a t e d w ith t h e s c o r e s on
t h e P r im a r y M e n ta l A b i l i t i e s t e s t s *
H igh c o r r e l a t i o n s
w ere fo u n d b e tw e e n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e m e a s u re s o f r e a d i n g
and t h e V e r b a l f a c t o r *
K&eh o f t h e t h r e e r e a d i n g t e s t a
a l s o c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w ith th e P e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r ,
a l t h o u g h t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s h e r e a r e n o t a s h ig h a s w ith t h e
V erb al f a o to r .
A ll o f t h e m e a su re s o f r e a d i n g show lo w
c o r r e l a t i o n s w ith t h e Number f a o t o r and w ith t h e S p ace
fa c to r.
S peed o f r e a d i n g i s th e o n ly r e a d i n g m e asu re
w h ic h show s s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w ith t h e Memory f a c t o r .
B one o f t h e r e a d i n g t e s t s c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w ith t h e
61
I n d u c tiv e f a c t o r , a lth o u g h th e c o r r e l a t i o n w ith th e vo­
c a b u la ry t e s t ap p ro ac h es s ig n if ic a n c e .
The v o c a b u la r y
t e s t i s t h e o n ly r e a d i n g t e s t w h ich c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t ­
l y w i t h t h e R e d u c tiv e f a c t o r *
The t h i r d p a r t o f t h e s tu d y I s a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s
o f a l l t h e t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e f i r s t tw o s t u d i e s ;
t h a t i s , t h e e le v e n m e a s u re s o f r e a d i n g u s e d I n t h e f i r s t
f a o t o r a n a l y s i s , t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l m e a s u re s o f r e a d i n g ,
an d t h e s e v e n P r im a r y A b i l i t i e s t e s t s u s e d i n t h e s e c o n d
s tu d y *
T h e se S I v a r i a b l e s w ere f a o t o r a n a l y s e d f o r t h e
p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m in in g t h e d e g r e e o f i n v a r i a n c e o f t h e
r e a d i n g t e s t e , t o s e e how h i g h l y t h e He l s o n - b e a n y v o ­
c a b u l a r y an d o t h e r c o m p r e h e n s io n •te s t© a r e s a t u r a t e d w i t h
t h e f a c t o r e a c h o f them p u r p o r t s t o m e a su re an d t o s e e
w h e th e r an y o f t h e f a c t o r s I n r e a d i n g a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h
any o f t h e f a c to r © I n I n t e l l i g e n c e a s i s o l a t e d by T h u rsto n ©
I n t h e P rim a r y C e n t a l A b i l i t i e s b a t t e r y *
The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h i s b a t t e r y r e s u l t e d
I n ©Seven f a c t o r s w h ic h w ere fo u n d t o b e d i f f i c u l t o r
im p o s s i b l e t o I d e n t i f y .
A f t e r a p p l y in g f u e & e r 1© t e s t o f
s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f a c t o r © , i t w as d e c id e d t o r e a n a l y z e t h e
d a ta , r e ta in in g
..
,:jr,‘aX!>1?03r ®1r.. _T h e se w ere
t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s f o llo w s 2 ^ a c t o r s I an d XI a p p e a r
t o m e a s u re tw o a s p e c t s o f c o m p re h e n s io n , f a o t o r XIX seem s
t o I n v o l v e t h e a b i l i t y t o v i s u a l i z e a b s t r a c t i o n © an d
f a c t o r tf- a p p e a r s t o c a l l f o r w ord k n o w led g e o r v o c a b u la r y
m a s te r y *
It
seem ® ,
h o w e v e r, t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e
s e c o n d a n a l y s i s c a n n o t v a l i d l y b e com pared w i t h t h e
r e s u l t s o f th e f i r s t a n a ly s is s in c e th e b a s ic d a ta f o r
t h e tw o a n a l y s e s w ere d i f f e r e n t d u e t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e I n
t h e tw o e x p e r i m e n ta l p o p u l a t i o n s ,
$*rotsL t h e e n t i r e s tu d y t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s
ap p e ar to be te n a b le :
1*
I n so f a r a s t h e t e s t a u s e d i n t h e f i r s t
a n a l y s i s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t e s t e o f r e a d i n g , f o u r
f a c t a r e i n r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t a r e fo u n d j c o m p re h e n s io n ,
v o c a b u la ry , r a t e ,
q u e s tio n s th e f i r s t
an d t h e a b i l i t y t o f i n d t h e a n s w e rs t o
H ie l a t t e r w ould n o t seem t o b e oom p& rable t o
t h r e e i n te r m s of e x p l a i n i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .
2,
S in c e o n ly one co m p o n en t, t h e V e rb a l f a c t o r ,
o f H a u r s t o n e 1© b a t t e r y o f tevrtes, m e a s u rin g s o - c a l l e d
p r im a r y m e n ta l a b i l i t i e s #
w as fo u n d t o b e r e l a t e d t o
r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t, i t w ould a p p e a r t h a t t h e u s e o f
g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s - m e a s u r in g a c o m p o s ite o f m e n ta l
a b i l i t i e s a s i n d i c e s o f r e a d i n g c a p a c i t y i s o p en t o
q u e s tio n *
A p titu d e t e s t s m e a s u rin g t h o s e fu n d a m e n ta l
a b i l i t i e s u n d e r l y i n g r e a d i n g a c h ie v e m e n t w o u ld seem t o
b e m ore u s e f u l *
3*
Hhe lo w c o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n t e s t s o f s p e e d
o f r e a d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m easu rem en t o f ra t® o f r e a d -
m
$ng i s
£|ult© u n r e l i a b l e .
elu&y o f s p e e d o f r e a d y ­
i n g t e s t e i s i n d i c a t e d a s b e i n g n e c e s s a r y a n d p r o b a b ly
r a t e o f c o m p re h e n s io n r a t h e r th a n r a t e o f r e a d i n g s h o u ld
b e m e a su re d *
4.
f h e lo w c o r r e l a t i o n o f th e Mathematics
A p t i t u d e t e s t w ith o t h e r m e a su re s of r e a d i n g i n d i c a t e s
t h a t t h i s i s a ty p e o f r e a d i n g n o t g e n e r a l l y m e a su re d by
r e a d i n g t e s t s and w h ic h a l s o cannot h e p r e d i c t e d from
t h e o r d i n a r y l i t e r a r y ty p e o f r e a d i n g t e s t *
dhe n e c e s s ity
f o r s e p a r a t e m e asu rem e n t o f m a th e m a tic a l an d s c ie n t if ic
re a d in g i s in d ic a te d *
6*
Invariance o f r e a d i n g t e s t s fro m o n e s i t u *
a t i o n t o a n o t h e r c a n n o t h e s t u d i e d e x c e p t on t h e same o r
o n c o m p a ra b le p o p u la tio n s *
F u r t h e r s tu d y o f t h e c o m p o s itio n
o f r e a d i n g t e s t s i s im p e r a t i v e s i n c e r e a d i n g s h o u ld b e mea­
su red m
s im p ly a s p o s s i b l e b u t a t t h e same tim e s h o u ld
c o n t a i n t e s t e o f a l l the s e p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f r e a d in g *
T h is
s tu d y s u g g e s t s t h a t e l a b o r a t e b reak d o w n s o f t h e s k i l l s
involved i n l i t e r a r y r e a d i n g , su c h a s r e a d i n g f o r c e n t r a l
i d e a an d r e a d i n g f o r a n s w e rs t o q u e s t i o n s # a r e n o t
e s s e n t i a l s i n c e t h e y b o t h a p p e a r t o in v o lv e t h e same
a b i l i t y ; b u t t h e m easu rem en t o f a b i l i t y t o r e a d s c i e n t i f i c
m a t e r i a l seem s t o b e d i f f e r e n t fro m r e a d i n g l i t e r a r y
m a t e r i a l a n d s h o u ld b e measured s e p a r a t e l y .
64
Bibliography
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r e l a t i o n to mental age — a com parative study* J .
“
' * % * Nov* 1931, XXII, 561-576,
ftle k lits o n , C h a rle s , E* & stu d y o f th e r e l a t i o n o f r e a d in g
»6 hola*ti© ach iev em en t, S s& M l
aXXIXI, Oct • 1 9 2 5 1 016—
026*
B u r r e l l , 2>, n , I’h© in f lu e n c e o f re a d in g a b i l i t y on i n t e l l i ­
gence m easures * J* M n q , P s y c h o l*. 1933* XXI?, 412-416*
B u r r e l l , 0 , 0, The e f f e c t o f s p e c ia l d i s a b i l i t y i n r e a d in g
on p erfo rm an ce o f th e S ta n fo rd r e v is i o n o f th e B l u e t Simon t e s t s * U npublished M asters t h e s i s , S t a t e ^niv*
o f Iow a, 1927*
G&tee, A rth u r I* A stu d y o f th e r o l e o f v i s u a l p e rc e p tio n *
i n t e l l i g e n c e , and c e r t a i n a s s o c ia ti v e -processes i n
r e a d in g and s p e llin g * £* ed u c* P s y c h o l* * Got* 1926*
XVII, 433—445*
G a r r i s o n , X . 0 * and B iv e n s , C u r tis *
C o r r e l a t i o n s b e tw e e n
v a r i o u s E n g l i s h a b i l i t i e s an d i n t e l l i g e n c e *
Peabody
i * I f 3&m* s e p t . 1 9 3 1 , IX , 77-79*
G ray, W* S.* Summary o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to re a d in g *
Unlv* o f C h icag o , C hicago, 1925, 270 p p .
Hawthorn©, J . W* E f f e c t o f improvement i n r e a d in g a b i l i t y
on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t scores* £ . MJ3&* S s z s M L -» 1935,
XXVI, 41—51 *
Hegge, T h o rlle f* G. S p e c ia l re a d in g d i s a b i l i t y w ith p a r t i c u ­
l a r r e f e r e n c e t o th e m e n ta lly d e f i c i e n t * P ro c e e d in g s
o f th e F if ty - E ig h th Annual S e ssio n o f th e American
A s s o c ia tio n on M ental d e f ic ie n c y , h e ld a t Hew Xork C ity ,
May 2 6 -2 9 , 1904, 297-343*
H u rlo c h , E lis a b e th B* and Hewn a r k , E ll a 0* ‘f h e memory span
o f p re s c h o o l c h ild r e n , £&&* 1 m * AE& £* &S£Ml* Ejmafaol. .
J u n e , 1931, XXXIX, 2, 107-173*
E e lle y , frum an E* C ro ssro a d s i n th e mind o f man* S ta n fo rd
unlv* P r e s s , C a lif * , 1928, 238 pp.
Mirk* Samuel A* 7h© ©ffeot© o f re m e d ia l re a d in g on th e edu­
c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s and p e r s o n a l ity a d ju stm e n t o f h ig h J.
S ad© m e n ta lly d e f i c i e n t problem c h ild re n *
g * , J u l y , 1934, X V III, 140-162*
65
Hmmlwt,
t* $ \ : S t a t i s t i c a l A n a ly sis In E d u c a tio n a l
. « * » # a?eh , Hew T otfti Houghton M i m m , 1940, p . 212.
l l t e r e r , O scar F, An e x p e rim e n ta l s tu d y o f v i s u a l a p p r e ; " ' ^ f f §l 22 ln ******* &+ m s u I r n m <a# * i * w * » * i r
286<*2?6,
‘ '
lo w ry j B n s w o rth * I n c r e a s in g th e 10,;
r*fc, 6 , 1952, 170*400,
'
Bclu ap,d 3pp,»,
yr
M o rp h e tt, Mable V ogel and W&shburne, C arl© to n .
s h o u ld c h i l d r e n b e g in t o re a d ?
1932, 496-503,
When /
S i m . B o h , J , , M arch ,
P rea to m , K a th e rin e A. Th© Speed o f word p e r c e p tio n and i t s
r e l a t i o n t o re a d in g a b i l i t y * £ ,
£MS&9l*» ^ y *
1935, M U , 199^203,
B&blnaem, F . P . O&n c o lle g e freshm en in th e lo w e st t e n t h in
r e a d in g he a id e d s c h o la s tic a lly ? %ch« .&MS&&*# -C®®*
1 9 , 1931, XXXIV, 843-846*
S c ru g g s, Shuman 9* E f f e c t o f improvement in re a d in g upon
t h e I n t e l l i g e n c e o f Megro c h ild re n * A t t r a c t o f
d o c to r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Hmtw. o f Kansas B ull* o f Eduo#
S p e c i a l I s s u e , Hay, 1935, 30 pp.
S k in n e r, H. C lay. The r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een re a d in g a b i l i t y
and c l a s s m arks i n c o lle g e s u b je c ts . £ . s&uo. Hqq.. .
F eb. 1928, %ni, 137-138.
Spearm an, C. ^h© A b i l i t i e s o f Man.
1927, 415 p p .
H w York* M acm illan,
S ta lm a k e r, J . M. P rim ary m ental a b i l i t i e s ,
1939, L , 86 8 -8 7 2 .
Msh*
apd
.*
Thomson, G odfrey H. The F a c to ria l, A n a ly sis o f Human A b i l i t y ,
Boston#
York: Houghton M if f lin , 1939.
T hurston© , 1 . 1 . C u rre n t Is s u e s in f a c t o r a n a ly s i s , PjL m hol.
B u l l . . A p r il, 1940, XXXVII, 4, 189-236.
T hurston© , 1 . 1 . P sy ch o m etric Monograph Mo. 1 , P u b lis h e d
f o r th e P sy ch o m etric S o c ie ty by th e U n iv e r s ity o f
C hicago P r e s s , 1938, 121 p p .
T h urston© , L. b . The V e c to rs o f Mind.
C hicago P r e s s , 1938, 268 p p .
C hicago: The U niv. o f
f o r g e r s m t f * W an d Shuman, I r e n s *
The v a r i a b i l i t y o f t b s
a c c o m p lis h m e n t o f p u p i l s o f t h e same m e n ta l l e v e l . , j£»
#W* 1925, XI, 132-136*.
f l a k i e r , . : A r th u r
2S2,e5*2*
887-368*;
E o l a t i o n b e tw e e n r a t s o f r e a d i n g a n d
Nation*. £*- Mm* Im M£U# 1934,. xxrt.
Van W agsnen, M*. 1 . A c o m p a ris o n o f t h e m e n ta l a b i l i t y an d
s c h o o l a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e b r i g h t an d d u l l - p u p ils I n
s i x t h g r a d s o f a l a r g e s c h o o l sy stem * '£ * M &0*
!&&*# M arch , 1 9 2 5 , X ?I, 186-192*
W o o lf, H e n r i e t t a *
th e r e la tio n o f I n te llig e n c e t e s t sc o re s
o f k in d e rg a rte n c h ild re n to t h e i r re a d in g t e s t s c o re s
i n t h e f i r s t g ra d e * 3-.oh* and. d o e .* Aug* 4 , 1 9 3 4 ,
180- 182*
W r ig h t, H u th E . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r i g i n a l S t a n f o r d B i n e t S c a le * P .a y a h o m e trlk a * S e p t. 1 9 3 9 , IV , 3 , 2 0 9 -2 8 0 .
67
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