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The recreation problems of seven hundred and thirty five junior and senior high school pupils in Torrance, California

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THE RECREATION PROBLEMS OF SEVEN HUNDRED AND
THIRTY FIVE JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
PUPILS IN TORRANCE, CALIFORNIA
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the Department of Sociology
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts
by
Thomas Riley Marshall
June 194-1
UMI Nurnbei. EPG5628
All rights reserved
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UMI EP65628
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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This thesis, w rit ten by
.........
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h . l s . F a c u l t y C o m m i t t e e ,
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been
presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on
G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l ­
m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f
mast:
•F ARTS
D ean
Secretary
nat.JULY,
1941
F a c u lty Com m ittee
C hairm an
/y
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PACE
I. INTRODUCTION ...................................
II.
1
Statement of the problem#. . . . . . . . . .
1
Importance of the study
.........
. . . . .
1
Value of the study
...................
3
Definition of terms u s e d ...................
3
Method of the s t u d y .....................
4
Plan of the questionnaire
4
. . . . . . . . .
Organization of the remainder of the thesis
7
Treatment of material
. . • • • • • « • • •
8
CLUB A C T I V I T I E S ..............................
9
Club activities of boys
.............
10
Reasons given by boys for not belonging
to clubs
.............................
Club activities of girls . . . . .
.........
15
17
Reasons given by girls for not belonging
to c l u b s ................
23
Summary of club a c t i v i t i e s ..........
III.
23
CHURCH AND SUMMER CAMP A C T I V I T I E S ...........
26
Church activities of b o y s .................
26
Church activities of girls • • • • . • • • #
30
Summer camp activities .....................
36
Summer camp activities of boys
36
...........
lii
CHAPTER
IV.
PAG-E
Summer camp activities of girls ♦ .............
37
Summary of church and summer camp activities
4-1
•
AFTER SCHOOL AND EVENING ACTIVITIES . . . . . . .
42
Importance of questions on after school
and evening a c t i v i t i e s ................
V.
43
After school activities of b o y s ...............
44
After school activities of girls
. . . . . . .
49
Evening activities of b o y s ...................
55
Evening activities of girls ...................
60
Summary of after school and evening activities
67
WEEK-END AND SPECIAL ACTIVITIES ..................
Week-end activities of boys
.................
Week-end activities of girls
Special activities
70
72
...................
75
Attendance of boys at moving picture shows
• •
77
Attendance of girls at moving picture shows
. .
78
Attendance of boys at dances
........
79
Attendance of girls at dances .................
79
Evenings boys were away from h o m e ............
VI.
70
81
Evenings girls were away from h o m e ..........
82
Summary of week-end and special activities
85
COMPARISON OF LEISURE
. •
TIME ACTIVITIES IN
DIFFERENT GRADES ..............................
86
Comparison of club activities of boys in
different grades ............................
86
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Comparison of olub activities of girls in
different grades • • • • • • • • . • • • • •
90
Comparison of church school attendance of boys
in different grades
• . • •
♦
96
............ .. *
102
Comparison of church school attendance of
girls in different grades
Comparison of afternoon and evening activities
of boys in different grades
•
105
Comparison of afternoon and evening activities
.
of girls in different grades...............
110
Comparison of week-end activities of boys in
different grades • • . . . • • • • • • • • •
115
Comparison of week-end activities of girls in
different grades ............................
115
Comparison of attendance of boys in different
grades at moving picture shows
. . . . . . .
118
Comparison of attendance of girls in different
grades at moving picture shows
........
118
Comparison of attendance of boys in different
grades at dances
............
121
Comparison of attendance of girls in different
grades at d a n c e s ......................
12.5
Comparison of the number of evenings boys in
different grades were away from home in an
average week • • • • • ....................
12:5
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Comparison of the number of evenings girls in
different grades were away from home in an
average week •
126
Summary of the comparison of leisure time
activities in different grades . . . . . . .
VII.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The task of the study
. .............
126
♦. . ♦
129
• • • . . * • • • • • •
129
The need for additional club activity among
boys
.............................
129
The need for additional club activity among
girls
. . . . • • • • ......................
130
The need for increased church activity among
b o y s ............
131
The need for increased church activity among
girls
•
132
The need for additional vacation church school
activities among boys and girls
. . . • • •
133
The need for increased summer camp activities
among boys and g i r l s ............
134
Summary of after school activities
of boys • •
135
Summary of after school activities
of girls
136
.
Conclusions regarding evening activities of
boys
................................
137
Conclusions regarding evening activities of
g i r l s ...................................... .
138
vl
CHAPTER
PAGE
Summary of week-end
activities of boys ♦ * • .
159
Summary of week-end
activities of girls
1^9
. . •
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance
of boys at moving
picture shows
♦ * • • • •
140
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance
of girls at moving picture shows ...........
141
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance
of boys at dances
• • » • • • • • • • • • •
141
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance
of girls at d a n c e s ..........................
142
Conclusions regarding evenings spent away
from home by boys
..........
142
Conclusions regarding evenings spent away from
home by girls
Recommendations
14^
• • • • • « • « » • • • • • •
A P P E N D I X ...............................
144
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Questionnaires Answered by 735 School Pupils
According to School Grades • • • • • . • • •
II.
III*
IV.
Distribution of 619 Memberships in Clubs
Held by 307 Bo'ys............................
11
Clubs in Which Boys Desired Membership . . • .
13
Reasons Given by Boys for Not Belonging
to Clubs
V.
16
Distribution of 597 Memberships in Clubs
Held by 319 Girls
VI.
VII.
..................
Clubs in Which Girls Desired Membership
IX.
X.
...
18
20
Reasons Given by Girls for Not Belonging
to Clubs • • • * . • • • •
VIII.
5
.................
24
Church Membership of 250 Boys by Denominations
28
Church Membership of 285 Girls by Denominations
33
Distribution According to Type of 902 Daily
and 1442 Occasional After School Activities
of 361 Boys
XI.
45
Ten Most Frequently Mentioned After School
Activities of 361
XII.
..........................
B o y s ..........
50
Distribution According to Type of 1129 Daily
and 1334 Occasional After School Activities
of 374 G i r l s ................................
XIII.
51
Ten Most Frequently Mentioned After School
Activities of 374 G i r l s ...................
56
Distribution According to Type of 983 Daily
and 2059 Occasional Evening Activities
of 361 Boys • • • • • • • * • • « » • • •
57
Ten Most Frequently Mentioned Evening
Activities of 561 Boys
............. ..
62
Distribution According to Type of 1198 Daily
and 1979 Occasional Evening Activities
of 374 G - i r l s ............................
64
Ten Most Frequently Mentioned Evening
Activities of 374 G-irls » • • • • • • « *
68
Distribution According to Type of 2009
Week-End Activities of 361 Boys • • * • .
71
Ten Most Frequently Mentioned Week-End
Activities of 361 Boys
• • • • • * « • •
13
Distribution According to Type of 2002
Week-End Activities of 374 G-irls
• • • •
74
Ten Most Frequently Mentioned Week-End
Activities of 374 G i r l s .................*
76
Comparison of Attendance at Movies of
• • • • • • • • •
80
Membership in Clubs of 361 Boys « « « • • •
87
361 Boys and 374 Girls
Comparison of Club Activities of 561 Boys
in Different G r a d e s ..............
Boys in Different Grades Desiring
Membership in C l u b s ........... ..
. . •
89
91
ix
PAGE
Comparison of Desired Club Membership of
361 Boys in Different Grades • • • * • •
92
Membership in Clubs of 374 Girls • . • • •
94
Comparison of Club Activities of 374 Girls
in Different Grades
• • • • * • • • « *
95
Girls in Different Grades Desiring Club
M e m b e r s h i p ..................... ..
97
Comparison of Desired Club Membership of
374 Girls in Different Grades
• . * ♦ •
98
Comparison of Church School Attendance of
100
361 Boys in Different Grades
Percentage Attendance at Church School of
361 Boys in Different G r a d e s ........ ..
101
Comparison of Church School Attendance of
374 Girls in Different Grades
* . . . •
103
Percentage Attendance at Church School of
374 Girls in Different Grades
. • ♦ * •
104
Daily Afternoon Activities of 361 Boys
in Different Grades
.............
106
Occasional Afternoon Activities of
361 Boys in Different G r a d e s ...........
107
Daily Evening Activities of 361 Boys
in Different Grades
•
108
Occasional Evening Activities of
561 Boys in Different Grades
109
X
TABLE
XXXIX.
PAGE
Daily Afternoon Activities of 374 G-irls
in Different Grades • • • • • • • • • . .
XL.
Occasional Afternoon Activities of
374 Girls in
XLI.
• • • • • •
Grades • • • • • • • . . . •
Different Grades
. . . . . .
114
*
116
.
117
Week-End Activities of 374 Girls
in Different Grades
XLV.
113
Week-End Activities of 361 Boys
in Different Grades
XLIV.
112
Occasional Evening Activities of
374 Girls in
XLIII.
Different Grades
Daily Evening Activities of 374 Girls
in Different
XLII.
Ill
Average Number of Evenings in a Week 361
Boys in Different Grades Were Away
from Home
XLVI.
............
125
Average Number of Evenings in a Week 374
Girls In Different Grades Were Away
from Home
127
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.
2•
PAGE
Comparison of Clubs to Which Boys
Belonged and
in Which Membership Was Desired
• • • • • • •
Comparison of Clubs to Which Girls Belonged and
in Which Membership Was Desired
3*
• • ...........
. . . . . . .
Studied:1936-1940
• • • • • •
Studied
38
Attendance at Various Summer Camps of Girls
. . . . . .
. « • • • «
54-
Daily and Occasional Evening Activities
Engaged in by More Than Ten Boys
12*
48
Daily and Occasional After School Activities
Engaged in by *'ive or More Girls
11•
40
Daily and Occasional After School Activities
Engaged in by Five or More Boys * • • • • • •
10.
35
Attendance at Various Summer Camps of Boys
in All Grades Studied
9*
34
Attendance at Vacation Church Schools of Girls
in All Grades
8.
31
..............................
in All Grades Studied: 1936-1940
7»
29
Attendance at Church School of Girls in All
Grades Studied
6.
22
Attendance at Vacation Church Schools of Boys
in All Grades
3*
• • • • • • •
Attendance at Church School of Boys in All
Grades Studied
4*
14
♦ ♦ . . . *
61
Daily and Occasional Evening Activities
Engaged in by
More Than Ten Girls
66
xii
FIGURE
13*
PAGE
Evenings Spent Away from Home by Boys in an
Average Week « • • • « . * • • ..........
14*
83
•
84
Evenings Spent Away from Home by Girls in an
Average Week
15*
. .
................
Attendance of 361 Boys in Different Grades at
Moving Picture Shows « • • • * • • • * * • * •
16*
Attendance of 374- Girls in Different Grades at
Moving Picture Shows . * • * •
17*
............. .
120
Attendance of 361 Boys in Different Grades
at Dances
18*
119
• • • • * * • * • • • *
122
Attendance of 374 Girls in Different Grades
at Dances
« « • « • • • •
♦ • * . ♦
124
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of the problem.. In the spring of 1939 the
Torrance Coordinating Council recognized the need for informa­
tion concerning leisure time activities of junior and senior
high school students in the community.
The Character Building
Committee of the Torrance Coordinating Council was asked to
make a survey of the recreational activities of these students.
The responsibility for this study fell on the investigator, as
chairman of the Character Building Committee.
The study was
undertaken with the understanding that the information secured
could be used in this thesis.
After several preliminary efforts
in 1940 the present study was undertaken in January 1941.
The purpose of the study was to survey the leisure time
activities of the pupils in the junior and senior high schools
of Torrance.
Those leisure time activities in which members
of the Torrance Coordinating Council were primarily interested
were selected for study.
Represented on the Torrance Coordina­
ting Council at the time of the study were Boy Scouts, Girl
Scouts, Parent Teachers Associations of the junior and senior
high schools, churches, and the Torrance Police Department.
Importance of the study.
There were several reasons
that prompted the Torrance Coordinating Council to request the
study to be made.
Representatives of the Boy Scouts and G-irl
2
Scouts wanted to know how many pupils were being reached, by
clubs and. organizations in the community.
They wanted to
know if there was a need for expanding the programs and. membershio of the clubs and organized youth activities.
Repre­
sentatives of the churches wanted to know how many young people
in the community were engaged in the programs of the different
churches and where the needs were for expansion of present
activities or the introduction of new programs of activities.
Also of interest to the church representatives were questions
concerning vacation church schools.
The Executive Committee
of the Torrance Coordinating Council wanted to know how many
pupils had attended summer camps.
They also wanted to know
how many who had not attended summer camps would have cared to
do so.
It was believed that information concerning the summer
camps would enable the Executive Committee to determine the
need for raising funds to assist young people to attend summer
camps maintained by character building agencies.
The Character Building Committee believed that in order
to answer the questions raised by members of the Torrance
Coordinating Council it would be necessary to include in the
survey, after school, evening, and week-end activities.
Questions concerning attendance at moving picture shows and
dances were included in the survey as the result of a general
desire among the members of the Torrance Coordinating Council
for information concerning these activities.
In order to
3
answer questions regarding the expansion of programs of
organized activities among the young people of the community
it was believed that the study should try to find out how
many evenings the pupils were away from home in an average
week.
It was felt that there might be too many organized
youth activities in the community that tended to take young
people away from their homes during the evening hours.
Value of the study.
The study was of value in that it
answered questions raised by the members of the Torrance
Coordinating Council.
Organizations such as churches, Boy
Scouts, G-irl Scouts, and schools were provided with an ob­
jective means for determining the effectiveness of their pro­
grams in so far as this could be measured in terms of attend­
ance and interest on the part of pupils.
The general value
of the study depended entirely on the similarity of other
communities to Torrance.
The study may have had value in
suggesting a technique for similar studies in small communities.
Definition of terms used.
The term "recreation'* was
used here rather broadly and included nearly all leisure time
activities.
Specifically this included activities in clubs
and organizations, after school activities, evening activities,
week-end activities, and certain summer activities, such as
attendance at summer camps and vacation Bible schools.
The
term recreation as used in the study did not apply to leisure
4
time activities beyond the immediate scope of the survey.
The term “club" included all organizations for young people,
such as church groups, Boy Scouts, G-irl Scouts, and school
clubs.
Method of the study.
The questionnaire method was
used as the means of obtaining information.
This was made
possible through cooperation of school administration offi­
cials with the Character Building Committee and the investi­
gator.
Questionnaires were distributed in the home rooms of
the junior and senior high school pupils.
Seven hundred and
thirty-five questionnaires were returned.
These were classi­
fied according to sexes and grades as shown in the following
table.
Plan of the questionnaire.
A copy of the questionnaire
used is included in the Appendix.^*
fied into seven groups.
clubs.
The questions were classi­
G-roup A contained questions about
Boys and girls were asked to check the clubs to which
they belonged and those to which they did not belong.
Blank
space was left for the pupils to write in clubs that were not
listed in the questionnaire.
made for boys and girls.
A separate list or clubs was
Also included in group A were ques­
tions about reasons for inactivity in clubs.
£!£• P ° s~k> Appendix,
p. 149.
5
TABLE
I
QUESTIONNAIRES ANSWERED BY 735 SCHOOL PUPILS
ACCORDING TO SCHOOL GRADES
Grade
Totals
Boys
Girls
361
374
Seventh grade
59
59
Eighth grade
88
57
Ninth grade
79
78
Tenth grade
46
56
Eleventh grade
39
50
Tv/elfth grade
50
74
6
Included in group B were questions about church attend­
ance and attendance at vacation church schools*
tained questions about summer camps.
G-roup G con­
Of particular interest
were the questions regarding reasons for not attending summer
camps•
The back side of tne questionnaire contained four groups
of questions.
Group D was devoted to questions regarding after
school activities.
activities.
Group E contained questions about week-end
The last group of questions was devoted to special
activities such as attendance at moving picture shows and
dances.
Included also were questions about the number of
evenings spent away from home in an average week.
The first three groups of questions on the face side of
the questionnaire reflected the interests of different groups
represented on the Torrance Coordinating Council.
Representa­
tives of organizations such as the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts
were primarily interested in the first set of questions.
The
church representatives were interested in tne second group.
The Executive Committee of the Torrance Coordinating Council
v/ere interested in tne third set of questions.
Questions
included under D, E, P, and G were added at the suggestion of
the Character Building Committee.^
sary to complete the study.
2
They were believed neces­
Information yielded from these
C f . post, Appendix, p. 149*
7
questions was of general interest to the Torranoe Coordinating
Council.
An effort was made to simplify the task of answering
the questions by use of a system of checking.
Thus under
D, E, and F activities were suggested and the pupils asked
to check those activities which applied to their particular
cases.5
in each instance blank space was left for the pupils
to write in activities that were not listed in the question­
naire.
The same principle of checking the right answers v^as
employed in the last group of questions on special activities.
This was done by suggesting possible answers to questions
asked and by leaving designated places for the answers to be
checked.
Organization of the remainder of the thesis.
The
remainder of this thesis is divided into the following chapters:
Chapter II.
The answers to questions in group A are
discussed in this chapter.
This part of the questionnaire
dealt with clubs and young people1s organizations.
Chapter III.
Answers to questions about church activ­
ities are included in the third chapter.
Also included in
this chapter is information about summer camp activities.
Chapter IV.
The fourth chapter is devoted to after
school and evening activities.
^ L o c . cit.
8
Chapter V.
Answers to questions about week-end activ­
ities are presented in the fifth chapter.
Chapter VI.
Here a comparison is made between the
leisure time activities of boys and girls in different grades.
Chapter V I I .
A summary of the study and conclusions
believed by the investigator to be significant are contained
in the last chapter.
Treatment of material.
Chapters II, III, IV, and V
contain general summaries of answers related to the specific
subjects treated in each chapter.
No effort is made to note
trends or to compare different grades in respect to the
several activities discussed.
In Chapter VI the contents of
earlier chapters are analyzed.
Comparisons are made between
the different grades.
Significant trends are noted.
In all
chapters the answers are segregated according to sex and are
treated separately.
CHAPTER II
CLUB ACTIVITIES
An inquiry regarding club activities was included under
section A in the questionnaire.-*-
Separate sets o:f questions
were drawn up for boys and girls.
It was believed that one
set dealing with membership in clubs would have been confusing.
A list of clubs was suggested in both cases and pupils
were asked to check whether or not they belonged to the clubs
listed.
In a second column, opposite the list of clubs, they
were asked to check whether or not they desired membership in
the suggested clubs.
In both sets of questions, blank space
was left at the bottom in which to write the names of clubs
not listed in the questionnaire.
the opportunity to write in
Boys and girls were given
any club to which they belonged
and which had been omitted, or any club omitted in which they
desired membership.
The section of the questionnaire dealing with club
activities also included a set of questions for both boys and
girls dealing with reasons for inactivity in clubs.
Blank
space was left under these questions so that pupils could write
in reasons not suggested in the questionnaire.
As elsewhere In
the questionnaire, a system of suggested answers and checks
1
C f . post, Appendix, p. 149.
10
was used*
Club activities or boys*
Boys were asked whether or
not they belonged to Boy Scouts, Sons of Legion, or De Molay.
These were the only specific clubs suggested*
Boys were also
asked if they belonged to a church club, school club, or play­
ground club*
By grouping clubs together in this way it was
possible to simplify the questionnaire without defeating the
purpose of the study.
The results of the questions about club membership are
shown in Table II.
clubs was 619*
The total number of memberships in boys
It was found tnat fifty four, or 14*9 per cent,
of the boys did not belong to any club.
This meant that boys
who were active in clubs belonged to an average of about two
clubs to each boy.
Most of the club activities centered in the school life*
Of the total number of club memberships recorded, 395 pertained
to school clubs.
The largest single group was the Boy Scout
organization, which had a membership of ninety-six.
As some
of the Boy Scout troops were sponsored by churches it was not
possible to make an accurate comparison between the Boy Scouts
and church clubs.
Of less importance numerically were the
Sons of Legion and the De Molay, both of which had a restricted
membership based on the membership of parents in related adult
organizations.
Playground clubs showed the smallest number of
active memberships.
11
TABLE
II
DISTRIBUTION OF 619 MEMBERSHIPS IN CLUBS
HELD BY 307 BOYS
Clubs
Total number of memberships
Membership
619
Boy Scouts
96
Sons of Legion
22
De Molay
19
Church club
67
School club
395
Playgroland club
Other kinds of clubs
7
13
12
There were several clubs indicated by boys that were
not included in the questionnaire.
The names of these clubs
were written in by those who answered the questionnaire.
The
clubs thus mentioned were Young Men's Christian Association,
Redondo Saddle Club, Sea Scouts, and Red Cross.
The total
membership in these clubs was thirteen.
There were 320 desired memberships in clubs.
This
indicated that if the interests of boys could be taken as a
basis of judgment, the need for club activities for boys in
the community was not being met.
The different clubs in which membership was desired by
boys is shown in Table III.
was greatest in school clubs.
The desire for club membership
The desire for membership in
the Boy Scouts was second and the desire for membership in the
De Molay was third.
There were forty-two boys who expressed
a desire for membership in playground clubs and thirty-one who
indicated a desire to belong to a church club.
Twenty-five
boys expressed a desire to be active in the Sons of Legion and
six were desirous of belonging to clubs not listed in the
questionnaire.
A comparison of club membership with desired membership
2
may be found in Figure 1.
School clubs, Boy Scouts, and
church clubs all showed active memberships that were larger
p
Cf. post, p. 14.
13
TABLE
III
GLUBS IN WHICH BOYS DESIRED MEMBERSHIP
Clubs
Total desired membership
Desired Membership
3^0*
Boy Scouts
65
Sons of Legion
25
De Molay
56
Church club
31
School club
95
Playground club
42
Clubs not in community
6
* Included boys who were active in clubs and boys
who were not club members.
50
0
100
School
U
vilwv
clubs
150
200
250
300
350
595
OK
Boy
Scouts
96
■—
65
Church
clubs
—
31
Sons of
Legion
—
—
22
25
De Molay
—
19
^i
56
Playground
clubs
■7
Other clubs
- 13
■ 6
400
Membership
Desired
membership
FIGURE 1
COMPARISON OF CLUBS TO WHICH BOYS BELONGED
AND IN WHICH MEMBERSHIP WAS DESIRED
15
than the desired membership*
The desired memberships in the
De Molay and playground clubs were considerably larger than
the actual membership*
In the case of* the Sons of Legion, the
actual membership and the desired membership were about the
same*
In terms of actual membership and desired membership
the investigation revealed that the schools were doing the
most to meet the interests of boys in club activities*
The
other clubs and organizations were not meeting the interests
of boys as expressed in the desire for membership.
The play­
ground showed tne greatest need for expansion of club activities
if the interests of the boys were to be satisfied.
It was not
possible to reach a conclusion concerning the De Molay or Sons
of Legion as ©legibility requirements involved parental status
in relation to aault organizations.
The desired membership in
these groups may have been among boys who were not elegible.
Clubs that were not listed in the questionnaire and in
which boys desired membership were as rollows:
Young M e n ’s
Christian Association, Four H Club, swimming club, suicide club,
and National Rifle Club.
Only six boys expressed a desire for
membership in clubs that were not listed.
This indicated that
the need for additional clubs In the community was not great*
Reasons given by boys for not belonging to clubs *
The
reasons given by boys for not belonging to clubs in the com­
munity is shown in Table IV.
The most frequently given reason
16
TABLE IV
REASONS GIVEN BY BOYS FOR NOT BELONGING TO CLUBS
Reasons given
Total number of reasons
Number of boys
294
No club in community
30
Never been asked
53
Parents object
10
Can’t afford it
32
Not interested
90
Haven’t time
79
17
for non-membership was lack of interest.
Almost as signifi­
cant a reason for inactivity was lack of time.
However, a
considerable number of boys were inactive in clubs because
contact had never been established between the club in which
they desired membership and themselves.
A small number of
boys indicated that they were not active in a club because
the kind of club in which they desired membership was not in
the community.
About the same number of boys were not members
of a club for financial reasons.
Parental objection was in­
dicated in only a few cases as the reason for not belonging
to a club.
Club activities of girls.
The girls were asked whether
or not they belonged to the Job's Daughters of the G-irl Scouts.
These were the two largest clubs for girls in the community.
In addition to these clubs they were asked whether or not they
belonged to a church club, school club, or playground club.
As in the case of boys it was believed that grouping clubs
together under the headings of church, school, and playground
would not defeat the purpose of the investigation and would
make for greater simplicity in the questionnaire.
Answers to questions about club membership of girls are
shown in Table V.
clubs was 597-
The total number of memberships in girls
Of the 374- girls who answered the questionnaire,
fifty-five stated that they did not belong to any club.
The
girls who were inactive In clubs constituted 14.7 per cent of
18
TABLE
V
DISTRIBUTION OF 597 MEMBERSHIPS IN CLUBS
HELD BY 319 GIRLS
Clubs
Total number of memberships
Membership
597
Job's Daughters
43
G-irl Scouts
38
Church club
129
School club
354
Playground club
Other kinds of clubs
8
25
19
total number of girls who replied to the questionnaire.
About the same percentage of girls were inactive in clubs as
was the case with the b o y s . 3
The girls who were active in
clubs belonged on the average to one and five tenths clubs.
Some girls belonged to one club.
Other girls belonged to two
or more clubs.
As in the case of the boys most of the clubs in which
A
girls were active were school clubs.
The largest single
group in terms of active membership was the Job*s Daughters.
Girls were more active in church clubs than were boys.^
Girl
Scouts showed considerable strength measured in terms of
active membership.
Playground clubs were of minor importance.
There were a number of clubs not listed in the question
naire that were indicated by girls as clubs to which they
belonged.
Included in this group were Red Cross, Junior Auxi­
liary to the American Legion Auxiliary, Daughters of the
Veterans of Foreign Wars, Camp Fire Girls, Girl Reserves, and
Sub-debs.
The total membership in this group of organizations
was twenty-five.
The number of girls who desired membership in clubs in
which they were not active is shown in Table VI.
C f . ante, p. 10.
4
Loc* clt.
^ Cf. ante, Table X, p. 11.
The desire
20
TABLE VI
CLUBS IN WHICH G-IRLS DESIRED MEMBERSHIP
Clubs
Total desired membership
Desired membership
235*
J ob1s Daughters
84
G-irl Scouts
48
Church club
23
School club
56
Playground club
17
Clubs not in community
5
* Included girls who were active in clubs and girls
who were not club members.
21
for membership was greatest in the case of Job's Daughters*
A relatively small number of girls expressed a desire for
membership in school clubs.
ship of forty-eight*
by twenty-tnree girls.
in church groups.
clubs was small.
Girl Scouts had a desired member­
Membership in church clubs was desired
Seventeen showed a desire to be active
The desire for membership in playground
Only a few girls expressed a desire to belong
to a club that was not in the community.
A comparison of girls who belonged to clubs with those
who desired membership in clubs is shown in Figure 2*
The
investigation showed that the schools were meeting most of the
need as indicated by the number of* girls who desired member­
ship in school clubs.
This was also true of the church clubs.
In both cases the number of girls who desired membership was
small in comparison to the number of girls who belonged to these
clubs.
In the case of Job's Daughters the desire for member­
ship was considerably larger than the actual membership.
In
the case of Girl Scouts the desire for membership was about
the same as the actual membership.
The desire for membership
in playground clubs was slightly larger than the actual mem­
bership.
However, neither the actual nor the desired member­
ship was large.
The desire for membership in clubs not active
in the community was small.
Only two clubs that were not present In the community
and not listed in the questionnaire were given by girls as
50
School
clubs
Church
clubs
Job* s
Daughters
—
—
150
200
250
300
350
56
23
43
84
00
00
il
G-irl
Scouts
—
100
Playground . 8
clubs
"17
Other
clubs
■5
25
Membership
Desired
membership
FIGURE
2
COMPARISON OF CLUBS TO WHICH GIRLS BELONGED
AND IN WHICH MEMBERSHIP WAS DESIRED
400
23
clubs In which, membership was desired*
Fire Girls and Four H Club*
These were the Camp
The investigation showed that as
far as membership and desired membership can be taken as a
basis of judgment, the need for additional clubs in the com­
munity was not as great as the need for extending the programs
of clubs that already existed*
Reasons given by girls for not belonging to clubs*
Reasons given by girls for not belonging to clubs are shown
in Table VII*
The most frequently given reason for non­
membership in a club was lack of time*
A considerable number
of girls were not members of clubs because they were not in­
terested*
Thirty-six girls stated that they were not active
in clubs because they had not been invited to join the clubs
in which they desired membership.
Relatively few girls were
inactive because of parental objection or because the club in
which they desired membership was not in the community.
Lack
of money was indicated as the reason for not belonging to
clubs by twenty-eight girls.
Summary of club activities *
There were 619 active
memberships in clubs held by 307 boys*
The school was the
center for most of the club life of the boys.
membership in clubs was indicated by 3^0 boys.
A desire for
This desire
was uniform among the different clubs and types of clubs
indicated in the questionnaire.
The principal reasons, given
24
TABLE
VII
REASONS GIVEN BY GIRLS FOR NOT BELONGING TO CLUBS
Reasons given
Total number of reasons
Number or girls
191
No club in community
12
Never been asked
36
Parents object
13
Can’t afford it
28
Not interested
44
Haven’t time
58
25
by boys who did not belong to clubs, ror their inactivity were
lack of interest, insufficient time, and the lack of a contact
with the club in which membership was desired•
The girls showed in their replies that 597 active mem­
berships were held by 319 girls.
There were 233 girls who
desired membership in clubs to which they did not belong•
In
the case of the girls the desire for club membership in play­
ground clubs and Girl Scouts was negligible.
The most fre­
quently indicated reasons for club inactivity among the girls
were lack of time, lack of interest, failure to establish a
contact with the club in which membership was desired, and
insufficient money.
CHAPTER
III
CHURCH AND SUMMER CAMP ACTIVITIES
Questions concerning the church were for the most part
included under group B.
There were three things that the in­
vestigator wanted to know regarding church activities among
the youth of the community.
First, it was deemed desirable
to know what church affiliations the young people of the com­
munity acknowledged.
To find this out a direct question re­
garding church membership was asked.
Secondly, the investiga­
tor wanted to know how active in church schools were the pupils
who claimed membership in churches.
they attended church schools.
The pupils were asked if
Three possible answers were
suggested to this question, that is, regularly, sometimes, and
never.
The pupils were asked to check the right answer.
Thirdly, the investigator wanted to know about vacation
church schools.
To what extent were the vacation church schools
of the community reaching the junior and senior high school
pupils.
The pupils were asked if they had attended a vacation
church school.
They were also asked where and when they had
last attended such a school.
Church activities of boys.
Of the 361 boys who answered
questionnaires 250 claimed membership in a church.
Thus 69
per cent of the boys acknowledged membership in churches,
27
whereas 111, or about 31 per cent, claimed no membership in
any church.
The investigation showed that boys in the com­
munity were active in eighteen different churches.
Regardless
of the number of churches, only about two-thirds of the boys
in the community were sufficiently close to the churches to
acknowledge even a nominal membership.
The churches in which
the boys claimed membership are shown by denominations in
Table VIII.
An acknowledged membership in a church does not always
indicate an active participation in the life of the church.
To gain further information regarding activity of young people
within the churches, questions regarding church school attend­
ance were asked.
The degree of regularity with which boys
attended church school is indicated in Figure 3*^
Two hundred and seventy-two boys indicated that they
were affiliated with a church school.
As only 250 boys stated
that they belonged to churches it was believed by the investi­
gator that some boys attended church school who had not taken
the formal step of becoming a member of a church.
Of the 272
boys affiliated with church schools 156, or about 57 per cent,
attended regularly.
There were ninety-nine, or about 36 per
cent, who attended occasionally.
A small number, seventeen,
or about 7 per cent, had stopped attending church school.
Of. post, p. 29*
28
TABLE VIII
CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF 250 BOYS BY DENOMINATIONS
Denomination
Total membership
Christian
Baptist
Roman Catholic
Methodist
Evangelical
Episcopal
Christian Science
Latter Day Saints
Four Square
Lutheran
Presbyterian
Nazarene
Full Gospel
Greek Orthodox
Buddhi st
Church ot* God
Seventh Day Adventists
M e n ’s Bible Class
Membership
250
47
46
45
28
15
13
13
13
7
6
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
50
0
100
150
Att ended
regularly
Attended
sometimes
Never
attended
99
_
17
FIGURE 3
ATTENDANCE AT CHURCH SCHOOL OF BOYS
IN ALL GRADES STUDIED
200
30
The number of boys who stated that they had attended
vacation church schools was forty-two*
The accuracy of this
number Is brought into question by the fact that in response
to the question regarding when they had last attended a vaca­
tion church school, seventy-six boys stated the time they had
done so.
Only eighteen boys among those studied attended a vaca­
tion church school in Torrance.
This was offset somewhat by
the trend toward a larger attendance at vacation church school
in recent years, as shown in Figure 4 .
The Torrance Minister­
ial Association had sponsored a vacation church school ror two
years previous to the time of this study.
It was the opinion
of the investigator that this has accounted for the larger
attendance of boys at vacation church schools in recent years.
Church activities of girls*
Of the 51*+ girls who an­
swered the questionnaires 285 claimed membership in churches.
There were eighteen denominations represented by this group.
The girls compared favorably with boys in respect to church
membership.
Whereas only 69 per cent or the boys claimed
church membership, 73 per cent or the girls acknowledged themp
selves to be members of a church.
About 27 per cent of the
girls stated that they were not members of any church.
Cf. ante, p. 26.
The
31
1936
Number 30
1937
1938
1939
20
10
0
FIGURE 4
ATTENDANCE AT VACATION CHURCH SCHOOLS
OF BOYS IN ALL GRADES STUDIED: 1936-1940
32
denominations in which the girls claimed membership is shown
in Table IX.
The attendance of girls at church school is shown in
Figure 5 ^
The majority of girls affiliated with church
schools attended regularly.
There were 308 girls affiliated
with church schools, and of this number 176, or about 57 per
cent, indicated that they attended regularly.
There were 121,
or about 39 per cent, who attended sometimes and eleven, or
about 4 per cent, who had ceased to attend.
Forty-seven girls stated that they had attended vacation
church schools.
Since sixty-five girls were able to state
when they had last attended a vacation church school the
accuracy of this number is brought into question*
The number
of girls who had attended vacation church school did not ap­
pear to be large to the investigator in either case.
Most of the
attendance of girls at vacation church
schools took place
in recent years.
This is shown by Figure 6.^
It was the opinion
of the investigator that this tendency
toward an increase
in attendance at vacation church schools in
recent years was probably the result of the community vacation
church school sponsored by the Torrance Ministerial Associa­
tion in the summers of 1940 and 1939*
3
Gf. post, p. 34.
^ Gf. post, p. 35.
33
TABLE IX
CHURCH MEMBERSHIP OF 285 GIRLS BY DENOMINATIONS
DenominatIons
Total membership
Christian
Baptist
Methodist
Episcopal
Roman Catholic
Evangelical
Christian Science
Latter Day Saints
Lutheran
Assembly of God
Four Square
Presbyterian
Buddhist
Church of God
Nazarene
Greek Orthodox
Church of Christ
Jewish
Membership
285
45
45
35
33
31
21
18
14
11
8
5
5
5
3
3
1
1
1
0
50
100
150
Attended
regularly
: * '-
Attended
sometimes
Never
attended
B
11
FIGURE 5
ATTENDANCE AT CHURCH SCHOOL OF GIRLS
IN ALL GRADES STUDIED
200
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
Number
30
20
10
0
FIGURE 6
ATTENDANCE AT VACATION CHURCH SCHOOLS OF GIRLS
IN ALL GRADES STUDIED: 1936-1940
36
Summer camp activities*
Questions about summer camp
activities were included in the questions in group C.
This
group of questions was placed next to the group of questions
on church activities, as the investigator believed that in
many instances summer camp activities might be related to
church activities.
It was believed that this arrangement
would make for simplicity and would help the pupils to answer
questions more accurately.
Pupils were asked if they had attended a summer camp,
what camp they had last attended, and when they last attended
a summer camp.^
Those who had not attended a summer camp were
asked to check reasons that were suggested in the question­
naire for not attending.
A blank space was left for the
pupils to write in additional reasons for not attending sum­
mer camps.
Summer camp activities or boys.
A total or ^40 boys
answered the questions about attendance at summer camps.
Of
this number eighty-eight, or about 25 per cent, replied in
the affirmative.
There were 258, or about 75 per cent, who
indicated that they had not attended summer camps.
The boys
indicated they had attended the following camps: Orange
County Park, Blue Jay, Y.M.C.A., Boy Scout, Big Pines, Emer­
son, Arrowhead, YoSemite, Crater, Iayllwild, Old Baldy,
Pacific Palisades, Palos Verdes, Big Bear, Fort Ord, Sheriff B,
^ Cf* post, Appendix, p. 149*
Arthur Letts, S.D.A. Jr., Lawrence, C.M.T.C., Sequoia Lake,
Boys State, G.C.C. Gamp 1, and Fort Bang*
Shown in Figure 7 are answers to questions about when
the boys last attended a summer camp#
The large increase in
the summer camp attendance in 1940, as compared with 1939,
reflected, in the opinion of the investigator, the effort of
the Torrance Coordinating Council that year to raise money to
help boys attend summer camps.
Before 1940 there had been no
effort made to raise money for this purpose.
Twenty-one boys who had not attended a summer camp said
that their parents objected to their doing so#
There were
sixty-one boys who stated that they had not been invited and
fifty-six who could not afford the expense.
113 boys from attending summer camp.
Summer work kept
Seventy-four were not
interested and sixty-three did not have sufficient time.
Summer camp activities of girls.
There were 283 girls
who answered the questions about attendance at summer camp.
Of this number twenty-seven, or about 9 per cent, answered
that they had attended summer camps.
There were 256, or about
91 per cent, who indicated that they had not attended a summer
camp.
The percentage of boys who had attended summer camp
exceeded considerably the percentage of girls who had attended.
Number
<540
1956
40
50
20
10
FIGURE 7
ATTENDANCE AT VARIOUS SUMMER CAMPS OF BOYS
IN ALL GRADES STUDIED
39
The girls named the following camps they had attended:
Gamp Y Alone, Jack’s Ranch, Girl Scout, Arizona, Griffith
Girls’ Camp, Hermosa, Nazarene, First Brethren, California
Military Academy, Presbyterian, La Verne, Thousand Pines,
Big Pines, Camp Fire Girls, Idyllwild, and Big Bear*
Although the questionnaire did not ask the pupils to
designate whether the camps attended were church retreats,
the camp names listed by boys and girls indicated that more
girls attended church camps than did the boys.?
Answers to questions about when the girls last attended
summer camp are shown in Figure 8.
It was the opinion of the
investigator that the large number of girls who attended
summer camp in 1940 reflected the effort of the Torrance Co­
ordinating Council to raise money to help with summer camp
expenses of young people that year*
Thirteen girls indicated that their parents objected
to their going to camp, eighty-three girls stated that they
had not been invited to attend a camp, sixty-two girls could
not afford the expense, work prevented fifty-seven from going,
eighty-three stated that they were not Interested, and seventyfour girls stated that they did not have sufficient time to
permit them to attend a summer camp.
7
C f * Figure 7, p. 38*
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
Number
20
15
10
5
FIGURE 8
ATTENDANCE AT VARIOUS SUMMER CAMPS OF GIRLS
IN ALL GRADES STUDIED
41
Summary or church and summer camp activities*
of 250 boys claimed membership in churches*
69 per cent of the total number of boys*
This amounted to
Their membership
was spread over oighteen church denominations*
church school was indicated by 272 boys*
A total
Membership in
Fifty-seven per
cent of this group attended church school regularly.
There
were only forty-two boys who indicated that they had attended
a vacation church school*
The study showed that 285 > or 73 per cent, of the girls
were members of churches*
These memberships were held in
eighteen different churches.
with a church school*
attended regularly.
There were 308 girls affiliated
Fifty-seven per cent of this group
Forty-seven girls replied that they had
attended a vacation church school.
Attendance at summer camps was indicated as an activity
by eighty-eight, or 25 per cent, of the boys.
summer camps had increased in recent years.
Attendance at
The principal
reasons given by boys for not attending summer camps were
summer worn: and lack of interest*
Twenty-seven of the girls, or 9 per cent, had attended
a summer camp.
cent years.
The attendance of girls had increased in re­
Lack of time and interest were the principal
reasons given by girls for not attending summer camps.
CHAPTER IV
AFTER SCHOOL AND EVENING- ACTIVITIES
Limitations of q ue st ionnalre regarding; after school
and evening activities.
Questions included under D and E of
the questionnaire had to do with after school and evening
activities.
As the activities of young people in tne after
school and evening hours are great in number, the question­
naire was of necessity limited in scope.
An effort was made
to study the more significant and generally practiced activi­
ties occurring after school and in the evening.
A list of
activities was suggested for after school hours and the pupils
were asked to check whether or not they engaged in these activ
ities every day, sometimes, or not at all.^
Blank spaces were
left at the bottom of this list so that the pupils could write
in after school activities that had not been included in the
questionnaire.
The same procedure was followed with the
questions under E.
A list or activities was suggested; pupils
were asked to check whether or not they engaged in these
activities every day, sometimes, or not at all; and blank
spaces were left at the bottom of the list so pupils could
write in evening activities that had been omitted from the
questionnaire•
"** QL* P°st, Appendix, p. 149*
43
Questions regarding club activities were not included
in the sections of the questionnaire dealing with after school
and evening activities.
It was felt that questions under group
A covered this part of the afternoon and evening activities*
It should be pointed out, however, that exclusive of the school
clubs that met during school hours all clubs that met during
the school year were after school or evening activities*
It should be further noted that the questions under Gpertained also to after school and evening activities*
These
questions dealt with attendance at moving picture shows and
dances*
They also dealt with the number of evenings spent
away from homes in an average week.
Importance of questions on after school and evening
activities*
Several groups of people were interested in the
answers to questions Included under D and E*
Representatives
of institutions that sponsor youth organizations, such as the
churches, American Legion, and Parent-Teachers Association,
were Interested because they thought the study might show
whether there was a need for further club activities*
Another
group of persons wanted to know whether money spent on the
city playground and library was justified by the patronage of
the young people.
In the formative stages of the ctudy the investigator
wanted to Include in the questionnaire a set of questions
dealing with home life.
He was advised by representatives of
the schools and officers of the Torrance Coordinating Council
that such a group of questions would meet with opposition
from the parents*
However, certain questions regarding home
life were included in D, E, and G-.
Although these questions
did not constitute an adequate study of the home life of the
young people In Torrance they provided information relative
to certain specific phases of home life In the community*
After school activities of boys.
The daily and occa­
sional after school activities of boys are shown in Table X,
The daily after school activities of boys in the order of the
decreasing number of times they were Indicated were as follows
helping with work at home, listening to radio, athletics at
school, and reading at home.
More than one hundred boys en­
gaged in each of these activities.
It was significant that
three of the four activities engaged in every day by most of
the boys were definitely activities of the home.
Activities engaged in daily by less than one hundred
boys, in the order of the decreasing number of times they were
indicated, were as follows:
working with wood, practicing
musical instruments, working, singing in glee club, going to
library, playing in street, taking part in school dramatics,
taking music lessons, practicing cooking, riding bicycle,
going to beach, going to city playground, visiting friends,
and taking dancing lessons.
The following activities were engaged in by one boy in
45
TABLE
X
DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO TYPE OF 902 DAILY AND
1442 OCCASIONAL AFTER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
Activities
Total number of activities
Athletics at school
Go to city playground
Play in street
Go to library
Take music lesson
Take dancing lesson
Practice musical instrument
Read at home
Help with work at home
Listen to radio
School dramatics
Sing in glee club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
Visit with friends
Ride bicycle
Work
Go to beach
Scouting
Model airolanes
Fish
Japanese school
Horse-back riding
Hike
Chemistry
Art work
Daily
902*
117
5
15
17
12
3
44
103.
232
210
13
18
11
56
4
6
27
6
1
1
1
1
1
* Average daily activities, 2*4
** Average occasional activities, 5^9
Sometimes
1442**
108
165
108
228
22
6
44
222
125
113
52
12
80
141
2
3
1
2
3
2
2
1
46
each instance: scouting, modeling airplanes, hiking, working
with chemical set, and art work*
There were twenty-seven boys who had daily jobs*
With
the exception of this small number of boys, and two other boys
who indicated that they had part time jobs, the rest of the
boys were dependent on the resources of the home, school, and
community for afternoon activities.
Occasional activities in which more than one hundred
boys were engaged, in the order of the decreasing number of
times indicated, were as rollows: going to library, reading
at home, going to city playground, doing woodwork, helping
with work at home, listening to radio, playing in street, and
athletics at school*
volved the home*
Of this group of activities three in­
There was one more, doing woodwork, that
might have involved a home work shop.
Two of the practices
indicated involved the use of facilities provided by the city,
namely, going to library and going to city playground*
Occasional activities in which less than one hundred
boys were engaged, in the order of the decreasing number of
times indicated, were as follows: practicing cooking, taking
part in school dramatics, practicing musical instruments,
taking music lessons, singing in glee club, taking dancing
lessons, going to beach, fishing, working, modeling airplanes,
attending Japanese school, and riding horse-back.
In this group three activities were hobbies, four were
47
sports, three were educational activities, and two involved
the school.
Two boys indicated that they worked occasionally.
A comparison of the daily and occasional activities
of boys is shown in Figure 9
.
Engaging in athletics at school
was about equally Important as a daily and an occasional ac­
tivity.
Use of the city playground was much more important
as an occasional activity than it was for daily use.
The
reason for this, in the opinion of the investigator, was that
city playground facilities were in many instances but a dupli­
cation of the facilities provided by the schools.
There was
little reason for a boy to go to the city playground for ath­
letics after school when he could engage in the same activity
at school.
The study showed that a large number of boys oc­
casionally played in the streets of the city.
A large number of boys made occasional use of the
library whereas a small number made it a custom to go to the
library every day.
Taking music lessons and dancing lessons
were relatively unimportant after school activities.
Reading
at home was of considerable importance in the after school
activity program of boys, both as a daily and an occasional
activity.
Most of the boys who helped with work at home did
so every day.
This was the most frequently mentioned daily
activity of boys.
It was also frequently Indicated as an
occasional activity.
The other occasional activity that was
frequently mentioned was woodwork.
There were fifty-six boys
48
30
100
150
200
250
Athletics at school
Go to city playground
• 5
Play in street
—
21
Go to library
—
IT
Take music lessons
Ta&e dancing lessons
■■ 12
"■21
■ 6
Practice musical
instruments
—
—
■ 1111"Bifb
44
44
i 101
Read at home
Help with worK at home
232
Listen to radio
School dramatics
13
— —
52
Glee Club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
™ 12
■■ 11
»
56
Work
Go to beach
■ 6
—
Daily
Occasional
FIGURE 9
DAILY AND OCCASIONAL AFTER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
ENGAGED IN BY FIVE OR MORE BOYS*
* Based on answers of 361 boys
49
who Indicated that this was a daily practice.
A small number
of boys indicated tnat working with wood was an occasional
practice.
Singing in glee club, working, and going to the
beach were not of numerical importance.
The ten after school activities in which boys most
frequently participated are shown in Table XI.
Of the ten
activities mentioned, six would customarily be carried on
within the home.
One activity, playing in the street, was
probably carried on in the vicinity of the home.
Other activ­
ities mentioned in this group Involved the use of facilities
provided by the community, namely, school playground, city
playground, and library.
After school activities of girls.
The after school
activities of girls are shown in Table XII.
both the daily and occasional activities.
The table shows
The activities in
which more than one hundred girls took part every day, in the
order of the decreasing number of times indicated, were as
follows: helping with work at home, listening to radio, read­
ing at home, practicing cooking, and athletics at school.
Pour activities in this group were practices that involved
the home and the other was a school practice.
Activities engaged in every day by less than one hun­
dred girls, in the order of the decreasing number of times
2
Cf. post, p. 51.
50
TABLE XI
TEN MOST FREQUENTLY MENTIONED AFTER SCHOOL
ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
Activity
Total
Number engaged
2149*
Help with work at home
357
Listen to radio
323
Read at home
323
Go to library
254
Athletics at school
225
Do woodwork
195
Go to city playground
170
Play in street
123
Practice cooking
91
Practice music instrument
88
* Represents total number of times activities were
indicated*
51
TABLE
XII
DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING- TO TYPE OF 1129 DAILY AND 1334
OCCASIONAL AFTER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES CF 374 G-IRLS
Activities
Total number of activities
Athletics at school
G-o to city playground
Play in street
G-o to library
Take music lesson
Take dancing lesson
Practice musical instrument
Read at home
Help with work at home
Listen to radio
Take part in school dramatics
Sing in glee club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
Sew
Horse-back riding
Church choir
Visit
Parties
Go to beach
Flower arrangement
Write letters
Boating
Cosmetology
Listen to records
Scout work
Hike
Daily
1129*
113
4
18
11
12
1
56
157
306
252
12
53
115
2
2
Sometimes
1334**
94
99
67
272
109
10
47
182
68
87
78
53
121
35
1
2
2
7
4
1
2
2
1
1
3
1
* Average dally activities, 3+01
** Average occasional activities, 3*05
52
indicated, were as follows: practicing musical instrument,
singing in glee club, playing in street, taking music lesson,
taking part in school dramatics, going to library, going to
city playground, going to beach, scouting, doing woodwork,
sewing, riding horse-back, visiting, writing letters, taking
dancing lessons, making flower arrangements, learning cosmeto­
logy, listening to records, and hiking*
Taking music lessons
and taking part in school dramatics were indicated by the same
number of girls.
Also indicated by the same number of girls
were doing woodwork,
writing letters.
sewing, riding horse-back, visiting, and
Taking dancing lessons, making flower arrange­
ments, learning cosmetology, listening to records, and hiking
were indicated by one girl in each instance*
Among the activities engaged in by less than one hundred,
there were six hobbies, four sports, two school activities, and
three practices that involved receiving instruction.
Occasional activities in which girls engaged, in the
order of the decreasing number of times indicated, were as
follows: going to library, reading at home, practicing cooking,
taking music lesson, going to city playground, athletics at
school, listening to radio, taking part in dramatics at school,
helping with work at home, playing in street, singing in glee
club, practicing musical instrument, doing woodwork, taking
dancing lesson, going to parties, singing in church choir,
boating, and riding horse-back.
The same number of girls
53
indicated that they went boating and sang in church choirs*
Of the above mentioned activities four were sports, three were
after school activities other than sports, two were hobbies,
and two involved receiving instruction*
There was one church
activity in the group*
A comparison of the daily and occasional activities of
girls is shown in Figure 10*
As in the case of the boys, en­
gaging in athletics at school was about equally important as
a daily and an occasional activity*
G-oing to the city play­
ground was unimportant as a daily activity but popular as an
occasional activity.
Some of the girls played in the street
occasionally, but few of them made this a dally practice*
G-oing to the library was popular with the girls as an occasional
activity.
Few girls made it their custom to go to the library
every day*
In this way the activities of girls were similar
to those of the boys.^
Reading at home was important with the
girls as a daily and an occasional activity*
Helping with
work at home was the most frequently mentioned after school
activity with the girls.
Listening to radio ranked second
among the daily activities of girls and was also significant as
an occasional activity.
Taking part in school dramatics and
practicing cooking showed moderate popularity.
The ten most frequently mentioned activities of girls
3
Gf. ante, Figure 9 $ p* 48*
54
50
100
Athletics at school
150
94
G-o to city playground
200
250
113
99
18
Play in street
67
G-o to library
11
Take music lesson
12
272
>109
56
47
Practice musical
Instrument
157
182
Read at home
Help with work at home
Listen to radio
Take part in school
dramatics
306
252
71
87
12
7£
53
53
Sing in glee club
115
» 121
Practice cooking
35
Do woodwork
Go to parties
■ ■ n a n
FIGURE
Daily
Occasional
10
DAILY AND OCCASIONAL AFTER SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
ENGAGED IN BY FIVE OR MORE GIRLS'**'
* Based on answers of 374 girls.
300
55
are shown in Table XIII*
It was the opinion of the investi­
gator that five of the activities listed, in this table normally
took place within the home.
Two were activities that took
place at school and two activities made use of facilities pi*ovided by the community, that is, the city playground and the
library.
Evening activities of boys*
Table XIV4- shows the activ­
ities boys engaged in during the evenings*
The table shows
both daily and occasional activities of boys.
The most popu­
lar every evening activity of boys was listening to the radio.
It was the only evening activity engaged in every evening by
more than two hundred boys*
Doing home work, helping about
the house, and talking with parents were indicated as every
evening activities by about the same number of boys.
Reading
was indicated by 127 boys as an every evening activity,
fhe
questionnaire did not ask whether or not reading at home was
partly school work.
Playing games and having friends in were
indicated as daily evening hour activities by sixty-three and
forty-one boys, respectively.
Visiting was indicated by about
the same number of boys as a daily evening activity.
Playing
games with parents and going visiting with parents were Indi­
cated as daily evening activities by sixteen and seventeen
^ Of. post, p. 57*
56
TABLE XIII
TEN MOST FREQUENTLY MENTIONED AFTER SCHOOL
ACTIVITIES OF 574 G-IRLS
Activity
Total
Number engaged
2211*
Help with work at home
574
Listen to radio
339
Read at home
339
Go to library
283
Practice cooking
256
Athletics at school
207
Take music lesson
121
Sing in glee club
106
Go to city playground
105
Practice musical instrument
103
* Represents total number of times activities
were indicated*
57
TABLE
XIV
DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO TYPE OF 983 DAILY AND 2059
OCCASIONAL EVENING ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
Activities
Total number of activities
Do home work
Listen to radio
Read
Play games
Have friends in
Help about house
Talk with parents
G-o visiting
Go visiting with parents
Play games with parents
Scout meeting
Sons of Legion activities
Automobile riding
Make puppets
Model airplanes
Swimming
Stamp collection
Night school
Parties
Church choir
Develop pictures
Work
Draw
Hobby (undesignated)
Band practice
Daily
983*
140
232
127
63
44
148
145
41
16
17
1
Sometimes
2039**
200
117
210
221
239
165
153
265
254
192
18
1
4
1
1
8
* Average dally activities, 2,7
** Average occasional activities, 5,7
3
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
2
1
58
boys, respectively.
The only other significant daily evening
hour activity was work.
This was indicated by eight boys.
Three questions were included in this section of the
questionnaire about activities that involved both children
and parents*
The answers to these questions did not show the
degree to which parents and children took part in cooperative
activities during the evening hours.
However, in 145 instances
boys indicated that they spent some time every evening in con­
versation with their parents.
Talking with parents was one of
the suggested evening activities listed on the questionnaire
and therefore was called to the attention of everyone who read
the questionnaire.
In the opinion of the investigator this
showed that many parents were not making an effort to keep In
touch every day with their sons by talking with them during
the evening hours.
The daily evening hour activities in the order of the
decreasing number of times indicated by boys were as follows:
listening to the radio, helping about the house, talking with
parents, doing home work, reading, playing games, having
friends in, going visiting, playing games with parents, going
visiting with parents, working, riding in automobiles, and
modeling airplanes.
The last two activities mentioned were
indicated by one boy in each Instance.
The occasional evening activities, as would be expected,
were more numerous than the daily evening activities.
The most
59
frequently indicated evening activity was going visiting.
G-oing visiting with parents was second in popularity.
Having
friends in and playing games were indicated by many boys as an
occasional evening practice*
The first four practices in the
number of times they were mentioned were social in nature*
The other occasional activities indicated by boys in
the order of the decreasing number of times indicated were as
followss reading, doing home work, playing games with parents,
helping about the house, talking with parents, listening to
the radio, attending Boy Scout meeting, riding automobile,
going swimming, attending night school, going to parties,
working, drawing, hobbies, attending Sons of Legion, making
puppets, working at stamp collection, singing in church choir,
and band practice.
G-oing swimming, attending night school,
and going to parties were indicated in each instance by three
boys.
Working, drawing, and hobbles were each mentioned by
two boys*
Attending Sons of Legion, making puppets, working
at stamp collection,
singing in church choir, and band practice
were each indicated by one boy.
Occasional evening activities which involved children
and parents were in every case indicated by more boys as an
occasional evening activity than as a daily evening hour activ­
ity.
G-oing out visiting with parents was second in the number
of times indicated as an occasional evening activity.
In the
opinion of the investigator this form of activity did not
60
necessarily call for cooperative activity on the part of
parents and children.
Playing games with parents was believed
by the investigator to be definitely a cooperative activity
between parents and children.
A comparison of daily evening activities and occasional
evening activities engaged in by more than ten boys is shown
in Figure 11.
Listening to radio was indicated more often as
a daily activity than as an occasional activity.
In all other
activities the number of boys that indicated occasional activ­
ities was larger than those who indicated the same activities
as daily customs.
The study indicated that listening to the
radio was the most frequently engaged in practice in the homes
of boys during the evening hours.
Because of the frequency of
this activity it might be concluded that it was one of the most
important.
The comparison of daily and occasional evening ac­
tivities were a matter of daily practice by boys.
Most of the
practices engaged In by boys varied from evening to evening.
The ten most frequent activities engaged In by boys
during the evening hours are shown in Table XV.^
The numbers
in this table were determined by adding together the number
of boys who indicated each activity as a daily and occasional
activity.
Evening activities of girls.
^ Cf. post, p. 62.
Dally and occasional
61
50
100
150
200
Do home work
250
200
Listen to radio
117
■ 127
Read
232
210
63
Play games
■
44
Have friends in
Help about house
“
239
148
4
"165
L45
“ 153
Talk with parents
41
G-o visiting
G-o visiting with parents
Play games with parents
Scout meeting
221
b
265
254
16
17
192
18
Daily
Occasional
FIG-URE
11
DAILY AND OCCASIONAL EVENING- ACTIVITIES
ENGAGED IN BY MORE THAN TEN BOYS*
* Based on answers of 361 boys
300
62
TABLE XV
TEN MOST FREQUENTLY MENTIONED EVENING
ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
Activities
Total
Number
2969*
Listen to radio
349
Do home work
340
Read
337
Help about the house
313
G-o visiting
306
Talk with parents
296
Play games
284
Have friends in
283
G-o visiting with parents
270
Play games with parents
189
* Represents total number of times activities
were indicated.
63
evening activities of girls are shown in Table XVT.
The most
frequently mentioned activity among girls was listening to
radio.
Helping about the house and doing home work were also
mentioned by a great many girls as daily evening activities.
Talking with parents was a daily evening hour activity with
183 girls.
A’he study showed that relatively more girls talked
with their parents every evening than did boys.^
Other activities engaged in every evening by girls in
the order of the decreasing number of times they were indicated
were as follows: reading, having friends in, playing games,
going visiting, going visiting with parents, playing games with
parents, drawing, knitting, singing, sewing, working, and go­
ing to concerts.
Drawing, knitting, and singing were each
indicated by three girls.
Sewing and working were mentioned
by two girls.
There were eight activities indicated by the girls as
every evening practices.
There were twenty-four occasional
evening activities indicated by them.
11he two most frequently
indicated evening activities were going visiting and going
visiting with parents.
These two activities were also given
first and second place by the boys.^
Having friends in and
playing games were third and fourth most frequently mentioned
6 Cf. ante. Table XIV, p. 57.
^
Loo. cit.
64
TABLE
XVI
DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO TYPE OF 1196 DAILY AND 1979
OCCASIONAL EVENING ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
Activities
Total number or activities
Do home work
Listen to radio
Read
Play games
Have friends In
Help about the house
Talk with parents
Go visiting
Go visiting with parents
Play games with parents
Sew
Practice musical instrument
Draw
Knit
Automobile riding
Horse-back riding
Skate
Walk
Fish
Parties
Work
Cook
Sing
Night school
Swim
Bowl
Flower arrangements
Go to concerts
Daily
Sometimes
1198*
1979**
209
256
153
38
63
225
183
31
15
11
2
3
3
155
102
182
224
269
99
139
265
275
199
5
1
3
3
4
16
2
1
6
2
1
3
3
2
2
1
* Average dally activities, 3*01
** Average occasional activities, 5*2
1
65
evening practices of girls.
The study showed that the most
frequently engaged in evening activities of boys and girls
were social in nature.
The other occasional evening practices indicated by
girls in the order of the decreasing number of times they
were mentioned were as follows: playing games with parents,
reading, doing home work, talking with parents, listening to
the radio, helping about the house, skating, going to parties,
sewing, riding horse-back, knitting, riding in automobiles,
attending night school, walking, swimming, bowling, making
flower arrangements, practicing musical instruments, fishing,
cooking, and going to concerts*
Three girls indicated in each
instance knitting, riding in automobiles, and swimming as
occasional evening activities.
Fishing, bowling, and making
flower arrangements were indicated by two girls in each case.
Practicing musical instrument, cooking, and going to concert
were indicated by one girl in each instance.
A comparison of the daily evening activities and occa­
sional evening activities engaged in by ten or more girls is
shown in Figure 12.
Listening to radio, helping about the
house, doing home work, and talking with parents were indicated
more often as daily evening activities than they were as occa­
sional activities.
The investigation showed that the activities
of girls varied from evening to evening in most cases.
Rela­
tively few activities were primarily a matter of every evening
66
50
100
150
200
250
300
*“ -7
Do home work
Listen to radio
*102
Read
|
256
182
Play games
Have friends in
——— '3 63
269
Help about the house
99
183
Talk with parents
Go visiting
=3
Go visiting with parents
B 15
Play games with parents
■ 11
Ride horse-back
•1 6
31
285
275
199
Daily
Occasional
FIGURE
12
DAILY AND OCCASIONAL EVENING ACTIVITIES ENGAGED
IN BY MORE THAN TEN GIRLS*
* Based on answers of 374- girls
67
practice*
The ten most frequently mentioned evening activities
of the girls are shown in Table XVII*
The numbers in this
table were determined by adding together for each activity the
number of girls who indicated it to be a daily and an occa­
sional activity*
A comparison of Table XVII and Table XV
showed that girls and boys spent their evenings engaged in the
same general kinds or activities.®
both tables are the same.
The activities given in
The only difference noted between
the two tables was the order in which the activities were
listed.
However, the variations in the order in wnich the
activities are listed on the two tables was of minor importance.
Summary of after school and evening activities*
The
different types of activities suggested in the questionnaire
were indicated by 902 boys as daily activities and by 1142
boys as occasional activities.
The study snowed that the
home was the place where boys carried on tnose activities
which were a matter of daily practice*
Athletics at school
were Important as daily and occasional activities with the
boys.
The city playground and library were used occasionally.
There were 1129 girls who indicated that they engaged
in the suggested activities every day and 1334- who engaged in
8
Cf. ante, pp. 68 and 62.
68
TABLE XVII
TEN MOST FREQUENTLY MENTIONED EVENING
ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
Activities
Total
Number
3113*
Do home work
364
Listen to radio
358
Read
335
Have friends in
332
Help about the house
324
Talk with parents
322
Go visiting
316
Go visiting with parents
290
Play games
262
Play games with parents
210
* Represents total number of times activities
were indicated.*
69
them occasionally•
Home activities were among the most
frequently indicated afternoon activities of girls.
The
school proved to be important in providing the place for
girls to engage in athletics.
City resources such as the
playground and library were used occasionally by girls.
The most frequently indicated daily evening activities
indicated by boys and girls were those carried on within the
home.
Many of these activities were social in nature.
In
the case of both sexes, activities tended to vary from evening
to evening.
CHAPTER
V
WEEK-END AND SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
The same general method employed in the questions deal­
ing with after school and evening activities was employed in
questions dealing with week-end activities.
were included in group F.
These questions
A number of activities were sug­
gested and the pupils asked to check which ones applied in
their particular cases.
The only difference in method was
that in the case of week-end activities the pupils were not
asked to distinguish between daily and occasional activities.
Blank spaces were left at the bottom of the question list so
that pupils could write in additional activities in which they
engaged•
Week-end activities of boys.
boys are shown in Table XVIII.
Week-end activities of
The most frequently indicated
activity in this group was
listening to the radio.
cular significance was the
frequency with which work was indi­
cated as a week-end activity of boys.
249 boys as a week-end activity.
Of parti­
Work was designated by
The investigation showed
that many boys held week-end jobs, whereas relatively few of
them held after school and
Helping at home was
evening jobs during the week.
important as a week-end activity.
This was also true of playing and reading.
Taking trips with
71
TABLE
XVIII
DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING' TO TYPE OF 2009 WEEK-END
ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
Activities
Total number of activities
Work
Help at home
Play
Music lessons
Dancing lessons
Trips with family
Hike
Church
Sunday school
Sunday evening youth meeting
Read
Listen to radio
Swim
Camp
Hunt
Japanese School
Automobile riding
Horse-back riding
Nature study
Orchestra
Work on car
Skate
Model airplanes
Number
2009*
249
282
221
26
16
153
99
143
185
61
227
305
6
3
11
9
1
1
1
1
3
5
1
* Average number of week-end activities, 5*5
72
the family was indicated by 153 boys as a week-end activity.
This was believed by the investigator to be significant be­
cause it was an activity in which the family engaged.
Attend­
ing church and Sunday school were indicated by 143 and 185
boys, respectively.
These numbers far exceeded the number of
boys who indicated that they attended Sunday evening youth
meetings.
The activities engaged in by boys during week-ends in
the order of the decreasing number of times indicated were as
follows: listening to radio, helping at home, working, reading,
playing, attending Sunday school, taking trips with family,
attending church, hiking, attending Sunday evening youth meet­
ing, taking music lessons, taking dancing lessons, attending
Japanese school, swimming, skating, hunting, camping, working
on automobile, riding horse-back, making nature study trips
and collections, playing in orchestra, modeling airplanes, and
working at hobby.
The last six activities were indicated by
one boy in each instance.
Shown in Table XIX are the ten most
frequently indicated week-end activities of boys.
Week-end activities of g irls.
of girls are shown in Table XX.^
The week-end activities
Helping about the house and
listening to the radio were the two most frequently Indicated
week-end practices of girls.
^
post, p. 74*
Reading, attending church, and
73
TABLE
XIX
TEN MOST FREQUENTLY MENTIONED WEEK-END
ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
Activity
Total
Times indicated
1925*
Listening to the radio
305
Helping at home
282
Working
249
Reading
227
Playing
221
Sunday school
185
Trips with family
153
Church
143
Hike
99
Sunday evening youth meeting
61
* Represents total number of times activities
were indicated.
74
TABLE XX
DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO TYPE OF 2002 WEEK-END
ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
Activities
Total
Work
Help at home
Play
Music lessons
Dancing lessons
Trips with family
Hike
Church
Sunday school
Sunday evening youth meeting
Read
Listen to radio
Ride bicycle
Picnics
Visit relatives
Knit
Art work
Skate
Swim
Fisb
Attend Japanese school
Go to dance
Go to show
Go to concert
Shop
Ride horse-back
Times Indicated
2002*
111
347
178
25
15
190
67
198
193
54
270
322
2
1
4
1
1
4
2
1
5
5
2
1
2
1
* Average number of week-end activities, 5»3
75
attending church school were more popular with girls than
they were with hoys.
However, attending Sunday evening youth
meeting was more popular among the hoys than with girls.
There were 111 girls who indicated that work was a
week-end practice.
Playing was indicated as a week-end pas­
time hy 1Y8 girls.
Many girls indicated that they went hiking
on week-ends.
Other week-end activities in the decreasing order in
which they were indicated hy girls were as follows s taking
music lessons, taking dancing lessons, attending Japanese
school, going to dances, visiting relatives, skating, riding
hicycle, swimming, going to moving picture shows, shopping,
going on picnics, knitting, art work, fishing, going to con­
certs, and riding horse-hack.
The ten most frequently indi­
cated week-end activities of girls are shown in Tahle XXI.
Special activities.
Section G- in the questionnaire
included certain activities which were of particular interest
to the members of the Torrance Coordinating Council.
Repre­
sentatives of the Parent-Teacher Association were interested
in moving picture shows.
They wanted to know how frequently
the young people went to moving picture shows and with whom
they went.
shows.
Pupils were asked if they attended moving picture
The suggested answers which they were asked to check
were no, sometimes, once a week, and twice or more a week.
Pupils were also asked with whom they attended moving picture
76
TABLE
XXI
TEN MOST FREQUENTLY MENTIONED WEEK-END
ACTIVITIES OF 374 CIRLS
Activity
Total
Times indicated
1930*
Help at home
347
Listen to radio
322
Read
270
Church
198
Sunday school
193
Trips with family
190
Play
178
Work
111
Hike
67
Sunday evening youth meeting
54
* Represents total number of times activities
were indicated*
shows.
Three answers were suggested to this question, namely,
self, friend, and parents.
p
At the time of the investigation the Torrance Coordina­
ting Council had been sponsoring a community dance on Friday
nights in the Civic Auditorium.
xhe Executive Committee of
the Torrance Coordinating Council wanted to know how many
pupils attended dances.
They also wanted to know how often
pupils attended dances.
The pupils were asked if they attended
dances.
Three answers to this question were suggested, namely,
no, sometimes, and every week.
The pupils were asked to check
the right answer in their particular case.-*
A question was also asked by the members of the Torrance
Coordinating Council regarding the total effect of community
recreational activities on the home life of young people.
The
question was asked whether or not clubs and out or home activ­
ities were taking young people away from their homes too many
evenings during the average week.
question under group G-.
This resulted in the final
The pupils were asked how many even-
ings they spent away from home in an average week.
21.
Attendance of boys at moving picture shows.
p
b°s^ » Appendix, p. 149*
Moving
78
picture shows were attended, occasionally by 148 boys, once a
week by 153 boys, and twice or more a week by sixty-five boys.
There were 546 boys who indicated that they attended moving
picture shows.
Only fifteen boys indicated that they never
attended moving picture shows.
Those who attended once a week
were about 37 per cent of the total.
Those who attended twice
or more a week were about 11 per cent or the total.
About
48 per cent of the boys indicated that they attended moving
picture shows once or more each week.
There were about 40
per cent of the boys who indicated that they went to moving
picture shows occasionally.
About 12 per cent of the boys
said that they did not attend moving picture snows.
The boys indicated that they generally went to moving
picture shows with friends.
This was the case with 249 boys.
There were 125 boys who Indicated that they went by themselves
and 105 who indicated that they went with parents*
Attendance of girls at moving picture shows.
There
were 129 , or about 34 per cent, of the girls who indicated
that they went to moving picture shows occasionally.
There
were 146, or about 39 per cent, who indicated that they at­
tended once a week.
There were seventy-five, or about 20 per
cent, who indicated that they went to moving picture shows
twice or more a week*
Only twenty-four, or about 7 per cent,
of the girls showed that they did not go to moving pictures.
A comparison of the attendance of boys and girls at moving
79
picture shows is shown in Table XXII.
The girls indicated that they generally went to moving
picture shows with friends•
This was the case in 315 instances*
There were 172 girls who indicated that they went with parents.
Only forty girls indicated that they went to moving picture
shows by themselves.
The investigation showed that both boys and girls tend­
ed to go to moving picture shows with friends.
quently went by themselves.
parents.
The boys fre­
In some instances they went with
The girls seldom went by themselves.
In many in­
stances they went with their parents.
Attendance of boys at dances.
lar activity with boys.
Dancing was not a popu­
Although a local dance was sponsored
by the Torrance Coordinating Council which offered an oppor­
tunity to dance in a good hall with a good orchestra they did
not attend in large numbers.
There were 114, or about 32 per
cent, of the boys who indicated that they attended dances oc­
casionally.
There were twenty-five, or about 7 per cent, or
the boys who indicated that they attended dances every week.
There were 222 boys who said that they never attended dances.
This was about 61 per cent of the total number of boys.
Attendance of girls at dances.
The attendance of girls
at dances was more frequent than that of the boys.
There were
145, or about 39 per cent, of the girls who indicated that
80
TABLE XXII
COMPARISON OF ATTENDANCE AT MOVIES OF
361 BOYS AND 374 G-IRLS
Boys
C-irls
Attend sometimes
40 per cent
34 per cent
Attend once a week
57 per cent
39 per cent
Attend twice or more
a week
11 per cent
20 per cent
Total percentage
attending shows
88 per cent
93 per cent
81
they sometimes attended dances.
There were thirty-five, or
about 9 per cent, of the girls who indicated that they attend­
ed dances every week*
There were 194, or about 52 per cent
of the girls, who said that they did not attend dances*
The
investigation showed that the attendance of girls at dances
was 9 per cent greater than the attendance of boys.
Evenings boys were away from home in an average week*
More boys indicated that they were away from home five nights
in an average week than indicated they were away from home any
other number of evenings a week.
There were 106, or about
29 per cent, of the boys who said that they were away from
home five evenings each week.
There were seventy-six, or
about 21 per cent of the boys, who indicated that they were
away from home four nights in an average week*
There were
sixty, or about 17 per cent of the boys, who indicated that
they went out six evenings a week, and forty-one, or about
11 per cent, stated that they spent seven evenings away from
home in an average week.
Forty-seven, or about 13 per cent
of the boys, indicated that they were out three evenings in
an average week.
There were twenty-four, or 7 per cent, who
indicated that they were out two evenings.
Only seven, or
about 2 per cent, indicated that they went out one evening
each week*
The investigation showed that none of the boys
stayed home every evening in an average week.
A comparison
of the frequency with which boys indicated that they are away
82
from home different numbers of evenings eacn week is shown
in Figure 13*
Evenings girls were away from home in an average week.
There were 113 girls who indicated that they went out five
evenings in an average week*
the girls.
This was about 31 per cent of
There were eighty-eight, or about 25 per cent of
the girls, who indicated that they went out four evenings each
week.
Sixty-five, or about 18 per cent, were away from home
six evenings in an average week; forty-eight, or 13 per cent,
were away three evenings in a week; thirty-two, or about 9 per
cent, were out seven evenings each week*
Only nine, or about
3 per cent of the girls, were away two evenings in an average
week*
There were four girls, or about 1 per cent, who said
that they went out one evening each week.
A comparison of the frequency with which girls indicated
different numbers of evenings they were away from home in an
average week is shown in Figure 14.-*
The investigation snowed
that boys and girls went out about the same number of evenings
each week.
Out of a total of 361 boys, 207 indicated that they
were away from home five evenings or more in an average week;
123 were away three or four evenings each week; thirty-one
were out one or two evenings in the average week.
There were
210 girls out of a total of 374 who were away from home five
^ ££• P°st » p. 84.
83
Evenings away from home in an average week
25
One
Two
—
50
■
24
47
r
—■"
~— — --- *
*
7o
Five
Six
125
7
Three
Four
100
75
106
-—
r. r\
ou
Seven
FIGURE
13
EVENINGS SPENT AWAY FROM HOME BY BOYS
IN AN AVERAGE WEEK*
* Based on answers or 361 boys*
150
84
Evenings away from home in an average week
25
50
75
100
125
One
Two
Three
48
Four
88
Five
113
Six
Seven
*
■
65
32
FIGURE 14
EVENINGS SPENT AWAY FROM HOME BY GIRLS
IN AN AVERAGE WEEK*
* Based on answers of 574 girls
150
85
or more evenings each week.
One hundred and thirty-six girls
indicated they were away from home three or four evenings in
an average week; thirteen said tney were away from home one
or two evenings each week.
Summary of week-end and special activities.
Listening
to the radio was one of the most popular week-end practices
engaged in by boys and girls.
among the boys.
Work was particularly important
Attending church and Sunday school were mod­
erately significant In the case of both sexes.
It was also
generally true that attendance at Sunday evening youth meetings
was not large.
Attendance at moving picture shows was almost universal
among boys and girls.
friends or alone.
parents.
and girls.
Boys tended to go more often with
G-irls tended to go with friends or with
Dancing was not popular with the majority of boys
Of particular significance in the judgment of the
investigator was the fact that the great majority of boys and
girls indicated that they were away from home four or more
evenings each week.
CHAPTER VI
COMPARISON OF LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES IN DIFFERENT GRADES
The previous chapters have presented a summary state­
ment of the findings of the investigation*
made to analyze the returns by grades*
No effort was
Each group of questions
was taken in its proper order and the answers summarized*
In the following chapter an attempt will be made to
present an analysis by grades of the answers to the questions
asked in the questionnaire.
Certain trends will be noted*
The subjects will be discussed in the order in which they
appeared in the questionnaire.
Comparison of club activities of boys in different
grades*
The clubs in which the boys indicated that they were
members are shown by grades in Table XXIII.
School clubs were
Indicated by more boys in every grade than were other groups
of clubs or single clubs.
organization for youth.
The Boy Scouts was the largest
However, membership In the Boy Scouts
was drawn mostly from the seventh through the tenth grades.
In the eleventh and twelfth grades church clubs became more
important numerically than the Boy Scouts.
Church clubs ap­
peared to be somewhat stronger among the tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth grade boys.
Ihe Sons of Legion was of about the same
numerical strength in the different grades.
The De Molay was
87
TABLE
XXIII
MEMBERSHIP IN CLUBS OF 361 BOYS
Club
Total for each grade
Boy Scouts
Sons of Legion
8 th
9th
10th
11th
Grade
Grade
Grade
Grade
86
127
117
53
146
9°
23
33
18
12
8
2
3
7
4
1
5
2
6
11
7 th
Grade
2
De Molay
12th
Grade
Church club
7
4
18
5
19
14
School club
50
82
70
33
102
58
Playground club
2
Other kinds of clubs
1
2
1
3
3
2
3
3
88
was primarily an eleventh and twelfth grade activity,
i'he
investigation showed the playground to be of relatively little
importance in the club activities of the boys.
This was true
of all grades studied.
A comparison of club activity in different grades is
shown in Table XXIV.
The numbers in the right hand column
were obtained by dividing the number of boys who indicated
they were members of clubs in each grade by the number of boys
in that grade.
In each instance the division was carried to
the second decimal point.
The right hand column thus indicates
the number of club memberships each boy would have had if the
memberships were distributed evenly throughout the different
grades.
Although this was not the case, the numbers computed
in this manner indicate the relative importance of club activ­
ity in the different grades at the time of the study.
The eleventh grade boys were more active in clubs than
any other grade.
activity.
The twelfth grade boys were next in club
However, their activity was about half as extensive
as that of the eleventh grade boys when considered in relation
to individual activity.
The tenth grade boys appeared to be
the least active in club activity.
The seventh, eighth, and
ninth grades were about the same in regard to membership in
clubs.
The clubs in which boys desired membership are shown in
89
TABLE XXIV
COMPARISON OF CLUB ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
G-rade
Membership per individual
Seventh grade
1.45
Eighth grade
1.44
Ninth grade
1.48
Tenth grade
1.15
Eleventh grade
5.74
Twelfth grade
1.80
Table XXV.
More boys desired membership in school clubs than
in any other group of clubs or single club-
There were sixty-
five boys who desired membership in the Boy Scouts.
There
were fifty-six boys who expressed a desire to be active in the
De Molay, and forty-two who wanted to be members of a play­
ground club.
Only thirty-one and twenty-five boys wanted to
be members of church clubs and De Molay, respectively.
The
desire to belong to clubs not active in the community was of
minor importance.
The greatest need for increased activity
as indicated by the desire for membership in boys clubs was in
the eighth grade.
The relative importance of the desire for club member­
ship among boys in different grades is shown in Table XXVI.
The numbers in the right hand column were obtained by dividing
the number of boys who expressed a desire for club membership
in each grade by the number of boys in that grade.
The inves -
tigation showed that the need for additional club activity
among boys was most urgent in the eighth, eleventh, and ninth
grades.
There was not much need for additional club activity
in the twelfth and tenth grades.
There was a slight need for
increased club activity in the seventh grade.
Comparison of club activities of girls in different
grades.
The clubs in which girls indicated they were members
91
TABLE
XXV
BOYS IN DIFFERENT GRADES DESIRING
MEMBERSHIP IN CLUBS
Club
Yth
Grade
8 th
Grade
9 th
Grade
10th
Grade
11th
Grade
12th
Grade
52
105
80
23
43
17
30
13
2
3
Sons of Legion
3
6
10
1
4
1
De Molay
5
12
11
7
12
9
Church club
3
8
8
4
6
2
School club
10
36
29
5
11
4
Playground club
14
11
9
4
3
1
Total for each grade
Boy Scouts
Clubs not in com­
munity
2
11
92
TABLE XXVI
COMPARISON OF DESIRED CLUB MEMBERSHIP OF
361 BOYS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Grade
Seventh grade
Desired membership per individual
.88
Eignth grade
1.19
Ninth grade
1.01
Tenth grade
.50
Eleventh grade
Twelfth grade
1.10
•3^
93
are shown by grades in Table XXVII.
School clubs were indi­
cated by more girls than any other group of clubs or single
club*
girls.
School clubs were important in all grades with the
Church clubs appeared to be of considerable importance
among girls.
A larger number of girls in the ninth and elev­
enth grades were more active in church clubs than in the other
grades.
J o b ’s Daughters appeared to be the largest single
club among girls.
The membership of J o b ’s Daughters was dis­
tributed rather evenly from the eighth through the twelfth
grades.
G-irl Scouts were important numerically among the girls.
However, most of their membership was drawn from the seventh
and eighth grades.
It appeared that the decline in the
strength of G-irl Scouts in the higher grades was offset by an
increase in the strength of church clubs in the same grades.
Playground clubs were not strong among the girls,
fhere were
only twenty-five girls who indicated that they wanted to belong
to clubs not active in the community.
The relative numerical strength of club activity of
girls in the different grades is shown in Table XXVTII .2
The
numbers in the right hand column were obtained by dividing
the number of girls who expressed a desire for membership in
clubs in each grade by the number of girls in that grade.
The eleventh grade girls were more active than the other
grades in club activity.
The other grades in the order of
their importance as measured in terms of club membership were
2 Cf. post, p. 95*
94
TABLE
XXVII
MEMBERSHIP IN GLTJBS OF 374 GIRLS
Club
7 th
Grade
Total for each grade
64
J o b ’s Daughters
8 th
Grade
9th
Grade
10th
Grade
11th
Grade
12th
Grade
98
134
87
114
100
7
13
7
7
9
Girl Scouts
21
11
3
1
2
Church club
10
19
27
12
39
22
School club
30
38
84
57
63
62
Playground club
1
3
3
1
Other kinds of clubs
2
7
2
7
7
95
TABLE XXVIII
COMPARISON OF CLUB ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Grade
Memberships per individual
Seventh grade
1.08
Eighth grade
1.71
Ninth grade
1.71
Tenth grade
1.55
Eleventh grade
2.28
Twelfth grade
1.36
96
the eighth grade, ninth grade, tenth grade, twelfth grade,
and seventh grade*
The clubs in which girls desired membership are shown
in Table XXIX*
There was a greater desire for membership in
J o b ’s Daughters than in any other club or group of clubs*
The
desire for membership in G-irl Scouts or church clubs was not
as large as the desire for membership in school clubs.
The
desire for membership in playground clubs was not significant*
There was little desire for membership In clubs that were not
active in the community.
A comparison of the need for additional club activity
as indicated by the desire of girls for club membership is
shown by grades in Table XXX.^
The need for additional club
activity among girls appeared to be greatest in the eighth
grade.
There appeared to be considerable need for additional
club activity in the seventh grade and eleventh grade.
The
ninth and tenth grade girls indicated some desire for increased
club activity.
There was little need for more club activity
among the girls In the twelfth grade.
Comparison of church school attendance of boys in
different grades.
The question concerning attendance at church
school was answered by a sufficient number of pupils to permit
a comparison of the different grades in respect to this activity.
C f . post, p. 98.
97
TABLE XXIX
GIRLS IN DIFFERENT GRADES DESIRING
CLUB MEMBERSHIP
Club
Total for each grade
7th
Grade
8th
Grade
9 th
Grade
10th
Grade
11th
Grade
12th
Grade
53
65
45
25
30
15
J o b ’s Daughters
15
19
21
12
12
5
Girl Scouts
16
19
8
3
Church club
3
3
6
5
3
3
School club
13
18
6
4
13
2
6
3
4
1
3
Playground club
Club not in com­
munity
3
1
2
1
98
TABLE
XXX
COMPARISON OF DESIRED CLUB MEMBERSHIP OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Grade
Desired membership per individual
Seventh grade
*89
Eighth grade
1*14
Ninth grade
.57
Tenth grade
.44
Eleventh grade
.60
Twelfth grade
.20
99
The answers to the question about church school attendance
are shown in Table X X X I •
There were more boys who attended
church school regularly in the eighth grade than in any other
grade.
There were also more boys who attended church school
occasionally in the eighth grade than in any other grade.
The investigation showed tnat the lower grade boys attended
church school more than did boys in the higher grades.
The
investigation also showed that regular and occasional attend­
ance at church school among boys tended to increase and de­
crease together.
For instance, the eighth and ninth grades
show an increase over the seventh grade in both regular and
occasional church school attendance.
The higher grades showed
a general falling off in church scnool attendance.
The number
or boys who indicated that they were nominally associated with
a church school but* did not attend was relatively small in
every grade.
The attendance at church school of boys in different
grades is shown in percentages in Table XXXII.^
The number of
boys who attended church school regularly and the number who
attended sometimes were added together for each grade and the
percentage computed in relation to the total number of boys in
that grade.
There appeared to be a tendency for boys in the
higher grades to stop attending church school#
The eleventh
grade boys, however, had the highest attendance percentage
^ 2£* post, p. 101.
100
TABLE XXXI
COMPARISON OF CHURCH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE
OF jJ61 BOYS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
G-rade
Totals
Regularly
Sometimes
Never
146
99
17
Seventh grade
29
13
1
Eighth grade
39
26
1
Ninth grade
27
25
4
Tenth grade
10
10
4
Eleventh grade
22
13
4
Twelfth grade
19
12
3
101
TABLE
XXXII
PERCENTAGE ATTENDANCE AT CHURCH SCHOOL
OF 361 BOYS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Grade
Percentage attending church school
Seventh, grade
71.1
Eighth grade
73.8
Ninth grade
65.7
Tenth grade
43.4
Eleventh grade
89-7
Twelfth grade
40.5
102
among the boys.
Comparison of ohurch school attendance of girls in
different grades.
Shown in Table XXXIII are the answers to
questions about church school attendance given by girls in
different grades.
There were more girls who attended church
school regularly in the eighth grade than in any other grade.
There were more girls who attended church school occasionally
in the twelfth grade than in any of the lower grades.
More
girls in the three lower grades attended church school regular­
ly than in the three higher grades.
There were more girls who
attended church school occasionally in the three higher grades
than in the three lower grades.
In the case or the girls it
appeared to the investigator that a decline in regular church
school attendance in the higher grades resulted in an increase
in occasional attendance in these same grades.
The number of
girls who indicated that they were nominally affiliated with
a church school but did not attend was small in every grade.
The attendance at church school of girls m
grades is shown in percentages in Table XXXIV .-5
different
The regular
and occasional attendance for each grade were added together
and the percentage computed in relation to the total number of
girls in each grade.
The investigation snowed that the per­
centage of attendance at church school among girls did not
Of. post, p. 104.
103
TABLE XXXIII
COMPARISON OF CHURCH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE
OF 374 GIRLS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Grade
Regularly
Sometimes
Never
176
121
11
Seventh grade
33
13
2
Eighth grade
42
11
1
Ninth grade
34
27
2
Tenth grade
23
20
3
Eleventh grade
22
17
Twelfth grade
22
33
Totals
3
104
TABLE
XXXIV
PERCENTAGE ATTENDANCE AT CHURCH SCHOOL
OF 374 GIRLS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Grade
Percentage attending church school
Seventh grade
77*9
Eighth grade
92.4
Ninth grade
7b .2
Tenth G-rade
76.7
Eleventh grade
78.0
Twelfth grade
74.3
105
tend to decline to a marked degree in the higner grades.
The
decline in attendance in the twelfth grade was slignt*
Comparison of afternoon and evening activities of boys
in different grades.
Afternoon and evening activities of boys
are snora in Tables XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII, and XXXVIII .6
Separate taoles showing daily and occasional activities have
been drawn up for both afternoon and evening activities.
In
all cases those activities which were suggested in the question­
naire were indicated by more boys than were the activities that
had to be written in.
It was the belief of the investigator
that activities not listed in the questionnaire may have been
much more generally engaged in by pupils than indicated in the
tables.
The investigation showed that activities engaged in by
boys did not vary much from grade to grade.
For instance, a
substantial number of boys take part in athletics at school in
every grade.
The questionnaire did not show what kinds of
athletics were engaged in at school.
Therefore, no conclusions
could be drawn regarding trends in school athletics.
All activ­
ities suggested were general in nature and therefore the an­
swers did not constitute an adequate basis for noting changes
within the particular classes of activities.
On the basis of
the investigation the only conclusion to be drawn, in the opin-
^
P°s^ > PP* 106-109*
106
TABLE XXXV
DAILY AFTERNOON ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Activity
Seventh
grade
Totals for each grade 140
Athletics at school
Go to city playground
Play in street
^o to library
Take music lesson
Take dancing lesson
Practice musical
instrument
Read at home
Help with work
at home
Listen to radio
School dramatics
Sing in Glee Club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
Visit with friends
Work
Art work
Work with chemical
set
Hike
15
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
227
184
93
13
19
16
2
6
1
1
1
6
2
1
7
17
23
30
5
17
35
38
60
51
5
9
4
7
51
45
5
4
5
1
8
2
2
2
1
3
4
5
Tenth
grade
9
3
1
2
25
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
160
97*
34
21
1
2
2
3
2
1
8
18
3
11
29
37
39
25
15
2
1
6
22
1
2
6
2
3
3
9
5
2
2
2
6
6
1
1
1
* In many instances boys indicated more than one activity*
107
TABLE
XXXVI
OCCASIONAL AFTERNOON ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Seventh
grade
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
Total for each grade 226
367
266
196
20
19
41
44
59
22
21
17
13
24
30
Athletics at school
Go to city playground
Play in street
Go to library
Take music lesson
Take dancing lesson
Practice musical
instrument
Read at home
Help with work at
home
Listen to radio
School dramatics
Sing in Glee Club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
Work
Go to beach
Model airplanes
Fish
Japanese school
Hide horse-back
26
17
40
3
28
50
2
2
11
3
Eleventh
grade
238
Twelfth
grade
167*
22
17
14
4
16
48
5
31
11
1
1
11
11
6
47
5
28
8
44
40
28
24
17
27
25
22
16
5
5
4
2
1
2
20
6
1
21
20
24
26
9
14
17
14
26
3
13
3
33
14
14
12
20
24
44
2?
1
1
2
13
21
3
7
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
* In many instances boys indicated more than one activity*
108
TABLE XXXVII
DAILY EVENING ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
■^ighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Total for each grade 153
231
226
60
198
8
14
56
31
24
14
43
29
33
54
28
14
14
3
46
44
29
11
10
5
1
7
9
3
22
28
10
9
31
33
14
2
2
25
27
16
4
15
19
8
6
3
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
5
6
1
3
1
2
3
Aotivlty
Seventh
grade
Do home work
Listen to radio
Read
Play games
Have friends in
Help about house
Talk with parents
Go visiting
Go visiting with
parents
Play games with
parents
•Ride in automobile
Model airplanes
Work
37
20
12
13
30
27
Tenth
grade
Eleventh
grade
Twelftl
grade
115*
1
1
2
* In many instances boys indicated more than one activity#
109
TABLE
XXXVIII
OCCASIONAL EVENING ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Activity
Seventh
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
525
435
153
346
43
13
13
20
57
23
47
54
60
35
33
25
39
Total for each grade 301
Do home work
Listen to radio
Read
Play games
Have friends in
Help about house
Talk with parents
Go visiting
Go visiting with
parents
Play games with
parents
Scout meeting
Ride in automobile
Make puppets
Go swimming
Stamp collection
Go to night school
Go to parties
Sing in church choir
Develop pictures
Work
Draw
Band practice
Eighth
grade
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
295*
43
68
45
55
50
41
39
47
20
25
27
41
33
42
37
25
48
41
65
53
15
36
44
32
64
40
10
26
20
6
11
37
12
29
35
29
17
21
20
20
18
12
11
25
21
28
23
40
23
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
* In many instances boys indicated more than one activity.
1X0
ion of the investigator, was that activities of boys were
generally uniform as to types of activities.
The investiga­
tion did not show variations within the general types of ac­
tivities among the boys in different grades.
Comparison of afternoon and evening activities of girls
in different grades. Afternoon activities of girls are shown
in Table XXXIX.
This table shows daily afternoon activities*
Occasional afternoon activities of girls are shown in Table
XL.^
Daily evening activities are shown in Table XLI.^
Occasional evening activities are shown in Table X U I . ^
Those
activities which were suggested in the questionnaire were in­
dicated by a larger number of girls In every instance than
were the activities that had to be written in*
G-irls engaged
In the same types of afternoon and evening activities without
much variation between the different grades*
The activities
suggested in the questionnaire were general in nature.
xhe
investigation did not yield sufficient data, in the opinion
of the investigator, to justify conclusions regarding trends
within the general classes of activities in which girls parti­
cipate during the afternoon and evening hours.
^ Q3L* posfe* P* 112.
Q
C f * post, p. 113.
9
Cf. post, p. 114.
Ill
TABLE
XXXIX
DAILY AFTERNOON ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
213
226
157
167
23
19
15
15
24
17
2
1
8
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
12
6
5
4
29
Activity
Total for each grade :164
Athletics at school
Go to city playground
Play in street
Go to library
Take music lesson
Take dancing lesson
Practice musical
Instrument
Read at home
Help with work at
home
Listen to radio
Take part in school
dramatics
Sing in Glee Club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
Sew
Visit
Go to beach
Flower arrangement
Write letters
Cosmetology
Art work
Listen to records
Scout work
Hike
3
4
4
10
2
1
7
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
219*
23
19
29
31
23
22
38
34
51
36
57
54
49
34
47
39
64
55
2
3
1
12
21
5
15
7
6
1
4
12
1
rjt
13
21
3
1
16
21
25
1
3
2
4
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
*• In many instances girls indicated more tnan one activity*
112
TABLE XL
OCCASIONAL AFTERNOON ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
313
230
169
22
14
12
25
39
9
63
72
4
14
17
18
47
15
20
11
29
4
18
9
50
7
33
20
20
7
18
19
10
12
18
7
10
8
Activity
Total for each grade 252
Athletics at school
Go to city playground
Flay In street
Go to library
Take music lesson
Take dancing lesson
Practice musical
instrument
Read at home
Help with work at
home
Listen to radio
Take part in school
dramatics
Sing in Glee Club
Practice cooking
Do woodwork
Ride horse-back
Church choir
Go to parties
Go boating
13
19
15
40
9
2
6
22
10
16
9
197
3
11
22
6
1
1
8
6
1
17
32
10
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
8
7
40
5
1
196*
16
10
4
43
8
2
9
12
21
31
8
8
8
11
12
13
9
18
5
8
25
5
1
7
2
* In many instances girls indicated more than one activity
113
TABLE
XLI
DAILY EVENING ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
Activity
Seventh
grade
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
Total for each grade 155
172
251
192
183
Do home work
15
34
Listen to radio
22
Read
Play games
12
Have friends in
11
Help about house
27
Talk with parents
23
4
Go visiting
Go visiting with
4
parents
Play games with parents 3
Sew
Draw
Knit
Work
Sing
Flower arrangement
16
37
27
9
39
44
18
3
7
38
34
44
39
25
3
3
39
52
31
7
13
51
45
9
3
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
11
34
22
6
6
34
25
3
1
244*
56
50
30
4
15
41
34
6
4
1
2
3
2
3
1
* In many instances girls indicated more than one activity.
114
TABLE XLII
OCCASIONAL EVENING ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
» _ .A
Activity
Seventh
grade
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
330
395
331
262
59
23
30
53
40
26
23
40
38
16
24
35
39
14
26
39
35
20
21
8
12
35
46
52
17
24
59
14
57
40
49
17
44
40
35
30
4
Total for each grade 335
Do home work
Listen to radio
Read
Play games
Have friends in
Help about house
Talk with parents
Go visiting
Go visiting with
parents
Play games with
parents
Sew
Practice musical
instrimient
Knit
Ride in automobile
Ride horse-back
Skate
Go for walk
Fish
Go to parties
Bake
Go to night school
Go swimming
Bowl
Go to concert
1
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
24
23
40
12
529*
15
16
32
45
49
13
25
44
21
51
57
44
42
46
42
35
24
33
22
52
1
2
6
1
3
1
2
12
2
2
1
4
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
* In many Instances girls Indicated more than one activity*
Comparison of week-end activities of boys in different
grades*
The week-end activities of boys in different grades
are shown in Table XLIII*
The activities listed in the ques­
tionnaire were general in nature*
The study, therefore, did
not yield sufficient data to justify any conclusions regarding
variations between the different grades in respect to differ­
ences within the general types of activities*
Week-end activ­
ities seemed to be of the same general type for boys in dif­
ferent grades*
Those activities which were indicated many
times in one grade were also indicated many times in other
grades*
The most significant thing regarding week-end activ­
ities, in the opinion of the Investigator, was the relatively
large number of boys in all grades that Indicated work as a
week-end activity*
Comparison of week-end activities of girls in different
grades*
The week-end activities of girls are shown in Table
XLIV*^0
The activities were general in nature and the study
did not yield sufficient data to justify conclusions regarding
the variations within the general types of activities indicated
by girls.
The study showed that week-end activities of girls
tended to be uniform in the different grades*
Those activities
in which many girls were engaged were likely to be engaged in
116
TABLE
XLIII
WEEK-END ACTIVITIES OF 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
* ,Activity
Seventh
grade
Total for each grade 309
Work
Help at home
Play
Music lessons
Dancing lessons
Trips with family
Hike
Church
Sunday School
Sunday evening youth
meeting
Read
Listen to radio
Go swimming
Go camping
Go hunting
Go to Japanese school
Ride In automobile
Ride horse-back
Nature study
Play in orchestra
Work on car
Skate
Model airplanes
31
35
40
5
8
27
21
22
35
8
33
40
3
Eighth
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
514
408
237
304
54
70
70
55
61
46
49
51
27
31
30
13
12
1
2
2
24
35
25
3
4
2
1
2
49
31
30
51
35
18
28
33
22
3
17
13
16
10
6
22
21
25
27
9
57
77
7
51
64
9
30
35
17
34
53
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
3
227*
18
11
22
36
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
* In many instances boys indicated more than one activity*
117
TABLE XLIV
WEEK-END ACTIVITIES OF 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES
,
Activity
Seventh
grade
Ninth
grade
Tenth
grade
305
416
317
275
22
12
53
41
4
3
29
49
36
7
3
31
17
69
38
18
55
32
5
3
35
17
53
9
Total for each grade 341
Work
Help at home
Play
Music lessons
Dancing lessons
Trips with family
Hike
Church
Sunday school
Sunday evening youth
meeting
Read
Listen to radio
Ride bicycle
Go on picnics
Visit relatives
Knit
Art work
Skate
Go swimming
Fish
Go to Japanese school
Dance
Go to show
Go to concert
Shop
Ride horse-back
Eighth
grade
10
10
32
40
25
32
10
12
41
43
44
49
1
1
2
6
2
40
14
50
44
12
Eleventh Twelfth
grade
grade
2
1
25
8
347*
25
68
21
1
3
30
13
36
26
28
26
27
25
6
8
12
6
54
41
51
36
47
54
60
?2
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
2
5
2
1
1
1
1
* In many instances girls indicated more than one activity#
by many girls in other grades.
It was significant, in the
opinion of the investigator, that a considerable number of
girls indicated that they worked on week-ends.
Comparison of attendance of boys in different grades
at moving picture shows.
The attendance of boys in different
grades at moving picture shows Is shown in Figure 15.
attendance was computed in percentages for each grade.
The
The
investigation showed that more boys attended moving picture
shows once or more times a week than went occasionally.
The
exception to this was the twelfth grade in which an equal
number of boys indicated that they attended occasionally and
once or more a week*
The investigation showed that attendance
at moving picture shows was a popular activity with boys in
all grades.
A larger percentage of boys in the seventh grade
indicated that they attended moving picture shows once or more
a week than in the twelfth grade.
However, all the boys In
the twelfth grade Indicated that they went to moving picture
shows occasionally or once or more a week.
In the seventh
grade a small percentage of boys said that they did not attend
moving picture shows.
Comparison of attendance of girls in different grades
at moving picture shows.
The attendance of girls in different
grades at moving picture snows is shown in Figure 1 6 . ^
119
Percentage
Grade
Seventh
50
25
35.8
Eighth
Ninth
75
100
61
50
26.1
37.9
» 39
Tenth
Eleventh
56.5
41
Twelfth
Attend occasionally
Attend once or more a week
FIGURE
15
ATTENDANCE OF 361 BOYS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
AT MOVING PICTURE SHOWS
120
Percentage
50
75
Grade
25
44
Seventh
55.9
58.5
Eighth
>•
■■ 61.4
28.9
Ninth
66.6
12.5
Tenth
Eleventh
100
76.7
50
50
.2
T
Twelfth
•55.4
Attend occasionally
Attend once a wee& or more
FIGURE
16
ATTENDANCE OF 374 GIRLS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
AT MOVING PICTURE SHOWS
121
The percentage of girls who indicated that they attended
moving picture shows once or more times a week was larger than
the percentage who Indicated occasional attendance.
the eleventh grade were an exception.
G-irls in
The percentage of at­
tendance once or more times a week was largest in the tenth
grade.
The investigation showed that attendance at moving
picture shows once or more often in a week increased up to
the tenth grade.
There was a decline in this percentage in
the eleventh and twelfth grades.
The investigation showed
that girls in all grades attended moving picture shows.
The
only significant difference between the grades was in the per­
centages of girls who attended occasionally and those who at­
tended once or more frequently each week#
Comparison of attendance of boys in different grades
at dances#
The attendance of boys at dances is shown by grades
in Figure 17 .
The number of boys who indicated that they
attended dances occasionally and every week were added together
for each grade; then the percentage of boys who attended dances
was computed in relation to the total number of boys in that
grade.
The investigation showed a steady increase in the per­
centage of boys who attended dances from the seventh to the
twelfth grades.
Relatively few boys in the seventh grade
indicated that they danced.
The percentages of boys in the
eleventh and twelfth grades who danced were over 70 per cent
in each grade#
122
Percentage
Grade
50
25
Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
100
75
! ■ ■ » 10*1
■■■■■■■■ 17
22.7
Tenth
45.6
Eleventh
71-7
Twelfth
■n
FiaURE
76
17
ATTENDANCE OF 361 BOYS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
AT DANCES
123
Comparison of attendance of girls in different grades
at dances*
The attendance of girls in different grades at
dances is shown in percentages in Figure 18.
In ordex- to
determine the percentage attendance for each grade the number
of girls who attended dances occasionally and those attending
every week were added together.
The tenth grade showed a low­
er percentage of girls who attended dances than did the ninth
grade.
Otherwise the investigation showed that girls in the
higher grades danced more than did girls in the lower grades.
Comparison of the number of evenings boys in different
grades were away from home in an average week.
The average
number of evenings boys in different grades were away from
home in an average week are shown in Table XLV.
-rp
The aver­
ages were computed by adding together the number of evenings
boys were away from home each week for the different grades
and dividing the totals by the number of boys in each grade.
The boys in the seventh and eleventh grades went out more
often than did the boys in the other grades.
With the excep­
tion of the eleventh grade boys a tendency was noted for boys
to stay at home evenings more often in the higher grades than
in the lower grades; boys In the lower grades were away from
home in the evenings more than boys in the higher grades.
The average number of evenings boys were away from home in
the twelfth grade was lower than the averages in other grades.
Cf. post, p. 125.
124
Grade
.■ .; - ..
Percentage
'-
,
50
23
Seventh
■ 33.8
Eighth
— 35
100
75
Ninth
74.3
Tenth
69.6
Eleventh
72
Twelfth
— 79.7
FIGURE
18
ATTENDANCE OF 374 GIRLS IN DIFFERENT GRADES
AT DANCES
125
TABLE
XLV
AVERAGE NUMBER OF EVENINGS IN A WEEK 361 BOYS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES WERE AWAY FROM HOME
Grade
Average
Seventh
5.1
Eighth
4.8
Ninth
4.6
Tenth
4.6
Eleventh
6.2
Twelfth
4.1
126
Comparison of the number of evenings girls in differ­
ent grades were away from home in an average week*
In Table
XLVI the average number of evenings girls in different grades
were away from home in a normal week are shown*
The numbers
of evenings the girls were away from home in each grade were
added together and the totals divided by the number of girls
in each grade*
The eighth grade girls were away from home
more frequently than girls in any other grade.
The investiga­
tion showed that girls in the lower grades went out more
frequently than did the girls in higher grades*
However, the
difference was not marked.
Summary of the comparison of leisure time activities
in different grades.
School clubs proved to be the most
popular of club activities among boys.
the Boy Scout organization.
The largest club was
Church clubs were somewhat
stronger in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades than they
were among boys in lower grades.
Among boys the desire for
membership was greatest in the eighth, ninth, and eleventh
grades.
School clubs were also very popular with girls.
Church
clubs were moderately significant among girls of all grades.
However, church club activity tended to be more popular among
girls In the ninth and eleventh grades.
I'iie need for addi­
tional club life to meet the intei*ests of girls was greatest
in the eighth grade.
127
TABLE XLVI
AVERAGE NUMBER OF EVENINGS IN A WEEK 374 GIRLS
IN DIFFERENT GRADES WERE AWAY FROM HOME
Grade
Average
Seventh
4.9
Eighth
5*0
Ninth
4.2
Tenth
4.4
Eleventh
4.8
Twelfth
4.1
128
Although tin© study showed that boys in the eleventh
grade attended church school more often than boys In other
grades the tendency appeared to be for attendance to fall off
in the higher grades.
The tendency among girls in regard to
church school attendance was for it to remain about the same
in different grades*
Afternoon and evening activities were about the same
in type and frequency of times indicated in the different
grades.
This applied to both sexes.
The same thing proved
to be true regarding week-end activities among boys and girls
in the different grades.
Attendance at moving picture shows was a general
practice among boys and girls in all grades.
However, attend­
ance at dances was much higher in the upper grades among both
sexes than it was in the lower grades.
The number of evenings
boys and girls were away from home in an average week was
about the same in all grades.
Boys and girls in the lower
grades went out in the evenings as often as boys and girls
in the higher grades.
CHAPTER
VII
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The task of the study*
The object of the study was to
answer specific questions asked by members of the Torrance
Coordinating Council about leisure time activities among the
junior and senior high school pupils of the community*
These
questions served as the basis for the organization of the
questionnaire used in the study*
first chapter of this thesis*
They were discussed in the
The conclusions herewith pre­
sented are based upon the materials obtained by means of this
method of study, the details of which have been presented in
preceding chapters*
The need for additional club activity among boys*
The
investigation indicated that there were 619 active memberships
in clubs among the boys*^
active in clubs*
The great majority of boys were
Only fourteen and nine-tenths per cent of
the boys did not belong to any club *2
Thus the investigation
revealed that the various institutions and agencies of the
community were providing a sufficient number and variety of
clubs to give opportunity to the great majority of boys to
take part in organized club activities*
^
2
aflte, p* 10 .
C f * ante, p. 10.
130
The investigation showed that although a large number
of the boys were active in clubs, there were many who desired
to belong to clubs in which they were not active#
320 who desired club memberships#5
There were
The investigation indi­
cated that the desire for membership in the clubs suggested
in the questionnaire was sufficient to justify an effort to
enlarge the membership of existing clubs.
There was little
need for clubs not already existing in the community at the
time of the study, if the interest of the boys were taken as
the basis for judgment.
It was the conclusion of the investi­
gator that an expansion of the program and membership of the
existing clubs in the community would meet the need of boys
for club activity.
This conclusion was based on the actual
membership of clubs at the time of the survey and on the
desire of boys to be members in those clubs*
The need for additional club activity among girls.
There were 597 active club memberships among the girls
Thus the majority of girls were active in clubs.
Only four­
teen and seven tenths per cent of the girls were not members
of c l u b s . 5
The investigation indicated that the community
had a sufficient number and variety of clubs to give oppor-
^ Of* ante, p. 12 .
4
5
Cf. ante, p. 17 *
L o c . cit.
131
tunity to the girls for that type of leisure time activity.
The investigation revealed that a considerable number
of girls desired membership in clubs in which they were not
active.^
desire for membership in clubs pertained, how­
ever, to clubs that already existed in the community.
The
conclusion of the investigator was that the need for additional
club activity among girls in the community could be met by an
expansion of the program and memberships of the clubs already
established.
It did not appear to the investigator that there
was a need for organizing new clubs.
The need for increased church activity among boys.
The study showed that 250 boys claimed membership in a church.^
This was about 69 per cent of the total number of boys who
answered the questionnaire.
Since this number included boys
who were more or less inactive, the investigator concluded
that there existed in the community a need for increased church
activity among boys.
About one out of every three junior and
senior high school boys was not a member of a church*
There were 272 boys who were affiliated with church
schools.^
Some of the boys who
schools apparently had not taken
were affiliated with church
the stepof becoming members
6 2-S* an~ke » Table VI, p. 20.
^ ££• an^e > P* 26.
® Cf. ante, p. 27 *
132
of the church#
Should it be assumed that all the boys affil­
iated with church schools were active, there still would be
a need for expansion and increased activity on the part of
church schools, in the opinion of the investigator.
This
apparent need for increased activity on the part of church
schools was stressed still more by the fact that of the 272
boys affiliated with church schools about 57 per cent attended
regularly and the rest attended occasionally or never
attend­
ed. 9 The need for increased activity in the church schools
was greatest in the ninth, tenth, and twelfth grades
in
the opinion of the investigator, there was a need for increased
church school activity among the boys of all grades.
The study
revealed a tendency toward a decrease in effective church
school activity among boys in the higher grades. ^ 2.
The need for Increased church activity among girls.
The study indicated that 374, or about 73 per cent, of the
girls acknowledged membership in a church .^*2
Although the
percentage of girls who were church members compared favorably
with that of the boys, of whom 69 per cent were church members,
there was considerable need for increased church activity
among the girls.
9 Cf. ante, pp. 27, 29•
10 Cf. ante. Tatole XXXII, p. 101.
^
L o c . cit.
Cf. ante, p. 30 .
133
There were more girls affiliated with church schools
than there were girls who had taken the formal step of becom­
ing church members*
There were 300 girls who claimed affil­
iation with a church school.
Of this group about 57 per cent
attended church school regularly.
The others attended occa­
sionally or had given up church school attendance*1^
Thus
the investigation showed that there was a need for increased
church school activity among girls.
A large percentage of
the girls were not being reached at all or were being reached
only occasionally.
The need for increased church school ac­
tivity was about the same in the different grades*1^
The
in which 92 per
only exception to this
was theeighth grade
cent of the girls were
active in church schools.
The need for additional vacation church school activ­
ities among boys and girls*
The study showed that only
forty-two boys stated that they had attended a vacation church
school*1^
There were forty-seven girls who indicated that
they had attended a vacation church school*1^
In the opinion
of the investigator, there was a considerable need for in­
creased activity among the several churches of the community
^
Cf* ante, p. 32.
14 SI*
ante, Table XXXIV, p. 104.
^
Cf. ante, p.
30*
^
Cf. ante, p.
32.
134
in promoting vacation church schools*
The need for increased summer camp activities among
boys and girls*
There were eighty-eight, or about 25 per
cent, of the boys who indicated that they had attended summer
camps.17
Only twenty-seven, or about 9 per cent# of the girls
indicated that they had attended a summer camp***-®
The small
percentages of boys and girls who had attended summer camps
indicated, in the opinion of the investigator, a need for
increased summer camp activity among boys and girls.
The need
appeared to be greater among girls.
There were sixty-one boys who pointed out that the
reason they did not attend summer camp was that they had not
been asked to do so.
There were fifty-six boys who indicated
that lack of money was the reason they did not attend.*^
There were eighty-three girls who indicated that they did not
attend summer camps because they had not been invited to do so.
There were sixty-two girls who gave lack of money for their
reason for not attending.
20
The investigation showed that
increased activity on the part of community agencies which
sponsored summer camps for boys and girls might have increased
17
C f * ante, p. 56 .
18 Cf. ante, p. 37.
19
XjOC • cit •
Cf. ante, p. 39*
135
the attendance at summer camps.
The study also showed that
many boys and girls did not attend summer camps because they
could not afford to do so.
There was a definite need for
financial assistance to help young people attend summer camps.
Summary of after school activities of boys.
It was
the belief of the investigator that the questionnaire did not
adequately cover the arter school and evening activities of
boys and girls.
The investigation revealed, however, that
helping at home was of considerable importance as a daily
after school activity.2-** Other Important daily activities
were listening to radio, athletics at school, and reading at
home *22
The significant conclusion to be drawn from the study
in respect to after school activities of boys, in the judgment
of the investigator, was that, with the exception of athletics
at school, the most frequently indicated every day after school
activities were centered in the home.
The relative importance
of the home as the place for after school activities of boys
is borne out by Table XI, in which the number of boys who in­
dicated the activities as daily practices and the number of
boys who indicated them to be occasional activities were added
together*2^
There were three activities that normally would
^ ££• aftte, P* 44.
22
Loc* cit.
26
ante, p. 50*
have taken place in the home among the first five activities
mentioned in this table.
The other two activities included
among the first five were going to the library and athletics
at school#
This indicated that the home and community re­
sources such as the library and school playgrounds provided
opportunity for most of the after school activities of boys#
Summary of after school activities of girls.
The
investigation showed the same general conclusions regarding
the after school activities of girls that it showed in the
case of the boys.
In the five activities indicated by most
girls as daily activities four were activities of the home
and the fifth
an activity of the s c h o o l T h u s the responsi­
bility of
the home for providing daily after school activities
for girls
was shown by the study.
The relative importance of the home as the place for
after school activities among girls was borne out by the addi­
tion of the number of girls who indicated activities to be
daily practices and those who indicated the same activities
to be occasional practices.
The five most frequently mention­
ed daily and occasional after school activities of girls in­
volved the home in four instances and the city library in the
fifth instance.25
Athletics at school and use of the city
24
Cf. ante. Table XII, p. 51.
25
Cf. ante, Table XIII, p. 56.
137
playground were also Important as daily and occasional alter
school activities*^
The investigation showed that the home
and community resources supplemented each other in providing
lor the after school activities of girls*
Conclusions regarding evening activities of hoys*
The five most frequently mentioned everyday evening activities
of boys were all home activities*2^
In the opinion of the
investigator, this Indicated the great importance of the home
as the place for daily evening activities*
It was also b e ­
lieved by the investigator to be significant that only 145 out
of 361 boys talked every evening with their p a r e n t s .^8
This
might have Indicated a failure on the part of parents to keep
in intimate contact with the activities of their boys by talk­
ing with them in the evenings.
Social activities were among
the most frequently indicated occasional activities of boys.
The five most frequently indicated occasional evening activ­
ities among the boys were going visiting, going visiting with
parents, having friends in, playing games, and reading.2 ^
Listening to the radio was the most popular evening
activity engaged in regularly or occasionally by boys.
25 Of. ante, Table XIII, p. 56.
27 21' ante. Table XIV, p. 5728
C f . ante, p. 58.
29
Cf. ante, p. 59*
This
138
is shown in Table XV, in which the number of boys who indicat­
ed activities to be daily practices were added to the number
of boys who indicated the same activities to be occasional
practices .^0
Of the first ten activities mentioned by boys
as evening activities only three involved a considerable de­
gree of parental participation.
It appeared that the activ­
ities in which parents and boys took part together were in
the minority.
Social activities were prominent among the
first ten evening activities of boys.
Conclusions regarding evening activities of girls.
The
five most frequently mentioned daily evening activities
of girls were
listening to radio, helping abouthome,
home work, talking with parents, and reading.-^-
doing
All of these
were activities that would take place within the home.
Talk­
ing with parents was a practice every evening with 183 girls.
The study showed that the most frequently mentioned occasional
evening activities of girls were social in nature.
Doing home work was the most frequently indicated activ­
ity among g i r l s l i s t e n i n g to radio was second in popularity;
and reading was third.
There were only three activities that
indicated a high degree of parental participation.
30 Cf.
ante. Table XV, p. 62.
31 Cf.
ante. Table XVI, p. 64.
3
ante. Table XVII, p. 68 .
Cf.
Social
139
activities were prominent among the activities listed by girls
for the evening*
Summary of week-end activities of boys *
Listening to
radio, helping at home, working, reading, and playing were
the five week-end activities most frequently indicated by
boys*^
Three of the five most frequently mentioned week-end
practices would center in the home*
The investigation showed
that the home was of prime importance as a place for week-end
activities.
Attending Sunday school was the most popular week-end
church a c t i v i t y A t t e n d i n g church was less popular as a
week-end practice*
Sunday evening youth meetings were attend­
ed by only sixty-one boys.
About as many boys indicated that
they took trips with families on week-ends as there were boys
who indicated that they attended Sunday school or church.
Summary of week-end activities of girls*
The five most
frequently mentioned week-end practices of girls were helping
at home, listening to radio, reading, attending church, and
attending Sunday school.^5
Three of these five week-end
activities of girls would normally center in the home and the
33 Cf. ante. Table XVIII, p. 71" > 4
Cf. ante, p. 71*
55 Cf. ante. Table XX, p. 74.
140
other two were church activities.36
A considerable number or
girls indicated that they worked on week-ends.
Taking trips
with the family was about as important in frequency as attend­
ing church or Sunday school.
were of minor significance.
Sunday evening youth meetings
They were attended by only fifty-
four girls.
Summary and conclusions regarding; attendance of boys
at moving picture shows.
Moving picture shows were attended
occasionally by 148 boys, at least once a week by 133 boys,
and twice or more times a week by sixty b o y s . A b o u t
48 per
cent of the boys indicated that they attended moving picture
shows once or more a week.
The investigation showed that
attendance at moving picture shows was popular with boys in
all grades studied.38
parents.39
in many instances they went with their
However, they tended to go with friends or by
themselves.
The investigator believed that attendance at moving
picture shows was one of the most popular activities of boys.
However, the questionnaire did not ask what kind of shows were
attended or where they were located.
3
37
Cf. ante, Table XX, p. 74.
Cf# ante, p. 78 .
Cf. ante, Figure 15, p* 119*
39 Cf. ante, p. 78.
Because of this it is
141
the opinion of the investigator that the study did not justi­
fy conclusions regarding the influence of attendance at mov­
ing picture shows on the boys.
It is believed that this is a
field for further study.
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance of girls
at moving picture shows*
Attending moving picture shows was
also a popular activity with girls.
There were 129# or about
34 per cent, of the girls who attended sometimes, 146, or about
39 per cent, who attended once a week, and seventy-five, or
about 20 per cent, who indicated that they attended twice or
more times a w e e k . ^
Oirls attended moving picture shows
with friends more often than they attended with parents*
only a few instances did they go by themselves.
In
The popular­
ity of attendance at moving picture shows was general in the
different grades.
Although the investigation revealed that going to mov­
ing picture shows was a popular activity among the girls the
investigator did not believe that the study justified con­
clusions regarding the possible influence of such activities
on girls.
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance of boys
at dances*
Attending dances was not popular as an activity
among the boys.
40
Only 39 per cent of the boys Indicated tnat
Cf. ante, p. 78.
142
they attended dances occasionally.*^-
Those who attended dances
every week were only 7 per cent of the total.
A comparison of
the attendance of boys at dances in the different grades show­
ed that hoys in the higher grades attended more often than
Ap
hoys in the lower grades. ^ The percentage of attendance
was highest in the twelfth grade and lowest in the seventh
grade•
Summary and conclusions regarding attendance of girls
at dances.
There were 145, or ahout 39 per cent, of the girls
who indicated that they attended dances sometimes, and thirtyfive, or ahout 9 per cent, of the girls who indicated that
they attended every w e e k . ^
A comparison of attendance of
girls at dances in different grades shows that girls were more
lL.lL
interested in dances in the lower grades than were hoys. ^
However, a tendency for dancing to become more popular with
girls in the higher grades was noted.
Conclusions regarding evenings spent away from home
by boys.
There were 207 hoys out of a total of 361 who in­
dicated that they were away from home five or more evenings
in an average w e e k . ^
A comparison of the number of evenings
^ 2£* ante, p. 79.
Ap
Cf. ante,
Figure 17,p.122.
^
Cf.
ante, p. 81.
^ Cf. ante, Figure 18,
45
Cf. ante, p. 81..
p. 124.
143
boys in different grades were away from home in an average
week showed that boys in the lower grades were away from home
somewhat more often than boys in the higher grades.2^
It
also showed that the average number of evenings that boys
were away from home varied from four and one tenth to six
and two tenths.
Conclusions regarding evenings spent away from home
by girls.
There were 210 girls who indicated that they were
away from home five or more evenings each week.
a
compari­
son of the number of evenings girls in different grades were
away from home in an average week showed that girls in the
lower grades were away from home somewhat more often than girls
in the higher g r a d e s . *phe comparison also showed that the
average number of evenings girls were away from home in a
normal week varied from four and one tenth to five evenings.
Althougn the investigation did not snow what activities
were responsible for taking the girls out of the homes so many
evenings each week the investigator believed that the high
average in the number of evenings spent away from home was the
result of total influence or leisure time activities in the
community on the home.
The investigator believed that the
condition was not desirable wherein girls averaged from four
46 Cf. ante. Table XLV, p . 125.
Cf. ante, p. 82.
48 Cf. ante. Table XLVI, p. 127.
144
to five evenings away from nome each week*
This subject should
be studied further.
Recommendations *
On the basis of the conclusions pre­
sented in this chapter certain definite recommendations are
suggested*
These recommendations pertain to the leisure time
activities of the young people in Torrance.
The investigator
does not hold that they are applicable to other communities.
It is the hope of the writer that these recommendations may
be of help to persons interested in the welfare of the youth
of the community.
The study did not reveal a great need for new kinds of
clubs and organizations in the community.
There was a suffi­
cient variety of clubs to meet the interests and desires of
the young people.
However, many boys and girls desire member­
ship in clubs, but for various reasons they are not members
now.
The writer recommends that character building clubs in
schools and churches, and those that are under the sponsorship
of national organizations such as Boy Scouts and Grirl Scouts,
enlarge their program and extend their membership to include
more boys and girls.
Although the churches may be doing effective work among
the boys and girls who are active in them at the present time,
the study brought to light the need for increasing church
activity among the youth of the community.
Boys and girls
145
showed a desire to be active in church clubs.
The investiga­
tor recommends that churches use wholesome club activity as
the means for increasing church and church school membership.
Vacation church schools have reached very few young
people in Torrance.
The community is industrial in nature and
many of the inhabitants have only short vacations at best.
A considerable number of the young people remain in town
during the summer months.
These conditions, taken into con­
sideration with the findings of this study, indicate to the
investigator the urgent need for the churches to provide an
adequate vacation church school program.
Comparatively few boys and girls have been able to
attend summer camps according to the findings of this study.
Since many camps sponsored for the youth during the summer
months are of a character building type, the writer recommends
that steps be taken to assist financially those young people
who otherwise can not attend desirable summer camps.
The investigator strongly recommends that parents
realize fully their responsibilities for providing suitable
afternoon and evening home activities for the young people in
the community.
In the majority of instances the public school
and city playgrounds do not provide activities for boys and
girls after school closes in the afternoon.
Most boys and
girls are dependent on the resources of the home for their
leisure time activities.
147
Boys and girls In the upper grades frequently attend
dances#
Torrance is located near beaches where there are
many undesirable dance halls.
The investigator recommends
that the Torrance Coordinating Council continue to provide
a community dance for the young people.
Attending moving picture shows was found to be almost
a universal custom among boys and girls in the community.
The investigator recommends to parents and adult organizations
the importance of insisting on wholesome motion picture shows.
This is especially important on Saturdays and Sundays.
The investigator recommends that parents endeavor to
provide wholesome evening activities for young people at home.
The study showed that the majority of boys and girls were away
from home four or more evenings in an average week*
Such a
practice carried to such an extreme can have no other effect
than to weaken the influence of parents on their children.
The study did not attempt to evaluate the character
building influence of the various leisure time activities con­
sidered.
It appears to the investigator that such an evalua­
tion would be of importance to those Interested in leisure
time activities of the youth in the community.
The present
study, when viewed in this light, is but a preliminary study.
It is the hope of the writer that the findings herein present­
ed may be of value to the community and to the Torrance Co­
ordinating Council which sponsored the study.
APPENDIX
C h a ra cter B u ild in g Q u e stio n n a ir e
Torrance Coordinating Council
N am e
...................................................................................
S e x ...................................- .......................
A d d re ss ................................... - ................. ...............
A g e .................
G ra d e ........................................................
A.
School.
Clubs
BOYS
CHECK
THE
ANSW ERS TH A T
ARE
R IG H T
FO R Y O U .
I belong to__________
Y es
I w o u ld lik e to belong to
No
Y es
No
Boy Scouts
Sons of Legio n
De M o a y
C h u rc h C lu b
S chool C lu b
P la y g ro u n d C lu b
W r it e
in th e
nam es of a n y clubs you
belong to th a t are no t listed
W h a t clubs w o u ld you lik e to belong to th a t a re no t listed.
GIRLS
CHECK
THE
ANSW ERS
THAT
A R E R IG H T F O R Y O U .
___________I belong to__________
I w o u ld lik e to belong to
No
Y es
Yes
No
Jo b’s D a u g h te rs
G irl Scouts
C h u rc h C lu b
School C lub
P la y g ro u n d C lu b
W r it e
in th e
nam es o f a n y clubs you
belong to th a t
a re
not
listed
W h a t clubs w o U d you lik e to belong to th a t a re not lis te d ..........................................................
BOYS AND GIRLS
IF
YOU
N o clu b
DO
NOT
in th e
BELONG
TO
c o m m u n ity .................
ANY
CLUB
CHECK
THE
REASONS
CD
Not
N e v e r been a s ked ....................................... L.J
P a re n ts
G ive
o b je c t......- ...................................
o th e r
reasons
CD
c h u rch
NOT
B E L O N G IN G .
.n
n
n
it
in terested ....
H a v e n ’t
tim e
h e re..........................................................................
B.
W hat
FO R
C a n ’t a ffo rd
do you
Church
R e g u la rly
belong to ?
D o you a tte n d S u n d a y school?........... ............................................... .................................- ...... □
(C h e c k th e -ig h t a n s w e r)
S o m e tim e s
......
......... □
N ever
................
-
Y es
No
n
H a v e you e v er a tte n d e d a v a c a tio n ch u rch school?...............
□
...
□
W h e re did you la s t a tte n d a v a c a tio n ch u rc h school?..........
W h e n did you las t a tte n d a v a c a tio n ch u rch school?............
C.
Summer Camp
Yes
No
n
H a v e you e v e r a tte n d e d a s u m m e r c a m p ? ..................................
...
V /h a t c a m p did you la s t a tte n d ? ......................................................
W h e n did ycu las t a tte n d a s u m m e r c a m p ? ......................... .................................................................................................................................. ..
IF Y O U H A V E N O T A T T E N D E D A S U M M E R C A M P C H E C K T H E R E A S O N S T H A T A R E R I G H T F O R Y O U .
P a re n ts
o b je c t..............................................
N o t asked to
C a n ’t
G iv e
a ffo r d
o th e r
a tte n d ................................
i t .............................................
-easons
CD
CD
CD
W o r k d u rin g th e
Not
s u m m e r......................
in te re s te d .............................................
H a v e n ’t
tim e
..................................
CD
CD
□
h e re ............................................................................................................................................................................................................
(Over)
□
D.
CHECK
THE
ANSW ERS
THAT
ARE
A fte r School Activities
R IG H T
FO R YO U.
D a ily
E n g ag e
in
a th le tic s
at
N o t a t all
S o m etim es
school
Go to c ity p la y g ro u n d
P la y in s tre e t
Go to lib r a r y
Take
m usic
lesson
T a k e d a n cin g lesson
P ra c tic e
R ead
m usical
at
in s tr u m e n t
hom e
H e lp w it h w o rk a t hom e
L is te n to rad io
T a k e p a rt in school d ra m a tic s
S in g in glee club
P ra c tic e co oking
Do w o o d w o rk
W r it e ir
a c tiv itie s t h a t you en gage in th a t a re no t listed above
D a ily
E.
S o m e tim e s
Evening- Activities
D a ily
S o m e tim e s
N o t a t a ll
D a ily
S o m e tim e s
Do hom e w o rk
L is te n to ra d io
Read
P la y gam es
H a v e frie n d s in
H e lp a b o u t house
T a lk
w ith
p a re n ts
Go V is itin g
150
Go v is itin g w ith
p a re n ts
P la y gam es w it h parents'
W r it e in a c tiv itie s th a t you en gage in th a t a re no t listed above
F.
Week End Activities
H o w do you spend y o u r tim e S a tu rd a y s and S u n d ay s?
C H E C K T H E A N S W E R S T H A T A R E R IG H T F O R Y O U .
W o r k - ...................................................................................
H ik e
^
H e lp a t ho m e— ...................... .............................
P la y ........................ - ....... - ...........................................
"
M u sic lessons
.....................................................
D a n c in g lessons....................................... - ..............
T r ip s w it h f a m ily ......................................................... LH
W r it e in a c tiv itie s t h a t you en gage in th a t a re not listed above.
□
□
I:::::::::::::.::□
G.
m ovies?........................ ..............................
iHi
CJ
S u n d a y ev en in g y o u th m e e tin g .............................
R ead .....................................................
ED
Q
L is te n to ra d io ................................................................
Q
a tte n d
□
S e lf
□
S o m e tim e s
□
E v e ry w eek
□
Four
□
F iv e
S ix
Seven
□
□
□
T h re e
□
.□
Tw o
□
w ee k?
□
P a re n ts
□
One
T w ic e or m ore a w k .
□
F rie n d
□
□
No
dances?....................................................
H o w m a n y ev en in g s do you spend a t hom e an an a v e ra g e
O nce a w k .
S o m etim es
□
W h o do you go to th e m ovies w it h ? ........................
Do you
□
Special Activities
No
Do you a tte n d
................................................................................
C h u rc h ..................................................................................
S u n d a y S ch o o l.................
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