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PERSONALITY IN PUPIL ATTITUDE TOWARD STANDARDIZED DESCRIPTIONS OF TEACHER-TYPES

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University Microfilms
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.E3
Horan, Alfred Aloysius, 19071942
Personality in pupil attitude toward
.1167
standardized descriptions of teachertypes; a statistical investigation in
the field of personality and social
attitudes of 600 secondary-school pupils
New York, 1942.
iii,169 typewritten leaves, tables,
diagrs.,forms. 29cm.
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Hew York university,
School of education, 1942.
Bibliography:
p.158-164.
A694C4
^
Xerox University Microfilms,
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T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
i
aooepted
tot9_JUN12 1942
PERSONALITY IN PUPIL ATTITUDE TOWARD
STANDARDIZED DESCRIPTIONS OF TEACHER-TYFES
A Statistical Investigation in the Field
of Personality and Social Attitudes of
600 Secondary-School Pupils.
By
Alfred Aloysius Moran
Sponsoring Committee
Dr. Charles Skinner, Chairman
Dr. Earl R. Gabler
Dr. Julius Yourman
Submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy in the School
of Education of New York University.
1942
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
indistinct print.
Filmed as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
PREFACE
The present investigator was prompted to undertake this
study hy the many evidences of mutual pupil-teacher dissatis­
faction which have become so apparent in recent years.
One day
while conversing with another teacher, one of the investigator's
colleagues overheard two of her pupils discussing her teaching
in the most derogatory manner.
"I do not like Miss X", one of
the pupils, a girl was heard to remark.
"She doesn't keep or­
der; she cannot make you study and, therefore, you learn noth­
ing in her class".
Upon hearing this severe criticism of her­
self as a teacher, the instructress became incensed and in selfdefense, maintained that secondary-school pupils should be moti­
vated by spontaneous interest and should not have to be compell­
ed to study.
"Only a stupid boy or girl likes the strict teach­
er", she averred.
"A boy or girl who has to be forced to work
and likes it, is lacking in character and emotional stability.
There is something wrong with such a student."
A vexing problem this!
Was the teacher correct?
abnormal pupils prefer the compulsion-type teacher?
Do only
Is it a
symptom of maladjustment to prefer the teacher who, as some pu­
pils put it, "makes you study whether you like it or not?"
Finally, should the type of teaching be adapted to the type
of pupil?
The aforementioned embarrassing experience is typical of
many such jolts awaiting the young teacher on her "first job".
This and many other such expressions have prompted the present
investigator to analyze the Intrinsic and extrinsic elements
A S 3464
i
entering Into the secondary school pupil's attitude toward
the type of teacher conducting his class.
A study of this nature can he accomplished only through
the cooperation of many persons.
The investigator wishes to
acknowledge his indebtedness to the many secondary school pu­
pils who voluntarily became a part of this study; to the teach­
ers who aided in the administering of the tests and especially
to Sister Rose MArie 0. S. P., Principal of Saint Joseph's
High School, West New York, New Jersey; to Doctor Charles A.
Selzer, Superintendent and W. A. Heath, High School Principal,
both of the Dumont Public Schools, Dumont, New Jersey as well
as to Robert W. Madden, Superintendent of the North Bergen,
New Jersey Public Schools in placing their entire enrollment
and personnel records at the disposal of the investigator and
his aides.
Gratitude of the highest order is due to Doctor Charles
Skinner, Dr. Earl R. Gabler and Doctor Julius Yourman, the
Committee of New York University Professors, sponsoring this
project and who proved most helpful in their constructive
criticism and creative suggestions.
To all of these as well as to Miss Dorothy Harloe of the
Horace Mann Public School of Nprth Bergen, New Jersey who typed
this manuscript, I wish to make grateful acknowledgment.
Alfred Aloysius Moran
Grantwood, New Jersey.
il
/
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
.PAGE
I
Introduction......................................... 1
II
The Problem And Procedure Of This Investigation. . . .7
III The Reliability And Validity Of The Data-Gather. . .
ing Devices Used In This Investigation..........
IV
29
The Subjective Elements Comprising A Secondary. . .
School Pupil's Affective Attitudes Toward The. . .
Compulsion-Type Teacher. . . 7 . . .
V
.............. 37
The Subjective Elements Comprising A Secondary . . . .
School Pupil's Affeotive Attitude Toward ..........
The "Preparation-Type Teacher"
VI
. .79
The Subjective Elements Comprising A Secondary. . . .
School Pupil's Affective Attitude Toward ........
The "Motivation-Type Teacher" .................... 99
VII The Subjective Elements Comprising A Secondary. . . .
School Pupil's Affective Attitude Toward The . . . .
"Purposing-Type Teacher" ........................
118
VIII The Summary 4nd Conclusion......................... 140
IX
X
XI
General Aspects Of The Problem................. 144
Bibliography .
...........
Appendix............................ 165
111
158
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
History and Significance of the Problem .
The purpose of this study is to Investigate the degree of
relationship "between a secondary-school pupil's expressed like
or dislike of a standardized description of the classroom ac­
tivities of a particular type of social-studies teacher and the
pupil's own rating on intelligence, neurotic-tendency, submis­
sion, introversion, dominance, self-confidence, self-sufficiency,
sociability and social maturity as determined by reliable mental
tests and personality inventories.
The solution of the mental hygiene problem of optimum school
adjustment does not lie in the answer to the somewhat theoreti­
cal question of which method of classroom control is more bene­
ficial to the pupil but rather to the more practical one of, for
whom is it the more beneficial.
Recognizing the old adage that,
"What is one man's meat is another man's poison," the aim of men­
tal hygiene is prophylactic or preventive rather than therapeutic
or curative.
So is the purpose of this study.
Education is be­
coming increasingly more "consumer-conscious" at the secondary
level.
Pupil rating of teachers has been attempted with more or
less success.
In April of nineteen hundred and twenty-nine Newmark-*allowed his students to formulate and write down the:r opinions
1
'
D. Newmark, "Students' Opinions of Their Best and Poorest
Teachers". Elementary School Journal, Volume XXIX, op.576585.
as to t.heir best and poorest teachers.
In September of the
same year an article appeared In the Journal of Educational
Administration and Supervision entitled,:
MWhat Characteris­
tics Impress Themselves Upon Elementary and High School Stu­
dents?"
wherein Bickelsl attempted to tabulate the findings
of a questionnaire eliciting the responses of pupils to ques­
tions concerning the characteristics of their teachers.
R. C.
Bryan^ compared the college students' ratings of professors
with the secondary-school pupils' ratings of their teachers
in April of nineteen hundred and thirty-three.
H. G. Hullfish^
was the first to attempt the official pupil-rating of teachers.
Comparing these ratings with those of the teachers' own col­
leagues' ratings, he found that pupil-ratings compared more
closely with those of the teachers themselves than did the rat­
ings of supervisors.
In nineteen hundred and thirty, C. W. Boardman^ analyzed
the ratings of secondary-school teachers by six hundred of their
R
pupils. E. C. Bowman ^ in nineteen hundred and thirty-four and
C.P. Bickels, "Educational Administration and Supervision",
September 1929 > Volume XV, pp. 453-4-56.
R. C. Bryan, "Study of Student-Ratlngs of College and Second­
ary -School Teachers." Educational Administration and Super­
vision. 1937*
Teachers' College Press, 1937* Abstract. Teachers' College
Record. Volume XXXIX (November 1937) pp. 155-157.
H. G. Hullflsh, "jhe Student Rates the T eacher Officially."
Educational Administration and Supervision. April 1931*
Volume XXVI11 ‘i pp. 314-316.
C. W. Boardman, "An Analysis of Pupil Ratings of High School
Teachers." Educational Administration and Supervision.
Volume XVI (September 1930) pp. 440-6.
E.C. Bowman, "Pulip-Rating of Student-Teachers". Educational
Administration and Supervision. Volume XX (February 1934)
R. C. Bryan1 in nineteen hundred and thirty-seven also attempt­
ed the official rating of secondary school teachers "by their pu2
pils. The latter in collaboration with 0. Yntema developed a
manual for the evaluation of pupil-reactions to secondary school
teachers.
0. M. Clenr allowed his students to write anonymous opinions
about his own teaching.
S. M. Corey and G. S. Beery^ studied the
effect of teacher popularity updn the attitude of students toward
5
school subjects. H. H. Remmers investigated the reliability and
effect of 'halo' in the judgments of secondary school and college
students concerning the efficiency of their teachers.
Among others who have attempted ratings of secondary school
R. C. Bryan, "Pupil-Rating of Secondary-School Teachers."
Teachers' College Press, 1937* Abstract. Teachers' College
Record. Volume XXXIX (November 1937) po. 155-157*
2
R. C. Bryan and 0. Yntema. "A Manual on the Evaluation of Student-Reactions in Secondary-Schools." Unpublished,
(Mimeographed) The Authors' Western State High School,
Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1939*
3
0. M. Clem, "What Do My Students Think About My Teaching?"
School and Society. Volume XXXI (January 18, 1930)
pn. 96-100.
4
S. M. Corey and G. S. Beery. "The Effect of Teacher-Popularity
Upon the Attitude Toward School Subjects." Journal of Educa­
tional Psychology. XXIX (December 1938)
665-670.
5
H. H. Remmers, "The Reliability and Halo Effect of High School
and College Students' Judgements of Their Teachers."
Bibliography. Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume XVIII,
pp. 9-30. (October 1934)
teachers by their pupils were Feingold,
l
o
Firth,
w
Flinn,
Guilford,^ Hawthorne,^ Hulse,^ Klopp,^ Kowalczyk,® Light,^
Livingood,10 Loomis,'1'^ Ludeman,1^ Newmark,1^
Noble,^
1
G. A. Feingold, "The Pupil Appraiies His Teacher." The High
School Teacher. Volume IX (September 1933) pp. 248-250.
2
R. A. Firth, "Seeing Ourselves As Our Pupils See Us."
Instructor. Volume XLVIII (January 1939) pp.10-29.
3
V. Flinn, "Teacher-Rating by Pupils". Educational Methods.
Volume XI (February 1932) o d . 290-294.
4
C. C. Guilford, "The Pupil Looks At the Teacher". School
and Society. Volume XXXV (June 1932) pp. 835-838.
5
A. Hawthorne, "My Best TeacherJ Two Thousand Children Say
That She Is Kind." American Childhood. Volume XV
(January 1930) pp. 5-6.
6
N. L. Hulse, "Student Rating of Teachers in Service As A
Teacher Training Device." Journal of Educational Adminis­
tration and Supervision. Volume XXVI (January 1940) pp. 1-12.
7
W. J. Kloop, "Evaluation of Teacher Traits By Vacation-School
Pupils." School Review (June 1929) pp. 457-459*
8
A. Kowalczyk, "Students Appraise the Instructor."
Chemical Education.
Journal of
9
N. L. Light, "High School Pupils Rate Teachers."
Volume XXXVIII, (January 1930) pp. 28-32.
School Review,
10
F. B. Livingood. "Estimates of High School Seniors." School and
Society. Volume XLI (April 20, 1935) pp. 550-2.
11
0. E. Loomis, "T eacher-Rating by Pupils."
er. Volume XIX (April 1931) pp. 332-3-
The Illinois Teach­
12
W. W. Ludeman, "What College Freshmen Think of Their High School
Teachers." School Executives Mhgazine. (July 1931) pp.527-8.
13
D. Newmark, "Students* Opinions of Their Best and Poorest Teach­
ers;" Elementary School Journal, Volume XXIX (April 1929)
pp. 576-585 *
14
J. W. Noble, "What the Student Wants in a Teacher." Scholastic,
Volume XXVIII, (May 16, 1936) pp. 9^12.
Peabody,^ Poston,^ Mac Donald,^ Mesicks,^ and Messier*-^
A careful canvass of reference sources such as the "Educa­
tional Index,"
"The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature",
the card index of the Washington Square Library of New York
University and the card catalogue of the New York City Public
Library has revealed a complete lack of previous research bear­
ing directly on this problem at the present time.
Studies of
pupi1-adjustment and pupil-personallty have ignored teaching
method.
Investigations Involving the pupil-rating of teachers
were occupied with the teachers'
efficiency and characteristics
rather than with the type of pupil who did the rating.
While
some of the factors which may be said to determine the pupil's
rating of his teacher were compiled and compared, no attempt has
been made to determine the intrinsic personality composition of
1
H. W. Peabody, "Pupil Teacher Rating in Practice." School
Executives' Magazine (December 1930) po. 191-192.
2
W. Poston, "Education - By a Consumer." Journal of Business
Educational World. Volume XIX (October 1938) PP« 149-150.
3
M. E. Mac Donald, Students’ Opinions As To Desirable and
Undesirable Qualifications and Practices of Their Teachers
In Teacher-Training Institutions." Educational Administra­
tion and Supervision. Volume XVII (February 1931) po.139-46.
4
E. A. Mesicks, "Let Your Pupils Rate You."
tion. CXXII (December 1939) po. 306.
Journal of Educa­
5
W. A. Messier, "Are You the Best Teacher; Testing the Teacher
From the Pupil's Standpoint." The Grade Teacher XLIX (June
1932) pp. 800-1 .
the pupil-rater.
Only extrinsic factors such as age of pupil,
length of time between ratings and effect of “halo*1 upon rating
teachers were considered in previous research.
The investigator
was unable to find anything even approaching the present study
either with respect to objectives or methods.
Since an attempt is being made to democratize the secondary
school even in the rating of teachers, it becomes increasingly
necessary to discover more about the quality Judgment in logic,
just as it is the province of psychology to canvass and analyze
all the emotional factors affecting that type of Judgment.
In
seeking to arrive at the very font and origin of affective bias
it becomes necessary to study, among other things, the likes and
dislikes of pupil-raters for certain types of classroom manage­
ment.
As no such study would be complete without determining
which type of pupil-rater prefers the different categories of
classroom control, the problem presents three propositions.
First, there either is or is not a relationship between
pil's likes or dislikes for a definite teacher-type.
a pu­
Second­
ly, this relationship is either direct like that between the
volume and temperature of gases as manifestd in Charles'
Law
in the field of physics or it is inverse as is the relationship
between the volume and pressure of gases as in Boyle's Law.
The
third proposition is concerned with the actual magnitude of such
a relationship, that is to say, whether it is great enough to be
significant or not.
CHAPTER II
THE PROBLEM AND PROCEDURE OF THIS INVESTIGATION
The problem of this Investigation is threefold.
In the
first place its purpose is to ascertain the existence, to de­
termine the direction and to measure the degree of relation­
ship between a secondary-school pupil's expressed like or dis­
like of a standardized description of the classroom activities
of a particular type of social-studies teacher and the pupil's
own rating on intelligence, neurotic tendency, submission, in­
troversion, dominance, self-confidence, self-sufficiency and 1
social maturity as determined by competent mental tests and per­
sonality inventories.
By 'ascertaining the existence'
is meant
determining whether any significant correlation exists or not.
By 'determining the direction' is meant ascertaining whether the
correlation is direct or inverse.
In order to afford the sub­
jects an opportunity to express their attitudes and in order to
eliminate known personalities, L. J. Brueckner' s "Scales for
Ratifig Teaching Skill",'1' has been reproduced with the words,
"Like," "Dislike," and "indifferent" under each standardized des­
cription of the four different teacher-types. The subjects were
then required to react by encircling the one word which best ex­
pressed their preference for, dislike of or indifference to the
description of the classroom activities of the teacher-type above
it.
The Henmon-Nelson Advanced Intelligence Test was used to de­
termine the intelligence of the subjects while the Bernreuter
1
L. J. Brueckner, "Scales for Rating Teaching Skill". Volume
XXX, Number 12, Educational Research Bulletin, College of
Education, University of Minnesota.
8
Personality Inventory was employed to parcel out neurotic ten­
dency, ascendency-submission, introversion-extroversion, domi­
nance, self-confidence, and self-sufficiency.
The Doll Vine­
land Social Maturity Scale was administered as an index of So­
cial Maturity.
In employing the aforementioned standardized in­
struments it was assumed that they measure what they purport to
measure and that they do so with the necessary reliability.
It
has also been hypothecated that the subjects’ reactions to the
"Brueckner Rating Scale",^ were reliable.
To test thiB hypothesis two alternate forms of the scale
have been administered to all of the pupils affected and a co­
efficient of reliability was computed.
A further hypothesis has
been formulated that the subjects canvassed comprehended the
language of the rating-scale, as its authors Intended it to be
understood.
To test this hypothesis teachers in the experiment­
al school were rated themselves, by their colleagues and their
pupils.
The rank correlation between the pupils' rating and that
of the teachers was
.91.
Secondly, the study calls for an analytical comparison be­
tween the relationships of the internal subjective elements of the
pupils' personality composition and their own preference for des­
criptions of the different teacher-types with the relationship
1
L. J. Brueckner, "Scales for Rating Teaching Skill". Volume
XXX, Number 12, Educational Research Bulletin, College of
Education, University of Minnesota.
existing between other factors such as differences in sex,
school-type, socio-economic status, grade, national origins
and preference for the aforementioned teacher-types. By sex
differences is not only meant the biological categorical dif­
ferentiation into male and female but the difference in social
attitudes forced upon the individual by the social milieu be­
cause of-such sex status.
By difference of national origins is
meant whether ancestry of the pupil came from Northern and West­
ern or Southern and Eastern Europe.
The Sims Socio-Economic
Score Card was used as a measure of the socio-economic status.
Whether these aforementioned factors are more environmental than
Innate is a moot question and does not enter into this disserta­
tion.
They are differentiated from the other factors of person­
ality and intelligence inthis study merely because they cannot
be as readily measured by accurate tests and scales and not be­
cause of any essential difference in composition or type.
Finally, in its more general aspects the Investigation is
an inquiry into the significance of the relationships involved
in comparison with the interrelations of the factors themselves.
The elements Isolated for study are to be silhouetted against the
background of other relationships to see if any third factors can
be said to contribute to the relationships involved.
This does
not necessarily mean that the investigator is obliged to assume
the responsibility of demonstrating causality nor is the study a
factor-analysis.-1- Such objectives are beyond the scope of so
1
J. C. Flanagan, "Factor Analysis in the Study of Personality",
103 page&photolith, Stanford University Press. 1935. $1.25.
10
limited a study and call for a different technique.
Certain
trends must "be noted, however, as the study progresses.
Delimitation of the Problem
The problem has been limited to four hundred secondaryschool pupils ranging in age from twelve to nineteen years and
selected equally from an accredited parochial and a comparable
public secondary-school.
In order to eliminate the effect of
"halo” in pupil-rating, which may be defined as the tendency of
an Individual to rate the same person uniformly high in all traits
and in order to eliminate such variables in teachers as differ­
ences in personal neatness, comeliness or physical beauty, affable
personality and other such superficialities irrelevant to the pur­
pose of this study, it became expedient to use a rating-scale con­
taining standardized descriptions of the activities of teachers,
teaching the geography of Prance to pupils of the seventh grade.
Thus differences in subject-matter, lesson topic and grade level
remained constant leaving the single variable of difference in
type of classroom management as the single factor isolated for
scientific study.
In order that the scope of the investigation
be not too narrow and apply only to seventh grade geography teach­
ers, general descriptions of the four types which apply to all
studies were included in the study.
The correlations between the
pupils’ responses to the two forms are given below.
Teacher-Type I and Teacher A
.99 .002
Teacher-Type II and Teacher B
.63 .061
Teacher-Type III and Teacher C
.74 .045
Teacher-Type IV and Teacher D
.73 .0467
It would appear from these correlations that the four hundred
11
secondary-school pupils who were the subjects of this investi­
gation agreed with Brueckner's1 judges in assigning the same
teachers to the types of which they were models.
Although descriptions of various levels of efficiency
ranging all the way from excellent to utter failure appear in
the rating-scale for each teacher-type, the descriptions of only
the highest-rated teacher of each type was selected in order to
eliminate the factor of difference in degree of teaching success.
Thus, although there are undoubtedly other elements affect­
ing pupil-llkes and dislikes of teachers, this study has been de­
limited as far as is humanly possible, to the single variable of
difference in methods of classroom control without destroying its
more universal applications.
In this study, no attempt has been made to settle the mootquestlon concerning which is the most effective method of class­
room instruction.
The pupils were not required to rate the ef­
ficiency of teachers or even teacher-types. This is a study of
the emotionalized attitudes of secondary-school pupils and not
an investigation into the validity of their judgments, although,
Indirectly it does seek to throw some light upon the nature of
emotional bias in such Judgments.
Leo J. Brueckner, "Scales For The Rating of Teaching Skill".
The University of Minnesota Press (1929) Minneapolis,
Minnesota.
12
The Manner In Which The Problem Was Studied.
The procedure in this investigation is a composite of
1
2
the correlation, experimental and a more modern extension
of Mill's "causal-comparative"^ methods of research.
This
investigator was confronted with the two alternate possibili­
ties somewhat arrayed in the form of a dilemma.
The differ­
ences in method of classroom control as exhibited in the four
teacher-type descriptions either differ in the degree to which
they contain the same characteristic or are four different characterics themselves.
This difference in the nature of the data
called for two distinct techniques of correlation, the correla­
tion of variables and the correlation of attributes.
Therefore,
two types of correlatlon-technique were employed, one of the
4
5
Ayres variation of the Pearson product-moment coefficient of
1
Carter V. Good, A. S. Barr, Douglas E. Scates, "The Method­
ology of Educational Research , pp. 548-565.
2
Carter V. Good, A. 3. Barr, Douglas E. Scates, op. cit.,
pp. 532-542.
3
Ibid.
4
Leonard P. Ayres, "Shorter Method for Computing the Coeffic­
ient of Correlation", Journal of Educational Research,
Volume I, (March 1920) pp. 216-221.
5
/.t
L. L. Thurstone, "A Method of Calculating the Pearson Correla­
tion Coefficient Without the Use of Deviations". Psycho­
logical Bulletin, Volume XIV, (January 15, 1917) pp.28-32.
13
correlation for variables and the other, "The Pearson Cosine
Pi Method"1 for the correlation of attributes.
In order to adhere faithfully to modern scientific ex*
2
perimental precision in eliminating variables which would ad­
mit of alternate explanations and thus confuse the results of
this investigation, it was decided to compare measures derived
from equated groups.
Accordingly, six hundred parochial and
public secondary-school pupils were selected for their similar­
ity in environment, national origins, standards of achievement,
size of school-enrolment and economic status.
Prom these two
school^, four groups of one hundred pupils, each, were finally
selected comprising the following equated groups: one hundred
parochial secondary-school boys equated with one hundred public
secondary-school boys and one hundred parochial secondary-school
girls equated with one hundred selected public secondary-school
girls.
The subjects were selected in the following manner.
The
entire student body of an urban parochial secondary-school was
tested for intelligence, neurotic tendency, submission, selfsufficiency, and social maturity.
In addition to the aforemen­
tioned factors, the subjects were obliged to divulge the occupa­
tion of the family wage earner and their own national origin.
1
Charles W. Odell, "Statistical Method in Education". (1935)
D. Appleton-Century Company, New York. pp. 312-314.
2
j. L. Childs, "Education and the Philosophy of Experimentallsm." New York, The Century Company. (1931) pp» 260-264.
14
Since the neighboring public secondary-school outnumber­
ed the parochial school selected almost four to one, it became
expedient to choose a public secondary-school more comparable
in size of enrolment.
A suburban community was selected, the
population of which was almost wholly composed of migrants from
the urban community in which the parochial secondary-school was
located.
These two institutions were much more comparable in
home life of the pupils than the large urban high-school with its
huge population of newer settlers from the metropolitan area and
the small parochial secondary-school of original settlers who re­
mained mostly because of the existence of the parochial secondaryschool.
The parochial and public secondary-schools selected dif­
fered only in that the enrolment of the parochial Institution was
about ninety-eight per cent Roman Catholic, while the state-supported school' s enrolment was ninety-eight per cent non-Catholic.
In this manner another variable was isolatedffor scientific
comparison.
The public secondary-school selected was visited and three
study-hall groups comprising two hundred pupils altogether were
given the same tests and were submitted to the same questions
that were asked of the parochial-school pupils.
In order to
obviate any differences between the parochial and public schools
selected due to difference in urban as contrasted with suburban
environment an additional group of one hundred ninth-grade Junior
High School pupils were also selected by the School-Superintendent
of another urban community situated between the two aforementioned
communities.
All subjects concerned were also required to respond
15
to two alternate forms of Brueckner's Rating Scale^ on two
different occasions, one week apart, for the purpose of com­
puting the reliability of response.
School group served a double purpose.
The Public Junior-High
It became a reservoir
from which to draw subjects for the two public secondary-school
groups and as an additional control group to examine differences,
which might be accounted for by differences in urban as contrast­
ed with suburban environments.
Many of the parochial secondary-
school pupils also resided in this intermediate community and
this tended to make the two public and parochial totals more
alike than different in this respect to type of home environment.
The Criteria for G-rouolnp; The Sub.lects In This Investigation.
When all subjects were completely tested and examined an
enumeration disclosed that there were more public secondaryschool boys than parochial secondary school boys and that the
parochial secondary-school girls outnumbered the public second­
ary school girls.
It being less difficult to adjust the larger
and more flexible groups to the smaller groups, the parochial
secondary-school boys and the public secondary-school girls be­
came the experimental groups and the control groups were select­
ed from the more numerfcus public secondary-school boys and the
parochial secondary school girls.
Two groups of one hundred each
of the same sex but from two different school-types were equated
with respect to intelligence, neurotic tendency, self-sufficiency,
1
Leo J. Brueckner, "Scales for Rating Teaching Skill." Volume
XXX, Number 12, Educational Research Bulletin, College of
Education, (1929) University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.
16
introversion, dominance, self-confidence, and sociability.
Since competent authorities in the related fields of second­
ary1*2 *5 education, and adolescent psychology^ deem intelli­
gence quotients, mental ages and social maturity quotients to
be less reliable than percentile scores at the secondary level,
the latter measures were computed for all traits mentioned ex­
cept social maturity for which there were no standardized per­
centile scores available.
The technique for equating the groups
5
was by composites of several tests as described by Me Call.
All subjects of the same sex regardless of school were pooled,
variability was computed by comptometer-machine, in terms of
standard deviations, scores were weighted accordingly as sug6
gested by Me Call and composite scores were assigned to each
pupil.
By means of filing cards each public secondary-school
boy was compared with each parochial secondary-school boy until
1
Leonard V. Koos and Grayson N. Kefauver, "Guidance in Second­
ary Schools", pp. 309-310. Macmillan Company, New York. 1934-.
2
R. 0. Runnels, "The Comparability of Mental Ages As Measured
By Group Intelligence Tests", New York University, Unpublish­
ed Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, 1929*
3
William A. Me Call, "How to Experiment in Education'.
Company, New York, 1923, pp. 56-57*
Macmillan
A
Luella Cole, "Psychology of Adolescence".
New York City, (July 1938) pr. 188-202.
5
Me Call, loc. clt.
6
Ibid.
Farrar Rhinehart,
17
almost Identical pairs of parochial and public school boys
were found.
The profiles of one hundred of these pairs
appear in Figure One, on page 18.
The same procedure was
repeated with the secondary-school girls and the results
are graphically represented in Figure Two, on page 19•
As composites of the six percentile scores derived
from the Bernreuter Personality Inventory and the single
percentile score for intelligence derived from the HenmonNelson Advanced Intelligence Test, formed the basis for the
two groups of one hundred pairs each, the subjects have been
equated more according to the emotional aspect of personal­
ity rather than mere verbal intelligence.
For, it must be
borne in mind that composite scores are the results of a
mere addition or sum of all the weighted scores.
Bernreuter's Personality
telligence by six to one.
Thus,
percentile scores outnumber in­
Since, however, this is primarily
a study in the personality as related to pupil-attitude to­
ward teacher-type, the procedure followed was in accordance
with the aims and objectives of this investigation.
18
xixtrf ifTitixiT ill"? i-f:f
rt
Figure I
Secondary School Boys
(Two Equated G-roups of One Hundred
Secondary-School Boys Each)
JPublic
Parochial
Mean
Public 360.30
Parochial 361.63
Difference
1*33
Standard Deviation
Public 71-25
Parochial
Difference
71.75
.50
11.
.SL
4n_
.iks
/r
.UL*
o m
'JO
£-c
.
Litis
s
jL
i_
3_
i
/
s
Figure II Secondary School Girls
(Two Equated Groups of One Hundred
Secondary School Girls Each)
Public
Parochial
Mean
Standard Deviation
Public School Girls 500.5
64.35
Paroch. School Glrls499.0
. 62-10 ...
1.5
.65
Table A
Two Equated Groups Of One Hundred
Secondary School Boys Each.
Parochial
FD
Public
FD
M. P
FD
FD
12
10
20
L004
12
502
251
16
20
10
0n~
0W
15
257.5
212.5
Parochial" 71.75
Public 71.25
Table
B.
Public
Parochial
FD'
FD
M. P
FD
50
10
20
775
12
10
20
11
10
11
11
575
12
21
12
12
20
48
10
225.
.10
2££
2 f 275
225
11
144
160
FD
12
-10
Parochial 63-70
Public 64.35
Two Equated Groups Of One
Hundred Secondary School Girls
Eaoh.
21
The Type of Material Collected. The teacher-type des­
criptions of Brueckner1 s1 Rating Scale comprised Polder A,
which was administered to all of the six hundred secondaryschool pupils.
Below each type were the words "like", "dis­
like", and "indifferent".
The following directions were
given orally hy the examiner:
"I am going to write a hook about teachers and
teaching. However, I want to write the truth. I
want my hook to contain facts and not propoganda.
One of the chapters in the hook is to he concerned
with the kind of teachers the pupils like. Remember,
this is not a test. Remember also that I want the
truth. If you examine the little folder, you will
notice that it contains descriptions of four differ­
ent kinds of teachers of the social studies. Under
each kind you will notice the words "like", "dis­
like", and "indifferent".
If you like Type One please
encircle the word "like". If you do not like type one
encircle the word "dislike" and if you cannot make up
your mind encircle the word "indifferent". Go ahead
and do the same thing with the other three types. Are
there any questions?"
Folder B was composed of the standardized descriptions of
teachers of the geography of Prance who served as models of each
type as prepared hy Courtis and Brueckner1 and taken from their
rating-scale.
This latter form was administered to all the sub­
jects concerned one week after the administration of Form A.
The following are the oral directions accompanying Folder B.
"As I told you, the last time that I spoke to you,
I am interested in the kinds of teachers the pupils
like best. Today, you have been given a folder con­
taining the descriptions of four teachers of geography.
As you can see all*of the teachers are teaching the
same lesson. Vfhat is it about? Yes I It Is about
France. Which one of these teachers would you like to
have? If you would like to have Teacher A, kindly en­
circle the word "like", with your pencil. If you would
1
Leo J. Brueckner, "Scales For The Rating of Teaching Skill",
University of Minnesota Press.
22
not like to have Teacher A, kindly encircle the word
''dislike'1. If you do not know whether you would or
would not like to have Teacher A, then simply encircle
the word "indifferent". Do the same with each of the
three teachers described in this folder. Remember that
you are not marking or grading these teachers. You are
not supposed to say whether you believe that they are
good or. bad teachers, as all of these teachers have been
rated as the best of their kinds. You are just supposed
to indicate whether you would like ti> be in their class­
es or not. Any questions? Proceed, please."
After half an hour the examiner saidi
"How many have finished?"
When all had finished, he than said:
"Kindly, turn the folder over. Do you see the
blank space on the back under Teacher D? In this space
I would like you to rank the teachers according to the
way in which you like them. Make a vertical list. The
one you like best of all the four types goes on the top.
The second best next under it and so until the one you
like least is on the bottom of the list. Any questions?
Proceed."
Manner of Treatment of The Data. Both qualitative and quanti­
tative ratings were secured for each secondary-school pupil.
Pupils who rated Teacher A or Type I as liked best were assign­
ed a score of one hundred.
Those who chose Type II or Teacher
B were assigned a score of seventy-five and those who chose Type
III or Teacher C received fifty while those who chose Type IV or
Teacher D received a score of twenty-five.
All this was done on
the assumption that the types differed-In degree and in the same
order as they appeared in Brueckner's Rating Scale.
The order
was from most to least traditional type of teaching or from least
to most progressive.
Each pupil received an average of the two
scores he received on both forms and this average was correlated
by the Ayres Variation of the Pearson, Product-Moment Coefficient
of Correlation" with the subjects' percentile scores in intelli­
gence, neurotic tendency, ascendency-submission, introversionextroversion, dominance, self-confidence, self-sufficiency and
23
and social maturity.
The Ayres' method assumes zero as the
mean, thus rendering all scores positive and deviations from
the mean allowing for the employment of a comptometer machine.
To test for validity of scoring system the average score of
each experimental group was'then correlated hy the "Pearson
Cosing Pi" method for the correlation of attributes with like
and dislike of Type I to determine if like for Type I and dis­
like for Type I tended in the same direction as high scores by
the scoring system.
It was found that they did.
The coefficient
for Public School Girls was +.64 and for Parochial School Boys
+.64 for the experimental groups.
For the'control groups the
coefficients were Public School Boys -*-.53 and Parochial School
Girls +.99.
In a study as limited in scope as this one, however, valid­
ity must never be assumed to be beyond dispute.
Since the above
quantitative scores and resulting correlations are based on the
assumption that the teacher-types differ from each other and are,
therefore, capable of being assigned gradually diminishing per­
centile scores, there is the opposite and equally plausible hy­
pothesis that the descriptions differ not only in degree but dif­
fer also in kind, that is, that they are four different indepen­
dent absolutes.
According to this assumption the teacher-types
had to be treated as absolutes or attributes.
It will be remem­
bered that Brueckner kept these four types separate in his rat­
ing scale.
It was the investigator's assumption that they might
be variables of the same elements.
According to the assumption
that they were attributes or absolutes, the teacher-types had to
be treated as such.
Data were arranged in four f>lace tables.
Such tables were constructed with cells for high and low on each
24
of the following percentile scores: Intelligence, neurotic tendency, ascendency-submlssion, lntroversion-extroversion, domin­
ance, self-confidence, self-sufficiency, sociability, social
maturity, socio-economic status and national origins of family
as the horizontal or "x" axes with like and dislike for teachers
A, B, C, and D as the vertical or "y" axes.
Folder B was used
exclusively for the aforementioned attribute-correlation as being
more readable and comprehensible to the subjects.
"High11 and"Low"
scores were assumed to be two dichotomous groups similar to the
categories of “like" and ’’dislike".
For most of the types, "in­
different” responses were negligible and since the function of
such scores was merely to increase the accuracy of the study by
eliminating all doubtful responses.
them in the correlation process.
It was decided to disregard
Moreover, they would constitute
a third category and find no place in a four place table.
However,
since they might throw valuable illumination on other aspects of
the problem, it was decided to record them and use them later in
the "causal-comparative"-1- process.
There has always been some
doubt as to when a score should be considered "high" and when one
was to be classified as "low"; Odell
in his model attribute-cor-
relation example considers a score "high" if it is above the mean
1
F. W. Westaway, "The Scientific Method, Its Philosophy and Its
Practice". London: Blackie and Son, 1919* PP« 207-8.
2
Charles W. Odell, "Statistical Method in Education". D. Appleton-Century Company Incorporated, New York, London (1935;
pp. 310-313.
25
and "low" if it is below the mean.
Since these scores were per­
centiles, then all those receiving a score of fifty-one or above
could be considered as "high" while those receiving fifty-or be­
low could be classified as "low" according to the aforementioned
statistical authority.1
Nevertheless, reasonable doubts are
bound to arise in the minds of the logical that there is a sig­
nificant difference between a secondary-school pupil receiving
a percentile score of fifty and another one who has received a
percentile score of fifty-one.
would be contrary to reason.
Such an interpretation of Odell
2
On the other hand it is reasonable
to believe that the secondary-school pupil who receives a score
below the tenth percentile is quite different with respect to the
trait measured from a secondary-school pupil who receives a score
above the ninetieth percentile on the same scale.
It w&s decided,
therefore, to use both criteria for classifying the dichotomous
groups and compare the independent results to note the difference,
if any, which might exist.
tion.
It was another attempt at experimenta­
It will be remembered, too, that the subjects were arranged
in "experimental"
and "control" groups.
According to Odell^ a
correlation of an attribute or variable as existing in two experi­
mental groups where other variables are held constant is equivalent to
1
Charles W. Odell, "Statistical Method in Education". D. AppletonCentury Company, Inc. New York,LOndon(1935) pp. 310-313.
2
Ibid
3
Charles W. Odell, op. cit. pp. 260-261.
26
partial correlation in determining the nature of such a rela­
tionship.
the
for
ary
for
the
To quote Odell'1’:
“The *«sult secured hy partiai-correlation is
same as would be obtained if the two variables
which it is found were correlated in the ordin­
manner after first having been arranged in groups,
each of which the value of the third variable was
same."
Experimental grouping was substituted for the costlier method of
partiai-correlation.
Another reason for resorting to experiment2
al grouping, was to apply, if possible Mill's principles of com3
parison and double-comparsion. To quote John Stuart Mill:
"if two or more instances in which the phenome­
non occurs have only one circumstance in common, while
two or more instances (in the same department of in­
vestigation), in which it does occur, have nothing in
common save the absence of that circumstance, the cir­
cumstance in which alone the two sets of instances differ
is the effect, or the cause or an indispensable part of
the cause of the phenomenon."
Of course this investigation does not assume that Hill's pro­
cedure or method of scientific research does establish causal­
ity.
His method is used here, merely to make comparisons and
note the nature and significance of differences and how they
agree or disagree with the correlation coefficients.
1
Charles W. Odell, "Statistical Method in Education". A. Appleton-Century Company Incorporated, New York,(1935) pp.260-261.
2
vVestaway, P. W. "The Scientific Method Its Philosophy and Its
Practice". London* Blackie and Son, 1919* P» 207.
3
Carter V. Good, A. S. Barr, Douglas E. Scates, "The Method­
ology of Educational Research". D. Appleton-Century Co.
New York,(1936) pp. 533-54-8.
27
Summary. The purpose of the problem is to throw light upon
elements comprising a secondary-school pupil's attitude to­
wards teacher-types and thus contribute toward the knowledge
of the nature of emotional bias in pupil-Judgment of teachers.
The problem is specifically, to determine if a relationship
exists between personality and attitude toward teacher-type.
A well defined process has been devised from the three
established methods of research.
These methods are the cor­
relational, experimental and the causal-comparative.
All data
have been submitted to this rigorous, milling process.
For
the sake of precision the various steps in this process are
outlined as follows:
1.
Results were from two different types of sources:
grouped or selected and the ungrouped or pooled.
the
In order to
control variables and thus avoid confusion in interpretation of
results it was necessary to have equated groups.
Thus a portion
of the data came from four equated groups of one hundred secondary-school^pupils each and also from a pool of six hundred second­
ary-school pupils from all the schools visited.
2.
Correlations were of two kinds:
the correlation of
variables and the correlation of attributes.
attributes were of two kinds, also.
The correlation of
In the first class were all
those correlations where dichotomy was assumed to be merely above
and below the mean.
The second class comprised all those cor­
relations where dichotomy was taken as the highest and lowest
tenth percentiles in the trait isolated for study.
3*
Besides being submitted to grouping and correlation the
data were also submitted to causal-comparative analysis.
The
relative percentage of the highest tenth percentile expressing
28
each of the three attitudes of “like", "dislike" and "indif­
ference" toward each of the four teacher-types was compared
with the percentage of those of the. lowest tenth percentile
expressing the same attitudes toward the same teacher-types.
Thus the percentage of those in the highest tenth percentile
on a given personality trait was compared with the percentage
of those in the lowest tenth percentile expressing the same
attitude.
CHAPTER III
THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE DATA-GATHSRING DEVICES
USED IN THIS INVESTIGATION;
As was already set forth In Chapter One, the correlation
between the "compulsion-type" teacher and the averages of the
high scores on the two forms was approximately seventy and pos­
itive.
Me Call1 and Rugg2 consider such a correlation as "high ".
Hulse^ would claim such a coefficient to have a "forecasting
efficiency" of approximately thirty percent.
dan's results
A
According to Jor-
it is higher than the correlation of Binet Mental
Ages with the "Otis Group Test and the Terman Group Test".
It
Is also higher than Correlations, as determined by Root's inves5
tigation between the Binet Mental Ages and The Terman Group
Test A, The Otis Advanced Examination A, The Haggerty Delta,2,
Miller's Mentimeters and Dearborn Series II.
In all of the above correlations for validation of intelli­
gence tests not more than fifty subjects were examined for each
correlation while in this study the results were based on the
1
Me Call, William A. "How to Measure in Education". New York,
Macmillan Co., 1922. pp.*‘392-393.
2
Rugg, Harold 0., "A Primer of Graphics and Statistics for
Teachers." Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1925. p. 97*
3
Hull, Clark L. "The Correlation Coefficient and Its Prog­
nostic Significance". Journal of Educational Research.
Volume XV, (May 1927), pp. 327-338.
4
Jordan, A. M. "The Validation of Intelligence Tests". Jour­
nal of Educational Psychology, Volume XIV (1922) pp.4l4-428.
5_
Root, W. T. "Correlations Between Binet Tests and Group Tests".
Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. XIII(1922) pp.286-292.
30
percentile ranks of over five hundred secondary-school boys
and girls.
Brueckner1 gives the following exposition of how he and
Courtis developed the standardized descriptions which form the
standards for their rating-scale.
"in developing the concept of method with groups
of supervisors, the first activity has been to discuss
the point of view of Courtis with the group. This ex­
ercise has been followed by asking the members of the
group to study prepared descriptions of six typical
lessons in geography^ and then to classify each lesson
according to the method used by the teacher, regardless
of the skill with which the lesson was taught. The re­
sults of this classification by a group of one hundred
and fifty supervisors are given in Table II.
Table 1*
The Rating Of Six Descriptions Of Teachers According To Method
Teacher
Type
A
Compulsion
1
Preparation
149
Motivation
:
Purposing
t
i
|
Total
150
B
C
150
D
E
F
149
1
3
144
51
4
3
9 9
146
150
150
150
150
150
....
Brueckner, Leo J,, "Scales For The Rating of Teaching Skill."
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
2
Based on descriptions originally prepared by S. C. Courtis
"Standards of Methods". (Unpublished)
H.
Reproduced from page eight of Leo J. Brueckner' s "Scales
for the Rating of Teaching Skill". University of Minnesota
Press (1929) Minneapolis, Minnesota.
<
31
“it can toe seen that Teacher A wa3 classified as
"Preparation-Type" toy all tout one of the group. Teach­
er C was classified as "Compulsion-Type" toy the entire
group. There is very close agreement on all teachers
except Teacher E, and two thirds of the group classi­
fied this teacher as "Purposing-Type". These results
show that it was possible for the group to classify the
teachers according to type of method with a remarkable
degree of agreement."
To determine whether secondary-school pupils were able to
classify teachers as accurately as the teachers themselves were
able to classify one another, as to type, the pupils of the: ex­
perimental school were asked to rate ten teachers known to all
of them according to their approximate similarity to each of
the above four types.
The teachers were, then asked to classify
one another according to the same criterion.
correlated toy the rank correlation method.
The ranks were then
The results were as
follows:
Compulsion -4 .95
Preparation f .85
Motivation 4*75
Purposing
4.65
It can be seen from the above results that there is reason­
able agreement between classifications of teachers, toy secondaryschool puoils and such classifications of -the teachers themselves.
In order to determine the reliability of the responses, Form
A was administered on one day and Form B was administered a week
later.
The correlation coefficients were as follows*
Compulsion: Teacher-Type I and Teacher A , .993t.OO(N421).
Preparation:Teacher-Type II and Teacher B
Motivation:
.65-^.02(N372)
Teacher-Type III and Teacher C.7^t.02(N34-9)
Purposing: Teacher-Type IV and Teacher D .73i.02(N283)
32
According to Clark L. Hull
the percent of forecasting
efficiency of these coefficients are as follows:
Compulsion, 85 per cent
Preparation, 25 per cent
Motivation 30 per cent
Purposing, 30 per cent
The "Henmon-Nelson Advanced Test of Mental Ability" was
used as a measure of intelligence.
The Teacher's Manual for
this test gives the following data.
Reliability Coefficients
Grades
Reliability
,•91 •91 •91 ..94 .91 i-92
13
i4
15
16
17
7
8
9 ’10
.8£ .89 .89 •90
12
li
00
12
•
Coefficient
of
00
Ages
1-90
Validity Coefficients
Correlation of Henmon-Nelson Tests for Grades Seven to Twelve
with Other Tests of Mental Ability
Grades
8
The Otis Self-Administering Test(M;A.).777
N
235
The Otis Self-Administering Test(I.Qis).839
8
235
The Otis Self-Administering Test(3cores).790
13
65
The Terman Group Test (M. A.)
.801 8
235
The Terman Group Test (I. Q. 's)
.883 8
235
-a
Hull, Clark L., "The Correlation Coefficient and Its Prog­
nostic Significance", Journal of Educational Research Vol.
XV, (May 1927) 327-338.
33
The American Council Psychological
Examination (Scores)
.79
12
80
.78
12
91
9
89
10
105
The American Council Psychological
Examination (P. R.'s)
Kuhlman Anderson Intelligence Test
(I. Q .1s ).84
Illinois Intelligence Scale (I. Q.'s)
.78
From the above measures it becomes apparent that the in­
telligence scales employed in this investigation are reasonably
reliable and valid.
The Bernreuter Personality Inventory was used in this
study as the determiner for the traits of personality studied
in this investigation.
Reliability was determined by the "split-half method" and
applying the Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula.
The Subjects for
the"B" scales were students in two separate classes of elementary
psychology at Stanford University.
The subjects for the "F" scales
were eleventh grade boys in a number of secondary-schools in the
Suburban area of Boston.
54
■*
Table II
Coefficients of Reliability.
(Stanford University Elementary Psychology Students)
Fall Quarter Class Numbered 70 Winter Quarter 128
High School Boys Numbered 55•
Winter Quarter Class
BN
.91
00
CD
Fall Quarter Class
s2s
•92
.85
v
.89
.85
b 4d
.89
.88
High School
Boys
F^C
f 2s
Coefficients of Validity’1’
Correlations with Thurstone's Neurotic Inventory, Bernreuter's
self-sufficiency, Laird's Introversion Test, Allport AscendenceSubmission Reaction Study yielded the following results:
Number of Subjects 70
1
Fall Class
Winter Class
B^N and TN
.94-
.91
b 2s
.89
.86
.76
.69
.81
.67
and SS
B3! and C
b 4d
and A. S. (men)
B4D and A. S. (women)
.82
In this study Doll's Vineland Socail Maturity Scale was em­
ployed as a measure of Social Maturity.
The Sims "Socio-Economic
Score Card" was used as a criterion or standard by which the
level of the occupation of the wage-earner in the family of each
_
Reproduced from the "Manual of Directions" of the Bernreuter
Personality Inventory.
35
subject was classified.
The subjects were classified as to
national origins according to the inu&i&ration quotas of eigh­
teen hundred and ninety, and nineteen hundred and thirty.
Those
of the eighteen hundred and ninety quota were considered as the
older stock while those whose ancestry came from the predominant .
areas represented in the nineteen hundred and thirty quota were
considered as of newer racial origins.
Roughly, all those whose
ancestry came from northern Europe were separated from those whose
ancestry came from Southern Europe.
In this way two dichotomous
groups were formed for correlational as well as "causal-compara­
tive" analysis.
From the aforementioned data on the reliability and valid­
ity of the measures employed in this investigation it becomes
apparent all of them were of equal reliability and validity.
The newer type of measure such as the personality inventory, the
social maturity-scale and the socio-economic score card are not
as yet as reliable or as valid as the intelligence-type test.
For this type Is the oldest and best worked out of all of the
psychological examinations.
Through all this it still becomes
necessary for any investigator who employs such devices as the
aforementioned Instruments to assume that the scales measure what
they purport to measure and that they do so with the necessary
recurrent reliability as no real scientific demonstrable proof
can establish them as such beyond a reasonable doubt.
All that can be claimed in this investigation is that the
measures are as valid and reliable as any which could be employed
at the present time and under the circumstances which prevailed
36
when they were selected.
Of course those "who are unreasonably severe in their
criticism of such measures are often guilty of erring in
the other extreme.
It has been maintained time and again
that the average of all measures having a validity of seventy
only provides for thirty percent forecasting efficiency over
mere chance.
Yet those same critics would not consent to
employ dice in a game of chance where each die is weighed only
ten percent in either direction.
So in this, as in all other
matters, the rule of reason tempers the discussion and inter­
pretation of statistical data.
CHAPTER IV
THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENTS COMPRISING A SECQLTDAKT-SCHOOL PUPIL’S
AFFECTIVE ATTITUDES TO'VARP THE COMPULSION-TYPE TEACHER:
Courtis has given the " Compulsion-Type " teacher her name
and describes her classroom activities as follows, in his un­
published pamphlet, "Standards of Methods"'1' and again in Brueckner's "Scales For The Rating of Teaching Skill":
"The subject-matter is organized wholly in terms
of logical arrangement, usually of text-book arrange­
ment. It is presented either orally or by text, with
or without some explanation by the teacher. Pupils
are expected to study same and learn it by heart. The
recitation consists in having the children give back
what they have learned. Usually thd form in which it
is given must be exactly that of the text. Much de­
pendency is placed on repetition, review, and drill.
There is complete teacher-domination and control and
almost perfect attention because of rigid discipline
maintained by teacher by force. Results in terms of
knowledge are emphasized. Respect and unquestioning
obedience are demanded of children."
The aforementioned description of Courtis-'5 presents a rather
complete picture of what has been traditionally denominated the
"strict" teacher.
Contentions as to whether this type of teach­
er has any legitimate place in a democratic school system forms
no part of this dissertation since Brueckner^- found her counter­
part prevalent enough in public schools to warrant inclusion here
with the other less rigid, more “progressive" types.
This gener­
al description of the so-called "Compulsion-Type" Teacher comprised
1 ’2 ’5 ’4
L. J. Brueckner. Scales For The Rating of Teaching Skill .
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minn. 1929*
38
Form A., Type I of the folder which was administered as a test
to the subjects of this investigation.
One of the teachers visited hy Brueckner1 and his jury beoause of her high rating by supervisors appears in the author's
own "Scales For Rating Teaching Skill".
As an example of what
may be expected of this type of teacher she is described as
fblilbws:
"The teacher was a rigid disciplinarian. Every
child was compelled to keep in perfect order, to sit
rigidly in the standard position, to pay absolute
attention to everything that was said, and to strive ’
to acquire perfection in all his work.
Every child worked during his study period at his
top speed, because the lesson assigned was sufficiently
difficult to require it, and the compelling force back
of the command made by the teacher to know these impor­
tant facts served to make everyone sit up and concen­
trate on what he was doing. On the other hand, if the
material was difficult, the lessons assigned were short,
so that it was possible to learn them.
Papers were marked with care, every "i" not dotted
and every "t" not crossed being noted and later correct­
ed by the pupil. Answers to questions which were not in
the exact language of the book were counted wrong, and
there were no supplementary readings or discussions. Any
child could ask any formal question he wished about any­
thing he did not understand, but the question had to be
asked during the study period, not during the recitation.
The teacher was absolutely fair and Impartial, knew
every pupil's weakness and success, held herself up to
the standards set for the class. Deliberate misbehavior
was sure to receive swift and vigorous punishment; failure
to learn meant additional drill.
There was much well organized drill and review. Glass
questioning was vigorous and snappy and enjoyed by the en­
tire class. When the study of France was concluded, the
children could^answer any question on the continuous list
which the teacher had given without hesitation and with no
deviation from the words of the text."
This teacher' s description was taken as a model of Type I, the
1
L. J. Brueckner, "Scales For Rating Teaching Skill". University
of Minnesota Press, Jlinneapolis, Minnesota, 1929.
39
so-called "Compulsion-Type" Teacher by the unanimous vote of
Brueckner1judges.
It will be seen from the aforementioned
description of standards and objectives of the "CompulsionType" Teacher as delineated by Courtis in Brueckner’ s Type
I that she fits into this type perfectly.
This teacher was
classified under Courtis "Compulsion-Type" by the unanimous
vote of Brueckner's jury of one hundred and fifty competent
supervisors.
It was, therefore, chosen as "Teacher A" in
Form B of this investigation.
Two folders comprising forms A & B were administered to
the same subjects at Intervals of one week apart and the re­
sults were then correlated for similarity of response as a
test of reliability.
The results of the responses of the in­
dividual groups of subjects will be set forth in this chapter.
Neurotic-Tendency As Related To Punll-Llke. Dislike Or In­
difference Toward The ComnulsIon-Type Teacher.
Neurotic tendency in this study means a high percentile
score on the Bernreuter "Scale to Measure Neurotic Tendency" as
contained in. the Bernreuter Personality Inventory.
The author
of this Scale describes this personality trait in his "Manual
For the Personality Inventory" as follows;
"Scale B]_ N is a measure of neurotic-tendency.
Persons scoring high on this scale tend to be emo­
tionally unstable. Those scoring above the nfcnetyeighth percentile would probably benefit from psy­
chiatric or medical advice. Those scoring low tend
to be well balanced emotionally."
1
L. J. Brueckner, "Scales For Rating Teaching Skill".
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
40
This, then, is the description of a type o.f personality
which is considered by many to be sensitive to the compulsiontype teacher.
It becomes a discussion very pertinent to the
objectives of mental hygiene in the school to inquire whether
the neurotic likes, dislikes or is indifferent to this type of
teacher and her manner of classroom control.
Several techniques were followed in studying the possible
relationship existing between a pupil's neurotic tendency and
his preference for the compulsion-type teacher.
As was
set
forth in previous chapters the subjects were confronted with
all of the types of teachers of social studies and also the
four models of each type as they were described in Brueckner's
Rating Scales.
Not only were the subjects required to encircle
the words " like ", "dislike" or "indifferent" under each type
according to their predilection but were required to rank the
type and model which they liked best.
Each pupil was given a
score according to the type which he or she ranked best.
Those
ranking Type I or model-teacher A as best liked were assigned a
score of one hundred, those choosing Type II seventy-five, those
choosing Type III, a score of fifty and those who chose the last
type were assigned a score of twenty-five.
All this was on the
assumption that the four teacher-types and the models which rep­
resented them were four equally spaced gradations and therefore,
were representative of percentile ranks.
These scores were then
correlated by the Ayres' variation of the Pearson-Product Moment
Coefficient of correlation for ungrouped series with percentile
scores on the Bernreuter Personality Neurotic-Tendency Scale.
4l
The Ayres technique made it possible to employ tables of squares
"Ready-Reckoners" and comptometer machines fox' the c omputing of
0 eviatlons, standard deviations and product-moment coefficients
Of correlation.
Since the application of the Product-Moment Method of Cor­
relation is contingent upon the existence of variability in
both series being correlated and since such could not be postu­
lated of the teacher-types, it becomes expedient to employ other
methods of correlation also, and. thus to supplement the productmoment correlation results.
If the teacher-types were not vari­
ables as was assumed above for the sake of reasoning then they
must be attributes as was hypothecated by Courtis when he separ­
ated them in his unpublished "Standards of Method."
Such being
the case in order to satisfy all doubt, it became necessary to
employ a method of attribute correlation.
Four-place tables were constructed and the pucils were class­
ified according to high rank in the trait studied and liking for
the teacher-type under consideration, high rank and dislike, low
rank and like and finally the last cell and its coordinates were
dislike for the teacher-type and low in the trait being correla­
ted.
It will be noted that high rank in the personality trait
studied becomes the horizontal axis while like and dislike serve
as the vertical or "y" axis.
After classification tables were constructed and data were
then treated by the Pearson-Cosine Method1 for Attribute Correla­
tion.
1
Charles W. Odell, "Statistical Method in Education". D. Appleton-Centraay Company, Incorporated. New York (1935).
Finally, since the relationships involved might or might
not conform to linearity or straight-line correlation it was
decided to employ the causal-comparative method for analysis
of data.
All above the ninetieth percentile in each trait
were considered as "high” and all subjects below the "tenth
percentile" in each trait as low.
These were then compared
by employing Mill's so-called "Causal-Comparative Method of
Research".^
According to this method the presence or absence
of like, dislike or indifference for each type of teacher in
the two groups was noted.
Since "like", "dislike" and "indif­
ference" appeared in both groups it became necessary to com­
pute the percentage of the high students who expressed each
of the three attitudes for the compulsion-type teacher*
1
Westaway, F. W. "The Scientific Method Its Philosophy and Its
Practice" London. Blackie and Son. 1919* p» 207*
43
Dlfferencea Between Paroghlal And Publics Seoondarv-School
Pupils In The Relationship Existing Between Their Neurotic Ten­
dency And Attitude Toward The Compulsion-Type Teacher.
The various correlations between neurotic-tendency and
attitude toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" are tabulated
below.
Table III
Correlations between Neurotic-Tendency and Attitude Toward The
Compulsion-Type Teacher.
Type Of Group
Type of Correlation
i
i
Variable Correlation : Attribute Correlation
1
t
f
Product-Moment "r"
[Median Dich.i Decile
Dichotomy
I
1
5HJ
^ :Public Schl. Boys
! .00
-t.02±.07
ti
Paroch. "
- .31^.06
-f.03Ji07
}
...
Public
" Girls
kl Paroch. "
n
+ .05t.07
4.45* .05
-f .144.06
~ .05^.07
Suburb. “ Boys
S Urb.
"
si
^Paroch. "
:^Public
:^
.00
it
'
ii
•tl.OQt *00
-4.4Gd-.l6
" Girls
Paroch. "
i
>
ii
■ja.oot.oo
S-.33>.13
Key for Tables
The first four horizontal rows and also the first two vertical
columns are based on equated groups.
The other horizontal rows as
well as all measures appearing in the third vertical column are
derived from unequated groups.
|
44
The first vertical column contains Pearson Product-Moment Co­
efficients derived from scores hased on the hypothesis that
compulsion is a variable function of all of the teacher-types.
The other two columns are based on the hypothesis that the
types are four different absolutes.
The middle vertical column
assumes the median line as separating the two dlchotomous groups
while the last column contains attribute coefficients where the
highest and lowest tenth percentile comprise the two dichotomous groups.
All subsequent correlation tables are to be read
in the same' manner.
1
2
According to the Standards set by Rugg and Me Call all
of the correlations tabulated above are low with the exception
of the two public secondary-school groups producing a perfect
positive correlation.
It also becomes apparent that more con­
sistent results have been accomplished by employing attribute
correlation where the highest and lowest deciles are assumed to
be the dlchotomous groups.
However, great care must be em­
ployed in the use of this technique as it presents its own pecu­
liar pitfalls which will become apparent from time to time in
the exposition of this dissertation.
For example a four-place
1
Harold A. Rugg. ’’Application of Statistical Methods To Eudcatlon". Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 1917*
2
William A. Me Call. "How To Experiment in Education".
Mifflin Company. New York, 1923.
Houghton
45
table, the products of the coordinates of which produce zero,
calls for a correlation of 1.00.
But this could also be had,
if all four cells were zero or If only one or two such cells
contained as little as one or two cases.
The probable error,
therefore, becomes an essential element in interpretating this
kind of correlation-coefficient while the rule of reason is to
be apolied rigorously to eliminate as many absurd results as
possible.
Moreover, just because a mathematical formula pre­
sents satisfactory numerical results is not absolute proof that
such results represent reality.
For the history of science is
replete with instances where patients were cured by applying
false theories which worked but were later disproven as scien­
tific facts.
However, attribute correlation employing decile dichotomy,
barring the two exceptional cases indicates a positive relation­
ship between neurotic-tendency and liking for the compulsiontype teacher.
But the somewhat contradictory general results of the dif­
ferent kinds of correlation coefficients can be compared with
the results of another process.
It will be remembered that an
analytical comparison has been rendered possible by grouping the
subjects.
It has thus become possible to determine what is the
prevailing attitude, if any, of the neurotic-secondary-school
pupil.
It likewise becomes possible to note the trends in the
46
attitudes of the different environmental groups.
Tahle IV
sets forth the percentage of the neurotic subjects who have
expressed each attitude as well as the different groups
equated and examined.
Table IV
The Percentages Of Neurotic And Non-Neurotic Secondary-School
Pupils Expressing Each Attitude Toward The Compulsion-Type
Teacher.
Boys
Girls
Surburban Pub. Urban Pub.
Like
Dislike
High
11 1/9
Low
12 1/2
High
66 2/3
Low
Indiffer. High
Low
15 5/13
0
Paroch. iPublic ?aroch.
r
60
16 2/7
L4 2/7
33 1/3
0
L3 7/11
76 12/13
84 5/7
40
35 5/7
62 1/2
100
66 2/3
22 2/9
7 9/13
25
0
0
0
633/19 31 9/11
0
0
36 16/19 4 6/11
The most significant trend as illustrated by Table IV is
that both the neurotic and non-neurotic pupils appear to dis­
like the compulsion-type teacher.
Otherwise, there is very
little tendency for neurotics to express different attitudes
toward the "Compulsion-Type" Teacher.
Summary. Except for a very small part of the evidence there does
not seem to be any reason to believe that there is a relation­
ship between the neurotic tendency of a secondary-school pupil
47
and his or her attitude for the "Compulsion-Type" Teacher.
Therefore, it is not to be concluded that liking for the
"Compulsion-Type" Teacher is a symptom of neurotic-tendency or
is dislike for this teacher-type a.:.sign of mental health.
Nor
is the reverse true, either.
Differences Between Parochial and Public Secondary-School
With Respect To The Posalble Relationship Existing Between SelfSufficiency and Attitude Toward The Compulslon-T~/pe Teacher.
In his "ilanual For the Personality Inventory", Robert G.
Eernreuter describes self-sufficiency as follows:
"Scale Bo3 is a measure of self-sufficiency. Per­
sons scoring nigh on this scale prefer to be alone, rarely
ask for sympathy or encouragement, and tend to ignore the
advice of others. Those scoring low dislike solitude and
often seek advice and encouragement."
This would seem to be the description of a type of person­
ality which should be affected by the "Compulsion-Type" teacher
and her methods of classroom management.
The same procedures were followed with the "Self-Suffic­
iency" measures as were followed in the previous study of the
possible relationship between "Neurotic Tendency" and attitude
toward the "Compulsion-Type" teacher.
Since these procedures
were fully described previously in this chapter and in earlier
chapters, it would be needless repetition to expand.them further,
here.
48
Correlation-Coefficients representing the relation ship
existing between self-sufficiency and attitude toward the
“compulsion-type" teacher are fully reported in Table V.
Table V
Correlations Between Self-Sufficiency and Attitude Toward The
Coaroulsion-Type Teacher.
r
Type of group
Type of Correlation
Variable Correlation
Attribute Correlation
Product-Moment "r" Median Dichotomy (Decile Dicho_______________ j tomy_____ ;
Q Public School Boys
Ui
f<C Paroch. “ Boys
.03 ±.067
.27^.06
.15±.0659
.70;£.03
QT Public " Girls
Lu
Paroch. " "
.00
.I6J.Q67
.04 Jto67
.031*067
Suburban Pub. Boys
.091.21
Urban Pub. Boys
.00
£ Parochial
QJl
Public
*04
Boys
1.00 .00
Schl. Girls
Paroch. "
1.00 .00
"
~.4o+.17
The results as gleaned from the Product Moment Formula
would be described by Rugg-^ as positive but low.
The attri­
bute correlations employing the "equal-halves" or "rnediandichotomy" were not significant.
But the correlation coeffic­
ients for the public school Boys was .27* Rugg2 would consider
this as positive, present but low. The coefficient for the
1&2
Harold 0. Rugg. "Application of Statistical Methods To Educa­
tion". Houghton Mifflin Company. New York. 1917
49
Parochial School Boys was-f .70?.03*
The low prob&ble error
gives this coefficient some significance and to quote Odell,'1’
"With the present limitations on *duo»tional
testing few correlations in testing will run above
.70 and it is safe to regard this as a very high
coefficient."
The results based upon a comparison of the highest tenth per­
centile are even more inconsistent.
The coefficients for the
Public School Boys are meager, indeed.
The Parochial-School
Boys and the Public School Girls present a correlation coef­
ficient which is supposed to represent identity v.rhi -LG
IG
Parochial School Girls yield a coefficient which is against
all other trends.
tive trend.
The coefficients, on the whole, show a posi­
In most cases, however, they were low.
As can be
seen from a perusal of Table V, there is too aiuch inconsistency
for prediction.
Here, as in the previous trait, the sole value
of these measures is for comparison purposes.
Table VI
The Percentages of Self-Sufficient and Non Self-Sufficient
Secondary-School Pupils- Expressing Each Attitude Toward
"Compulsion"._______________________________________________
Sub. Pub.
Like
High
25
Low
28 4/7
Dislike
High
50
Low
71 3/7
Indifferent High 25
Low
0
Boys
Urban Pub. Paroch.
12 1/2
16 2/3
0
3 1/3
66 2/3
87 1/2
100
33 1/3
0
16 2/3
0
8 1/3
Girls
Public Parochial
0
33 1/3
0
5 15/17
50
75 2/3
100
88 4/17
16 2/3
25
0
5 15/17
1
Charles A. Odell. "Statistical Method in Education". pp.l43208. D. Appleton Century Company, New York, 1935.
From the results In Table VI it becomes apparent that, in
this trait as in "Neurotic-Tendency" the majority of both the
"Self-Sufficient" and "The Non-Self-Suffioient*' dislike thd
"Compulsion-Type" Teacher.
However, there are certain slight
trends which are noted here and did not appear in the tabula­
tion for the previous comparison.
There is a rise in the per­
centage of those who dislike the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" from
suburban public to urban public to urban parochial secondaryschool boys.
It would appear from this meager evidence that
type of school and type of community have some slight Influence
on the size or degree of any possible relationship which may ex­
ist between self-sufficiency and preference or dislike for the
compulsion-type teacher.
The tendency for the subjects who
scored low on the self-sufficiency scale to dislike the "com­
pulsion-type teacher" increases from Suburban Public School Boys,
to Urban Public School to Urban Parochial School Boys, to Public
School Girls, and to Parochial School Girls.
There is a corres­
ponding descrease in the number of the non-self-sufficient to
like the "compulsionstype teacher" in the same manner.
The strik­
ing similarity between the Parochial School Boys and the Public
School Girls in having all of their non-self-sufficient dislik­
ing the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" while not identical in other
traits and trends does lend some credence to the high attribute
correlation of these groups in the "Decile Dichotomy" column of
Table V.
It will be remembered that these two groups produced
coefficients which signified perfect agreement. .However,
although the percentages indicate that these were not chance
correlations, there would appear to be other unmeasured fac­
tors Influencing such correlations.
It will also be remember­
ed that the Parochial School Group were the only negative cor­
relation in the whole table.
A comparison with other percentage
groups discloses a like atypical trend.
Summary. For all purposes of prediction the correlation
coefficients between self-sufficiency and preference for the
"Compulsion-Typfe Teacher" yield results which are insignificant,
Although some of the coefficients are extremely high, they would
appear to be composites of several Interrelationships and to be
conditioned by environmental conditions and other factors not
accounted for in this study.
Whatever relationships do exist
seem to vary slightly with type of school and type of community.
Sex does not as yet appear to operate as a single element but
apoears from the data analyzed to operate in a complex manner on
the other elements such as type of school and type of community.
It will be remembered that It is not the purpose of this investi­
gation to determine how sex and community or how sex and schooltype operate to condition Judgment or attitude.
To do this would
take a status survey of national scope carried out by a govern­
ment agency.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "ComoulslonType Teacher" As Manifested By the Introverts and Extroverts _
of Both Parochial and Public Secondary Schools.
Introversion,like the other traits isolated for comparison
and study in this chapter defined in the "Manual For The Per­
sonality Inventory" by Robert G. Bernreuter under the B^I Scale:
52
"This is a measure of lntroverslon-extroversion.
Persons scoring high on this scale tend to be Intro­
verted; that Is they are Imaginative and tend to live
within themselves. Scores above the ninety-eighth
percentile bear the same significance as do similar
scores on the B, N Scale. Those scoring low are extro­
verted: that is, they rarely worry, seldom suffer emo­
tional upsets, and rarely substitute day-dreaming for
action."
Above is a description of the type of person who is re­
ferred to by his acquaintances as a "dreamer".
From this class
come the artists, .naulptors, artists, dramatists, and novelists.
His opposite is the man of action, the soldier, the statesman,
the actor, the leader and the orator.
It is an aspect of the
investigation which should be promising indeed in anticipation
of real discoveries.
Correlation Coefficients for the determination of the pos­
sible relationship existing between a secondary pu-oil’s emo­
tionalized attitude toward the "compulsion-type teacher" are
presented in Table VII.
Table VII
Correlations Between Introversion and Attitude Toward The "Compulalon-Type Teacher"_________
___________ Type of Correlation____ ;
______
Type of Group
-Variable Correlation! Attribute Oorrelatlo
Product-Moment •'r" Median Dichotomy Decile
Dichotomy
+. 12±.066
Public School Boys
-h .0 3 ± .0 '7
04:*.067
+.31^.060
Paroch. "
"
-4.22 ±.0641
-.10 *.066
Public " Girls
Paroch. " "
..-.tPi&ii&L.
Suburban Pub. Eoys
+.37+.19
■»L.00+.00
Urban Pub. Boys
t.00
Paroch.
Boys
f ..00±.00
Public School Girls
Parochial Girls___
12jr.25
53
It can be seen from the above results that the correla­
tions increase in magnitude and in consistency but not nec­
essarily in validity in going from variable correlation to
attribute correlation.
It must be borne in mind that at­
tribute correlation is a comparison and not a correlation
properly so-called.
Attribute correlation is a rough esti­
mate of the tendency of the two factors to vary in the same
or opposite directions.
It is the numerical correlative of
the causal-comparative technique.
It is well adapted to this
type of study but caution is necessary in interpreting re­
sults obtained therefrom.
With but two exceptions all of the
correlation results are low.
However, there is a tendency for
most of the results to be positive.
This means that, in gen­
eral, there is a tendency for the introvert to prefer or for
the extrovert to dislike the "Cornpulsion-Type Teacher'* although
the trend is slight.
Table VIII
The Percentages Of Introverted and Extroverted Secondary-School
Pupils Expressing Each Attitude Toward the "Compulsion-Type
Teacher".
Boys
G-lrls
Suburb.Pub. Urb. Public Paroch. Public Parochial
Like High
14 2/7
11 1/9
11 1/9 37 l/2
15 5/13
Low
7 1/7
0
16 2/3 0
14 2/7
Dislike High
57 l/7
88 8/9
888/9 62 1/4
84 8/H3
Low
78 4/7
100
83 /
13 73 1/3
85 5/7
Indlffer. High
28 4/7
0
0
0
0
Low
14 2/7
0
0
26 2/3
0
According to the results tabulated above while both intro­
vert and extrovert, alike, dislike the "Compulsion-Type" teacher,
54
there is a greater percentage of the extroverts who dis­
like her than there is of the introverts.
This confirms
in general, the slight tendency for the introverts to cor­
relate positively with attitude toward the "CompulsionType" teacher.
There is further confirmation for the co­
efficients of correlation in the .somewhat similar trend be­
tween the Urban Public School Boys and the Public School
Girls.
If the results for the boys are taken, alone, there are
significant differences between the Suburban Public School
G-roup and the two Urban Groups of Public and Parochial School
Boys.
In genera}.,it might be said that the Urban Parochial
School Boys are more clearly like the Urban Public School
Boys in the number of introverts who like, dislike, and are
indifferent to the "compulsion-type teacher" than are the boys
of the Public Schools who resided in different areas.
As the
Public School Girls were nearly all from the suburban area
while the Parochial School Girls were all from the Urban Par­
ochial Secondary-School, the differences between these two
groups would appear to be accounted for in the same manner as
those of the boys.
Conclusion.
results.
Coefficients of Correlation produce very meagre
However the trend is slight but positive.
There is
a tendency for the Extrovert to dislike the "Compulsion-Type
Teacher" far more than for the "introvert".
The trend is
slight, however, and for all practical purposes of prediction
it is necessarily nil.
Percentage comparisons show that most
55
secondary-school pupils dislike the "Compulsion-Type" teacher
without regard to personality, or type of community.
However,
there is a slight tendency for the number of Introverts who
like and dislike this teacher-type to vary slightly with type
of school and to vary considerably with type of community.
Sex differences do not seem to be very apparent.
The relation­
ship between extroversion to vary with preference or dislike
for this teacher-type appears to fluctuate even more than does
introversion with community and school differences.
In con­
clusion it might be said that such environmental differences
as community differences have as much influence on attitude
toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" as introversion or extro­
version.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The"OompulslonType Teacher" As Manifested By The Dominant And Submissive Pu­
pils Of Both Parochial and Public Secondary-Schools.
This becomes a very interesting comparison since a dominant
person according to sound logical deductions should resent the
"Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Bernreuter describes this scale as
"A measure of dominance-submission". Persons scoring high on
this scale tend to dominate others in face-to-face situations.
Those scoring low tend to be submissive.
It is to be expected, therefore, that those who score low
on this scale would not dislike the"compulsion-type teacher"
nearly as much as those scoring high since the low scorers are
described by Bernreuter as "Submissive". Therefore correlation
coefficients should be negative and high.
How true these "A
priori" conclusions are can be seen from the following results.
56
Table IX
Correlation Between Dominance and Attitude Toward the "Compulaion-Type Teacher."
Grouo
Type of Correlation
Variable Correlation
Product-Moment"r"
Public School Boys !-~.05±.067
u
-.16+.065
3Parochial "
JJ*
Public School Girls -.04±.067
a
ii
Parochial "
+ • 26 +.063
i
Attribute Correlation
Median Comp. ; Decile Comp.
;
0
+ .31±.060
0
+ .22+.064
Sub. Pub. " Boys
- .31*.12
Urb. Pub. " Boys
-l.oat.oo
QUrb. Paroch. Boys
•u
bSub. Pub. Girls
li/
Urb. Paroch. i
- .88*. 03
- .37+.14
+ l.OOi.OO
Of
From the results contained in Table IX It can be seen that
the expectancy of negative correlation between "Dominance" and
preference for the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" is only partly sup­
ported by Product-Moment Correlation, is entirely refuted by
Attribute Correlation where, according to Odell's suggestion the
Median line becomes the criterion of dichotomy and is almost com­
pletely corroborated by the attribute correlation where, accord­
ing to the investigator's plan, the two dichotomous groups are
selected from the highest and lowest deciles on the basis of the
entire group.
Again, it must be pointed out, in this trait as
in other previous traits, the Parochial Secondary School Girls
are the atypical group in this as in other previous trait-comparisons, regardless of which of the three types of correlation
i
were employed.
Table X
The Percentages Of Dominant and Submissive Secondary-School
•Pupils Expressing Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The
"Compulsion-Type Teacher."
i
Be?ys
1
jLlke HiKh
!Suburb. Pub.
Girls
Urb. Public Paroch.
Public
Parochial
:
1.25
0
Low
33 1/3
7 1/7
Dislike Hitth
62 1/2
87 1/2
Low
33 1/3
21 3/7
12 1/2
0
90 10/11 33 1/3
14 2/7
73 4/7
68 3/4
92 6/7
85 5/7
9 1/11
66 2/3
57 1/7
12 1/2
0
18 3/4
7 1/7
7 1/7
0
i
Indlffer. Hifch 12 1/2
?
1
j
Low
33 1/3
0
28 4/7
----------------------------
A perusal of the results compiled in the above table shows
the marked trend for the Parochial Secondary-School Boy of sub­
missive tendency to prefer the compulsion-type teacher and the
extremely few submissive Parochial-School Boys who dislike this
type of teacher.
trend.
Parochial School Girls show a very different
The large percentage of dominant puoils of all groups
who expressed a dislike for the "Compulsion'^Type Teacher" tends
to corroborate the findings of correlation coefficients previous­
ly noted.
The “indifferent" group presents an interesting' basis
for comparisons.
It would appear from the complete lack of in­
difference on the part of the Parochial Secondary School Boys
of both the dominant and submissive groups, that the Parochial
Secondary School Boys have no doubts as to their choice in this
matter.
This complete lack of indifference or doubt could have
58
been attributed to a greater first hand knowledge of such teach­
ers if it were not for the fact that the Parochial Secondary
School Girls showed no such lack ofi indifference.
It cannot be
concluded therefore that such lack of indifference is due solely
to attendance at a Parochial Institution.
It might be due to
this factor but it also seems to be modified slightly by sex dif­
ferences.
However, the Parochial-Secondary■School pupil is prob­
ably better acquainted with this type from experience than is the
Public School pupil.
Therefore, strong attitudes have been de­
veloped more completely.
Conclusion.
It would appear from the data at hand that the Domi­
nant Secondary-School Pupils do not like the Compulsion-Type Teach­
er.
Of course, neither do the vast majority of the submlsslve-
Secondary-School pupils.
like her is greater.
But the trend for the Dominant to dis­
The Submissive Parochial School Boy shows a
very definite liking for this type of teacher while more of the
Submissive of all groups prefer the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" than
the Dominant.
Public Secondary-School Pupils from the Suburban.
Public Secondary-School show a greater lack of consistency and
first hand, experiential knowledge of this type of teacher than
either the Public or Parochial Pupils from the Urban communities.
The Cosine Method of Attribute Correlation where the highest and
lowest tenth percentiles are considered as the Dominant and Sub­
missive respectively presents the most promising results in com­
paring this trait with this teacher type with the single excep­
tion of the results based on the Parochial Secondary School Girls
which has been the atypical group in previous comparisons, also.
59
To sum up, therefore the Dominant Secondary-School Pupil strongly
dislikes the 11Compulsion-Type Teacher" while the Submissive Pupil
dislikes her also but is more indifferent.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward "The Compulsion-Type
Teacher" As Manifested By The Self-Confident Secondary-School Pu­
pils Of Both Parochial and Public Secondary Schools.
Bernreuter defines his Scale, F-^C as,
<
"A measure of confidence la oneself. Persons scoring
high on this scale tend to be hamperingly self-conscious and
to have feelings of inferiority; those scoring above the
ninety-eighth percentile would probably benefit from psych­
iatric or medical advice. Thbse scoring low tend to be whole'
ly self-confident and to be very well adjusted to their en­
vironment."
This is one of the scales' developed by Flanagan who is noted
for his factor analysis of the various elements or factors com­
prising the Eernreuter Scale.
Table XI
Correlation Between Self-Confidence and Attitude Toward The
"Compulsion-Type Teacher"
•Grout)
!
Type of Correlation
Variable Corr.
Attribute Correlation
Product Moment"r" Median Comparison Decile
Comparison
so Pub. School Boys 4.09 i.067
0
-.021.067
Paroch." Boys
-.71^.0+95
Pub.
"
Girls
0
-.021.067
l4J Paroch." Girls
+.164.066
-.31+. 061
Sub. Pub. Boys
+ .77+.08
!
s
11
Urban Pub. Boys
Urban Paroch.
Sub. Pub. Girls
Urb. Paroch. "
+ 1.004.00
- .314.12
4 .31-1.12
-1.004.00
60
According to the results contained in Table XI there is
no consistent trend for "Self-Confidence" to vary in a single
direction with attitude toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Product-Moment correlations seem to be contradictory, but the
other two methods of attribute correlation show a trend for the
Parochial Secondary-School Pupils to correlate negatively on
these traits while the three Public Secondary-School Pupil
Groups produce positive correlation coefficients, if they show
any correlation at all.
It ca.n be concluded, therefore, that
Self-Confidence does not correlate either positively or nega­
tively with pupil attitude for the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" but
that the Parochial Secondary-School Pupils1 attitude toward the
"Compulsion-Type Teacher" correlates negatively with their own
score on Self-Confidence while the Public Secondary-School Pu­
pils 1 preference for the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" correlates
positively with their own standing on the Self-Confidence Scale
of the Bernreuter Personality Inventory.
It would appear from the correlation-data that differences
as to type of school are accompanied not only by changes in the
degree of such a relationship but even in the nature ofddlrection of the relationship.
Environmental differences would appear
to be more significant in these trends than the intrinsic or
subjective trait Isolated for study.
61
Table XII
The Percentages Of Self-Confident Secondary-School Pupils Ex­
pressing Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "CompulsionType Teacher."
Boys
Girls
Sub. Public Urban Pub. Urb. Paroch. Public Paroch.
Like High
37 1/2
Low
10
Dislike High
Low
Indiffer. High
0
13 1/3
30
10 10/19
30
11 1/9 18 2/11
50
72 8/11
86 2/3
70
70
85 5/7
70
55 5/9 31 9 / H
0
0
0
33 1/3
12 1/2
Low
18 2/11
20
9 1/11
14 2/7
89 9/19
0
0
In general, it might he said from an analysis of the per­
centages of the self-confident, and the well-adjusted groups that
the high scoring pupils who prefer the "Compulsion-Type Teacher "
to he of greater magnitude in the suburban groups as compared with
the urba.n groups.
There is a tendency, also, for the girls to
produce lower percentages under this category than the boys.
How­
ever, the "self-conscious1* and the well adjusted both dislike the
"Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Differences between Parochial and Pub­
lic Secondary-School Pupils are also, apparent.
Conclusions.
In this as in several of the other trait-comparisons
previously made, environmental differences are as great, if not
greater than the relationships between the trait and the expressed
attitude toward the teacher-type isolated for study.
62
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "CompulslonTyne Teacher11 As Manifested By The Sociable Pupils Of Both
Parochial and Public Secondary Schools.
According to the description contained In the "Manual For
The Personality Inventory" it is a measure of Sociability.
"Persons scoring high on this scale tend to be non­
social, solitary, and Independent. Those scoring low
tend to be sociable and gregarious."
Table XIII
Correlation Betwedn Sociability and Attitude Toward The "Com­
pulsion-Type Teacher."
Type of Correlation
Variable
Correlation Attribute Correlation
|
Product Moment"r"
Median Compar. Decile
Compar.
Public Schl.Boys
-l-.21i.064
0
4 Piq.roch. "
"
*
Pub. Schl. Girls
“ .024:.067
+ .43d. 055
- .10-^067
+ .284-.062
+ .13a-.066
- .12+. 065
Paroch."
"
Sub. Pub. Boys
Urb. Pub. Boys
§ Urb. Paroch."
i
j
-1.00*.00
+ .95+. 003
4 1 .00+.00
<
Sub. Pub. Girls
Urb. Paroch."
t .73+.09 ]
-1.004^00 \
-
The correlation coefficients tend to disagree and are quite
inconsistent.
Produet-Moment correlations will have to be dis­
missed as of very little consequence.
Median-comparison attribute
63
correlation are hardly more significant.
Three of the five
groups correlated by the Decile Comparison Method of Attribute
correlation show a high positive correlation.
cases, the probable error is quite low.
In these three
As in neurotic ten­
dency, the Parochial School Girls and the Urban Publie School
Boys show an erratic trend.
There would appear to be, there­
fore, a tendency for preference for the "Compulsion-Type Teach­
er" to vary directly with sociability as defined by Bernreuter.
Again, as previously noted the Decile Dichotomy Method of cor­
relating Attributes produees higher coefficients than either of
the other two methods of correlation.
Variable correlation, as
applied, here appears to be a very poor instrument for this type
of problem.
Table XIV
The Percentages Of Sociable Secondary-School Pupils Expressing
Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
"
Boys
1
Girls
Suburb. Pub. Urb. Pub. Urb.Par, Public Paroch.
Like HiKh
Low
Dislike HiKh
Low
Indiffer.HlKh
Low
0
7 9/13
50
14 2/7
3 13/29
100
25
76 12/13
75 25/29
0
25
15 5/13
0
0
3 1/8
8 2/6
85 5/7
70
100
93 1/3
75
83 1/3
0
20 20/29
30
6 2/3
0
217/8
0
8 1/3
According to the results as tabulated above there is no
definite trend in any direction.
It will be noted, however,
that the Suburban Publio School Boys and the Parochial School
64
girls, the two groups producing negative correlations are sim­
ilar in percentage comparison also.
A further comparison of
the results as recorded for these two groups substantiates the
correlations.
Conclusion.
In general, coefficients of correlation derived
by product-moment "r" and median line dichotomy are contradic­
tory.
Coefficients based on decile dichotomy show a definite
trend for the sociable pupil to prefer the "compulsion-type
teacher".
Here it will be remembered that "Sociable"
means
the highest ten percentile on Bernreuter’s and Flanagan’s Scale.
According to Flanagan’s own definition "Sociable" means unsociable,
i. e., "solitary, non social and independent."
Percentage comparisons do not show the usual environmental
differences which v?ere apparent in traits that previously were
examined in this Study.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "ComoulslonTyue Teacher." As Manifested By The Intelligent Secondary-School
Pupils Of Both Parochial and Public Secondary-Schools.
By intelligence is here meant the pupil's percentile score
as determined by the Henmon-Nelson Advanced Intelligence Test.
There being considerable controversy as to whether the bright or
dull pupils prefer the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" this proposition
becomes a pertinenttdiscusslon.
The popular belief is that the
intelligent boy or girl dislikes the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
As far as correlation-coefficlents between Intelligence and
preference for the compulsion-type teacher is concerned, the
findings of this investigation supported no such belief.
65
Table XV
Correlation Between Intelligence and Attitude Toward The
"Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Grouo
Type of Correlation
Variable Correlation
OS\T£i>
Product Lloment"r"
Attribute Correlation
Median Compar. Decile Comp.
Public School Boys
-.09i 0495
+ .56+. 06864
Paroch. "
"
+ .22±.0475
+-.12+. 04928
" Girls
— .27^.0625
Public
Paroch. “
"
-J-.28+.06212
.00
- .59+* 06510
VNtQOATeP
Sub. Pub. Boys
Urban."
"
Urban Paroch"
No correla­
tion
+ 1.0Qt.00
Sub. Pub. Girls
No correla­
tion
ii
it
Urb. Paroch."
+1.00+.00
The label "No correlation" occuring in Table XV does not
signify that the coefficient is equal to zero.
It will be re­
called that certain warnings were voiced in the use of this cosine
coefficient in previous chapters and it was said that certain pit­
falls producing misleading results would be subsequently disclosed.
This is an instance where such a coefficient would be repugnant to
reason.
To illustrate why the coefficients have not been included
in the proper columns in Table XV, each correlative table will
be reproduced below:
66
Figure I
Suburban Public Boys
HL
HD
"" ’ [...... 5
bt=0
| b-2 S
i
: II
1
a=0
1 dr2 !
LL
LD
HL
HD
9,'-4
HL
b-10
HD
a-0
b=5
d=l
LD
III
oII
o
Key
HL
Suburban Pub. Girls
oii
o
I
Urban Parochial Boys
d-0
LD
LL
LL
High in intelligence and "like" for the "Compulsion
Type-Teacher"
HD
arnumber of subjects in this cell.
High in intelligence and "dislike" for "Compulsion
Type Teacher",
b^number of subjects in this cell.
LL Low in intelligence and "like" for "Compulsion Type
Teacher",
LD
cznumber of subjects in this cell.
Low in intelligence and "dislike" for Compulsion
Type Teacher",
dinumber of subjects in this cell.
Computation:
Formula For Cosine Vbo~~
VaA+i/fcc
I
V7T
-75+Ttf
o
'
_Coslne~/f
II
ft
III / r
VcT'-f VTS---
V
W
-
.0
Interpretation: First, it will be noted that the numbers are .
very low.
This in itself raises the probable error and always
leads the logical to suspect any correlation computed to be due
to chance.
Secondly, it will be noted that all of these cosines
are equal to zero.
If reference is made to Pearson’s table of
cosines, cosine-zero has a correlation value of positive unity,
that is 1.00 with no probable error.
A quick glance at the above
four place tables would dispel any such impression.
If there be
doubt in any one's mind as to the unreliability of such a con­
clusion, let unity be substituted for the zeros in the cells and
67
instead of a correlation in the nineties which would legiti­
mately be expected by changing the zeros to unity, wide varia­
tion and in most cases no correlation at all will be the result.
The Investigator has set for this dissertation a rigid rule to
be followed.
If more than one cell in a four-place table pro­
duces q zero frequency, then the correlation is not to be con­
sidered a valid one.
Thus, in subsequent cases where the terms
“no correlation" appears it will be understood
like situation.
to indicate a
Unity has also been substituted for every zero
to determine if the correlation is due to chance.
It will be noted by examining the data in Table XV that no
agreement exists as the coefficients appear to contradict one
another.
Nor can the tenth percentile dichotomy variation of
the cosine method for computing the coefficient of correlation
be relied upon because only two groups produced valid coeffic­
ients.
It becomes necessary, therefore to suspend judgment in
the matter until further study with a larger number of cases
and a newer and more improved technique for correlation is de­
veloped.
Table XVI
The Percentage Of Intelligent Pupils Expressing Each Of The Three
Attitudes Toward The "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Boys
. Sub. Pub. Urb. Pub.
Like High
5 11/13
0
0
Low
Dislike HiKh L°
100
80 10/13
Low
50
50
Indiffer. Hi*l 0
15 5/13
Low
50
50
Girls
Urb. Paroch. Paroch.
28 4/7
7 9/13
0
0
84 8/13
71 3/7
50
85 5/7
0
7 9/13
50
14 2/7
Public
0
0
83 1/3
100
16 2/3
0
The above results as all previous results Indicate first
68
that a majority of all secondary-school pupils dislike the "Com­
pulsion-Type Teacher".
may he noted.
However, there are slight trends which
Almost none of the highest pupils have expressed
themselves as liking the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
More of the
high-intelligence group dislike the "Compulsion-Type Teacher"
than the low-intelligence group.
Conclusions. Regarding the relationship between intelligence and
attitude toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher", there is very little
trend in any direction.
Correlation coefficients are unusually
unreliable in this particular comparison.
Percentages proved to
be little better than the correlations.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "CompulsionType Teacher" As Manifested By The High And Low Socio-Economic
Groups Of Pupils Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Since it was impossible to interview everyone of the sixhundred secondary-school subjects involved, in order to test them
on the Sims Socio-Economic Status Score Card, it was decided to
use the information gained from the Vineland Social Maturity Blank
Registration Cards, personnel records and other records already
available for each pupil.
Sims has described the nature and purpose of the " SocioEconomic Status " Scale in his "Manual of Directions" as follows:
"The score card was developed for the purpose of
providing a simple, convenient and objective device for
ascertaining and recording the general cultural social
and economic background furnished by the homes of scho.ol
children. The need for such a device is clearly evident
to anyone who has had occasion to apply almost any educa­
tional or psychological test to pupils or who has been
desirous of appraising the environments of children in
various other connections. The obvious merit of the score
card as a device is that it permits quantitative records
69
and statistical comparisons. Hence, home conditions
need no longer he recorded as ‘'average" or "poor" or
"good", hut may he given a numerical rating that is
certainly far more precise than the usual verbal
characterizations."
Of course, it is not the purpose of this study to assign
a score to each pupil.
The pupils were merely designated as
"high" or "low" and attribute correlations were employed to
canvass whatever possible relationships might he expected to
exist.
Sims divides the occupations of family wage-earners
into five grades.
The professional men, proprietors of large
business concerns and executives were considered as of the high­
est level by Sims.
Therefore, it was considered the "high"
group in the two dichotomous groups for correlation by the Pear­
son Cosine Method For The Correlation of Attributes.
Sims' low­
est group comprises unskilled laborers, common laborers, helpers,
"hands", peddlers, varied employment, venders, "V7. P. A." workers,
unemployed ("unless it represents the leisured class or the re­
tired").
This group was taken as the "low" dichotomous group for
the cosine correlation coefficient.
Since as Sims warns in his work,
"The Measurement of Socio-
Economic Status" a numerical score as such means but little in
measuring this trait or complexus of similar traits it was deem­
ed more appropriate to employ attribute correlation instead of
Product-Moment Correlation.
"Use of the word status", says Sims
implies relative position, and it is well to recognize the fact
that the condition being measured is usually of significance in
connection with the group within which the child lives."
The
70
guidance officers in each school, therefore, assisted the in­
vestigator in separating the pupils into two dichotomous groups
of highest and lowest.
These frequencies were then treated by
the cosine method of correlation for a "Four-Place Table" ,
Table XVII
Correlation Between Socio-Economic Status And Attitude Toward
The "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Grouo
Kinds of Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
§ Public Schl.Boys
Paroch. "
"
Public |j Girls
Decile Comparison
58-*.06636
+.22*.0641
-.90*.0190
..+.161.0657
Suburb. Pub. Boys
Urban Pub. Boys
« Sub. Pub. Girls
qrUrb. Paroch.Boys
Urb. Paroch.Girls
ca
*+ .99J.002
11.001.00
- 1.oca.00
.00
- .66;+.060
------- 4-------
In examining the coefficients recorded in Table XVII, there
appears to be some inconsistency.
ferent trends,
There is evidence of two dif­
THaen the median line separates the two dichoto­
mous groups, the two public secondary school groups produced neg­
ative correlations while the parochial school groups produced pos­
itive correlations but when the dichotomous groups were taken as
the highest and lowest tenth percentiles, the boys of both groups
produced positive correlations while the girls of both groups
negative correlations.
It becomes necessary, therefore, to de­
termine if ther^ is agreement between any two pairs of measures.
It there is such agreement, then the results are probable, If there
71
is not such agreement, then it becomes necessary to examine the
two measures to determine which is the more probable result.
First, it will be noticed that the Public School Girls pro­
duced a high negative correlation in both columns and that in
both cases the probable error is negligible.
The results of
the Parochial School Boys are not contradictory either.
Y/hile
the decile comparison produced a positive but insignificant re­
sult.
The most flagrant contradiction is that of the Public
School Boys.
Median comparison is the less probably valid re­
sult, as two other coefficients for Public-Secondary School Boys
produce coefficients which are very high and positive.
In gen­
eral, the decile comparison is the more probable measure since its
groups are truly dichotomous and therefore show real differences.
This has already been indicated previously.
However, it is true
only when the frequency in three of the four cells of the four
place table are greater than zero as has also been pointed out
and demonstrated previously.
In all of this no substitute or
mechanical device has taken the place of the "rule of reason".
Table XVIII
The Percentages Of The High And Low Groups In Socio-Economic
Status Expressing Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The
"Oomnulslon-T.vne"._________________________________
'
Boys
Girls
Sub, Pub. Urb. Pub. Urb. Par. Paroch. Public
Like High
14 2/7
8 1/3
23 9/17
23 11/13 0
Low
4 16/21
14 6/61
0
10 30/67 9 1/11
Dislike High 64 12/17
75
75
47 37/39 69 3/13
Low
72
81 42/51 57 21/47 69 23/33
71 3/7
16 2/3
10 5/7
28 8/39
30 iq/13
Indiffer.HiRt 11 13/17
28
Low
23 17/21
3 17/61
31 43/47 21 7/33
By an analytical comparison of the percentages of the
72
economically high and low groups of each school, it can he
seen that few differences exist.
local conditions.
This is probably due to
If standardized national norms were used
the same environmental differences would appear in the dis­
tributions of the high and low who dislike, like and are
indifferent to the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Conclusions. According to the percentage comparison as well
as the more probable correlation coefficients show that the
nature of the relationship existing between preference for
the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" varies with sex differences
rather than differences in school type.
ally high boys tend to like her.
The socio-economic-
These are general conclusions
and are not to be considered operative in every single case.
However, it would be preferable to keep the socially and econ­
omically high girl out of the "Compulsion-Type Teacher's" class
room.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The CompulslonTvne As Manifested By The Socially Mature And Immature Pupils
Of Both Parochial And Public Secondarv-Schools.
There is no precise definition for Social Maturity.
By
Social Maturity is meant here, whatever is measured by the Doll
"Vineland Social Maturity Scale".
The inter-correlations be­
tween all the elements of this investigation which will appear
subsequently in a later chapter have produced some interesting
results.
The correlation between intelligence and social
73
Maturity is-f•77»»04071.
It would appear, then that Social
Maturity and intelligence have much in common.
This common
factor has been found to be the chronological age of school
pupils.1 Intelligence, regularity of school attendance and
Social Maturity correlate highly 7/ith chronological age.
Thus, chronological age cooperates to affect the magnitudes
of such correlations as does a common factor in arithmetical
products.
Table XIX
Correlation Between Social Maturity And Attitude Toward"Compulsion".
Grouo
Product Moment"r" Attribute Correlation
Median Compar. Decile Compar.
£
Pub. Schl.Boys . 0 0 ±
- .2&f.06216
§ Paroch."
"
+.16^.0657
+.17±.0653
Pub.
"Girls
-.25^.0632
.00
c
Paroch." "
, 31i.06096
-. 16+.0657
Sub. Pub. Boys
No correlation
Urb.
Pub.
Boys
No correlation
8
Urb.Paroch.
t
1.00^.000
a
,«• SubbPub.Girls
No correlation
Urb. Par. Girls
No correlation
.
The correlation coefficients recorded in Table XIX are so
contradictory, that no credence can be placed in them.
In this
respect the correlation of this trait with preference for com­
pulsion behaves in the same manner as did intelligence.
1
George H. Reavis, "Factors Controlling Attendance In Rural
Schools". Teachers College, Columbia University, N. Y. 1922.
74
Table XX
The Percentages Of The Socially Mature And Immature Pupils Ex­
pressing Each Attitude Toward The "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
;
Boys
Girls
i
Sub. Pub. Urb. Pub. Urb. Par. Paroch. Public
Like Hi/di
0
0
50
0
0
Low
0
10
0
20
0
0
0
50
0
0
0
80
100
60
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
20
0
Dislike HiKh
Low
Indiffer.Hir.h
Low
100
100
A comparison of the percentages of the socially mature and
immature groups of the schools involved shows the influence of
type of school in combination with environment.
The general
tendency for all groups of students seems to be for the Socially
immature to dislike or to be indifferent to the "Compulsion-Type
Teacher".
Conclusions. Correlation coefficients do not show any trend be­
tween Social Maturity and preference for the "Compulsion-Type
Teacher".
Analysis of percentages shows that the socially im­
mature of both sexes and all schools dislike the "CompulsionType Teacher" or are indifferent to her.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The Compulsion-_
Type Teacher As Manifested By Pupils Of Both Northern And_____
Southern European Ancestry.
75
The secondary-school pupils who "became subjects of this
investigation were divided into two classes, those whose an­
cestry came from Northern and Western Europe and those whose
ancestry came from Southern and Eastern Europe.
In this man­
ner there was ar ough approximation to the two general trends
of immigration.
The northern and Western European represent­
ing in a general manner the earlier immigration trends while
.the Southern and Eastern group represented the newer immigra­
tions .
Since it was not logical to consider these two trends or
variables in a mathematical sense, no product-moment coeffic­
ients were computed.
The results therefore, represented in Table
XXI are attribute correlations.
Table XXI
Correlations Between National Origins And Attitudes Toward The
Compulsion-Type Teacher.
Group
3
Of
4j
8
<
3
I
\
Pub.SchliBoys ]
Paroch.” "
Pub.
"Girls
Parooh-" "
SubbPub. Boys
Urb. Pub. Boys
Urb. Paroch."
Sub. Pub. Girls
Urb. Paroch."
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
— .41±;056
.00
+ .09^.0669
-.28=t.062l6
-.99^.003
t .681.11
-.3W *12
— 31=*.l4
+.161.19
According to the d&ta tabulated in Table XXI, the results
at first appear to be mixed or contradictory.
Environmental and
sex differences parallel differences in these coefficients.
The
high probable error w;ould indicate that the positive coefficients
76
were probably due to chqnce factors.
On the whole, the correla­
tions may be described as unsatisfactory and leading to no valid
conclusions.
Table XXII
The Percentages Of Pupils Of Northern And oouthern European
Origin And Their Expressed Attitude Toward "The CompulsionType Teacher".
t
s
!
£
..
Like
.......
Girls
Boys
1
Sub. Pub. Urb. Pub. i Urb. Par. Paroch. Public
1
i
10 12/31 9 1/11
52 54/103 10 15/16
I 12 5/39
North
j
South
i 10 1/11
Dislike North
South
Indlffer.North
South
—T
1
o
5 15/17
19 43/103
7 1/7
67 27/31
77 3/11
82 30/39
28 16/46
68 3/4
72 7/11
63 7/11
88 4/17
46 7/18
85 5/7
21 23/31
13 7/11
5
18 3/4
20 5/16
17 3/11
36
4/n
4/39
5 15/17
34 43/47
i
7 1/7
The only definite trend is for a majority of both Northern
and Southern groups to dislike the "Compulsion-Type Teacher"
with the single exception of the Parochial-School Girls where
the Northern group seems to prefer this teacher type.
Conclusions. Both correlation coefficients and percentages
render negative results.
There is no evidence to support the
proposition that there is a relationship between the pupil’s
attitude toward the compulsion-type teacher and his or her
national origin.
Summary And Conclusion For Chanter IV.
1.
There is very little evidence to support the contention
that there is a relationship between a secondary-school pupil's
77
attitude, for the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" and his or her own
rating on .the"Bernreuter Neurotic Tendency Scale".
2.
Environmental factdrs such as type of sohoil, that is,
whether public or parochial, together with type of community,
that is, whether urban or suburban has as much influence if not
more upon the attitude of secondary-school pupils toward the
" Compulsion-Type Teacher ", as the probable existence of any in­
trinsic relationship between Self-Sufficiency and attitude toward
the "Compulsion-Type" teacher.
3.
There is a very slight tendency for the extrovert pupil
to dislike the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" more than does the in­
trovert.
This tendency, however, differs with community differ­
ences and .different types of schools.
4.
As is to be expected, there is a greater tendency for
the "Dominant" type of pupil to disllfce the "Compulsion-Type
Teacher" than for the "Submissive" type pupM.
Attendance at a
parochial school would seem to influence the "submissive" boy
to like the "Compulsion-Type" teacher.
are different in this respect.
Parochial School Girls
Data, however, are not of a nature
to warrant predictions in all cases and under different circum­
stances.
5.
The percentage of "Self-Confident" pupils who prefer
the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" is greater In the Suburban than
in Urban Secondary-Schools of this Investigation.
It would
appear, therefore, that environment plays as great, if not a
greater role in attitude toward compulsion than any intrinsic
relationship between Self-Confidence and such attitude.
78
6.
Correlation coefficients derived from Product-Moment
" r " and attribute correlation assuming the Median as the
line of demarcation between the dichotomous groups are con­
tradictory.
Attribute correlation assuming the highest and
lowest tenth percentile as the dichotomous groups shows a
definite trend for the non-sociable or independent-type pupil
to prefer the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
Environment does
not seem to affect this relationship.
7.
There is no evidence to indicate that either the in­
telligent or the low in Intelligence prefer or dislike the
"Compulsion-Type Teacher".
8.
The socio-economically high girls dislike the compul­
sion-type teacher while the socio-economically high boys tend
to like her.
It would be poor mental hygiene to assign econo­
mically high girls to a "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
9«
There is no evidence to indicate that any relationship
exists between "Social Maturity" and attitude toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" .
10.
There is no evidence to support the proposition that
there is a relationship between the secondary-school pupil’s
attitude toward the compulsion-type teacher and his or her
national origin.
79
CHAPTER V
THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENTS COMPRISING A SECONDARY-SCHOOL PUPIL'S
AFFECTIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE " PREPARATION-TYPE TEACHER".
Courtis is also responsible for the name and description of
the wPreparation-Type Teacher" which appears in Erueckner’ s
"Scales For The Rating Of Teaching Skill."1
The description of
the activities of this type of teacher is taken verbatim from
this aforementioned scales and reproduced below:
"Presentation of subject-matter is determined by
teacher1 s preparation rather than by text, although
based directly on a logical outline of the text book
arrangement. Teacher attempts to "predigest" the lesson
and believes the amount learned depends upon her efforts
and explanations. Much use is made of the five formal
steps2 or other lesson-plan scheme. Less rigid discip­
line is maintained than by the "Compulsion-Type Teacher"
but more than by the "Motivation-Type Teacher". There
is complete teacher control. The teacher "talks" down
to the children and makes use of many tricks and devices.
Recitations are mainly giving back of facts learned in
response to questions and drill through repetition. More
variation from the original or textbook form is accepted
in the answering of questions than in the "CompulsionType Teacher" but the effect of teaching is Judged almost
wholly in terms of knowledge and skill. This type of
teacher is closer to the children in personal relations
than the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" but maintains her place
as "teacher", a person consciously "superior" to the child­
ren in knowledge and ’virtue’."
The model for this type of teacher is the description of
a teacher in the Minnesota schools who was unanimously Judged
under this category by Brueckner' s Judges.
The type descrip­
tion comprised Type II of the folder administered as a test
1
2
J. C. Flanagan, "Factor Analysis In The Study Of Personality"
103 pages photolith, Stanford University Press, 1935,
$1.25.
Herbart, Johannes Frlederich. In the first scientific formula­
tion of teaching method (1841) laid down the’’five formal steps"
viz., "preparation, presentation, comparison, generalization
and application".
80
while the description of the model appeared as Teacher 6 on
the alternate folder which was also given to the pupils for
their reaction.
The description of Teacher B is reproduced
here, verbatim from Brueckner' s Rating Scale.
•'The teacher carefully read all the material she
could find on the subject of France in the school and
city library and in her text and reference books. She
made a detailed plan of her procedure, attempting first
to prepare the children's minds by a thorough recall of
apperception knowledge which would serve as a background
for the new facts that were to be taught. In order to
have the children get a better understanding of the new
subject-matter the teacher had provided an abundance of
illustrative material. She also showed them pictures of
France and had a good set of stereoptican views. Each
child had a stereoscope. While the children were look­
ing at these views there was absolute silence. No com­
ments were made, but the children were responsible for
what was seen. The teacher had so skillfully arranged
her material and directed her questions that the children
very readily grasped the new unit of work. The children
and teacher enjoyed their work, but there was no 'fooling'.
Ah outline on the text prepared by the teacher was used
as a basis for review work. The teacher carefully checked
the results of her teaching and found that all of the
children had a thorough knowledge of the facts she wished
to emphasize."
The above descriptions are those of a teacher-type quite
prevalent in our schools and in other subjects as well as
geography.
Many science teachers employ this "teacher-prepa-
ratlon type" technique in introducing matter with which the
average boy or girl is unfamiliar.
In almost all subjects
where observation is at a premium there can be found teachers
who are in whole or in part "preparation-Type" teqchers.
It
is for this reason that a study of pupil attitudes toward
teacher-types would not be complete without inclusion of the
"Preparation-Type Teacher" and her counterpart "Teacher B."
81
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The PreparationType Teacher As Manifested B.v Neurotic Pupils Of Both Parochial
And Public Secondary Schools.
Table '-IXIII
Correlation Between Neurotic Tendency And Attitude Toward The
Preparation-Type Teacher
Group
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Pub. Schl. Boys
Decile Comparison
.0
1
fa Paroch."
IUi
H
Pub.
"
.0
" Girls
Paroch." "
.0
.0
Sub. Pub. Boys
■+.16J .21
Urb. Pub. Boys
Ho correlation
Urb. Paroch."
-l.00i.00
Pub. Schl. Girls
No correlation
5aroch.
Ho correlation
The coefficients in the above table show no tendency for
neurotic tendency to vary either directly or inversely with
the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Table XXIV
The Percentages Of Neurotic Pupils Expressing Each Attitude To­
ward The "Preparation-Type Teacher"
Like Hig;h
Low
Dislike HiKh
Low
Indiffer.HiKh
Low
Sub. Pub.
6 6 2/3
75
11 1/9
12 1/2
22 2/9
12 1/2
Boys
Urb. Pub.
76 12/13
100
0
0
23 1/13
0
Urb. Par.
78 4/7
33 1/3
14 2/7
0
7 1/7
66 2/3
Girls
Paroch.
71 3/7
72 8/11
28 1/2
4 6/11
0
22 8/11
Public
80
68 8/19
0
0
20
31 H/ 1 9
82
From the analytical comparison of percentages it would
seem that unlike the distribution of neurotics who liked,
disliked, or were indifferent to the "Compulsion-Type Teach­
er" in the previous chapter, the distribution of neurotics
and non-neurotics who like, dislike, and are indifferent to
the " Preparation-Type Teacher" are less affected by such en­
vironmental factors as type of community, that is, whether
suburban or urban.
Type of school, however, does seem to
affect the distribution slightly.
Conclusions. Correlation coefficients indicate no tendency
whatever for neurotic tendency to be related to preference for
the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Percentages, if they prove
anything, demonstrate that the "Preparation-Type".teacher is
as popular with both neurotics and non-neurotics as the "Com­
pulsion-Type" was unpopular with all pupil-types.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The 11PreparatlonTyoe" Teacher As Manifested By The Self-Sufficient Pupils Of
Both Parochial and Public Secondary-Schools.
Table XXV
Correlation Between Self-Sufficiency And Attitude Toward The
"Preparation-Type T e a c h e r " . ________________________
Attribute Correlation
§ G-rouo
•
I/Iedian
Comparison
Decile Comparison
i Pub. Schl. Boys
+ . 6 o-±.o64
Paroch."
"
•+.99*. 00199
Pub.lie" Girls
.00
-l.0Qi.00
Paroch." "
.. +.03± .067 ..
.— i'lQ..,_cpj?re.la.tiq.n..
0 Sub. Pub. Boys
No correlation
<2Urb. Pub. Boys
-l.OOdt.OO
Uj
Urb. Paroch.Boys
-tl.00f.00
8
The "Parochial Secondary-School Boy"
groups showing any real consistency.
groups are the only
The fact that both methods
83
of comparison yield
practically identical results together
with the low probable error would seem to Indicate that the
"Self-Sufficient Parochial-Secondary School Boy prefers the
"Preparation-Type Teacher".
Although not as definite as that
of the aforementioned trend, there is a slight tendency for
the Public Secondary School Girls to dislihe the "Prepara­
tion Type-Teacher" . This also seems to agree v;ith the mem­
bers of the Public School groups concerning the teacher-types.
It would certainly be hazardous to make any predictions con­
cerning the Public School Eoy or the Parochial School Girl.
Such predictions would merely be tantamount to arbitrary
assumptions.
Table XXVI
Percentages of Self-Sufficient Pupils Expressing Each Attitude
Toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
---------Boys
1
Sub. Pub. Urb. Pub. |Urb. Par.
62 1/2
Like High
83 1/3
75 ,
Low
42 6/7
172 8/11
91 2/3
Dislike High 0
25
i o
Low
0 '
0
i 18 2/11
Indiffer.Hi&
12 1/2
: 16 2/3
25
Low
8
1/3
57 1/7
I 9 1/11
-------- j.
Girls
a
Paroch. Public !
. 3
75
, -50
76 8/17 80
0
16 2/3
11 13/11 ’ 0
25
, J 33 1/3
11 13/11 ' 20
.
...
In general, it might be said, that the percentages sub­
stantiate the trends indicated by the various correlation coef­
ficients.
It will be noted that the "Urban Public School Boys"
tend to vary inversely as did their respective correlation coef­
ficients.
This is also true to a lesser extent of the varia­
tion between the Parochial and Public School Girls which was also
•J
84
indicated their respective correlation coefficients.
Conclusions. Correlation coefficients are corroborated by
percentages in a comparison between this trait and preference
for this teacher-type.
Both seem to Indicate that the "Self-
Sufficient" Parochial Secondary School Boy prefers the "Preparation-Type Teacher" while the Public Secondary School Girl
does not.
Environment, interoperating in a complex manner
with sex plays an important role in determining the nature and
direction of the relationship between "Self-Sufficiency" and
preference for the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Differences In Attitude Toward "The Preparation-Type Teach­
er" As Manifested By The Introverted And Extroverted Pupils Of
Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table XXVII
Correlation Between Introversion-Extroversion And Attitude Toward
The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
<
Attribute Correlation
Grouo
1
■!>■
Median Comparison : Decile Compar.
i
Pub. Schl.Boys
4 .45
| 4 1.00
Sub. Pub. Eoys
ld
o- Urb. Pub. Boys
i
4.16
4 .09
1
H
•
O
O
•3 Pub. School Girls
<&
Paroch. "
"
-f .00
1
H
•
O
O
"
1
Paroch."
0
0•
1
—1
/
1-
4 1.00
+ 1.00
If the decile-comparison correlations are to be believed
the introverted public school boy tends to like the "Preparation
Type Teacher" while the introverted Parochial School Boys
and the introvert girls of both groups dislike this teach­
er-type.
Table XXVIII
Percentages Of Introverts And Extroverts Expressing The Three
Attitudes Toward The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
,Boya________
Sub. Pub. [ Urb. Pub.
Like High
Low
Dislike High
Low
Urb. Paroch. Paroch.
Public .
71 3/17
66 2/3
88 8/9
69 3/13
62 1/ 2 .
64 2/7
75
83 1/3
50
53 1/3
0
11 1/9
15 5/13
12 1/2
0
7 1/7
Indiffer. HlKht 28 4/7
Low
G-irls
>28 4/7
25
0
33 1/3
0
0
14 2/7 ! 0
;
16 2/3
15 5/13 ; 25
35 5/7 | 46 2/3
Of course the general trend irf for both introverts and extro­
verts to like the " Preparation-Type Teacher
More introverted
girls dislike this "Preparation-Type" teacher than introverted
boys.
On the other hand, less extroverted girls dislike her than
extroverted boys.
The Influence of school and community also seems
to be felt in these measures.
Conclusions. There appears to be no evidence to support the opin­
ion that a functional relationship exists between introversion and
attitude toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Such relation­
ship, if it does exist appears to differ in nature as well as
degree according to the group measured.
86
Differences In Attitude Toward The 11Preparati on-Type Teach­
er" As Manifested By The Dominant And Submissive Pupils Of Both
Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table XXIX
Correlation Between Dominance-Submlssion And Attitude Toward The
"Preparation-Type Teacher".
ft
q:
a
ft
J
fQ
J
i
Attribute Correlation
f
Median Comoarison
Decile Comparison
IPublic Schl .Boys
.00
-f.28rf.l4
fParoch. "
"
-+.4Q+.05665
|Public Schl. Girls -.03=».0676
- 1.0CM .00
IParoch. "
"
+*28^.06216
Ho correlation
|Sub. Pub." Boys
Ho correlation
1Urb. Pub." "
;
_ l.OOi.OO
............. ................ .. ;
Although correlation results are fragmentary with respect
to the relationship between attitude toward the "PreparationType Teacher" and dominance-submission, it would appear from
Table XXIX that Dominant Parochial School Pupils of both sexes
appear to like the "Preparation-Type Teacher" while Dominant
Public School Pupils of both sexes show dislike for the "Preparation-Tyoe Teacher" when they show any trend at all.
However,
there is no general br universal functional relationship between
like or dislike for the "Preparation-Type Teacher" and Dominance.
Relationships differ with the group.
Table XXX
Percentages Of Dominant And Submissive Pupils Expressing Each Of
The Three Attitudes Toward "The Preparation-Type Teacher".
i
Boys
jSub. Public Urb.Pub.
62 1/2
Like High
1 87 l/2
Low
| 50
72
12 1/2
Dislike High 0
0
Low
0
Indiffer.High 12 l/2
25
I
Low
1 50
28
!
Paroch.
73 4/7
73 7/11
7 1/7
17 3 / H
14 2/7
9 1/11
Girls
Parochial Public
64 2/7
75
71 3/7
33 1/3
0
18 3/4
9
14 2/7
6 1/4
35 5/7
14 2/7
| 66 2/3
87
There seems to "be no general trend for either Dominant pu­
pils to like or submissive pupils to dislike the " PreparationType Teacher11. Very few, if any of the subjects canvassed dis­
liked this type of teacher while a majority of both personality
types liked her.
Conclusions. According to correlations there is a very slight
tendency for dominant parochial school pupils to like the "Prepatation-Type Teacher".
Percentages do not apoear to corroborate
this trend, however.
Dlfferences In Attitude Toward The "Preparation-Type Teach­
er" As Manifested 5v The Self-Confident Pupils Of Both Parochial
And Public Secondary Schools.
Table XXXI
Correlation Between Self-Confidence And Attitude Tows-rd The
"Preparation-Type Teacher".
Group
f a V(\TEt>
__________- Attribute Correlation____
I.fedlan Comparison
DeSlle Comparison"
•r. 12 ±.066
— .12+. 066
.00
+.48+. 07696
No correlation
+.28±.06216
No correlation
+1.0Q±.00
- 1.00+,00
Public Schl. Boys
Paroch. "
"
Public " Girls
Paroch. " "_____
Sub. Pub. Boys
•V Urb. Pub. Boys
\k
Here, again, the correlation-coefficients differ with the
different groups.
An examination of the results for the boys
discloses some interesting contrasts.
The coefficients for the
Public and Parochial Boys are of the same magnitude but tend in
opposite directions.
public school groups.
The same is true of urban and suburban
It would appear, therefore, that there is
no universal functional relationship between self-confidence and
88
attitude toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Environmental
differences such as difference of type of school and type of
community.
Table XXXII
Percentages Of Self-Confident Pupils Expressing Each Of The
Three Attitudes Toward The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
j
Like Hi«h
Low
Dislike Hi«h
Low
Indiffer.Hifth
Low
Boys
Sub. PublioiUrb. Pub.
62 1/2
81 4/11
80
57 1/7
0
0
10
28 4/7
37 1/2
18 7/11
10
14 2/7
Parooh.
73 1/3
70
20
10
6 2/3
20
Girls
Paroch. Public
80
61 6/19
54 6/11
77 7/9
0
17 17/19
0
0
20
21 1/19
22 2/9
45 5/11
i
There appears to he a slight general tendency for more of
the self-confident pupils to like the "Preparation-Type Teacher"
than the submissive.
Of course a large majority of both dominant
and submissive pupils prefer the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
En­
vironmental differences are apparent.
Conclusion. Correlation-coefflcients vary with the group not only
in size but even in nature.
Environmental differences such as
type of school and type of community exist.
Self-confident suburban
public school boys preferred the "Preparation-Type" teacher while
the self-confident urban public school boys disliked the "Preparation-Type Teacher" while the parochial school boys disliked her
the public school boys liked the "Preparation-Type Teacher" f
centages showed a slight trend for the self-confident of most
groups to show a greater preference for the "Preparation-Type
Teacher" than the non-self-confident.
Per­
89
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PreparationType Teacher11 k a Manifested Ey The Sociable Of Both Public And
Parochial Secondary Schools.
Table XXXIII
Correlation Between Sociability And Attitude Toward The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
J, Group
Median Comparison
^jPublic Schl.Boys -.081.067
^JParoch. "
"
+ . 06+.067
glPub. Schl. Girls - .031*067
jParoch." Girls
•f.16^.0657
,4sub. Pub. Boys
~gUrb. Pub. Boys
uTt
Attribute Correlation
Decile Comparison
.00
- .77-1.09
-i.ocd-.oo
- 1 .00+.00
- 1 .00+.00
It will be remembered that Flanagan describes the high scor­
er on this scale as "non-social, solitary, independent".
Accord­
ing to the decile comparison, which has been found to be the most
reliable, this type of pupil dislikes the "Preparation-Type Teach­
er".
For the general trend is negative and high.
The median
comparison results are practically nil according to the propor­
tion of probable error.
Table XXXIV
Percentages Of Sociable Pupils Expressing Each Of The Three
Attitudes Toward The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
;
Bovs
Sub. Pub. Urb. Pub.
Like High
100
50
Low
38 6/13
08 28/29
Dislike High
0
25
Low
0
0
Indiffer.High 0
25
Low
61 7/13
31 1/29
Paroch.
8'5 5/7
80
14 2/7
6 2/3
0
13 1/3
Girls
Paroch.
66 2/3
77 3/8
0
10 1/2
33 1/3
12 1/2
Public
30
75
30
6 1/4
40
18 3/4
90
The usual environmental differences are evident here as
elsewhere In the chapter.
Type of school and type of community
as well as sex differences seem to Influence the trend for at­
titude for the "Preparation-Type Teacher" to vary with the soci­
ability bf the secondary school pupils.
The most striking dif­
ferences are apparent between parochial school girls and suburban
public school girls.
Conclusions.
Correlation coefficients indicate that sociability
varies Inversely with attitude toward the "Preparation-Type Teach­
er".
Percentage comparisons show that environment, type of school
and sex, all combine to influence this trend or relationship.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PrenaratlonType Teacher" As Manifested By The High And Low Intelligence
Groups Of Pupils Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table XXXV
Correlation Between Intelligence And Attitude Toward The "Prep­
aration-Type Teacher".
Group
Ui
Si Public School Boys
"
$ Paroch. "
Pub. School Girls
Paroch. "
"
Sub. Pub. Boys
ji § Urb. "
"
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
.00
.00
— .66 ±.05664
.00
-1.00+.00
- .03J-.067
+.221.0641
-fl.00t.00
+1.001.00
-1.001.00
Some Interesting contrasts beoome apparent to the experienced
observer in arraying measures in such a way as to disclose differ­
ences.
In this trait as in previous ones, the suburban group pro­
duces an opposite trend from the urban group of public school boys.
Here, type of community has a significant part to play in
91
the relationship between liking or disliking the "PreparationType Teacher" and rating on intelligence.
Public and Parochial
School differences affect the same relationships between the
two groups of girls.
It would appear, therefore, that this re­
lationship is conditioned more by type of school for the girls
while type of community plays a major role with the public school
boys.
Table XXXVI
Percentages Of The High And Low Intelligence Groups Of Pupils
Expressing Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "PreparationType Teacher".
Boys
Sub. Pub.j Urb. Pub.
Like Hiah
0
i Si 7/13
Low
0
! 100
Dislike High 100
1 7 9/13
Low
50
i 0
Indiffer.HiRh
0
30 10/13
Urb.
71
77
7
23
21
A
Girls
Paroch.! Paroch.I Public
3/7
I 76 12/13 83 1/3
100
50
16 2/3
1/7
|0
0
1 50
0
3/7
j 23 1/13
r
r\
1
__________________________________ j
_____________j_________ j_______
The above percentage results, although, self-contradictory
corroborate the correlation-coefflcients.
As may be seen from
the table, the Suburban Public and Urban Public are diametrically
opposite trends.
The two groups of girls also show some opposite
trends.
Conclusions.
In general type of community operates to change the
very nature of the relationship between intelligence and pupil
attitude toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher" in the case of the
Public School Boys.
In the case of the girls, it is the type of
school which operates to change the very nature of the trend.
Percentages seem to corroborate the correlations.
The intelligent
92
parochial school girl prefers the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
The intelligent public school girl dislikes the "PreparationType Teacher".
The intelligent Urban Public School boy dis­
likes the "Preparation-Type Teacher" while the intelligent sub­
urban public school boy likes her.
This may not be true of boys
and girls in general but it is certainly true of the groups
equated and exaMned.
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The PreparationType Teacher As Manifested By The Socially nature And Socially
Immature Pupils Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table XXXVII
Correlation Between Social Maturity And Attitude Toward The
"Preparation-Type Teacher".
Group
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
.0
— 1.001.00
Public Schl.Boys
Paroch. "
"
-1.001.00
+.06;+. 067
V Pub. Schl.Girls
-1.001.00
+
.16±.0657
Vi/
-l.00i.00
Paroch."
"
+.10+.0SS7
Sub. Pub. Boys
-1.00100
lu£ Urb. Pub. Boys
-1.001.00
The correlation of 1.00 is not to be taken in the same sense
as a Product Moment 1.00 which is almost impossible to secure. A
+1.00 or— 1.00 in this type of correlation is a rough approxima­
tion of anywhere froml.85 toll.00.
definite selective factor.
Hov/ever, it does indicate a
The median comparison coefficients
are quite insignificant and may be Ignored.
The Decile Comparison
coefficeints Indicate the tendency of the socially mature pupil
to dislike the "Preparation-Type Teacher" and the socially immature
93
to like her.
It would "be poor mental hygiene, therefore, to
expose the extremely socially mature hoy or girl to the "Prep­
aration-Type Teacher".
Table X..XVIII
Percentages Of Socially Mature And Socially Immature Pupils Ex­
pressing Each of The Three Attitudes Tow'ard The "PreparationType Teacher."
Boys
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb.Par.
Like High
0
0
50
Low
50
100
70
0
0
Dislike High
0
Low
0
0
50
50
Indiffer.High
0
0
0
Low
*30
0
i.........
Girls
Paroch. Public
0
0
0
100
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Percentages appear to corroborate the correlation coefficients
with but one exception, that is, the Parochial School Boys.
The
total results for all the girls show a perfect negative correlation
between Social Maturity and liking for the "Preparation-Type" teach­
er". There were no results for the lowest tenth oercentiles of
\
“some of the quotients and for the highest tenth percentiles of oth­
ers .
Conclusions. Both correlation coefficients and percentage analysis
results demonstrate that there is an extreme negative relationship
between Social Maturity and preference for the "Preparation-Type
Teacher".
It would be poor mental hygiene, therefore, to assign
the extremely socially mature secondary school pupil to a "Preparation-Type Teacher".
94
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PreparationTyne Teacher" As Manifested By The Soolo-Economloally High And
Low Pu-plls Of Eoth Public And Parochial Secondary Schools.
Table XXXIX
Correlations Between Socio-Economic Status And Attitude Toward
The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Attribute Correlation
■
Decile Comparison
Lledlan Comparison
Groun
4 .3 H . 06096
4.124.066
+ .225.0641
4 .22i.064i
Hi Public Schl. Boys
Parochial"
"
Pub. Schl.Girls
Uj Paroch."
"
Sub. Pub. Boys
Urb. Pub. Boys
O «•
.00
-.454.14
4- .6 oi.o6
+ .77^.08
+ 1 .00+.00
- 1 .oQi .000
In generaj, there would seem to be a tendency for the economically-hlgh boy or girl to prefer the "Preparation-Type Teach­
er" . There are two exceptions, however, the Parochial School
Eoys and the Urban Public School Boys produced negative correla­
tions for this comparison.
total' results.
a trend.
But they are at variance with the
However, there does appear to be a trend within
This "counter-trend" Is for the Urban Parochial Boys
and the Urban Public Boys to produce negative coefficients.
It
is quite possible that sex and type of community are interacting
In some subtle way to produce such a result.
Table XL
Expressing The Three Attitudes Toward The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Like High
Low
Dislike High
Low
Indiffer.High
Low
Boys
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. Paroch
70 10/17
83 1/3
71 3/7
68
80 20/21
•80
0
16 2/3
14 2/7
12
4 16/21
12 8/11
0
14 2/7
29 7/17
20
14 2/7
7 3/11
Girls
Paroch.
73
7
6
12
21
81
Public
84 8/13
46
15 5/13
6
0
48
95
An analysis of percentages of the soclo-economically high
and low expressing each of the three attitudes toward the "Prep­
aration-Type Teacher" shows that there is a general trend for
the majority of the socially and economically high to prefer the
"Preparation-Type Teacher" more than the low group.
Conclusions.
There is a general trend for the pupil rated high
on the Sims Soclo Economic Scale to prefer the "Preparation-Type
Teacher".
There are exceptions to this general trend, however.
The socially and economically higher Urban Parochial Boy and the
same type of Urban Public Boy dislike the "Preparation-Type Teach­
er" .
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PreparationType" Teacher As It Varies With Differences In National Origins.
Table XLI
Correlation Between National Origins And Attitude Toward The
"Preparation Type" Teacher.
i
i
i
i
b
Attribute Correlation
Median
Comparison
! Decile Comparison
5
■
:
;Public Schl .Boys
-.45 ±.08
.00
^
;Paroch. "
"
.00
.00
.Qr 'Public " Girls
.00
-f.l6j-.0657
.iParqch..."..".. . ..
+.18^.0652.... ._4-•8QJj>.Q5. ..
;Sub. Public Boys
-l.OCtfr.OO
S :Urb. Public Boys
.004.00
^ ;
According to the above results different equated groups show
different trends.
According to the correlation coefficients, the
Parochial School Girl with Northern European ancestry tends to
like the “Preparation-Type Teacher".
The correlations for the
group of mixed Public School Boys shows contradictory results.
The evidence seems to Indicate that the Suburban Public
96
School Boys of Northern European Origin tend to dislike the
“PreparatIon-Type" Teacher.
The Parochial School Boys and
the Public School Girls show either insignificant or no trends
at all.
Table XLII
Percentages Of The Pupils Of Both Northern And Southern Euro­
pean Ancestry And Their Expressed Attitude Toward The "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Sub. Pub.
Like North
59 17/37
South
72 8/11
Dislike North 10 30/37
South
0
Indlffer.North 29 27/37
South
27 3/11
Bovs
Urb. Pub.
77 3 / H
90 10/11
13 7/11
0
9 1/11
9 1/11 •
Urb. Par.
7d 3/4
87 1/2
10
12 1/2
11 1/4
0
i
Girls
Paroch. Public
6 82/103 67 3/36
82 5/103
75
9 3/8
9 13/103
7 1/4
10 5/7
85 5/8
23 1/16
9 3/8
14 2/7
The percentage for national origins as compared with atti­
tude toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher" seem to' contradict
many of the correlation coefficients.
The trend here seems to
be for the boy or girl of Southern European Ancestry to like the
"Preparation-Type" Teacher much less than the boy or girl of
Southern European Ancestry.
Conclusions.
There is no definite trend for the majority of sec­
ondary school pupils of either European-Origins group to prefer
or dislike the "Preparation-Type Teacher". Results are incon­
sistent although substantial.
depehdently of the others.
Each group seems to correlate in-
Thus the Parochial School Girls of
the Northern European stock prefer the "Preparation-Type Teacher"
while the Suburban Public Secondary School boys of the same stock
tend to dislike her strongly.
al variations are evident.
Here, again the usual environment­
97
Summary
1.
There is no evidence whatever to prove that a functional’'
relationship exists between neurotic tendency and attitude toward
the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
2.
There is no general tendency for "Self-sufficiency" to
he related to attitude toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
Instead there appears to be specific relationships which depend
on the group.
Thus, of the subjects examined, the self-suffic­
ient Parochial School Boy preferred the "Preparation-Type Teach­
er" while the Public Secondary School Girl of the same personality
class disliked her.
3.
There seems to be no evidence that a universal function­
al relationship exists between introversion and attitude toward
the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
4.
77hile there is no definite general inverse or direct
variation between "Dominance" and attitude toward the "Prepara­
tion Type Teacher" specific trends differing in nature as well
as degree appeared for each group.
They were very slight and
might have been due to chance.
5.
Here as in other previous comparisons throughout this
study relationships between "Self-Confidence" and attitude toward
the "Preparation- Type Teacher" vary with the environmental group.
6.
Correlation coefficients Indicate that the solitary pu­
pil tends to dislike the "Preparation-Type Teacher". Percentage
comparisons indicate that type of community, type of school and
sex all combine to Influence this trend of relationship in extent
or degree.
98
7.
There is no universal functional relationship between
intelligence and attitude toward the "Preparation-Type Teacher"
according to the data at hand.
Type of community operates to
change the very nature of the relationship between Intelligence
and preference for the "Preparation-Type Teacher" in the case of
the Public School Boys.
In the case of the girls, the type of
school influences this relationship.
8.
Both correlation coefficients and percentage analysis
results demonstrate that there is an extreme negative relation­
ship between "Social Maturity" and the "Preparation-Type Teach­
er" . According to the findings of this study it would be poor
mental hygiene to expose the socially mature secondary school
pupil of either sex to a "Preparation-Type Teacher" classroom.
9*
There Is a general trend for the pupil rated high on
the Sims "Socio-Economic Score Card" to prefer the "PreparationType Teacher" although there are at least two exceptional groups.
10. There would appear to be no general tendency for atti­
tude toward the "Preparation-Type" Teacher to vary either direct­
ly or inversely with the national origins of secondary school
pupils.
Each equated group appears to produce results which are
independent of the other groups.
CHAPTER VI
THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENTS COMPRISING A SECONDARY-PUPIL1S
AFFECTIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE "MOTIVATION-TYPE TEACHER"
The "Motivation-Type Teacher" as described by Courtis and
standardized by Brueckner's Rating Scale, duly cited previously
In this dissertation, Is described by the aforementioned authors
as follows:
"The efforts of the teachers are consciously directed
towards securing and holding children's Interest. Subject
matter is organized about major topics and provision is
made for children' s Interest. Subject matter is organ­
ized about major topics and provision is made for children's
activity, but this is largely controlled by the teacher's
directions. Much more supplementary material is used than
in Types I ('COMPULSION') and II ('PREPARATION'), but les­
sons are distinctly subject matter lessons with activity
brought in as a means of learning. Discipline is usually
much relaxed, and teachers and children meet on a friendly
basis. There is less emphasis on knowledge than in previous
types and more on construction and handiwork. Drill and re­
view are less evident and with less able teachers there is
usually a lower standard of scholarship than in previous
types. Subject matter limits are also less rigorously ob­
served than in previous types. Socialization of classwork
is sometimes attempted. This usually takes the form of hav­
ing a pupil take the class in place of the teacher, but is
seldom true socialization."
The teacher selected for the model of this type was judged
to belong to this category by the unanimous vote of Brueckner's
Jury.
The description of her olassroom activity is given below.
"For a week the teacher had been gathering material
on France, consisting of pictures, curios, etc., and put
them on the bulletin board. She made no reference to them
other than to answer questions asked of her. She was care­
ful to collect material on all phases of life in France in
order that there might be something to appeal to each one.
When the time came she told the children that the next sub­
ject they were going to study was France and wanted to know
how many would like to take a trip to France with her. The
children responded, a great many asking if they might see
the places shown on the bulletin board. She urged the child­
ren to keep their eyes open and collect all the material they
100
could on France, telling them the moat enjoyable trip
would be had by the one who knew most about what they
were going to see. The teacher set the planning of
the trip for the first lesson and suggested that the
children bring in such timetables and folders as they
could find that would assist in their planning. She
herself had already collected Illustrated material
sent out by the steamship companies. She had defin­
itely planned the tour so as to Include all the impor­
tant plaoes and industries of France and had traced the
route on a map which was now hung before the class. The
teacher made a very careful list of reference readings
which she required of all and suggested other good ones
that might be read. The teacher showed the class a mem­
ory book she had made when traveling in Europe and ask­
ed each one to keep one of their imaginary trip. The
standards set up for these books were very high and with
the class she discussed the type of material which would
seem valuable for future readings. The children were
delighted with the idea, for this gave them an opportun­
ity to preserve their collection of material on France
and an opportunity to try their skill at making an inter­
esting book. Interest in the work was maintained through­
out the study so that at the end each child had a complete
memory book made up of valuable material) on France. At
the close the best book was selected and its author was
chosen to use the lantern slides and personally conduct
the class on a tour of France. This formed an excellent
summary of the study. The children had an enjoyable time
and possessed an accurate knowledge of the important facts
of France due to the fact that the teacher had carefully
selected what she thought were the most Interesting points.”
Both of these descriptions were on the two separate folders
administered as reaction?tests to the subjects of this investi­
gation one week apart and the reliability was computed.
In as
much as the model description was assumed to be far more compre­
hensible to secondary school pupils it was the basis of all cor­
relations and percentage analyses.
101
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The MotlvatlonTrne Teacher” As Manifested. By Neurotic Pupils Of Both Parochial
An* Public Secondary Schools.
Table XLIII
Correlation Between The Neurotic Tendency And Attitude Toward
The "MotivatIon-Type Teacher".
Grouo
fes
§
Uj
<L§
Pub. Schl.Boys
Paroch."
"
Pub.
" Girls
Paroch." "
Sub. Pub. Boys
Urb. Pub. Boys
Attrlbui ,e Correlation
Deolle Comparison
Median Comparison
-1.00
.0
- 1.00
.0
No correlation
.0
-3*00
-+ .16+.0657
-liO O
No correlation
i U
According to the decile comparlson-correlation results,
there is a definite trend for the neurotic pupils of all en­
vironmental groups to dislike the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
According to Hull's1 percentage of prediction for correlationcoefficients the trend is quite reliable.
Also the "Non-Neuro­
tic" appear to like the "Motlvatlon-Type Teacher".
Table XLIV
Percentages Of Neurotic And Non-Neurotic Pupils Expressing Each
Of The Three Attitudes For the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
Sub. Public
Like Hitch
77 7/0
Low
50
Dislike Hitch
11 l/q
Low
25
Indiffer. Hitch 11 1/9
Low
25
Bovs
Urb. Pub.
76 12/13
100
0
0
23 1/13
0
1
Appendix "C" of this dissertation.
Girls
.Paroch. Public
Urb.Paroch 1
100
100
71 3/7
100
77 3/11 84 4/19
0
0
14 2/7
0
0
0
0
0
14 2/7
22 8/11 15 15/19
0
1 02
According to the percentage results It Is the lour or
“normal" Non-Neurotic hoys who prefer the "Motivation-Type
Teacher".
The two groups of girls show an opposite trend.
All of the Neurotic girls of both school groups expressed
themselves as preferring the "Motivation-Type Teacher" while
seventy to eighty percent of the Non-Neurotlo girls preferred
her.
None of the girls in either the Neurotic, or in the Non-
Neurotlo groups disliked her.
Conclusions.
It would appear from a summary of all the data
available to this Investigation that the Non-Neurotic secondary
school boys tend to prefer the "Motivation-Type Teacher" much
more than does the Non-Neurotic.
The trend for the girls, how­
ever, is not very definite and lacks consistency.
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The "MotlvatlonTvne Teacher" As Manifested Bv Self-Sufficient Pupils Of Both
Parochial And Publlo Secondary Schools.
Table XLV
Correlation Between Self-Sufficiency And Attitude Toward The
"Motivation-Type Teacher".
s* Pub. Schl.Boys
Paroch."
"
Public
"
Girls
'
Uj
Paroch."
"
Sub. Pub. Boys
Urb. Pub. Boys
■a*'
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
- .994.001
.00
.00"'
.00
-.044.067
^l.OCH.OO
-.064.o67
4l.00i.00
•00±
.00±
Correlatlon-results between Self-Sufficiency and attitude
toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher" are fragmentary and lack
consistency.
According to the Median-comparlson results there
103
1b a slight tendency for Self-Sufficiency to correlate negatively
with such attitude.
The dedile comparison results for Parochial
and Public School Girls are contradictory.
A. comparison between
the above negative coefficients and the percentage results throws
some light on the meaning of the negative coefficients which seem
to be In the majority as complied In Table XLV.
The Non-Self-
Suffiolent secondary-school pupils like the "MotlvatIon-Type Teach­
er" .
Table XLVI
Percentages Of Self-Sufficient And Dependent Pupils Expressing
Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "MotlvatIon-Type Teacher".
Like Hisch
Low
Dislike Hish
Low
Indlffer.Hlah
Low
Sub.
75
43
0
28
25
27
Bovs
Public Urb. Public
75
,
6/7
75
0
0
6/7
25
2/7
25
Urb.Par.
66 2/3
72 3/11
16 2/3
18 2/11
16 2/3
9 1/9
Girls
Paroch. iPublio
66 2/3
75
86 6/17 100
0
16 2/3
0
0
16 2/3
25
13 11/17 0
With the exception of the Suburban Public Sohool Boys, a
greater majority of all groups of secondary school pupils examln\
ed who fell Into the non-self-sufficient category expressed them­
selves as liking the "Motivation-Type Teacher" than did the SelfSufficient pupils who liked her.
showed no tendency whatever.
The Urban Public School Boys
This leaves only three out of the
five groups presenting uniform results.
Conclusions. A summary of the results of the comparison between
self-sufficiency and attitude toward the "Motlvation-Type Teach­
er" Indicates that no uniform trend Is apparent but that differ­
ent groups present different trends.
The majority of such
104
different trends seem to Indicate that there Is a slightly
greater tendency for the non-self-sufficlent pupil to prefer
the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The Motivation
Type Teacher As Manifested B.v Introverted And Extroverted Pu­
pils Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary- Schools.
Table XLVII
Correlation Between Introverslon-Extroversion And Attitude To­
ward The "Motivation-Type Teacher".
§
<3T Pub. School Boys
3 Paroch. "
"
V
Public " Girls
Paroch. " "
£ £ Sub. Public Boys
Urban "
"
.....
.
..
Attrl Dute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
+.34 *.05965
-.28^.06216
22^.17
No correlation
.00
4.161.18
.. . f.OQ ......
No correlation
s
No correlation
-........
.
...... ....
Correlation results for the comparison between attitude
toward the "Motlvatlon-Type Teacher", and Introversion-Extrover­
sion are fragmentary, insignificant and point to no general uni­
form trend.
Table XLVIII
Percentages Of Introverts And Extroverts Expressing Each Of The
Three Attitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type Teacher".
Sub. Public
85 5/7
Like Hi&h
78 4/7
Low
Dislike Hlsth
0
Low
0
Indiffer.HiKh 14 2/7
Low
21 3/7
Boys.....
Girls
Urb. Public Urb. Par. Paroch. Public
66 2/3
68 3/13 100
77 7/9
60
100
66 2/3
78 4/7
0
0
11 1/9
9 10/13
0
0
16 2/3
6 2/3
0
21 3/7
33 1/3
11 1/9
0
16 2/3
21 1/13
33 1/3
105
The percentage comparison results are even more inconsistent
than are the coefficients of correlation between"introversion" and
attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
An inspection of
Table XLVII I would seem to indicate that every group contradicted
the results of every other group.
Conclusion.
There is no evidence to indicate that a functional re­
lationship exists between introversion and attitude toward the
"Motivation-Type Teacher" nor are there any consistent environmental
and sex differences according to the data at hand.
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type
Teacher" as Manifested By The Dominant Pupils Of Both Parochial And
Public Secondary Schools.
Table XLIX
Correlation Between Dominance-Submlssion And Attitude Toward The
"Motivation-Type Teacher".
Group
'
K Public Schl. Boys
Parochial"
"
Public School Girls
Paroch. "
"
Sub. Public Boys
Urb. Public Boys
II
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
4 .2H .0644
No correlation
4.404.14
+ .16^.0657
No correlation
. .901.019
4.484.14
.00
No correlation
No correlation
The only significant coefficient of correlation appearing in
Table XLIX between "Dominance-Submlssion" and the "Motivation-Type
Teacher" is the one produced by the Public School G-irls.
It la high
negative and ^considering the relatively low probable error does seem
to indicate an inverse relationship between "Dominance" and attitude
toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher" for the public-school girls
examined in this investigation.
Otherwise the other correlation
106
results are too incomplete, lacking In consistency and insig­
nificant to be considered of value even for mere comparison
purposes, let alone prediction.
Table L
Percentages Of Dominant And Submissive Pupils Expressing Each
Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type Teacher".
3-irls
Bovs
|
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. Paroch •Paroch.
1 Like Hiah
75
67 1/2
78 4/7
85" 3/7
1
Low
66 2/5
36 4/11
100
71 2/7
Dislike Hiah
0
0
14 2/7
0
i
Low
0
0
18 2/11
0
Indiffer.Hiah 25
12 1/ 2
21
3/7
0 <
0
.1%. *h .
.
Publio
62 1/2
100
0
0
37 1/2
o
Sex differences become apparent from an inspection of the
results contained in Table L.
The dominant boys of all groups
would seem to prefer the "Motivation-Type " Teacher much more than
would the submissive boys.
But more of the submissive girls have
expressed themselves as liking this teacher than did the dominant
girls.
Conclusion.
Correlation coefficients without a comparison with
percentage results appear to be meaningless and contradlctozy. A
perusal of the percentages discloses a trend for the dominant
boys to prefer this teacher-type over the submissive boys.
A
greater percentage of submissive girls than dominant girls have
expressed themselves as liking the "Motivation-Type Teaoher."
107
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward. The "Motivation
Type Teacher11 Aa Manifested By The Self-Confident Punlla Of
Both Paroohlal And Public Secondary Schools.
Table LI
Correlation Between Self-Confidence And Attitude Toward The
"Motivation-Type Teacher".
Group
Attribute Correlation
Mediann
Comparison
Deoile Comparison
ft
4.40* .05665
-1.004.00
s Pub. Schl .Boy.
Paroch."
4
.06*.067
.00
3
Pub. Schl .Girls
.00
No correlation
M
Ui Paroch."
-.28:*. 06216
.00
Sub. Pub. Boys
~l.0Cd.00
i . 8 Urb. Pub. Boys
-1.004.00
Decile-comparlson correlation coefficients appear to contra­
dict the median-eomparison results.
Usually more reliable than
Median-Comparlson coefficients in this type of study, the decile
comparisons are at variance with the results as contained in
Table LII, while the Median-Comparison coefficients are somewhat
corroborated by the tabulation contained therein.
Median compari­
son results are positive for the boys but negative if anything at
all for the girls.
All of the latter coefficients, however, are
low and therefore insignificant.
Table LII
Percentages Of The Self-Confident Expressing The Three Attitudes
Toward The Motivation-Type Teacher.
Like Hiah
Low
Dislike Hiah
Low
Indiffer.Hiah
Lew
Bovs
Sub • Pub • Urb. Pub.
62 l/2
72 8/11
80
75
12 1/2
0
0
0
25
27 3/11
20
25
Girls
Urb. Par. Paroch. Publio
66 2/3
78 18/19 100
80
72 8/ll
66 2/3
20
10
13 1/3
10
0
0
21 1/19
27 3/11
0
0
0
33 1/*
108
Sex differences are again manifested In a percentage com­
parison between the "Self-Confident*1 and "Non-Self-Confldent"
pupil and his or her attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teach­
er".
There appears to he a slightly greater trend for the " Self-
Confident" hoy to like this teacher-type than for the "Non-SelfConfident Boy".
On the other hand there is a greater trend for
the "Non-Self-Confident Girl" to like this teacher-type over the
"Self-Confident Girl".
Conclusions.
tory.
Correlation coefficients are meager and unsatisfac­
Percentage comparison results would indicate a very slight
tendency for this comparison to differrwith the two sexes.
The
Self-Confident hoy appears to prefer the "Motivation-Type Teacher"
while the Non-Self-Confident Girl appears to like her.
Differences In Affective Altitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type
Teacher" By The Sociable Pupils Of Both Parochial And Public Second­
ary Schools.
Table LIII
Group
Pub. Schl. Boys
a Paroch."
"
<
■9
Pub.
"
Girls
Or
U» Paroch."
"
1 fijSub. Pub. Boys
* 5 Urb. Pub. Boys
O'* I
Ifedlan Comparison
- .75-+.04375
-.45-<.05379
-+-.3^ .05965
+.03+.067
Attribute Correlation
Decile Comparison
-1.00
.0
.0
+ 1.004.00
—l.OQi.OO
-1.0Q+.00
Correlations between attitude toward the "Motivation-Type
Teacher" and the personality trait of sociability produced differ­
ent results for each sex.
The results for the boys were negative
while for the girls they were positive.
Since this might mean that
either the sociable girl liked the "Motivation-Type Teacher" or
109
that the non-soclable girl disliked her, It becomes necessary
to Inspect the results In Table LIV to find out what these
coefficients mean.
Table LIV
Percentage Of Non-Social And Social Secondary School Pupils Ex­
pressing Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type
Teacher".
Bovs
Girls
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. Paroch. Paroch. Public
Like Hiffh
100
80
57 1/7
1 66 2/3
75
Low
69 3/13
60
75
75
69 9/29
Dislike Hiah
0
0
0
10
28 4/7
Low
0
0
20
4 1/6
9 3/8
Indiffer. High
0
14 2/7
33 1/3
10
25
/
Low
30 10/13
20 5/6 1 15 5/8
20
30 20/29
,
The percentages, however, would appear to show environmental
rather than sex differences.
But they are differences that are
contradictory.
Conclusions. Correlations between Sociability and attitude toward
the "Motivation-Type Teacher" are negative for the girls, but posi
tive for the boys.
Percentages are self-contradictory.
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The "MotivationType Teacher" As Manifested By The High And Low Groups Of Intelli­
gence Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table LV
Correlation Between Intelligence And Attitude Toward The "Motiva­
tion-Type Teacher".
1
Group
\ 5^
1 J-J Pub. Schl. Boys
"
S Paroch."
Pub. Schl.Girls
S’ Paroch."
"
« < Sub. Public Boys
Urb. Public Boys
S3
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
•00
+ •37-.0582
. 00
> 41.0CM.00
-l.OGd.OO
- .054 .067
-.I6i.0657
-1.004.00,
•41.004 .00
•I'l.OCtt..00
110
Correlations between attitude for the MMotlvation-Type
Teacher" and Intelligence, on the whole are positive for the
boys but negative for the girls. The tendency, therefore,
would be for the intelligent girl to dislike her while the
intelligent boy would tend to like this teacher-type.
Table LVI
Percentages Of High And Low Intelligence Pupils Expressing Each
Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type Teacher".
Girls
i
Boys
j
Sub. Pub. Urb. Pub. Urb. Paroch, Paroch. Publlo
1 Like Hiah
100
74
50
69 3/13 33 1/3
I
Low
75
100
100
50
100
1Dislike Hlah
0
14 2/7
0
16 2/3
3
!
Low
25
0
0
50
0
jlndiffer.Hiah
0
30 10/13 ! 0
35 5/7
23
?
Low
0
0
0
0
10
I
*
An inspection of Table LVI appears to show sharp environmental contrasts.
More of the low intelligence urban groups
liked this teacher type than the high In intelligence urban group.
With the suburban group the trend Is opposite.
Conclusion. Although the correlation-coefficlents show that there
is a very definite inverse variation between the attitude of the
seoondary-school boys and their standing on the Henmon-Nelson In­
telligence Test, and that the corresponding trend for the girls is
weak but in the opposite direction, percentages render results
which differ from the correlation results.
This difference between
the types of results casts doubt on both the correlation coeffic­
ients and percentages.
It is necessary to suspend judgment in the
matter until further research clears up this discrepancy.
Ill
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The ^MotivationType Teacher" As Manifested By Socially Mature Pupils Of Both
Parochial And Public Secondary Schools*
Table LVII
Correlation Between Social Maturity And Attitude Toward The
"Motivation-Type Teacher".
1
Group
ki |
jPub. Schl. Boys
£ Paroch."
"
* frub.
" Girls
^ Jparoch."
"
t iQpub. Public Boys
^ l^jGrb. Public Boys
--- a- i
_
Attrl bute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
+.00±
-i.eo±.oo
-1.001.00
+.16+.0657
.00*
-1 .o d . 00
.No correlation
-•31i .06906
-1.001.00
!
-l.0Qt.00
1
Most of the correlation coefficients between Social Maturity
and attitude toward the "Motivation-Type" Teacher are high and
negative.
A comparison with the percentages shows that this means
that the socially immature tend to like the "Motivation-Type
Teacher".
Table LVIII
Percentages Of The Socially Mature And Immature Expressing Each Of
The Three Attitudes Toward The "Motivation-Type Teacher".
■Like Hisch
i
Low
1Dislike Hlah
j
Low
Indiffer. Hi«h
!
Low
\
i■— — ... ...
Sub. Public
50
100
50
0
0
0
1 Girls
" ......
Bovs
Urb. Pub. Urb. Par. Paroch. Public
30
0
0
0
60
100
50
100
0
0
20
50
40
0
0
0
0
50
0
50
0
50
0
0
i■
■
-
......
The above percentages appear to corroborate and explain the
correlation coefficients.
There is a definite tendency for the
socially Immature to like the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
112
Conclusions. There appears to he a definite tendency for the
socially Immature secondary pupil of all groups and sexes to
like the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
There Is no functional re­
lationship, however, between social maturity and attitude toward
the "Motivation-Type Teacher" since there is no complementary
trend for the socially mature pupil to dislike the "MotivationType Teacher".
Differences In Affective Altitude Toward The "MotivatlonTvoe Teacher" As Manifested By The Pupils Whose Ancestors Came
g£oa Both Northern And Southern Europe.
Table LIX
Correlation Between National Origins And Attitudes Toward The
“Motivation-Type Teacher".
i
ft
Group
Pub. Schl. Boys
Paroch."
"
Pub.
Schl.
Girls
Ul Paroch."
"
Sub.
Pub.
Boys
*
Urb. Pub. Boys
3?
Attribute Correlation
Median Comoarlson
Decile Comoarlson
.0
+.484.13
.0
.0
.094.20
4 .164.0657
4 .874.03
+ .1H .20
11.00
There would appear to be a low positive correlation between
national origins and attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teach­
er" . Aooordlng to the manner in which the "four-place" tables
were constructed for the "attribute correlations" this would mean
that there Is a slight tendency for the secondary-school pupil of
Northern European ancestry to like this teacher-type.
113
Table LX
Percentages Of Pupils Of Both Northern And Southern European
Origin Expressing The Three Attitudes Toward The " MotiyationType Teacher ".
"
Boys
r
! Girls
Sub. Public Urban Pub. Urb. Paroch. Paroch. Public
Like North
South
Dislike North
South
Indiffer.North
South
78 14/37
76 4/21
69 3/17
63 7/11
54 6/11
43 11/23
8 4/37
4 17/21
12 13/34
18 18/49
4 11/16
9 1/11
0
21 17/23
87
7 1/7
13 19/37
19 1/21
18 1/18
27 3/11
45 5/11
34 18/23
79 29/4$ 67 3/16
6
2 2/49
?
4—
82 1/7
28 1/8
10 5/7
The percentages appear to corroborate and explain the meaning
of the correlation coefficients.
There appears to be a alight ten­
dency for the pupils of Northern European ancestry to like this type
of teacher much more than there is a like tendency for the pupils
of Southern European ancestry to prefer this teacher-type.
There
is also a slight tendency for those of Southern Origin to dislike
the "Motivation-Type Teacher" more than those of like category like
her.
Conclusion.
There is a slight but uniform trend for the secondary
pupil of Northern European ancestry to like the "Motivation-Type
Teacher" and for those of Southern European ancestry to dislike
her.
The trend is too low for prediction and there is no evidence
of a functional relationship.
114
Differences In Affeotlve Attitudes Toward The ’’MotivationType Teacher11 As Compared With The Socio-Economic Status Of The
Pupils Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table IXI
Correlation Between Socio-Economic Status And Attitudes Toward The
"Motivation-Type Teacher".
1
i
i
1
Group
Attribute Correlation
1
|
Decile Comparison
Median Comparison
- |Pub. Schl. Boys
-+.13
; Ui
k 1Paroch."
"
*
1 J Pub.
" Girls
-f.03
|
-.28
jparoch."
"
+.9^.002
-1.00*. 00
.00
.00
+.2&M4
2 iSub. Pub. Boys
i K 1
j f |Urb.
"
- l.OOi.OO
"
Us
!
.
-
Although a few of the correlations between "Socio-Economic
Status" and attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher" are
high, they are Inconsistent and do not appear to follow any reason­
able trend, general or specific.
According to the results
based
on the "Public School Girls" there is a strong tendency for the
high economic group to dislike this teacher-type.
This agrees with
the results based on the Urban Public School Boys.
posite trend for the " Parochial School Boys
There Is an op­
The high economic
group tend to prefer this teacher-type acoording to the results
based on the "Parochial School Boys".
115
Table LXII
Percentages Of High And Low On.Sims Socio-Economic Soale Ex­
pressing The Three Attitudes Toward The MMotivation-Type Teach-
3-lrls
Bovs
Sub. Pub.
Like
Urb. Par. \ Paroch.
Hi ah
82 6 /7
83 1/3
54 4/7
Low
76
57 1/7
50
IDislike Hi«h
1
1
Low
Indiffer. Ei*h
|
Urb. Pub.
Low
5 5/7
0
4
4 16/21
11 V 7
20
21 3/7
0
16 2/3
25
j 38 2/21
50
Public
179 29/49 76 12/13
1 6
18 18/49
63 8/11
7 9/13
87 2/3
2 2/49
6 1/3
■I--------
9
15 5/13
:
| 27 3/11
The percentages appear to show more uniformity than do the
correlation coefficients.
The trend, here seems to indicate
that a greater majority of the high economic hoys and girls to
like the "Motivation-Type Teacher” than do the economically low
boy? and girls.
C oncluslons.
There is a slight tendency for the high economic
group to like the "Motivation-Type Teacher" according to percent­
age results.
ever.
Correlation coefficients are less consistent, how­
Summary.
1.
Evidence seems to Indicate that the relationship
"between attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher" and "Neu­
rotic Tendency" tends to differ not only in degree but also in
essential dlreotion according to each sex group.
The neurotic
seoondary-school girl prefers this teacher-type while the nonneurotic boy prefers her.
2.
There is an extremely slight tendency for the
"Non-Self-Sufficient" pupil to prefer the "Motivation-Type Teach­
er".
3>
There is no evidence to indicate that a relationship
functional or otherwise exists between "introversion-Extroversion"
and attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
4.
There is no uniform relationship between "Dominance-
Submlssion" and attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
Sex differences become apparent.
The submissive girl appears to
like this teacher-type while it is the dominant boy who expressed
the same attitude.
5*
Again the relationship between attitude toward the
"Motivation-Type Teacher" and the trait studied is affected by
sex differences.
The self-confident boy likes the "Motivation-
Type Teacher" while it is the "Non-Self-Confident" girl who ex­
pressed the same attitude.
The trend is slight however, and does
not give certitude that it is universal.
6.
Sex differences again become apparent.
social girl appears to like the "Motivation-Type Teacher" while
it is the sociable boy who prefers this teacher-type.
The trend
is so slight as to raise some question as to its reliability.
The non-
117
7*
Correlation-coefficients 'between intelligence
and attitude toward the "Motivation-Type Teacher" show sex
differences while percentages show community differences as
well.
There is a trend for the low-intelligence girls to pre­
fer this teacher-type, while the high-intelligence boy likes
her according to correlation-coefficients.
The intelligent sub­
urban pupil likes this teacher-type while the low-intelligent
urban secondary pupil prefers her.
8.
There appears to be a very definite tendency for
the socially immature secondary-pupll of all groups and both
sexes to like the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
But since there
is no corresponding complementary trend for the socially mature
pupil to dislike the "Motivation-Type Teacher" there appears to
be no functional-relationship.
9*
There is a slight but uniform trend for the second­
ary school pupil of Northern European ancestry to like the "Moti­
vation-Type Teacher" and for those of Southern European ancestry
to dislike her.
10.
omic
The trend is very low, however.
There is a very slight tendency for the high econ­
group to like the "Motivation-Type Teacher".
This trend, hoto
ever, lacks the neoessary uniformity to give it much reliability.
CHAPTER VII
THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENTS COMPRISING A SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPIL'S
AFFECTIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE "PURFOSING-TYPE TEACHER".
The standardized description of the classroom activities of
this teacher-type is reproduced verbatim from Brueckner's Rating
Soale as follows:
Classwork is markedly divided into phases, part teacher
controlled, part pupil controlled. Teacher in control only
during periods of stimulation and reflection; pupils in con­
trol during periods of activity with teacher assisting. Pu­
pils' activity consists of the planning, executing, Judging
essential to accomplishment of purposes. Lessons are set and
apprasied by pupils. All class work and disciplinary control
is almost completely socialized; that is, organized and ad­
ministered by the group, not by the teacher. Almost no ques­
tions, directions, etc. by the teacher as a means of recita­
tion. Emphasis is placed on purposes, achievements, stand­
ards, Ideals, not on results in terms of knowledge and skill.
There is no, or very little, learning in the sense of commit­
ting to memory except as a means to an end. There is much pu­
pil-directed reference reading, and much use of rich supple­
mental material. There is little organization of subject-mat­
ter in logical sequence, but order and content of lessons are
determined almost wholly by purposes. Therels complete ac­
ceptance by the children of the teacher as one of the group
and almost perfect freedom of expression or appeals for assis­
tance."
The description of the classroom activities of the model teach­
er for this type is cited verbatim aB fbllows:
"Teacher D began more than a week before the subject of
France was reached to bring material about France into the
classroom. Pictures of the cities of France were hung on the
walls. References to France, and illustrations from French
life began to turn up in other classes. The children found
the teacher at work during her spare time before and after
school, upon what, in response to questions, she called her
travel book, which she was making for her own pleasure as a
present to a friend. Finally a group of pupils came and ask­
ed if they,too, might make a travel book for their geography
work. The teacher raised her objections, but finally gave
permission to the group to try to persuade the rest of the
class to adopt the idea, stipulating only that the class must
119
present a workable plan whereby all could cover the re­
quired work In the course of study. The next day, at
class time a committee appointed by the class presented
a good plan. The teacher again raised certain objections
which were promptly met by the class as soon as they saw
the problems. The teacher accepted the revised plan and
the class promptly organized itself into committees and
went to work. They either brought the material needed
themselves or asked the teacher to get it for them. In
four weeks' time they had covered the whole French geogra­
phy and much more besides. They had interested other
teachers in their project, so that in literature, art,
music, and other subjects the influence of their interest
was apparent. Every child in the class had a travel book
and while some were better than others, there was not one
which did not show creditable standards of workmanship.
The teacher was kept busy supplying materials, answering
questions, helping the children achieve their plan, but
except for an occasional taking of the class discussion to
bring some problem of discipline, workmanship, or under­
standing before the class for their solution, had no direct
hand in the control or direction of the class. The work on
France closed with an exhibit of the travel books and the
visit of two French friends of the teacher, who were travel­
ing through the city. There was no drill, no recitation of
things, nor work in the usual sense, but every child acquir­
ed a very thorough and vital knowledge of French life and
ways, and valued his travel book highly."
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward "The Purp o BingType Teacher" As Manifested By Neurotic And Non-Neurotic Pupils
Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table LXIII
Correlation Between Neurotic Tendency And Attitude Toward The
"Purposing-Type Teacher".
t
Pub. School Boys
Paroch. "
"
or
Public " Girls
Paroch. " "
Sub. Public Boys
£ Urb. Public Boys
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
.00
-.28+.06216
-1 .00+.00
+1.0Ct).00
+.434.055
.00 __
05365.
.00
No correlation
According to the results tabulated in Table DCIII, the
correlation coefficients are fragmentary, incomplete and therefore
120
not very reliable.
However, wherever correlation does exist
between Neurotic-Tendency and attitude toward the MPurposingType Teacher" it appears to be positive for the girls and nega­
tive for the boys.
This of course would mean that the second­
ary school girls examined who are high on the Neurotic Tendenoy
Scale prefer the Purposing-Type Teacher and those who are low
dislike her.
The negative correlation would mean that the Neu­
rotic Boys dislike this type while the non-neurotic boys prefer
her.
Table LXIV
Percentages Of Neurotic And Non-Neurotic Pupils Expressing Each
Of The Three Altitudes Toward The "Purposing-Type Teacher".
Like Hi«h
Low
Dislike HiKh
Low
Indiffer .HiJth
|
Low
Boys
Girls
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. Par. Paroch.! Public
44 4/9
40
46' 9/13
26 4/7
57 1/7'
50
54 6/11 47 7/19
0
33 1/3
82 2/9
42 6 /7
14 2/7
0
23 1/13
16 2/5
0
4 6/11 31 H / 1 9
0
55 5/4
30 3/13
28 4/7
28 4/Y
60
33 1/3
100
j 66 2/3
40 io/i: 21 1/19
There is a considerably higher percentage of indifference in
all groups.
This may mean that the pupils of these schools lack
experiential and first hand contact - knowledge with this type due
to a scarcity of this kind of teacher.
In general the percentages
corroborate the correlation-coefficients, with the exception of the
Urban Parochial School Boys where it would appear that a positive
coefficient thould have appeared Instead of a negative one.
Conclusion.
There is no uniform relationship between Neurotic-
Tendenoy and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher" but
different sexes give different trends according to the data of
this study.
121
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The "PurposlngType Teacher11 As Manifested By The Self-Sufficient Pupils Of
Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table LXV
Correlation Between Self-Sufficiency And Attitude Toward The
"Purposing-Type Teacher".
1---j
1 (8
Pub. Schl. Boys
\ > Paroch."
"
3 ^
Public " Girls
|^
"
.? jParoch."
Sub. Publio Boys
Urb. Pub. Boys
|5 £
1 £
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
4.43±.055
+.31* .06096
-U31^* 14
.00
- 1.004.00
4-.401.05665
- 1.004.00
4 .99-+.002
4_.19jf.l8
Here It would appear that wherever correlations were had,
the girls produced negative coefficients while the boys produced
positive coefficients.
Therefore, the self-sufficient boy shows
a very slight tendency to prefer the "Purposing-Type Teacher"
while the non-self-sufficient girl dislikes her.
The self-suffic­
ient girl dislikes the "Purposing-Type Teacher" while the nonself-sufficient girl appeared to prefer this teacher-type.
Table LXVT
Percentages Of Self-Sufficient Pupils Expressing Each Of The Three
Attitudes Toward The "Purposing-Type Teacher".
1
Boys
Girls
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. Paroch. Paroch.
Like High
75
50
50
75
Low
28 4/7
36 4/11
41 2/3
47 1/17
16 2/3'
Dislike High
0
12 1/2
0
Low
28 4/7
16 2/3
27 3/11
5 15/17
Indiffer.High 25
37 1/2
25
33 1/3
Low'
42 6/7
36 4/11
41 2/3
47 1/17
Public
66 2/3
40
33 1/3
0
0
60
122
The percentages appear to contradict the correlation-coeffic­
ient by showing a trend for all self-sufficient pupils to prefer
the "Purposing-Type Teacher” while more of the non-self-sufficient
pupils dislike her than those of the same group who like her.
Conclusion. Data appear to be contradictory and of very little sig­
nificance.
The only trend in evidence is that the self-sufficient
pupil tends to prefer the ”Purposing-Type Teacher” .
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The"Purposing-Type
Teacher” As Manifested By The Introverted And Extroverted Pupils
Of Both Parochial and Public Schools.
Table LXVTI
Correlation Between Introversion And Attitude Toward The "Purposing-Type Teacher".
* I
K Pub. Schl. Boys
<
a Paroch."
"
j
Uw
j Public ” Girls
Paroch." "
Sub. Pub. Boys
I** F
ft
IUrb. Pub. Boys
£ <*
J
or
.... - ..........
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
-.0S .067
-.835 .06
-.155.0659
.00
-n.ocy.oo
.00
4.615.06279
*—
’f .
-l.OQfc .00
The general trend for the girls to produce positive coeffic­
ients and the boys to produce negative coefficients agrees with
the trend in neurotic tendenoy but runs counter to the trend in
self-sufficiency.
This, however, is corroborated by the inter-
correlations of Flanagan1 for these same traits.
The introverted
boy appears to dislike this teacher-type with the single exception
of the Suburban Public School Boys.
However, this coefficient is
not even twice its probable error and was probably due to chance.
J. F. Flanagan, "Factor Analysis In the Study of Personality",
103 pages photolith, Stanford University Press, 1935* &1.25*
123
The Introverted girls appear to like her.
Table LXVIII
Percentages Of Introverts And Extroverts Expressing Each Of The
Three Attitudes Toward The "Purposing-Type Teacher” .
Like Hiffh
Low
Dislike Hi«h
Low
Indiffer. Hi*h
Low
Bovs
Sub. Public Urb. Pub. Urb. Par.
20
42 6/7
22 2/9
28 6/7
50
5°
40
14 2/7
22 2/9
14
0
16 2/3
42 6/7
40
55 5/9
57 1/7
50
33 1/3
Lrls
Paroch.
46 2/13
57 1/7
7 9/13
14 2/7
46 2/13
28 4/7
Public
62 1/2
40
0
26 2/3
37 1/2
33 1/3
The chance factors which were disclosed as influencing the
coefficient of the Suburban Public School Boys are evident in
Table LXVIII.
It would appear, therefore, that these chance fac­
tors appeared in the sampling rather than in the computation.
The
Parochial and Public School Girls also appear to produce opposite
trends.
Otherwise the percentages do not run counter to the trend
of the correlation coefficients.
Conclusions.
It would appear that the percentages contradict the
trend of the correlation coefficients.
Whatever trend there is
appears to agree with that under the Neurotic-Tendency Comparison.
Coefficients for the boys are negative while those for the girls
are positive.
Therefore, there is a slight tendency for the "In­
trovert” girl to like the " Purposing-Type Teacher " while the
"Introvert” boy appears to dislike her.
124
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The "Purposing
Type Teacher11 As Manifested By The Dominant Pupils Of Both Par­
ochial And Public Secondary Schools*
Table LXIX
Correlation Between Dominance-Submission And Attitude Toward The
"Purposing-Type Teacher”.
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Public School Boys
{ ^ j Parochial
?
I
"
”
Public School Girls
1
Parochial "
”
Suburban Public Boys
S lit
? Js
jurban
Public Boys
Decile Comparison
.00
-f.31±.06096
.00
+.19J-.065
j
+.68^.12
|
.00
I
; - l.OQir.OO
f
.00
|-+1.0Ctt.00
13 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I____
Correlations between Dominance-Submission and attitude for
the "Purposing-Type Teacher" are too fragmentary for any conclu­
sions.
Whatever coefficients do exifct, however, indicate that the
Dominant girls dislike the "Purposing-Type Teacher" while the Domi­
nant Boys like her.
This does not seem reasonable however, since
it would appear that the dominant person should prefer the “Purposlng-Type Teacher", with her emphasis on initiative and lack of re­
straint .
125
Table LXX
Percentages Of Dominant And Submissive Pupils Expressing Each
Of The Three Attitudes Toward The Purposing - Type Teacher.
Boys
Sub. Pub.
Like
Girls
Urb. Pub.
Urb. Par.
Parochial
Public
High
37 1/2
75
57 1/7
35 5/7
37 1/2
Low
33 1/3
50
18 2/11
42 1/7
33 1/3
37 1/2
0
14 2/7
14 2/7
37 1/2
16 2/3
7 1/7
36 4/11
57 6/7
33 1 /3
25
28 4/7
50
25
42 6/7
45 5/11
0
33 1/5
Dislike High
Low
Indiffer.HiKh 25
Low
50
In general the percentages appear to corroborate the correlation-coefficlents.
Conclusions.
There is no evidence to indicate that a uniform
functional relationship exists between Dominance and attitude to­
ward the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
There is a tendency for the
Dominant Boy to prefer the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
There is
also a tendency for the "Submissive" girl to prefer this teachertype.
126
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PurposlngType Teacher” As Manifested By The Self-Confident Pupils Of
Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table LXXI
Correlation Between Self-Confidence And Attitude Toward The
"Purposing-Type Teacher".
Attribute Correlation
Deolle Comparison
Median Comparison
Paroch. "
"
0
o
o•
Public School Boys
ft
K Paroch. "
"
<:
"CT Public School Girls
_ .281.06216
-f-.56t.l4
+.45:*. 05379
.00
$
Boys
h- Sub. Pub. "
v2T Urb. School Boys
lli
1
I
-1.00* .00
-i .ia^.i9
-1.00+.00
---------------------
Correlations between self-confidence and attitude toward the
"Purposing-Type Teacher" are mixed and inoonsistent.
There seems
to be no general trend but several specific tendencies which dif­
fer with the group and do not seem to follow a regular pattern.
The positive coefficients are too low to be significant.
tive coefficients appear repugnant to reason.
The nega­
There does not seem
to be any reason to believe that Parochial School Boys of the SelfConfident Class dislike the "Purposing-Type Teacher" but that is
what the high negative correlations mean.
127
Percentages Of Self-Confident And Non-Self-Confident Pupils
Expressing The Three Attitudes Toward The MPurposing-Type
Teacher” .
Boys
Girls
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. Paroch. Paroch. iPublie
Like Hiffh
Low
Dislike Hl«h
Low
36 4/11
40
52 12/ 19) 50
30
75
50
72 8/11
44 4/9
25
18 2/11
26 2/3
5 5/19
10
20
9 1/11
44 4/9
20
Indlffer. Hitch
Low
50
0
25
45 5/11
33 1/3
42 2/19
40
50
25
30
18 2/11
11 1/9
1-------------These percentages appear to contradict the correlation coef­
ficients as contained In Table LXXI.
Each column
appears to ex­
hibit a different trend from the one preceding it.
Conclusions.
The data gathered by this Investigator seems to in­
dicate no substantial trend for the self-dufflelent pupil to pre­
fer or to dislike the "Purposing - Type Teacher".
128
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PurposingType Teacher" As Manifested By The Non-Social Pupils Of Both
Parochial And Public Seoondary-Scfaools.
Table LXXIII
Correlation Between Non-Soclabillty And Attitude Toward The
" Purposing-Type Teacher
Attribution Correlatlon
T
Median Comparison
Decile Comparison
Public Schl. Boys
.60^.064
Parochial"
.00
Vi
"
n Public School Girls
1 Parochial "
"
.00
.00
-.45^.15
4-.56-1.06864
Suburban Pub. Boys
l.OQd .00
-4.5DJ-.06
3 Urban Public Boys
Ui
.00
.2.
- The negative coefficients appear to be in the majority and
thus Indicate that the non-sociable pupil dislikes the "Purposlng-Type Teacher".
This appears reasonable when the description
of this teacher-type is recalled.
The non-social pupil would
feel out of place in a classroom where cooperation, committee
work and pupil leadership is emphasized.
129
Table LXXIV
Percentages Of Non-Social And Social Pupils Expressing Each Of
The Three Attitudes Toward The MPurposing-Type Teacher".
Boys
Girls
Sub. Public Urb. Public Urb. ]?. Paroch. Public
Like High
100
75
20 4/7
66 2/3
40
30 10/13
48 2/29
26 2/3
54 1/6
46 7/8
Dislike High
0
25
57 1/7
0
30
Low
0
17 17/29
4°
18 3/4
9 3/8
Endiffer. High
0
22 2/7
33 1/3
30
33 1/5
27 1/3
43 6/8
Low
Low
0
34 10/29
69 3/13
!
i
...
The percentages appear to contradict the correlation coeffic­
ients.
The general trend in percentages appears to be for the
non-social to like the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
exceptions, however.
There are two
They are the Urban Parochial-Boys and the
Public School Boys.
flonoluslon.
clusions.
Data are contradictory and lead to no definite con­
There is no evidence of a relationship between socia­
bility and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
I
130
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PurposlngTree Teacher” As Manifested By The High And Low Paella On An
Intelligence Scale Of Both Paroohlal And Public Secondary Schools*
Table LXXV
Correlation Between Intelligence And Attitude Toward The "Purposing-Type Teacher".
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
^
Public Sohl. Boys
4.314.06096
Paroch. "
- .124.04928
Public
" Girls
Paroch. "
|
"
Decile Comparison
00
.00
-4-1.OOi .00
.00
^l.OQt.OO
Sub. Public Boys
-41.001.00
Urb. Public Boys
-+1.004.00
There appears to be a high positive correlation between In­
telligence and liking for the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
There is
a strong indication that the intelligent secondary-school pupil
prefers to be in the class of the "Purposing-Type Teacher" where
muoh Individual Initiative is given free play and where natural
talents at planning, coordinating and inventing are allowed free
reign•
I
131
Table LXXVI
Percentages Of The High And Low Intelligence Groups Expressing
Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "Purposing-Type Teacher".
ains
_ Boys .
Sub. Pub.
Urb. Pub.
Urb. Par. Paroch.
0
34 8/13
21 2/7
26 2/3
Low
0
0
0
50
Dislike High
0
35 6/7
16 2/3
16 2/3
Low
75
50
0
0
100
57 9/13
42 6/7
56 2/3
33 1/3
Like High
Indiffer. High I 100
Low
S
i
25
----------
7 9/13
50
0
Public
50
50
0
0
■
Prom the above results, it would appear that the low intelli­
gences public school boy and girl strongly dislike the "PurposlngType Teacher" and probably would not be happy in her class.
0oneluaions.
There is a very definite tendency for the intelli­
gent secondary-school pupil to prefer the "Purposing-Type Teacher"
while the low in intelligence strongly dislike her.
132
Differences In Affective Attitude Toward The "PurposlngTyne Teacher As Manifested By The Socially And Economically
High And Low Groups Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary
Sohool Pupils.
Table LXXVII
Correlation Between Socio-Economic Status And Attitude Toward The
»
"Purposing-Type Teacher".
1
Attribute Correlation
Paroch. "
S
K
l
<
-2
"
- .311.13
o
o•
" Girls
- .12+.04928
o
o.
Public
"
+ .37^. 0582
Decile Comparison
•
o
o
Paroch. "
Median Comparison
o
o«
!
i
\
^ [Public School Boys
.00
Suburb. Public Boys
.00
Urban Public Boys
.00
-... . -..... .
'
There Is very little If any trend between Socio-Economic
Status and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher". What
ever slight trend is manifested is contradictory and statistical­
ly insignificant.
s
§
'i
133
Table LXXVTII
Percentages Of High And Low Pupils On The Socio-Economic Soale
Expressing Eaoh Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "PurposingType Teacher".
Girls
Bovs
Sub. Public Urb. Pub.
Like Hiffh
Urb. Par. Paroch. Public
78 21/ 23 30 10/13
29 7/17
75
33
44
33 1/3
54
9 1/H
45 5/11
29 7/17
8 1/3
45
15 5/33
23 1/13
16
28 17/21
16
73 11/53
18 2/11
Indiffer. Hiffh
41 3/17
16 2/3
21
6 41/53
46 2/13
1
40
38 3/21
30
16 52/53
36 4/11
Low
Ilalike Hish
Low
Low
Percentages bear out the findings as revealed by correlation
coefficients.
The trends are contradictory and appear to be due
entirely to chance factors.
Conclusions.
There is no evidence to indicate that any relation­
ship exists between Socio-Economic Status and Preference for the
"Purposing-Type Teacher".
134
Differences In Affective Attitudes Toward The "PurposlngType Teacher” As Manifested By The Pupils Of Both Northern And
I
Southern European Origin Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary
Schools.
Table LXXIX
Correlation Between National Origins And Attitude Toward The
11 Purposing-Type Teacher ".
'
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
Is Public
5 Paroch.
SI
*
lu Paroch.
School Boys
"
Boys
" Girls
ii
n
c Public
M
I<3Sub. Public Boys
u Jrb. Public Boys
•
t!
Decile Comparison
.00
-4 .56C+.05379
- . 3 H .12
-j *2ELS0632
-4.171.19
.00
- .31*t .12
-.99L4 .003
-4 .6&+.11
The only reliable coefficients are those produced by the
Suburban Public School Boys, the Urban Public School Boys on
the Deoile Comparison and the Parochial School Boys on the Med­
ian Comparison.
According to these measures the Northern Euro­
pean Parochial School Boys tend to like the 11Purposing-Type
Teacher"•
The Suburban Public Sohool Boys of Northern European
Origin dislike the "Purposing-Type Teacher" and the Urban Public
Sohool Boys of Northern European extraction prefer the "PurposingType teacher".
The relationship, therefore, is not regular, uni­
form, or functional.
It appears to differ with the group or sample.
135
Table LXXX
Percentages Of Pupils Of Northern And Southern European Origin
Expressing Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "PurposlngType Teacher” .
i
Boys
Sub. Publio
Like Northern
Southern
Southern
42
40 40/79
54 6/11
63 7/11
38 2/21
14 6 /7
29 9/29
0
Indiffer. North. 43 9/37
Southern
Urb. Publics Urb. Par. Paroch. Publio
35 5/37
Dislike Northern 21 23/37
45 5/11
Girls
27 3/11
4fi 6/7
9 1/11
9 11/21
82 53/103 34 2/8
5
42 6/7
17 50/103 )23 7/1*
75
10 5/7
30 30/79
0
42 3/16
52 8/21
20
46 3/7
-------
The differences here appear to be according to type of school.
The trends are opposite if Public and Parochial Groups are compared.
The public school Northern European pupil appears more frequently
to dislike the "Purposing-Type Teacher” as compared with the same
national origins group of the Parochial School pupils.
Conclusions. According to the data as presented In this investi­
gation, there is no uniform functional relationship between nation­
al origins and attitude toward the “Purposing-Type Teacher".
The
trends or relationships are specific and differ with each sample or
group.
Environment, however, appears to influence these tendencies.
The Parochial School Pupil of Northern European ancestry likes this
teacher-type while the same national origins group of the Publio
School dislikes her.
Differences In Affeetlve Attitudes Toward The 11Purd o singType Teacher" As Manifested By Socially Mature Ana Immature Pu­
pils Of Both Parochial And Public Secondary Schools.
Table LXXXI
Correlation Between Social Maturity And Attitude Toward The "Pur­
posing-Type Teacher."
Attribute Correlation
Median Comparison
•+.16+.04872
Paroch.
"
+.12+.04928
Public
" G-irls
Paroch.
"
.00
"
"
No correlation
o
o
•
s
Public Sohool Boys
o
oe
s
Decile Comparison
+.821.03
Sub. Public Boys
No correlation
or Urb. Public Boys
hj
No correlation
Wherever significant correlations are to he bad between
Social Maturity and preference for the "Purposing-Type Teacher",
the results are positive, that Is to say that the Socially mature
pupil prefers this teacher-type,
Results, however, are incomplete,
fragmentary, and in some cases of little significance.
137
Table LXXXII
Percentages Of The Socially Mature And Immature Expressing
Each Of The Three Attitudes Toward The "Purposing-Type Teach-
Bovs
0-irls
Sub. Public Urb. Pub. j Urb. P.
Like
High
Low
Dislike High
Low
0
100
70
100
100
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
40
0
Indlffer. High
Low
0
0
0
0
20
60
Paroch.
0
0
Publio
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
Percentages demonstrate that the Socially immature pupil Is
much more likely to prefer the "Purposing-Type Teacher" than the
socially mature pupil
Conclusions.
It would appear from the data examined and analyzed
In this investigation that both socially mature and socially im­
mature pupils both like the " Purposing-Type Teacher
However,
fewer of the high than of the low group prefer this teacher-type.
138
Summary.
1.
Sex differences parallel differences In uniform­
ity in the relationship between "Neurotic-Tendency" and attitude
toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
2.
Data concerning the relationship existing between
"Self-Sufficiency and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teach­
er" appears to be contradictory and of very little significance.
3.
There is a slight trend for the "introvert" girl
to Ilk* the "Purposing-Teacher" while the "introvert" boy appears
to dislike her.
4.
There is a slight tendency for the "Dominant" boy
and the "Submissive" girl to like this teacher-type.
5«
There is very little or no relationship between
"Self-Confidence" and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teach-
61* •
6.
There is no evidence of a relationship between"So-
oiability" and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
7.
There is a very definite trend for the intelligent
secondary school pupil to prefer the "Purposing-Type Teacher" while
the low in intelligence strongly dislike her according to the data
based on the subjects of this study.
8.
There is no evidence to indicate that there is any
relationship whatever between "Socio-Economic Status" and prefer­
ence for the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
9.
There is no general, universal and functional re­
lationship between national origins, and attitude toward the "Purposlng-Type Teacher".
There are many specific trends, however,
differing with each group.
ences .
Type of sohool influences these differ­
10.
It would appear that both socially mature and
socially immature pupils like this teacher-type.
However,
fewer mature pupils than immature prefer this type.
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
1.
There is no evidence to show that a functional relation­
ship exists between "Neurotic-Tendency" and attitude toward teach­
er- types.
Wherever such relationship does exist it differs not
only in degree but also in nature with difference in sex.
2.
Prom the data*at hand there would appear to be no defin­
ite uniform and general relationship between "Self-Sufficiency"
and attitude toward teacher-type.
Several specific relationships
do exist but these differ with the different groups of pupils
examined.
Sex, school and community differences appear to parallel
differences in the degree and nature of the relationship between the
aforementioned elements of attitude toward teacher-type and "SelfSufficiency" .
3«
There is a very slight tendency for the "Extrovert" pu­
pil to dislike the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" much more than does
the "Introvert" pupil.
Differences in community and type of
school influence these differences, however.
There is no evidence
to indicate that relationships, functional or otherwise exist be­
tween "introversion-Extroversion" and attitude toward either the
"Preparation-Type"
or the "Motivation-Type" Teachers.
There is
a slight trend for the "Introvert" girl to like the "PurposingType Teacher" while the boy in the same category dislikes this
type.
4.
There is a slight tendency for the dominant pupil to
dislike the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" and " Dominance-Submission"
pupils were specific, differed with each group, and were too in­
significant not to be influenced by chance factors.
There is a
slight tendenoy for the "Dominant" boy and the "Submissive" girl
to like both the "Motivation-Type" and "Purposing-Type" Teachers.
l4l
3.
Environment plays as great a part if not greater in
attitude toward the "Compulsion-Type" Teacher than an intrin­
sic relationship between "Self-Confidenoe" and such attitude*
The relationship between "Self-Confidence" and attitude toward
the "Preparation-Type Teacher" also varies with community and
school differences*
Relationships between "Self-Confidence"
and attitude toward the "Motivation" and "Purposing" Types, how­
ever differs with the sexes, if at all*
6.
There is evidence to indicate that the "Unsociable" pu­
pil likes the "Compulsion-Type Teacher" while he or she dislikes
the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
The "Non-Social" or "Unsociable"
girl likes the "Motivation-Type Teacher" while the "Sociable" boy
dislikes her.
There appears to be no trend for either the "Soc­
iable" or "Unsociable" pupil of any group to show any definite
preference or dislike for the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
7.
There is no relationship between intelligence and atti­
tude toward the "Compulsion-Type" teacher.
Type of community
and type of sohool plays as great if not a greater role in the
relationship between intelligence and preference for the "Prep­
aration-Type" teacher than does any intrinsic relationship be­
tween the aforementioned elements.
Community and sex differences
parallel differences in the degree and nature of the relationship
between intelligence and preference for the "Motivation-Type
Teacher".
There is a slight trend for the intelligent secondary
sohool pupil to prefer the "Purposing-Type Teacher" while the low
in intelligence pupils dislike her*
142
8.
The aoeio-economically high girls tend to dislike the
"Compulsion-Type Teacher" while the hoys in the same category
like her.
The socio-:economically high pupils like the "Prep­
aration-Type Teacher".
There is a trend for the "Economically"
high group to like the "Motivation-Type" teacher also, although
the trend lacks uniformity.
But there is no evidence to indi­
cate that a relationship exists between "Socio-Economic Status"
and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
9.
There is no evidence to support the proposition that
there is a relationship between "Social Maturity" and attitude
toward the "Compulsion-Type Teacher".
The soolally mature pu­
pils of both sexes dislike the "Preparation-Type Teacher".
There is a definite trend for the socially immature to like the
"Motivation-Type Teacher".
Both socially mature and socially
immature like the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
10. There is little or no evidence to indicate that rela­
tionships exist between national origins and attitudes toward
either the "Compulsion" or "Preparation-Type Teacher".
There
is a slight trend for the "Northern European" pupil to like the
"Motivation-Type Teacher" while those of "Southern" origin tend
to dislike her.
There is no relationship between national ori­
gins and attitude toward the "Purposing-Type Teacher".
Conclusions. Environment, type of school, sex-status, socio­
economic status are elements which play no small part in affect­
ing a secondary-school pupil’a attitude toward a teacher-type.
Second only to the aforementioned are "Dominance-Submission", in­
telligence and to a small extent "Sociability".
However, there
143
are other unmeasured "factors'1 which really determine a pupil's
attitude toward the various types of "Soolal-Studles Teacher"•
I
CHAPTER IX
GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM
The four preceding chapters have been oonfined to differ­
ences between the two extremes of each personality measure and
the attitudes each of these groups of secondary-school pupils
expressed toward the four teacher-types described In Brueckner's Rating Scale.
This chapter will be devoted to a general
comparison between the different school and sex groups based
on the general over-all aspects of the study.
For example, in­
stead of comparing the number of neurotic and non-neurotic girls
who prefer the compulsion-type teacher, the comparison will be
more concerned with how the number of boys who like the compul­
sion-type teacher compares with the number of girls who also
like her.
General differences In the likes and dislikes of par­
ochial as compared with public secondary-school pupils will also
be noted.
An intercorrelation will disclose the true signifi­
cance of individual correlations.
General applications to the
allied fields on eductional practice and research will be educed.
145
The Differences In The Expressed Attitudes Toward Teacher*
Types As Manifested. By Pupils Of The Same School But Of Differ­
ent Sexes.
Table LXXXIII
The Percentages Of Boya And Girls Of The Public School Group
Who Liked, Disliked And Were Indifferent To Brueokner's Teaoher-Types•
Form A.
I
Like Boys
Girls.
Dislike Boys
Girls
Indiff. Boys
Girls
(Teacher Types)1
II
III
IV
5 5/99
50 50/99
70 70/99
63 7/11
8 8/99
72 8/11
72 8/11
4l 41/99
87 29/83
19 19/99
8 8/99
16 16/99
74 74/99
8 8/49
3 1/33
20 20/99
7 7/99
30 10/33
21 7/33
20 20/33
17 17/99
19 19/99
24 8/33
38 38/39
1
Chapter II, Page 18 of This Dissertation.
146
Fora B» (Models For Each Type)1
A
Like Bovs
Girls
Dislike Bovs
Girls
B
D
12 1 1 /3 3
76 76/99
74 74/99
44 44/99
9 l/ll
71 71/99
72 8/11
39 13/33
69 23 /8 3
8 8/99
5 5/99
18 2/11
72 8/11
9 1/H
6 2/33
17 17/33
15 5/33
20 20/99
37 37/99
19 19/99
21 7/33
43 43/99
Indlffer. Bovs 18 2/ll
Girls
C
18
2/11
A perusal of Table LXXXIII will show considerable differences
In preference between the two sexes In the results for Form A.
There Is considerably more conformity In the results for Form B.
The general conformity noted here Is In striking contrast to the
relatively greater differences noted for the extremes of each
personality type as set forth In previous chapters.
In the light
of the above results, the measures In previous chapters appear to
be reasonably significant.
1
Chapter II, Page 19 of This Dissertation.
147
Table LXXXIV
The Percentages Of Parochial School Boys And Girls Expressing
The Three Attitudes Toward The Teacher-Types.
Form A.
I
Like Boys
Girls
Dislike Bovs
Girls
Indiffer.Bovs
Girls
II
III
IV
10 10/99
78 26/33
57 19/33
39 13/33
33 11/33
67 67/99
64 64/99
46
83 83/99
12 4/33
15 5/33
27 11/33
60 20 /33
14 14/99
15 5/33
26
6 2/33
9 1/11
27 3/11
33 3/9
6 2/33
18 2/11
20 20/99
28
'
Form B.
i
a
Like Bovs
Girls
Dislike Bovs
Girls
C
D
13 13/99
80 80/99
60 20/33
40 40/99
8 8/79
74 74/99
79 79/99
52
81 27/99
10 10/99
14 14/99
28 28/99
81 9/11
10 10/99
5 5/99
9 1/H
25 25/99
31 31/99
15 5/33
24 8/33
Indiffer.Bovs 5 5/99
Girls
B
10 10/99
15 5/33
24
According to the results tabulated above there Is consider­
ably less agreement between the sexes than was evident in the
tabulation for the public school pupils.
148
Conclusions* In general, it might be said that differences be­
tween the sexes In the attitude expressed toward Brueckner's
teacher-types were not nearly as great as the differences be­
tween the extreme personality groups of the same sex as report­
ed In previous chapters.
Here again as previously noted school
and oommunlty differences parallel differences In the direction
and degree In attitudes expressed toward the teacher-types.
Differences In The Expressed Attitudes Toward Teacher Types
By Pupils Of The Same Sex But From Different Types Of Schools.
Table LXXXV
The Percentages Of Both Parochial And Public School Boys Express­
ing The Three Attitudes Toward The Four Teacher Types.
Form A.
I
Like Paroch.
Public
Dislike Par.
Public
Indiffer.Par.
Public
II
III
IV
78 21/33
56 56/99
37 37/99
19 19/99
55 5/9
73 73/99
56
84 84/99
13 13/99
24 8/33
29 29/99
72 8/99
21 7/33
7 1/99
6 2/33
8 8/99
19 19/99
33 1/3
23 23/99
19 19/99
28
9 1/11
8 8/99
16
149
Form B»
A
Like Parooh.
Public
B
Indiffer.Par.
Public
D
12 4/33
79 79/99
58 58/99
39 13/83
9 1/11
75 25/33
56
43 43/99
11 1/9
15 5/33
30 10/33
Dislike Paroch. 82 82/99
Public
C
71 71/99
5 5/33
16
17 17/99
3 5/99
9 9/11
26 26/99
30 10/33
19 19/99
19 19/33
28
39 13/38
By comparing the above tabulation with those for the differ­
ent sexes It will be noted that differences In attitudes toward
teacher-types of the different sexes of the same school are
slightly more significant than are those of the same sex from
different schools*
It would appear, therefore, that the type
of school has slightly less influence upon differences In pupllattltude toward teacher-types than does sex.
150
Table LXXXVI
The Percentages Of Both Parochial And Public School G-irls Ex­
pressing The Three Attitudes Toward Brueckner's Teacher Types.
Form A.
I
Like Farooh.
Public
Dislike Par.
Public
IV
III
8 8/99
74 14/99
59 59/99
41 41/99
10
73
75
40
87 29/53
12 4/33
14 14/99
31 31/99
73
Indif. Paroch. 4 4/99
Public
II
17
9
2
20
13 13/99
26 26/99
27 3/11
18
23
40
Form B.
A
B
C
D
j| Like
Paroch.
9 l/ll
76 76/99
75 25/3:
52 52/99
1}
Public
11
72
75
38
|Dislike Par.
82 82/99
8 8/99
6 2/33
21 21/99
1
71
9
6
17
]Indif. Paroch.
8 8/99
15 5/33
18 2/11
26 26/99
!
18
19
19
45
Public
Public
It is apparent that differences between parochial and public
school girls with respect to affective attitude toward the teach­
er-types of Courtis and Brueckner are not as great as those be­
tween parochial and public school boys.
151
Summary And Conclusions.
It would appear that neither sex alone or type of school
alone Influences the attitude a secondary school hoy or girl
expresses toward a teacher type description hut rather a com­
bination of the two and other extrinsic elements such as type
of community, and the like.
Type of school and type of com­
munity are slightly more significant than sex differences in
influencing secondary school pupils in their attitudes toward
teacher-types but neither shows any sign of being functional.
The differences in attitude toward teacher-types evinced by
the secondary school pupils of the same sex but in the two up­
per and lower extremes of a personality trait are likely to be
more significant than the differences disclosed in comparing
different sexes or different school-types. To sum up, the
special differences previously noted in Chapters IV, V, VI, and
VII gain in significance by comparison with the slight differ­
ences which are discovered when general comparisons based on
sex, and type of school are made.
This is due in large part to
the fact that pupil-attitude toward a teacher-type is not in­
fluenced by any one or even the sum total of all these elements
but to a complex interweaving and Interplay of these elements
one upon the other.
Of course, all of the observations made are
true in a general sense and should not be construed as applying
to every comparison made previously.
I
152
The Q-eneral Significance Of Attribute Correlatlona Between
Personality Traits And Attitude Toward Teacher Types Aa Compared
With Intercorrelatlons Of The Personality Traits Themselves.
Of the six hundred subjects of this Investigation one hun­
dred of the highest and lowest tenth percentiles for each trait
were selected for intereorrelation of personality traits.
The
intercorrelatlons resulting were then compared and contrasted
with the results obtained by Flanagan in his "Factor Analysis".'*’
The select group was chosen in the following manner:
twenty-
five public school boys were chosen for alternate high and low
standing on the first, third, and fifth personality traits which
have been assumed by the author of the test, Bernreuter, to cor­
relate negatively with the second, fourth, and sixth traits res­
pectively.
Twenty-five public school girls were chosen in the
same manner.
Likewise twenty-five parochial boys and twenty-five
parochial girls were also added to the list.
four groups of twenty-five each.
Thus there were
Half of the entire group of one
hundred were male, and the other half female.
Half of the group
were from the parochial schools and the other half were from the
public schools.
Half of the group were high in traits one, three,
five and low in traits two, four, and six while the other half
were low in traits one, three, five and were high in traits two,
four and six.
The resulting group of one hundred subjects repre­
sented an equal number of each sex, highest and lowest on each
1
J. F. Flanagan, "Factor Analysis In The Study Of Personality".
103 pages photolith, Stanford University Press, 1935* $1.25*
153
personality scale and from each type of school.
The inter­
correlations resulting from this group appear in Table IXXXVII.
Table LXXXVII
A Comparison Between Correlations Of Personality With Attitude
Toward Teacher-Types And Intercorrelatlons Between The Person­
ality Traits Themselves.
3o) Qa
o
* 5*
Uj >4
— .
SQ
<r
>
<o
0
V
jy i
*
o !
V
Lk ^
ej -4 V)
lu
0 ^
*•4 ^ t0 1-^ * ^
Q
1
<
y
i
^
K Ui
?
< O
I f < *<51
U
j
0
*
5
i g -i- 1
s
°UP
f c p ^ 'O dj h 1
Uj iu '•u
°
I
Q
n -11 i
n
Teacher-Tvnes
Comuulslon
.0 .20 r.06 .06 •03
•13 •19 1.0 -.57 .0 .12 .06
Pret>aratIon
].0 .0 1.0 •25 .0 r.16 -.12 .10 i.io .16 .06 “ 31 .0
Motivation
j .16 *.25 1.1& 128 •31 | .28 -.66 -.59 p25 .44 .0 -.45 .0 •
PUTOOBlnR
.0 .16 n 12 •L2 -.25 i *° .22 .0 -19 .12 .0 .16 .06
Neurotic T.
~ 811100 “ 98 •29 i *09 .00 -.56 .00 .00 •03 j.00 .03
j
Self-Suffieienc:I
‘.82 .86 -*87 1 - 1 ? •3^ .45 ;.4o .09 .00 .18 .09
;
Introversion
! .83k •92 !.16 .00 “•59 -45 .00 •03 .00 1.00
1
1 i—»96 j .00 .34 •53 .31 •77 f.00 .22 1.16
Dominance
j
Confidence
i l l
;.19 i .00 ~56 “40 •19 .00 1 .00 1.16
Sociability
I
1.43 .00 “10 .00 •?7 i.00 '.00
'
1
!
Intelligence
1
: * |
i
.77 •31 ~37 .34 i .06 f«19
Social Miaturlty j
!
.25 .22 ;*2 5 ; .06 1.0
. i
.! !
Economic Status
.09 .06 I-19 f.O
4 ' 1
National Origins!
1.00 1.00 i.00
i
:
<
Sex Differences s
i ■ 1.0 ?.4j
i
'
'
l
!
, ■
Comparing these correlation and intercorrelation coefficients
with Flanagan's1 results as reproduced on the next page, there can
be little doubt as to the validity of the methods employed although
there are some differences between the two sets of measures.
1
J. F. Flanagan, "Factor Analysis In The study of Personality"
103 pages photollth, Stanford University Press, 1935. $1*25
154
1
, Table III - Coefficients Of Intercorrelation"
The Pennsylvania State College (Men) Engineering Students
N 157
B1N
-.37
b 2s
F C
1
F S
2
0
00e
1
v
+ .95
+ .32
+.47
-.54
+ .60
-.69
+ .90
+ .39
- .88
+ .07
V
V
+ .95
-.31
V
b 4d
F1C
+.11
Interpretation.
The symbol
stands for ,,Bernreuter 's Scale
for the Measurement of Neurotic Tendency".
Thus, BgS represents
"Self-Sufficiency"; B4D, Dominance; F-^C, "Self-Confidence" and
FgS stands for Flanagan's Scale for the Measurement of Sociabil­
ity.
The investigator's group, representing both sexes is much
more representative than Flanagan's group of men only.
A com­
parison between the two sets of results must also demonstrate
the superiority of attribute correlation over Product-Moment
Correlation in a study involving personality trait comparisons.
Conclusions. By comparing the results as tabulated in Table
LXXXVII, it will be noted that all of the coefficients between
pupil personality trait and attitude toward teacher-type are
quite low.
These results seem to contradict the decile compari­
son coefficients for the unselected groups of high and low on
each of the traits.
ever.
The nature of the groups are different, how­
The unselected groups were specific and represented the
1
As quoted in the "Manual For the Personality Inventory" by
Robert Q-. Bernreuter.
155
particular sample of pupils of one sex in a single environment
while the selected group was general and represented all the
pupils of both sexes and both types of schools. Consequently
the results are different because the very composition of the
groups is different.
Upon studying the table further, it will be noted that
several common factors influence other correlations by being
components of not one but many correlations.
Thus intelligence
correlates highly with social maturity but Reavis1 has found
that both these factors are not prime and that they themselved
contain the common factor of chronological age.
This, too, is
supported by what is termed “common sense" for intelligence and
social maturity is deemed to Increase with natural or chronologi­
cal age.
It will be noted also that factors which were selected in
the grouping give intercorrelation coefficients which are, close
to zero if not actually zero.
This is the desired result.
It
will also be observed that practically all the Bernreuter traits
show no correlation whatever with Intelligence.
This, too, is as
was expected since both intelligent and unintelligent persons might
be presumed to belong to both adjusted and well-adjusted groups.
Summary.
In view of the magnitude of some of the common fac­
tors and because of the small coefficients between attitude toward
teacher-type and personality trait, it must be concluded that no
1
Reavis, George H., “Factors Controlling Attendance In Rural
Sohools," Teachers College, Columbia University, N. Y.1922.
156
functional relationships can he assumed as demonstrated between
such attitudes and the aforementioned traits.
In general, the
predictive value of such measures is practically nil as inter­
preted according to Hull's table cited in the appendix as Item
D.
To sum up, therefore, in spite of the high intercorrelatlons
between the traits themselves, the coefficients for the correla­
tion of attitude toward teacher-type and the aforementioned traits
are insignificant in the extreme.
If anything has been demonstrated by this study it is that
teacher-type descriptions must be treated as attributes or absol­
utes and not as variables.
It has also become apparent that the
subjects should be selected from the two extremes of each trait
so as, to render the two groups opposite with respect to possession
of the same trait.
In other words the two types of subjects should
really be different in the same trait.
To select the median line
as the line of dichotomy, therefore, defeats this very end and
both groups resulting are heterogeneous and not homogeneous.
To
select too high or too low a percentile on the other hand renders
the two groups too abnormal, artificial, inflexible and therefore
not at all representative of reality.
Therefore, instead of sel­
ecting the highest and lowest tenth percentile as this investiga­
tor has done, it would Improve the technique considerably if the
extreme twentieth or even thirtieth percentiles wese selected
as the two dichotomous groups.
If tenth percentiles are to be
used, then thousands of subjects should be examined.
Practical Applications To Educational Psychology And Educa­
tional Practice.
The evidence #&uced from this investigation demonstrates
157
that by far the most popular of the four teacher-types are
the "Preparation" and "Motivation" type teachers.
Over sev­
enty per cent of all groups appeared to like "Teacher B & C"
while less than twenty-per cent disliked them.
sion-Type" teacher was unpopular in the extreme.
The "Compul­
Perhaps, if
a choice had to be made, the "Preparation-Type Teacher" would
be the most popular-type for the parochial secondary-school
while the "Motivation" Type Teacher would be slightly more pop­
ular for the public school pupils.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that preference for
any of the teacher types cannot be considered as a symptom of
any kind of maladjustment whatever nor can it be deemed a symp­
tom or sign of sound adjustment.
ship exists.
No such functional relation­
There are, however, certain personality types
which would not be happy in the classes of some of the teacher
types as was previously pointed out in Chapter Eight.
Such
sources of discomfort should be prevented by proper assignment
of pupils and teachers.
Of interest to the philosophers and the theorizers in the
realm of Rational Psychology and Formal Logic, there is not a
shred of evidence to support the contention that any kind of de­
terminism whatever influences the quality Judgments of secondary
school pupils.
If there were such functional relationships be­
tween emotional personality make-up and trend of thought, they
certainly should have become apparent in as closely pursued an
Investigation as this was.
There has been no foundation, accord­
ing to the evidence, gleaned from this study for Thorndike's
dictum that "reason is a skiff upon a sea of emotion."
158
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APPENDIX
Name.
Grade.
T Y P E I.
T h e subject-m atter is organized wholly in terms of logical arrangem ent,
usually of textbook arrangem ent. I t is presented either orally or by text,
w ith o r w ithout some explanation by the teacher. Pupils are expected to
study same and learn it by heart. T h e recitation consists in having the
children give back w hat they have learned. U sually the form in which it
is given m ust be exactly that of the text. M uch dependence is placed on
repetition, review, and drill. T h ere is complete teacher domination and
control, and almost perfect attention because of rigid discipline maintained
by teacher by force. Results in terms of knowledge are emphasized. Re­
spect and unquestioning obedience are demanded of children.
Like
Dislike
Indifferent
T Y P E II.
Presentation of subject-m atter is determined by teacher’s preparation
rather than by text, although based directly on a logical outline of the text
arrangem ent. T eacher attem pts to “predigest” the lesson and believes
am ount learned depends upon her efforts and explanations. M uch use
made of “ five formal steps” or other lesson plan scheme. Less rigid disci­
pline is maintained than in T ype I, but more than in T ype I I I . T h ere is
complete teacher control. T eacher “talks down” to the children and makes
use of many tricks and devices. Recitations are m ainly giving back of facts
learned in response to questions and d rill through repetition. M o re varia­
tion from original or textbook form is accepted in answering questions than
in T y p e I, but effect of teaching is judged almost wholly in term s of
knowledge and skill. T eacher is closer to children in personal relations
than T ype I, b u t maintains her place as “T eacher,” a person consciously
“superior” to the children in knowledge and virtue.
Like
Dislike
Indifferent
T Y P E III.
T h e efforts of teacher are consciously directed towards securing and
holding children’s interest. Subject-m atter is organized about m ajor topics
and provision is made for children’s activity, but this is largely controlled
by the teacher’s directions. M uch more supplementary material is used th an
in Types I and II, but lessons are distinctly subject-m atter lessons w ith
activity brought in as a means of learning. Discipline is usually much re­
laxed, and teachers and children meet on a friendly basis. T h ere is less
emphasis on knowledge than in Types I and I I , and more on construction
and handiwork. D rill and review are less evident and w ith the less able
teachers there is usually a lower standard of scholarship than in previous
types. Subject-m atter iimits are also less rigorously observed than in pre­
vious types. Socialization of class w ork is sometimes attem pted. T h is
usually takes the form of having a pupil take the class in place of the
teacher, but is seldom tru e socialization.
Like
Dislike
Indifferent
Name.
Grade.
Teacher A
T h e teacher w as a rigid disciplinarian. Every child was compelled to
keep in perfect order, to sit rigidly in the standard position, to pay absolute
attention to everything th a t was said, and to strive to acquire perfection in
all his work.
Every child worked during his study period at his top speed, because
the lessons assigned w ere generally sufficiently long to require it, and the
compelling force back of the command made by the teacher to know these
im portant facts served to make every one sit up and concentrate on w hat he
was doing. O n the other hand, if the m aterial was difficult, the lessons
assigned were short, so that it was possible to learn them.
Papers w ere marked w ith care, every i not dotted and every t not crossed
being noted and later corrected by the pupil. Answers to questions which
w ere not in the exact language of the book w ere counted w rong, and there
w ere no supplementary readings or discussions. Any child could ask any
form al question he wished about anything he did not understand, b ut the
question had to be asked during the study period, not during the recitation.
T h e teacher was absolutely fair and im partial, knew every pupil’s w eak­
ness and success, held herself up to the standards set for the class. D elib­
erate misbehavior was sure to receive sw ift and vigorous corporal punish­
ment ; failure to learn m eant additional drill.
T h ere was much well-organized d rill and review. Class questioning
was vigorous and snappy and enjoyed by the entire class. W h en the study
of France was concluded, the children could answer any question on the
continuous list, w hich the teacher had given w ithout hesitation, and w ith no
deviation from the w ords of the text.
Like
Dislike
Indifferent
T ea ch er B
T h e teacher carefully read all the m aterial she could find on the sub­
ject of France in the school and city library and in her text and reference
books. She made a detailed plan of her procedure, attem pting first to pre­
pare the children’s minds by a thorough recall of apperception knowledge
which w ould serve as a background for the new facts that were to be
taught. In order to have the children get a better understanding of the new
subject-m atter the teacher had provided an abundance of illustrative m ate­
rial. She also showed them pictures of France and had a good set of stereopticon views. Each child had a stereoscope. W h ile the children were look­
ing at these views there was absolute silence. N o comments w ere made, but
children were held responsible for w hat was seen. T h e teacher had so skil­
fully arranged her material and directed her questions th at the children
very readily grasped the new unit of w ork. T h e children and teacher en­
joyed their w ork but there was no “fooling.” A n outline on the text pre­
pared by the teacher was used as a basis for review work. T h e teacher
carefully checked the results of her teaching and found th at all of the
children had a thorough knowledge of the facts she wished to emphasize.
Like
Dislike
Indifferent
168
APPENDIX C
VALUES OP r CORRESPONDING TO CERTAIN VALUES OP THE FRACTION
USED IN PEARSON'S COSINE 7 t METHOD 1
VacIT
VacT + yfbo
R
! ^
;VS^-l She'
^fbc
.500
.497
.494
.490
.487
.484
.481
.478
.475
.471
.468
.465
.462
.458
.455
.452
.449
.446
.442
.439
.436
.433
.429
.426
.423
.420
.00
.01
.02
.08
~ W 5
.413
.410
: .406
.403
.400
.396
.393
•390
.09
.386
.13
.14
.383
.379
.376
.373
.369
.03
.04
.05
.06
.07
.10
.11
.12
.16
•rr
.18
*19
.20
.21
.22
.23
.24
| .25
i
>
i
.366
.362
.259
] .355
.351
i .348
.344
i .341
| .337
.333
(
....
r
VbcT
ysret-ftbc
.26
.330
.27
.326
.322
.318
.28
.29
•30
.31
.32
•33
•34
.35
.36
•37
•38
.39
.40
.41
.42
.43
.44
.45
.46
.47
.48
.49
.50
.315
.311
.307
.303
.299
.295
.291
.287
.283
.279
.275
.271
.266
.262
.258
.253
.249
.244
.240
.235
.230
r
.51
.52
•53
.54
.55
.56
.57
.58
.59
.60
.61
.62
.63
.64
.65
.66
.67
.68
.69
.70
.71
.72
•73
.74
.75
/Sc"
VSdfVBc
r
.225
•7 6
.215
.77
.78
.79
.220
.210
.205
.199
.194
.188
.183
!.177
.170
| .164
! .158
! .151
.144
!.136
i.128
i.120
;.111
j.101
;.090
s .078
;.064
1.045
.000
.80
.81
.82
•83
.84
.85
.86
.87
.88
.89
.90
•91
.92
.93
.94
.95
.96
•97
.98
.99
..00
!
t
i
s
i
j
i
i.
jj
1
Odell, Charles W. "Statistical Method In Education", D. Apple­
ton Company, New York, 1935, p. 313*
j
169
APPENDIX D
RELATION OP COEFFICIENT TO THE PERCENT OP FORECASTING
EFFICIENCY1
E (percent)
r
E (percent)
29
2
CO
•
40
.5
.20
56
.40
8
.95
69
.50
13
.98
80
VO*
20
1.00
100
o
o
»
5
o
.10
o
.70
•
VO
r
1
Hull, Clark L. "The Correlation Coefficient and Its Prognostic
Significance, "Journal of Educational Research" XV, p.327338.
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