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An evaluation of the program of business education at Compton Junior College

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AN EVALUATION OF TEE PROGRAM OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Gertrude Boardman Henry
June 1942
UMI Number: EP54226
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54226
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been pre se n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
„
June 6, 1942
D a te .............
Dean
Guidance Com m ittee
S. G-. Ble^cks tone
C hairm an
C . C . Crawford
Wm. G-. Campbell
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GE
THE PROBLEM...............................
1
The problem . . . . . .......... . . . . . .
2
Statement of the problem
. . . ..........
Definitions of terms used . . .
Course of study . . .
Semiprofessional
2
................
Purpose of the study
2
...........
4
..................
4
...
................
4
Semiprofessional course ................
4
Review of related literature
.............
5
Summary......................... .
15
Sources of data and method of procedure . .
16
PHILOSOPHY AM) OBJECTIVES OF JUNIOR COLLEGE
EDUCATION....... .......................
19
*
The junior college movement . . . . . . . .
19
Six-four-four plan
20
.........
.........
Educational philosophy of Compton Junior
College .............................
THE AIMS AMD FUNCTIONS OF THE JUNIOR COLLEGE
23
.
27
Functions of a junior college ...........
27
Aims and function of Compton Junior College
27
PUPIL POPULATION AND SCHOOL COMMUNITY.......
31
Purpose of this chapter ................
31
Definitions.............. ...........
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
History of Compton Junior College • • . . •
32
Students registered at Compton Junior Col­
lege for last four years by grade and sex
36
Registration distribution of students of
Compton Junior College by years and grades
39
Registration distribution trend for threeyear period showing normal average by sex
and grade...........................
41
Number of students registered during current
y e a r ..............................
43
Age-grade distribution of students at
Compton Junior College as of March 21,
1941
. . .
....................
.♦
46
Registration distribution trend for threeyear period showing normal average trend
compared with current year by sex and
grade.............................
46
Geographical source of enrollment of stu­
dents at Compton Junior College.......
50
Legal residence for upper-division students
56
Withdrawal trend for three-year period show­
ing normal average by sex and grade • • •
58
Withdrawals for current y e a r ...........
58
Average enrollment, withdrawal, and survival
61
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Occupations of parents of students . • *
.•
Educational status of parents.............
63
65
Comparison of normal withdrawal trend with
current year
.........
• • •
69
Reasons for withdrawal . . . . ...........
71
Geographical distribution of withdrawals • •
74
Withdrawals and survivals
...............
74
Per cent of increase or decrease insurvival
77
Comparison of enrollment trend with state
employment trend
.............
Survival of junior high school graduates
..
80
83
Questionnaire sent to February and June
graduates for year 1939-1940 ...........
83
Employment status of graduates • • .......
85
Woman graduates
85
.
Men graduates............
89
Type of position obtained by graduates and
how obtained . . . . .
................
Answers to questions asked the graduates
90
••
93
Did you secure employment in the field in
which you specialized while atCompton?
93
■Do you plan to remain in your present line
of work?...........................
95
Has your Compton training been helpful to
you in your present job?.............
96
PAGE
CHAPTER
Was your Compton training adequate for
your present work?..............
.
97
If you were enrolling at Compton Junior
College again, would you take the same
course of study? ..................
Summary
V.
.............................
CRITERIA FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE BUSINESS EDUCATION
Definitions...................... .
VI.
99
101
111
113
AN EVALUATION OF THE PRESENT PROGRAM OF BUSI­
NESS EDUCATION AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE . . 114
Purpose of this chapter
Method of procedure
...............
..................
Enrollment . . . . . . . .
...............
114
117
119
Trend of enrollment of Business Education
Department compared with entire school • 119
Number of students enrolled in commercial
subjects for 1940-1941 ...............
121
Number of students enrolled in Business
Education Department second semester,
1940-1941
. . . ....................
121
Number and distribution of students who
answered the questionnaire on June 14»
1941.................... ..........
124
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
Age-grade distribution of students enrolled
in Business Education Department classes.
127
Geographical source of students enrolled in
business classes...................
129
Withdrawals of students in business classes
132
Occupations of parents of students regis­
tered in business classes.........
. . 135
Educational status of parents of students
enrolled in business classes
......
139
Enrollment and withdrawals of all students
in the Business Education Department dur­
ing the year 1940-1941 including both
semesters
. . .........
139
Years in attendance at Compton Junior
College
• ................
141
Students working part t i m e ......... . ♦
146
Business subjects completed at Compton
Junior College ......................
149
Business subjects completed at other
s c h o o l s ...........................
Business subjects desired by students
. .
152
152
Subjects majored in by students in Business
Education Department
...............
Do you have a typewriter at home?
....
161
164
vii
PAGE
CHAPTER
Do you plan to go to business college after
finishing at Compton Junior College? . . . .
164
Are you thinking of leaving Compton Junior Col­
lege to take a special commercial course in a
business college?
» • • • • • • • • • • . •
165
If you could obtain employment now would you
give up your school education? » • • • » » •
165
Bo you intend to get a job on finishing at
Compton Junior College?. . ...............
^
165
If you intend to get a job on finishing at
Compton Junior College what kind of work will
you try to obtain? • • • • • • .........
168
Are you planning to attend the thirteenth and
fourteenth grades?
............
What are your plans after graduation?
170
....
170
Are you planning to attend a college or uni­
versity upon leaving this institution?
so, where?
If
.....
173
Bo you belong to one or more school clubs? . . 175
Do you attend them regularly • • • • • . . • •
175
Would you belong to a Commerce Club if one were
organized? . . . . .
Teachers’ questionnaire
............... . . .
177
............... ..
177
Do you believe the present offerings in the
Business Education Department meet pupil
n e e d ? .........................
178
viii
PAGE
CHAPTER
Do you believe that better outcomes could
be obtained by separating lower- and
upper-division students in commercial
classes?
.....................
178
If the above answer is f,yesn state which
classes you feel should be segregated. . . 179
Check the following class size you believe
would be most conducive to efficient
teaching and the length of period. . . ♦ . 179
If it were feasible to organize some addi­
tional classes in the Commerce Department,
eheck the following list in the order in
which you feel they should be added to at­
tain the best results in fulfilling pupil
needs..............
180
Are the outcomes of the Commerce Department
as a whole meeting business requirements?
180
Should there be closer cooperation with
business?.............................181
Is there overlapping of courses in the
Commerce Department?....................181
If above answer is "yes” state where the
overlapping occurs ....................
181
Is the equipment of the Commerce Department
adequate to meet the needs of the community 181
ix
CHAPTER
PAGE
Reoommendation for additional equipment or
room changes........... ............
182
Do you believe meetings of the department
are held as frequentlyas they should be?
182
How frequently should departmental meetings
be held? . . .
......................
182
Do you believe problems which concern the
department as a whole should be presented
to the administration?
.•
...........
182
Are you of the opinion that the function of
the junior college is largely terminal,
filling the need of a vocational field for
students on the level between high school
and university?....................
183
Since high schools teach shorthand, type­
writing, bookkeeping, and salesmanship, is
it necessary for junior college to do the
s a m e ? .........
184
Do you think that courses should be offered
beyond the high school level such as in­
surance salesmanship, civil service ex­
aminations, junior accounting, window dis­
play, store display, retail merchandising,
personal finance, store management and
merchandising, et cetera?
.........
184
X
CHAPTER
PAGE
Do you feel that the community needs and
intent of students served by Compton
Junior College is largely vocational and
184
terminal?
Do you feel that Compton Junior College
should devise a means of adjusting our cur­
riculum to the needs and standards required
of business?
185
Should we set up reliable standardized per­
formance tests of vocational ability to be
used as a measure of achievement?
• . . . 185
If answer to the above is ^yes" should we
organize a procedure for continuing the de­
velopment and progressof suchtests?
* .
185
Do you believe a separate record of business
education students would be of value or
should be installed to act as a perpetual
record in placement, follow-up, and aid in
measuring outcomes and adequacy? ........
186
Do you feel that Compton Junior College as a
whole leans toward academic training rather
than terminal education?
......... 186
Do you feel that the progress of the Commerce
Department is’being retarded.for this rea­
son? ................................... 186
xi
CHAPTER
PACE
Do you feel that the Commerce Department
should be revised and adjusted in order
to obtain more practical outcomes? . . . . 187
Courses offered in the department.........
191
Class enrollment for spring semester 1940-1941
193
lumber of teachers . . . . . . .
193
...........
Teacher l o a d ..................
195
Educational background of teachers in the de­
partment ................................. 195
Business background or experience of teachers
in the department.................. . . . 1 9 8
VII.
Equipment of the Business Education Department
198
S u m m a r y ....................
199
SUGGESTIONS AND ESC0M3ENDATIONS................. 212
Summary
• • • • .......................
216
Does the philosophy and specific purposes of
the junior college meet the needs of its
own community and the larger communities
of which it is a part? • • • • • • • • • •
216
Is the curriculum and course of study in the
Business Education Department of Compton
Junior College meeting the needs of the
youth in the area in which the junior col­
lege is located and in which it serves? .
217
xii
PAGE
CHAPTER
Is tiie Business Education Department doing
its part in the guidance of young people
to various types of problems which they
must meet— educational, vocational, health,
moral, social, civic, and personal?
.. . .
218
Is the Business Education Department effi­
ciently preparing pupils for vocational
service?. . .
................
219
Are the teachers in the Business Education
Department fully prepared to meet the de­
mands of the student in their teaching
field and teaching procedure?.......... 219
Are the textbooks and other instructional ma­
terials adequate to provide all necessary
equipment for learning? ................
219
Academic preparatory c o u r s e s .............. 220
Suggestions and recommendations........ . . ♦
221
Clerical curriculum— lower division courses . .
224
Stenographic curriculum— lower division courses
224
Merchandising curriculum--lower division courses 224
Accounting curriculum— upper division courses . 226
Merchandising curriculum— upper division courses 227
Intensive secretarial curriculum— upper division
courses................................
228
xiii
CHAPTER
PAGE
General secretarial curriculum--upper division
courses . . •
................ . . . . . .
228
BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................
APPENDIX......... . . . . . . . . . ................... 238
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Number of Students Registered at Compton Junior
College for Last Four Years by Year, Grade,
and Sex
............................. • .
37
II, Registration Distribution of Students of Compton
Junior College by Years and Grades
......
40
III* Registration Distribution Trend for Three-Year
Period Showing Normal Average by Sex and Grade.
42
IV. Table Showing Number of Students Registered at
Compton Junior College from September, 1940, to
the End of the First School Month of the Second
Semester j March, 1 94 1..............
44
V. Age-Grade Distribution of Students at Compton
Junior College as of March 21, 1 9 4 1 .........
47
VI. Registration Distribution Trend for Three-Year
Period Showing Normal Average Trend Compared
with Current Year by Sex and Grade
......
49
VII. Geographical Source of Enrollment of Students at
Compton Junior College as of March 21, 1941
VIII.
Geographical Source of Enrollment of Students at
Compton Junior College by Home Residence in
Secondary District Only
IK.
................
53
Geographical Source of Enrollment of Students at
Compton Junior College by Home Residence Out of
Secondary District
..............
55
XV
TABLE
X#
PAGE
Gompton Junior College Upper-Division Students*
Legal Residence for 1939-1940 and 1940-1941 • •
XI#
57
Withdrawal Trend for Three-Year Period from 19371938 to 1939-1940 Showing Normal Average by Sex
and Grade • . .............................
59
XII#. Table Showing Withdrawals of all Students by Grade
and Sex from Compton Junior College from Septem­
ber, 1940, to the End of the First School Month
of the Second Semester, March, 1941 • # . . # •
XIII.
60
Table Showing Average Enrollment, Withdrawal, and
Survival by Numbers and Percentages of Students
Registered at Gompton Junior College for the
Three-Year Period from 1937-193# to 1939-1940 •
XIV.
62
Occupations of Parents of Students Registered at
Compton Junior College for the Year 1940-1941
from a Questionnaire Given in Mareh, 1941 . . .
XV.
64
Occupations of Parents of Students Registered at
Compton Junior College for the Year 1940-1941
from a Questionnaire Given in Mareh, 1941,
Grouped by Percentages.............
XVT.
.. « .
66
Occupations of Parents of Students Registered at
Compton Junior College for the Year 1940-1941
from a Questionnaire Given in March, 1941, Com­
bination of Classifications in Table XIV
...
67
xvi
TABIE
xvii.
page
Table Showing Educational Status of Parents of
Students Enrolled at Compton Junior College
During 1940-1941 ..........................
xvm.
Comparison of Normal Withdrawal Trend with With­
drawal Trend for 1940-1941 by Sex and Grade
XIX.
68
.
70
Table Showing Reasons for Withdrawal of All Stu­
dents Who Withdrew from Compton Junior College
During 1940-1941 .........................
xx.
72
Table Showing Withdrawals of All Students by
Grade and Sex from Compton Junior College from
September, 1940, to the End of the Eirst School
Month of the Second Semester, 1 941 .........
XXI.
75
Table Showing Survival of Students by Grade and
Sex from Compton Junior College from September,
1940, to the End of the Eirst School Month of
the Second Semester, Mareh, 1941 ............ i 78
XXII.
Comparison of Normal Survival Trend with 19401941 by Sex and Grade
XXIII.
..................
79
Stability of Compton Junior College Shown by a
Comparison of Enrollment Trend with State Em­
ployment Trend....................
XXIV.
81
Survival of Junior High School Graduates Through
the Compton Junior College................
84
xvii
TABLE
X2DT.
PAGE
Questionnaire Sent to February and June Gradu­
ates for the Year 1939-1940, Upper Division
Only....................................... 86
XX?I.
Employment Status of Graduates Leaving School as
Determined from a Questionnaire............. 87
XXVII.
Analysis of Questionnaire Sent to Terminal Gradu­
ates from the Upper Division at Compton Junior
College for February and June, 1940
XXVIII.
88
Type of Position Obtained by Graduates and How
Obtained . . .
XXIX.
.....
. . . . . . . . . . .
91
Compilation of General Answers to Questions
Asked of the 1939-1940 Graduates of Compton
Junior College....................
XXX.
94
Table Showing Total Number of Students Enrolled
in at Least One Commercial Subject Compared to
Total Enrollment from September, 1940, to the
End of the First School Month of the Second
Semester.................................. 122
XXXI.
Table Showing Enrollment of Students in Business
Education Department Second Semester, 19401941 .........
XXXII.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125
Table Showing Number and Distribution of Stu­
dents Who Answered Questionnaire on June 14,
1 9 4 1 ...................................... 126
xviii
TABLE
XXXIII.
PAGE
Age-Grade Distribution of Students Enrolled in
Business Classes During the Spring Semester,
1 94 1
XXXIV.
128
Geographical Source of Enrollment of Students
in Business Education Classes During the
Spring Semester, 1941
...........
130
XXXV.' Geographical Source of Enrollment of Students in
Business Education Classes During the Spring
Semester, 1941 in Secondary District Only
XXXVI.
.
131
Geographical Source of Enrollment of Students in
Business Education Classes During the Spring
Semester, 1941 Out of Secondary District • •
XXXVII.
133
Table Showing Withdrawals of All Students by
Grade and Sex from Compton Junior College
Business Education Classes During the Second
Semester of the Year 1940-1941 . . . . . . .
XXXVIII.
134
Occupations of Parents of Students Registered
in Business Education Classes at Compton
Junior College During the Second Semester of
the Year 1940-1941 ....................
XXXIX.
.
136
Occupations of Parents of Students Registered
at Compton Junior College in Business Educa­
tion During the Second Semester of the Year
1940-1941 Grouped by Percentages
.......
137
xix
TABLE
XL.
PAGE
Occupations of Parents of Students Registered at
Gompton Junior College in Business Education
During the Second Semester of the Year 19401941, Combination of Classifications in Table
XXXVIII........... .......................
XLI.
13$
Table Showing Educational Status of Parents of
Students Enrolled in Business Education Classes
at Compton Junior College During the Second
Semester, 1940-1941
XLII*
140
Table Showing Enrollment and Withdrawals of All
Students by Grade and Sex Who Were Enrolled in
at Least One Subject in the Business Education
Department at Compton Junior College During the
Year, 1940-1941
XLIII.
* ........
142
Table Showing Humber of Years in Attendance at
Compton Junior College, Including the Year 19401941, for Students Enrolled in Business Classes,
Spring of 1941 •
XLIV.
........................
143
Table Showing Humber of Years in Attendance at
Compton Junior College, Including the Year 19401941, for Students Enrolled in Business Classes,
Spring of 1 9 41............................
XLV.
145
Table Showing Wumber of Students Working Part
Time Who Were Enrolled in the Business Educa­
tion Department of Compton Junior College During
Spring Semester, 1941 •
...........
147
xx
TABIE
XLVI.
PAGE
Table Showing Type of Work Students Were Engaged
in Who Were Working Part T i m e ................ 14&
XLVII.
Table Showing List of Business Subjects Completed
at Compton Junior College by Students Enrolled
in the Business Education Department for the
Spring Semester, 1941 • . .
XLVTII.
................. 150
Table Showing Percentage of Subjects Completed at
Compton Junior College by Students Enrolled in
the Business Education Department for the Spring
Semester, 1941*............
XLIX.
. 151
Table Showing List of Business Subjects Completed
at Other Schools by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department of Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1 941 ......... 153
L.
Table Showing Percentage of Business Subjects
Completed at Other Schools by Students Enrolled
in the Business Education Department of Compton
Junior College for the Spring Semester, 1941
LI.
• 154
Table Showing List of Subjects Desired by Students
Enrolled in the Business Education Department of
Compton Junior College for the Spring Semester,
1 9 4 1 .........................
LII.
Table Showing Percentage of Subjects Desired by
Students Enrolled in the Business Education
155
TABLE
PAGE
Department of Compton Junior College for the
Spring Semester,‘1941 Based on Humber of Stu­
dents Who Answered the Questionnaire . • • • •
156
LI1I • Table Showing Percentage of Subjects Desired by
Men Students Enrolled in the Business Education
Department of Compton Junior College for the
Spring Semester, 1941, Listed in Order of De­
sires..................................
LIY.
158
Table Showing Percentage of Subjects Desired by
Women Students Enrolled in the Business Educa­
tion Department of Compton Junior College for
the Spring Semester, 1941, Listed in Order of
D e s i r e s ..............................
LV.
159
Table Showing Average Percentage of Subjects De­
sired by Men and Women Students Enrolled in the
Business EducationDepartment
of Compton Junior
College for the SpringSemester, 1941
LYI.
•• • •
Table Showing List of Subjects Checked by Stu­
dents Enrolled in the Business Education Depart­
ment of Compton Junior College for the Spring
Semester, 1 9 4 1 ........................
LVII.
162
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1941; to the
160
xxii
TABLE
PAGE
Questions, "Are Tou a Commerce Major?", If Hot,
"What Is Your Major?" . . . .
LVIII.
............... 163
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1941* to the
Questions Listed B e l o w .........
LEE.
166
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1941, to the
Question, "Do You Intend to Get a Job on Finish­
ing at Compton Junior College?" .............
167
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1941, to the
Question, "If You Intend to Get a Job on Fin­
ishing at Compton Junior College What Kind of
Work Will You Try to Obtain?" . . . ........... 169
LXI.
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1941, to the
Question, "Are You Planning to Attend the Thir­
teenth and Fourteenth Grades?"
mi.
.............
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
171
xxiii
TABLE
PAGE
College for the Spring Semester, 1941> to the
Question, "What Are Your Plans After Gradua­
tion?”
LXIII.
. . . . ......... . . . ............... 172
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
College for the Spring Semester, 1941, to the
Question, "Are You Planning to Attend a College
or University Upon Leaving This Institution?
If So, W h e r e ? " ......................
LXIY.
174
Table Showing Answers by Students Enrolled in the
Business Education Department at Compton Junior
for the Spring Semester, 1941 to the Questions
Listed B e l o w .........
IXV.
176
Table Showing Enrollment, of Classes for the Spring
Semester in the Business Education for the Year
1940-1941 .........
L3CVI.
194
Table Showing Teacher Load for Spring Semester,
1940-1941, in the Business Education Department
at Compton Junior College.....................196
This study was made possible through the coopera­
tion of the administrators of Compton Junior College and
the members of the faculty of the Business Education
Department.
Appreciation is expressed for the coopera­
tion and helpfulness of Dr. E. G. Blackstone of The
University of Southern California, under whose guidance
this study was conducted; to Dr. 0. Scott Thompson,
Superintendent of Compton Junior College; to Mr. Paul
Martin, Director of Compton Junior College; to Mr. A. P.
Mattier, Business Manager and to Mr. David Slothower,
Head of the Commerce Department.
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Evaluation of the educational program of an institution
in terms of its objectives should be a continuing process*
It
should provide a basis for the constant revision of the cur­
riculum.
This is especially true in the business education
program beeause the training of youth for business employment
has become one of the major objectives of the California pub­
lic junior colleges.
According to the California State
Department of Education, 25 per cent of the students enrolled
in the California public junior colleges are training for
business occupations.
The junior college is essentially a community institu­
tion and if the public junior college is to survive it must
be on the basis of its service to the entire community it
serves. Communities are so different, and the interests of
individuals within the community so varied, that, if the
Business Education Department is to be of the greatest ser­
vice to the community, a serious study of the problems con­
cerning the curricular offerings should be made.
It is, therefore, with the following principles in
mind that this study was made: (1) The junior college business
e'&ucation program should meet fully the needs of the community
it serves.
(2) The junior college marks the completion of
formal education for a large and increasing proportion of
young people, and the Business Education Department should
offer curricula designed to develop economic, social, civic
and personal* competence.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this
study to attempt to evaluate the program of business educa­
tion at Compton Junior College and to develop criteria which
may be used in determining the curricular offerings in the
field of business education at that institution with relation
to the economic needs of the community it serves.
It is the
hope of the writer that such a study will form the basis for
the improvement of the curriculum in business education and
the possible revision as may be implied by its findings.
Purpose of the study. There is a definite need for a
minute analysis and careful evaluation of the present junior
college program in business education.
The increased taxation
burden that may be imposed on the citizens of the United
States in the next ten years will make it imperative that edu­
cators be able to justify the amount of money being spent on
education.
It is doubtful whether the junior college has,
as yet, been recognized as an indispensable part of the edu­
cational system.
Each department should stand ready to de­
fend itself when asked by the taxpayers the reasons why it
should survive.
It is well, then, from time to time, to an­
alyze the work done and to apply the various studies made in
the field of business education, to the specific curriculum
revision of a particular school, keeping in mind the economic
and community heeds.
Only a periodical analysis can determine
whether the research done along this line has a constructional
value in revising and reconstructing the business education
program of the junior college.
Certain factors must be taken into consideration in
the evaluation of a program of business studies on the junior
college level:
1. The type and wants of the student to be trained.
2. The number of students not going on for further work,
either the non-graduating group or those going into
industry after completion of the junior college work.
3. The number of students going on for advanced work.
4 . The possibilities and limitations of effecting co­
ordination with the senior high school business pro­
gram.
3. Instructional costs.
6 . The long-run job possibilities within and outside of
the community.
7. Social and community needs and relationships.
8 . The possibilities and limitations of cooperative
arrangements with industry.
9. The availability of instructional personnel.
10. The availability of instructional materials and
equipment.
11. The size and type of junior college.
12. The location of the junior college.^*
The following evaluation was made with an aim toward
an analysis of Compton Junior College and the practical ap­
plication and effect of the findings on the revision of cur­
ricular practices in the Business Education Department of
this particular school.
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Course of study. The course of study is the unified
form of the various units and subject courses, required and
elective, that the student will use as his guide for the at­
tainment of specified educational objectives.
In the case of
a semiprofessional course, the objective is that of a liberal
education within an occupational field.
A course of study is
adapted to the needs, interests, and abilities of the stu­
dents.
It is coordinated with the economic requirements and
opportunities of the community served by the junior college.
Semiprofessional. Semiprofessional is a word origi­
nated to describe the types of occupational fields that have
standards for vocational competence above the high school
level and yet different from those developed by university
^ H. G. Shields, Junior College Business Education
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1936), p. 60.
5
and professional training.
Semiprofe*ssional course. A semiprofessional course of
study is one designed to develop skills, knowledge, attributes,
appreciations, and personalities in youth that will enable him
to get, hold, and grow in employment in an occupational field
between the high school level and the four-year college level.
III.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In analyzing literature related to the field of busi­
ness education, many studies were found which had some bearing
on the present one.
However, few studies have been made
wherein the specific curriculum revision of a particular
school has been in the mind of the investigator.
Several studies in the nature of a critical evaluation
of what was being offered in business education have been made,
p
such surveys of offerings in several states by Blackstone,
Weersing,^
Counts,^ and others.
These studies show that the
2
E.G. Blackstone, Continuing Survey of Commercial
Education in Iowa Public Schools (University of Iowa Monographs
in Education, College of Education Series, Ho. 19. Iowa City,
Iowa: University of Iowa, 1926).
^ F. I. Weersing, The Administration of Commercial
Education in the Public High Schools of Minnesota (University
of Iowa Monographs in Education: Research Studies in Commercial
Education, No. 9, 1st series. Iowa City, Iowa: University of
Iowa, 1928)•
4
G.
S. Counts, The Senior High School Curriculum
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1926)♦
public secondary business program was dominantly an offering
of technique subjects and indicates that shorthand, typewrit­
ing, and bookkeeping comprise the major elements in the highschool curriculum*
There is no precise answer concerning what the enrich­
ment of the commercial curriculum entails because the field
of business education has not been rigorously defined and de­
limited.
There is some recognition on the part of secondary
business teachers that it is, on the one hand, vocational and,
on the other, concerned with what has been described as the
functional relationships of business, such as the understand­
ing of the relationships of business activity to social de­
mands.
Tonne
has stated that there are two types of business
education which are desirable: (1 ) training in those phases
of business which concern every member of organized society;
and, (2 ) specialized or vocational business education for
those who wish to prepare for wage earning in those business
occupations for which training can be given in schools.
An excellent statement of this twofold nature of busi­
ness education is the composite definition formulated at the
1931 annual convention of the National Association of
Commercial Teacher-Training Institutions.
5
H.
A. Tonne, Social Business Education (New York:
New York University Press, 19?2), Chap. I, p. II.
Business education is that phase of the educational
process which is concerned with (1 ) training all in­
dividuals in the use of the tools of learning, in ac­
quiring methods or powers of adjustment as consumers
of economic goods and service, with particular em­
phasis upon the use of money as such a tool; and (2 )
training all individuals in the business aspects of
their vocations as producers of economic goods and
services, with particular reference to such individuals
as elect a business vocation.6
L. V. Koos has made a comprehensive investigation of
7
the junior college movement.
He gathered data from a wide
variety of sources and from them was able to evaluate the
movement and point out lines of probable future development.
He stated that the junior college is the logical place for
training in the semiprofessions and recommended that an ef­
fort be made to avoid duplication of courses being given in
the first two years of the university.
Other literature reviewed along this line was Bells*
S
book, The Junior College and Proctor*s, The Junior College
Movement.9 These studies were made not in terms of particu­
lar types of subject matter, but rather in terms of possible
educational purposes which the junior college may serve.
^ Ibid., p. 12.
7
L. V. Koos, The Junior College (2 vols.; Minneapolis
University of Minnesota Press, 1924).
g
Walter Crosby Bells, The Junior College (Bostons
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931), 833 pp.
9
W. M. Proctor, The Junior College, Its Organization
and Administration (Stanford University, California: Stanford
University Press, 1927), 226 pp.
Investigations of certain courses in the business cur­
ricula of California junior colleges have been made from time
to time but no evaluation of business curricula in the light
of the curricular practices of other junior colleges has been
made of any particular junior college.
A number of studies
on the high school level are valuable and these have great
significance for the junior college instructor and adminis­
trator.
Three favorite methods of procedure are found in the
literature on the subject: (1 ) an analysis of certain occupa­
tions; (2 ) a study of the local community to determine what
courses of study may be offered to train students for occupa­
tions represented in the community; and (3 ) a follow-up of
graduates of the schools to ascertain how valuable specific
subjects or courses have been and what adjustments are neces­
sary to improve their efficiency.
Joseph E. Williams
10
made a study of the success of
the semiprofessional curricula at Los Angeles City College.
The semiprofessional curricula consisted of nineteen separate
courses which were designed after conferring with the local
business and professional men, to meet the vocational needs
of the community.
Questionnaires were sent out to 6^0 gradu­
ates of the semiprofessional curricula, of which 138 were
Joseph E. Williams, "Success of the Semi-Professional
Curricula," The Junior College Journal. 6:77-79, November,
1935.
returned unclaimed*
Of the remaining 502 questionnaires
sent out, 285 replied, which represented a 56 per cent re­
turn.
The results showed that 65 per cent of those answering
were employed.
Sixty-two per cent were following work for
which they trained in school.
trade work.
Only 14 per cent were following
He stated that the junior college curriculum
should he flexible and ever-sensitive to the changing needs
of the community it serves.
Students made critical evalua­
tion of the courses offered and a wide variety of suggestions
was made as to additional courses to be offered to insure
better training.
As a result of this study several changes
in offerings were made and a number of courses was added.
Rivers
11
made an evaluation of the commercial course
of the Fullerton Union High School and Junior College in terms
of the subsequent experience of the graduates.
In this study,
Lillian Rivers found that 58 per cent of the college prepara­
tory students had taken some work in commerce.
She also found
that over 25 per cent of the students who had chosen commer­
cial subjects gave their reason as acquiring general informa­
tion.
Her findings point to the importance of commercial
subjects for those who do not expect to enter directly into
^ Lillian Rivers, 11An Evaluation of the Commercial
Course of the Fullerton Union High School and Junior College
in Terms of Subsequent Experiences of Graduates,** (unpublished
Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1928), 104 pp.
10
mercantile pursuits.
Joseph Bindone
12
made a study of the status of business
education in the public junior colleges of California in re­
spect to the aims and functions, the enrollment, the business
curricular offerings and the need of certain business subjects.
He found that there were eighteen aims and functions of the
junior colleges and his conclusions were that there was too
much overlapping and duplication.
There is a need for agree­
ment as to the particular subjects that should be required of
of all junior college students, as to the amount of credit to
be allowed, and as to the titles of courses, in order to
eliminate the unnecessary duplication that exists at the pres­
ent time.
F* C. Fullenwider13 made a study of the junior college
curriculum in commerce.
His conclusions were that as then
organized the curriculum was being determined first by the
budget and second by the requirements for bachelor’s degrees,
and that a curriculum should be worked out in each community
which would be fitted to its particular needs.
12
Joseph Bindone, Jr., "Business Education in the
Public Junior Colleges of California," {unpublished Master’s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1937), 113 pp.
13 F.
C. Fullenwider, ’’The Aims and Curricular Organi
zation of Commercial Education on the Junior College Level,"
(unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1932), 18? pp.
11
Weitzel14 made a study of the curriculum classifica­
tion of junior college students.
His recommendations were
that: (1 ) terminal and preparatory students should not be
segregated; (2 ) a greater development of terminal courses is.
needed; (3 ) survey courses need to be developed; and (4 ) the
emphasis should be more on general and less on specialized
education.
Anderson15 Blade a survey in 1926 based upon the busi­
ness opportunities in Pasadena where merchandising is the
chief commercial activity.
He found more people engaged in
selling than in any other single line of work.
He recommended
for the junior college, courses in business English, business
mathematics, accounting, economics, salesmanship, finance,
business psychology, business law, retail selling, retail
advertising, merchandising, business organization, real es­
tate, typing and stenography.
16
Slothower
made a study in 1933 of community needs as
a basis for the improvement of the Commerce Department in
—
Henry Irving Weitzel, "The Curriculum Classification
of Junior College Students," (unpublished Doctor’s disserta­
tion, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1933U 526 pp.
15
John A. Anderson, "Fitting the Vocational Course in
Commerce to the Needs of a Particular Community,” (unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1926), 75 pp.
16
David Wendell Slothower, "Community Needs as a
Basis for the Improvement of the Commerce Department in
Compton Junior College,” (unpublished Master's thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1926), 74 pp.
Compton Junior College.
Cities included in the survey were
Los Angeles, Long Beach, Compton, Lynwood, Clearwater, and
Hynes.
vey.
The Fifteenth Census was used as a basis for the sur­
He found that business establishments in this district
consisted of small retail stores and that only 6 per cent of
the employers obtained their employees through the Junior
College at Compton.
Placement activities must be extended
over a larger area than this.
He recommended that a follow-
up study be made of graduates in order to determine the neces­
sary changes needed to be made to meet the needs of the stu­
dents.
This study showed clearly the advantages of a survey
of this type in the improving of the curriculum.
17
A survey was made in Santa Barbara by Watkins
in an
attempt to evaluate business education curricula in the
Santa Barbara High School.
The survey was supplemented by a
study of business curricular practices of fifty-six California
high schools with an enrollment of over one thousand pupils.
This study showed that there was a need for the reorganization
of the business education program in schools and the adoption
of uniform practices in all schools in order to improve the
functioning of business education.
17 Ina-Bee Watkins, "Evaluating Business Education
Curricula in Terms of a Survey and the Curricular Practices
of Fity-six California High Schools,” (unpublished Master’s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1934), 182 pp.
13
18
Wall
made an analysis of courses of study in busi­
ness education as a basis for revising business curricula in
junior colleges of Utah in 1936.
He found that: (1) There is
a definite trend to up-grade vocational business subjects and
put them on the junior college level.
(2) Businessmen demand
young people of more mature age and more thorough business
foundation than the public high schools have been able to
supply.
(3) More emphasis was being placed upon the economic
social-civic principles than upon skill training.
(4) Recent
occupational statistics of the United States shows that the
majority of people who go into the business world undertake
some form of selling activity.
(3) The second largest group
of business workers and the largest group of office workers
are those who undertake unspecialized clerical work.
(6 ) The
third largest group of business workers are those who hold
managerial positions which requires a certain amount of sell­
ing ability.
(7) The fourth largest group of business workers
are those who hold bookkeeping, accounting, and clerical posi­
tions.
(8 ) The fifth and smallest group of business workers
is composed of stenographers and typists.
(9) Schools are
j
placing emphasis on training people who enter into smallest
18
Charles August Wall, "An Analysis of Courses of
Study in Business Bducation as a Basis for Revising Curricula
in Junior Colleges of Utah," (unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936),
142 pp.
14
occupational groups such as bookkeeping, accountacy, stenog­
raphy, and typing, and are neglecting training for the largest
occupational groups such as selling and clerical workers.
(10) Guidance into proper business activities should be one
of the most important functions of the junior college.
. , 20 present two as­
The theses of Rockwell19' and Laidlaw
pects of the junior college business education field, the
former being a study of business education in Arizona and the
latter an investigation surveying the organization of business
education in California junior colleges and those of other
states.
These were especially helpful in that they presented
a study of what was being done in this and other states in
the field of business education.
Holdridge
21
made an investigation to determine the
status of business education in public junior colleges of
California in connection with a state-wide survey of business
education, as undertaken by the California State Department
19
Irene Schut Rockwell, "The Present Status of Business
Education in the Public Secondary Schools of Arizona,” (unpub­
lished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1934), 115 pp.
20
Lois Wells Laidlaw, "Organization of Business
Education in Junior Colleges,” (unpublished Master*s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934),
185 pp.
21
Thelma Engstrom Holdridge, "Business Education in
the Public Junior Colleges of California," (unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1938), 214 pp.
15
of Education in all secondary and continuation schools.
The
findings in general were that definite standards for all
business subjects should be set up by the state bureau and
that periodical occupational studies of local job possibilities
should be made and used as a basis for student guidance in
business courses and in all placement work.
Several other theses and dissertations were helpful in
providing a basis for the evaluation of the business education
program at Compton Junior College.
Cutler’s investigation 22
of the position of business education in California junior
colleges was similar to the one mentioned previously by
Holdridge.
Cutler, however, included private schools in his
survey and made a detailed survey of course offerings in pub­
lic and private junior colleges.
Summary. The investigations that have been summarized
proved to be a valuable source of material on business educa­
tion.
There seems to be a great deal of overlapping and dup­
lication of courses between the junior colleges, the high
schools, and the senior colleges.
There is a need for the
adoption of uniform practices in regard to the particular sub­
jects that should be required of all junior college students,
22
Frederick Arthur Cutler, "The Status of Business
Education in the Junior Colleges of California,” (unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1935), 93 pp.
the amount of credit to be allowed, and the titles of courses,
in order to eliminate the unnecessary duplication that exists
at the present time.
The curricula have not been organized
to meet the needs of the particular communities which they
serve.
This may be corrected by an evaluation of the business
education program and the adoption of flexible curricula
adaptable to a particular school with relation to the commun­
ity and acceptable to standard practices and requirements.
The aims and functions of the junior colleges of California
should be revised and redefined so as to be more consistent.
From the number of studies made recently in the field
of business education on the junior college level, it is ap­
parent that educators are acutely aware of the need for evalu­
ation in this field and that it is only through research and
application of the findings that progress can be made in the
improving of the curriculum in the field of business education
Sources of data and method of procedure. A study of
available literature in the general field of junior college
education and in the specific field of business education on
the junior college level was made to serve as a background
for this investigation.
Special attention was given to all
recent investigations of these schools in California.
A library study was made in order to determine the aims
and functions of the junior colleges as given by well-known
authorities.
17
The latest current catalogs of the public junior col­
leges "of California were checked to secure a list of the
courses offered in the business education departments and to
determine the aims and functions as stated by the junior col­
leges of the state.
For the study of definite needs in a particular area,
the southern part of Los Angeles County, California, was se­
lected as the junior college area for this study.
As the
business demands and needs in education are primarily the
same in this area and as Compton Junior College draws from a
large part of Los Angeles County, the study should necessarily
cover a larger area than just the district in which the school
is located.
The treatment of the materials in the following chap­
ters will be in terms of data obtained from the following
sourees:
1. Curricular offerings in public junior colleges of
California.
2. Library research in the field of business education
in the junior colleges of California.
3. Library study to determine the aims and functions
of the junior college as stated by well-known authorities.
4. Records obtained from Compton Junior College.
The evaluation of the business, education program of
Compton Junior College was attempted by the following method
of procedure:
18
1. By determining the underlying purposes and func­
tions of the junior college.
2. By a study of the expressed purposes and objectives
of Compton Junior College, the nature of the pupils with
whom it has to deal and the needs of the community which it
serves.
3* By determining, if possible, the extent to which
the school meets satisfactorily the needs of all pupils whd
enroll in the business education department.
4.
By a study of the direct objectives of the program
of business education.
5* By setting up a check-list of what Compton Junior
College should offer in its Business Education Department as
determined by this evaluation.
CHAPTER II
PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES OP JUNIOR COLLEGE EDUCATION
The junior college movement.
Joliet, Illinois, claims
the distinction of having established in 1902 the first public
junior college in the United States.
Pive years later
California passed legislation permitting the establishment of
junior colleges and by 1915 there were in this state ten such
institutions in operation.
About 1920 the movement for
junior colleges became active with the result that their num­
ber has doubled every five-year period to date.
There are in the United States today more than six
hundred public and private junior colleges.
in practically every state of the Union.
These are found
Of this number
approximately 250 are public junior colleges.
California now
leads all states with over fifty public institutions classify­
ing as junior colleges.
Explanation for the rapid development of the junior
college as an American educational institution is found in
certain theoretical and practical considerations.
The idea
of extending public education to include the junior college
years probably came from Europe.
Por almost fifty years there
have been prominent educators who have pointed out that the
first two years of the American college are essentially sec­
ondary in character and that they might to advantage be handled
20
by well-equipped high sehools.
Some leading universities
have recognized the essential differences between the first
two college years and the last two years by dividing the fouryear unit into two divisions known respectively as the junior
college and the senior college.
The junior college movement has been favored by the
success of the schools established.
Of all the public junior
colleges established in the United States relatively few have
been discontinued, even including the depression years.
The
preponderance of the successful ones evidences the soundness
of the junior college idea.
Six-four-four plan. In the natural development of the
junior college movement a growing emphasis has recently origi­
nated on what has come to be known as the "six-four-four plan."
The figures in this phrase refer to a public school system
providing six years of an elementary school, four years of an
intermediate school, and four years of a completion school
consisting of grades eleven to fourteen, inclusive.
The
history of the movement reveals that this type of organization
was proposed in California as early as 1907.
Although certain
educational theorists since that time consistently advocated
the idea, yet the administrative difficulties in effecting
such a change delayed any actual trial of the plan until a few
years ago.
The Compton community is now among a half dozen
21
districts in the United States committed to practical experi­
mentation with this new organization.
In a recent report by the Educational Policies Commis­
sion of the National Education Association,'*' the six-four-four
plan was recommended as the design for United States public
education today.
The natural break in a student's career is at the end
of the sophomore year in college.
At that point his general
v
education— his preparation for citizenship— should be com­
plete.
He should go on with formal education only if he is
qualified to study for one of the professions, to be a
i
scholar, or to follow some special intellectual interest.
Certainly the community owes him no further educational ob­
ligations unless he can meet one of these requirements.
Education for citizenship is a complicated business.
It should absorb the attention of the young up to their
twentieth year.
The advance of technology makes it unlikely
that under "normal” conditions young people will be able to
enter gainful employment much before that age.
The system of
free education for all--the program of preparation for citizen­
ship— should culminate in the junior college.
Under the six-
four-four plan the junior college becomes a four-year terminal
unit for general education.
*** Educational Policies Commission of the National
Education Association of the United States-, The Structure and
Administration of Education in American Democracy (Washington,
D.C.: National Education Association, 1938), p p . 13-14.
22
With this history of the junior college movement and
of the six-four-four plan in mind a study was made of the
philosophy of secondary education,
Every secondary school
should have a philosophy of education and should be able to
justify its philosophy on the basis of adequate understanding
of the nature of the pupil and pupil behavior, of society and
its aims and relationships, and of the function of the school
with respect to the pupil and society.
The school1^ philoso­
phy and purpose must be clearly understood before anyone can
judge the school fairly, evaluate its program and processes
justly, or aid it in better achieving its objectives.
It was believed wise to study the philosophy of a
number of secondary schools and to evaluate the philosophy of
Compton Junior College in the light of these other studies.
During the school year 1936-1937 the Cooperative Study
of Secondary School Standards made a survey of two hundred
secondary schools and, among other items, obtained from each
of the schools a statement of its philosophy.
The following
quotation summarizes the findings according to the reactions
to a group of twenty-two suggested statements:
A study of the reports by the schools as analyzed and
tabulated and of the supplementary and qualifying comments
made seems to justify the following summary of fundamental
principles of a philosophy of secondary education concern­
ing which there is a reasonable degree of agreement among
the administrators and staffs of the schools studied.
(a) Each pupil is an individual, differing from every
other pupil in many important factors, intellectual,
23
social, and personal; this individuality should be
recognized and provided for by the school.
(b) The pupil should be an active participant in the
learning process and program, not simply a passive
absorber of knowledge.
(c) The educational program should be neither fixed in
its nature nor narrow in its content; it should
provide for pupil interests and needs as determined
by the present and probable future;, and it should
recognize broad, general values rather than narrow,
specific values.
(d) The outcomes which should be chiefly emphasized are
those traits which characterize or determine the good
citizen, both as an individual, and as a member of
society. All pupils of normal ability or development
should complete the equivalent of a secondary-school
education, the opportunity and cost in public schools
being provided by a combination of local, state, and
Federal support under local or state control.2
From a study of the philosophies of thirty-seven public
junior colleges in California, it was found that the main
objectives of all of them reflected the fundamental principles
in the above stated philosophy and may be summed up in the
following philosophy of Compton Junior College.
Educational philosophy of Compton Junior College. The
fundamental tenets in the educational philosophy of Compton
Junior College as set forth by its administrators are as
follows:
2 M. L. Alts tetter, "The Philosophy of Education of
Two Hundred Secondary Schools,” from Supplementary Reprints,
No. 6 , Educational Administration and Supervision, 23:409-425,
September, 1937-
24
1.
This institution is "the people’s college” or "the
community college” since it is close to the great mass of
people with regard to its management, its location and its
support.
Therefore, its greatest function must be to perpetu­
ate the finest and highest ideals of free education in a
democratic society.
2.
Each and every pupil has a right to go as far in
education as his capacity, talents, and ambitions may carry
him without regard to his race, religion, or politics.
3.
There are possibilities in every adolescent which
should have our assistance, encouragement, and respect even
though we may not fully understand them at the time.
Youth
should not be classified and pigeon-holed too early in his
career and especially when such classification tends to limit
and restrict his opportunities and chances.
4.
Each pupil is an individual differing from any other
in many ways, and, therefore, his personal characteristics,
desires, and ambitions, as well as his limitations and short­
comings, should be carefully studied in order that we may serve
and direct him most fully and wisely.
5*
The curriculum of the junior college should prepare
students for higher institutions and for the learned profes­
sions, and yet, since so many do not go on to higher institu­
tions, more courses of a vocational type must be organized and
developed.
Too many young people leave this institution
without any definite vocational training directed towards
some particular job.
6#
The freshman and sophomore years of a university
belong in the secondary school system and, therefore, should be
closely articulated to the secondary schools.
This will per­
mit the university to occupy the place it was intended and
that is the real top of our educational system.
Therefore,
more careful and scientific segregation of those with uni­
versity capacity in the junior college should be made in order
to eliminate as much waste as possible in this regard.
7.
This type of college best serves the educational
needs of young people between the junior high school and the
university.
r
8 . The four-year junior college represents an age
spread more nearly homogeneous, physiologically, and psycho­
logically, than we have at the present time in our secondary
schools.
9.
It extends opportunities of a college education to
a greater number of the students because of its location, its
economy of operation, and its cost to the students themselves.
A greater proportion of students attend college because of
its close articulation to the high school in a four-year
junior college.
10.
Since the junior college is preparatory particu­
larly to life on the one hand, and higher institutions on the
other, the fundamentals and essentials of a practical educa­
tion as well as the fundamentals and essentials of the
preparatory subjects for higher education should be thoroughlyorganized and taught.
11.
And last, but not least, one of the outstanding
aims of a junior college education should be education for
the development of a courageous, personal character, and of a
high moral and personal integrity.
CHAPTER III
THE AIMS AM) FUNCTIONS OF THE JUNIOR COLLEGE
Functions of a. junior college. The functions of a
junior college are:
1 . To bring opportunities for higher education closer
to the homes of students*
2. To provide two-year college curricula complete in
themselves which, so far as possible, shall meet the needs and
objectives of the individual student without reference to
preparation for upper-division work in a senior college or
university.
3. To provide courses corresponding to lower-division
university courses which will enable students who wish to
continue their studies elsewhere to transfer without loss of
time or credit.
Aims and function of Compton Junior College. Compton
Junior College regards itself as the completion unit in a
fourteen-grade public school system organized according to
what has become generally known as the six-four-four plan.
As the terminal unit in the local school system, it has
the potential responsibility of completing general education
for all youth of the community who are able to profit from
its educational program.
clude four main elements.
This general education should in­
28
It should include courses and educational activities
which will contribute, first, to vocational and educational
competency; second, to develop social intelligence and other
accomplishments of common and collective concern; third, to
develop student individuality; fourth, to develop the stu­
dent’s general culture*
The fundamental fact that Compton Junior College is
conceived as an integral part of a public school system im­
plies that it must be an essentially democratic organization.
The acceptance of this implication means in turn that the
school in the development of every phase of its work— curricula,
methods of instruction, standards of achievement* graduation
requirements, administration--must take account, to the great­
est degree possible, of individual differences in ability, in­
terest and need.
Particularly does it imply an organization
which develops.as an organic part of the supporting school
community.
The fact that the local school system is developing
under the six-four-four plan of organization implies a certain
distinct emphasis on those factors which will tend to effect
an integrated secondary school organization of grades eleven
to fourteen, inclusive.
It is the objective of the school to
evolve into an institution which is neither "high school” nor
”lower college” but rather a new type of organization which
will become better and better fitted to meet the educational
needs of the young people of the surrounding community.
Compton Junior College serves three main groups of
students: (1 ) those working toward either junior or freshman
standing in the colleges and universities; (2 ) those prepar­
ing for specific occupations; and (3) those interested in
general education through the fourteenth grade.
The institu­
tion begins with the eleventh grade and extends through the
fourteenth, thus including the last two years of high school
and the first two years of college.
As the college has de­
veloped from its small beginning in 1927, it has become evi­
dent that the institution is something more than a junior
college; To more than half of its present enrollment of more
than three thousand, it will provide completion of formal
education.
To this group, the college offers many courses,
ranging from general education through several specialized
occupational fields.
To the group preparing for admission with junior stand
ing in higher institutions, the college provides the first
two years of standard university work leading to the junior
certificate, and the high school diploma is awarded to those
who have met the state requirements for high school gradua­
tion at the end of the twelfth grade.
The threefold function of Compton Junior College is to
1.
Prepare young men and women for intelligent and
constructive citizenship.
30
2. Provide them with a background for a rich cultural
life.
3* To fit them for their life work.
Because the junior college is an integral part of the
public school system, and particularly because it marks the
completion of the period of general education, It is well
adapted to the fulfillment of these purposes.
It was the purpose of this study to determine, if pos­
sible, the extent to which Compton Junior College was ful­
filling these three functions through the Business Education
Department.
In order to accomplish this purpose it was deemed
necessary to study certain aspects of the school as a whole.
The findings of this study are related in the following
chapter.
CHAPTER IY
PUPIL POPULATION AND SCHOOL COMMUNITY
In order to evaluate the Business Education Department
of Compton Junior College, it was found necessary to review
certain aspects of the entire school.
The following chapter
is devoted to general information regarding history and back­
ground, pupil population, community population, stability of
the community population, and statistical information regarding
the enrollment of the entire school.
The information was received from school records, pub­
lic statistical records and by means of a questionnaire to
students of the entire school, given on March 21, 1941 .
{See
Appendix.)
Purpose of this chapter. The school exists primarily
for the benefit of the boys and girls of the community which
it serves.
The types of people, their vocations and inter­
ests, their tendencies and prejudices, their abilities, their
racial characteristics, their hopes and prospects regarding
the future, their customs and habits, the similarities and
differences of groups within any community, are different
from-those of other communities.
The school should know the
distinctive characteristics and needs of the people and
groups of people of the school community, particularly those
of the young people.
But every community inevitably is
32
interrelated with other communities and is a part of larger
communities, particularly the state and nation.
The school
should, therefore, adapt its general philosophy and specific
‘purposes of its own community and to the larger communities
of which it is a part,'*’ In order to determine whether or not
Compton Junior College provided adequately for the needs of
the surrounding community, a survey was first made of the
community itself and the pupils concerned.
2
Definitions.
1. School community is defined as the
district or area commonly or regularly served by the secondary
school.
Secondary school population is defined as the total
number of youth in the school community of ages normally
included in the secondary school unit of which study and
evaluation is being made.
In this case, the four years of
the junior college, namely, grades eleven, twelve, thirteen,
and fourteen, were included.
History of Compton Junior College. Compton Junior
was one of the first four-year junior colleges to be estab­
lished in the United States.
It was established in 1927,
Evaluative Criteria and Educational Temperatures
(Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards; Washington,
D.C.: American Council on Education, 1940), p. IS.
2 Doc, cit.
extending the educational facilities of the four-year high
school to include grades thirteen and fourteen.
By 1930,
the secondary system was expanded in the other direction to
include grades seven and eight through the establishment of
five junior high schools to house grades seven, eight, nine,
and ten.
The year 1932 was the completion of the present
organization known generally as the six-four-four organiza­
tion.
The figures in this phrase refer to a public school
system providing six years of elementary school, four years
of intermediate school, and four years of a completion school
consisting of grades eleven to fourteen inclusive.
At this writing the Compton Union Secondary District
is composed of two school districts, the High School District
and the Junior College District, functioning under one board
controlling all grades of schooling from the seventh through
the fourteenth grades.
There is in this area a population of
seventy thousand or more people.
There are five high schools,
one in each of the five districts, Clearwater, Compton,
Enterprise, Lynwood, and Willowbrook, enrolling today a total
of 4,340 pupils, the individual schools running from 397 in
the smallest to 1,310 in the largest.
The junior college,
one of the first ten in size in the United States, enrolled
this year about thirty-five hundred pupils.
There is also a
night school carried on by the secondary district in which
there are enrolled 1,724 pupils.
34
This makes a grand total of 9*364 pupils enrolled in
the five junior high schools and the junior college with 26l
teachers and 131 other employees, or a grand total of 392
people employed in the High School and Junior College Districts.
There are 1,816 pupils transported per day with a fleet
of fourteen busses, and 141 pupils a day by street car.
hast
year there were 1,333 pupils graduated in one commencement,
779 pupils from the junior college and 736 pupils from the
five high schools.
Below is presented a tabulation showing the assessed
valuation of each part of the Union District and the per cent
of the total valuation.
School
Clearwater
Assessed Valuation
# 4,173,233
Per cent of
Assessed Valuation
11.21
Enterprise
12,401,824
33.31
Lynwood
3,360,7 60
14.94
Willowbrook
Cornpton City
Total
1,433,730
3.91
13.336.993
36.63
#37,228,563
100.00
Generally speaking, Compton Junior College serves the
south end of the county, excluding Long Beach, and brings to
this city students from the south side of Los Angeles City
including Huntington Park and Bell; from the bay cities of
El Segundo, Manhattan Beach, Hermosa Beach, and Redondo Beach;
35
from the harbor area embracing San Pedro and Wilmington; from
the inland communities of Inglewood, Hawthorne, Torrance,
Gardena, and Lomita; from the vicinity served by Downey and
the Excelsior Union High Schools; and from the Montebello and
Whittier districts.
Heeently, it has been permitted to admit
students from Inglewood and Los Angeles City, south of Florence
Avenue.
The racial status of the school community is largely
American and, therefore, English speaking.
There are several
parks, playgrounds, and recreational facilities provided by
the Board of Education, such as a swimming pool, baseball
diamonds, et cetera.
The general ethical and moral tone of
the community is average with very little of the pool hall
element in the community.
The social community background
can, therefore, be considered average or above, with few, if
any, detrimental factors which might effect the morale of the
school.
From- the facts mentioned thus far, some idea of the
type of community may be ascertained.
Since Compton Junior
College draws from such a large area, it was thought best to
study the home background of the students as to occupation
and education of the parents.
This might not in itself have
any bearing on the student directly as to his future occupa­
tion, but it might indirectly give an insight as to the type
of community the junior college serves.
36
The first step was to make out a questionnaire for all
students in the junior college.
A yellow slip was given to
upper-division students, and a pin^ slip was given to lowerdivision students.
These slips were made out and provided by
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards Committee
who were making a study of junior colleges.
The questionnaires
were given out on March 21, 1941 to all students in the junior
college who were present on that day.
The returns were com­
pletely tabulated by the writer in great detail for the pur­
pose of this study.
Information contained on the two blanks
was identical except for the addition of two questions for
upper-division students, one concerning the high school that
the student graduated from, and the other requesting the year
that the student finished the twelfth grade.
(See samples in
the Appendix.)
The following tables and explanations were prepared in
i
order to show the background of Compton Junior College and
the trend of student population.
Students registered at Compton Junior College for last
four years by grade and sex.
Table I indicates the number of
students registered at Compton Junior College from 1937*1938
to 1940-1941 inclusive, by grade and sex, all figures taken
as of the end of the first school month of the second semes­
ter.
In analyzing the information on Table I, the following
TABLE I
NUMBER OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR LAST FOUR YEARS BY YEAR, GRADE AND SEXa
1937-1938b
Men Yeomen Total
Grade
^
"
—
1938-1939
Men Women Total
1939-1940
Men Women Total
1937-1941
1940-1941
Per cent
Men Women Total
of
increase
-
~ ,
k°wer division
Uth
12th
Total
Per cent of
totals
378
226
&74
51.6
339
717
222
589
632 1,306
421
349
770
48.4 100.0 52.8
783
314
663
676 1^456
362
47.2 100.0
422
358
780
51.8
397
819
327
685
724 1,504
507
359
866
48.2 100.0
967
331
690
791 1,657
460
34.8
17.2
26.8
52.2 .47.8 100.0
Upper division
13th
14thc
Total
Per cent of
totals
625
334
959
65.4
353
978 817, 432 1,249
819
154
488
364
184
548
487
507 1,466 1,181 136 1,797 1,306
34.6 100.0 65.7
34.3 100.0
64.2
452 1,271 759
277
764 575
729 2,035 1,334
35.8 100.0
466 1,225
259
834
725 2,059
25.2
70.0
40.5
64.7 35.3 100.0
Entire School
Total
1,633 1,139 2,772 1,951 1,292 3,243 2,082 1,453 3,539 2,200 1,516 3,716 34.0
Per cent of
totals
58.5 41-5 100.0 59.3
40.7 100.0 58.5 41.5 100.0 59.0 41.0 100.0
a Source of above: Taken from school records.
k All figures taken as of end of first school month of second semester,
c
Includes all specials for each year.
3a
facts were brought out:
1. Over the four-year period, 1937 to 1941 inclusive,
there was an increase in registration in each grade:
Grade
Per cent
Eleventh
Twelfth
34.8
17*2
Lower Division
26.8
Grade
Per dent
Thirteenth
Fourteenth
■ 25.2
70.0
Upper Division
40.5
There was an increase of 34 per cent in the school as
a whole.
The upper division increased in enrollment consider­
ably more than the lower division.
These statistics also
indicated quite a drop-out from the eleventh to the twelfth
grades and a larger drop-out from the thirteenth to the four­
teenth grades.
The twelfth grade indicated an increase of 17 per cent.
The thirteenth grade showed an increase of 25 per cent and the
fourteenth, 70 per cent.
The ratio of men and women remained
approximately six to four for the entire school.
There was a
gradual increase in men and women in the eleventh grade over
the four-year period; the twelfth grade showed an increase
from 1937-1938 to 1938-1939 and then a dormant enrollment for
three years following.
This same condition applied to the
thirteenth grade except for a slight drop in the number of
men enrolled in 1940-1941 and a slight increase of men in the
fourteenth grade. The number of women increased in each grade
*i
for the year 1940-1941 except the fourteenth, which showed a
slight decrease.
These facts may have appreciable significance
39
and might he explained by the fact that the men in the thir­
teenth grade are at the age level when they would be called
for military purposes or are likely to drop out because of
the abnormal working possibilities.
The decrease in women
enrolled in the fourteenth grade was possibly due to the same
reason plus an increase in marriage due to draft and improved
economic conditions.
The increase of men in the fourteenth
grade was possibly due to enrollment in special courses for
manual training for defense work and for. courses pertinent
to military training.
Registration distribution of students of Compton Junior
College by years and grades. Table II, showing distribution
of students by grades over the past four years, was compiled
in order to determine the average enrollment and drop-out
over the four-year period.
The average enrollment by grades
was found to be as follows:
Lower Division
Grade
Number
Per cent
Eleventh
Twelfth
Total
822
647
1,478
53.5
44.5
iOO.O
Upper Division
Grade
Number
Thirteenth 1,181
Fourteenth
634
Total
1,^40
Per cent
64.1
35.9
100.0
Percentage of students dropped
From Eleventh to Twelfth Grade
From Thirteenth to Fourteenth Grade
20.0 per cent
44.0 per cent
These percentages indicated that the eleventh and
twelfth grades were quite evenly divided in enrollment but
REGISTRATION DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
BY YEARS AND GRADESa
Lower division______
11th
12th
Total
grade
grade
Year
Upper division
13th
14th
Total
grade
grade*1
1937-1938
717
589
1,306
978
488
1,466
1938-1939
783
663
1,446
1,249
548
1,797
1939-1940
819
685
1,504
1,271
764
2,036
1940-1941
967
690
_1.,65J7
.bm
834
2,059
3,286
2,627
5,913
4,723
2,634.
7,358
822
647
1,478
1,181
459
1,840
Four-year total
Average enrolled
Per cent of totals
55.5
44.5
100.0
Drop from 11th to 12th grade,
20 per cent.
Drop from 13th to 14th grade,
44 per cent.
64.I
35,9
100.0
Source of above: School records.
a All figures taken as of end of first school month of second semester.
Includes all specials for each year.
that the thirteenth grade was one-third larger than
the four%
teenth on the average, although Tahle I, page 37 indicated
a larger registration increase in the fourteenth year over the
four-year period than in the thirteenth year which would tend
to balance the two grades if the ratio of increase continued
the same.
The upper division shows a larger registration of
students on the average than the lower division.
There seemed to be a 20 per cent drop-out from the
eleventh grade to the twelfth grade, and a 44 per cent drop­
out from the thirteenth grade to the fourteenth.
The ratio of men and women seemed to remain about the
same each year.
No significance can be taken from the increase in the
lower division or twelfth grade to the thirteenth grade or
upper division as the area from which the students are drawn
is different.
year
Approximately 35 per cent of the thirteenth
enrollment came from the twelfth grade graduates.
Table VII, page 51.)
(See
On this basis normally there is approxi­
mately a 65 per cent drop of the graduates of the twelfth
grade to the thirteenth or upper division.
Registration distribution trend for three-year period
showing normal average by sex and grade. Table III shows the
trend of distribution of enrollment by grades and sex for
the three years prior to the current year now under study.
review of school enrollment over a ten-year period as shown
A
42
TABU) III
REGISTRATION DISTRIBUTION TREND FOR THREE-YEAR PERIOD SHOWING NORMAL
AVERAGE BY SEX AM) GRADEa
3rade
Year
Men
Total
Total
Average Women Average men and average
women
Lower division
11th
12th
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
11th
12th
378
421
422
1,221
339
362
407
296
349
358
1,003
366
293
314
934
589
311
1,098
741
934
2,032
773
663
327
334
1,221
1*003
2,224
Total L.D.
397
1,098
717
783
819
2,319
677
685
1,937
2,319
1,957
4,256
645
1,418
Upper division
13th
14th
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
625
817
819
2,261
452
754
1,237
13th
2,261
14th
Total U.D.
1,185
3,446
1,271
412
615
395
1,149
1,237
615
1,852
3,498
1,166
488
154
184
277
334
364
487
1,185
978
1,249
353
432
548
764
205
1,800
600
617
3,498
1,800
5,298
1,766
1,294
4,256
5,298
9,554
3,184
Entire school
Lower div.
Upper div*
Total school
2,224
?iM.6
5,670
2,032
1,852
1,890
3,884
a Sources School records taken as of the end of the first month of
the second semester of each year.
43
on Table X&III, page 81, indicated an average could be taken
for the three-year period from 1937-1938 to 1939-1940 in­
clusive as a basis for comparison with the year of this,study,
1940-1941.
This table reveals the following information:
Grade
Average number of
Men
Women
Total
Lower Bivision
Eleventh
Twelfth
Total
407
334
741
366
311
773
645
TTZlS-
Wf
Upper Division
Thirteenth
Fourteenth
Total
734
393
I7T49
Entire School
1,890
412
203
537
1,166
600
177^
1,294
3,184
It may be noted that the average as revealed is approxi­
mately the same as Table I, page
37
.
The withdrawals, sur­
vivals, and further breakdowns and comparison of 1940-1941 will
be taken from these averages as shown on Table III, page 42.
Number of students registered during current year.
Table IV indicates the number of students registered at
Compton Junior College and the per cent from September 1940
to the end of the first school month of the second semester,
1941.
There were 967 students registered in the eleventh
grade of which 307, or 53.3 per cent, were men, and 460 , or
46.5 per cent, were women.
This represented 26 per cent of
44
TABLE IV
TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON JUNIOR
COLLEGE FROM SEPTEMBER, 1940, TO THE END OF THE FIRST SCHOOL
MONTH OF THE SECOND SEMESTER, MARCH, I941a
Grade
Number registered
by grade and sex
Sex
-
11th
12th
Total
Per cent registered
by grade and sex
Lower division
Men
Women
Total
507
460
967
46.5
Men
Women
Total
359
331
690
52.0
48.0
18.66
Men
Women
Total
866
791
1,657
52.7
47-3.
44.6*
53.5
26.06
Upper division
13th
62.0
38.0
Men
Women
Total
1,225
32.96
14th
Men
Women
Total
575
259
#34
69.0
31.0.
22.5
Total
Men
Women
Total
1,334
725
2,059
64.5
35.5^
55.46
759
466
Entire school
Men
Women
Total
2,200
1,516
3,716
a Source: School records,
k Per cent of total school.
59.5
41.5
100.0
45
the total enrollment.
In the twelfth grade, 379 men, or 52 per cent, were
enrolled, 331, or 48 per cent, were women, and the total
twelfth grade represented 18.6 per cent of the total school
enrollment.
t
There were 1,657 lower-division, or high school stu­
dents, enrolled which were approximately evenly distributed
between men and women.
The lower division constituted 44.6
per cent of the school enrollment or a little less than half.
Thus, approximately 45 per cent of the junior college
is composed of lower-division or high school students, and
58 per cent upper-division or junior college students.
In the thirteenth grade, 749, or 62 per cent, are men,
and 466 , or 38 per cent, are women.
This comprised 33 per
cent of the entire school enrollment.
The fourteenth grade was comprised of 1,334, or 64.5
per cent, men, and 725, or 35.5 per cent, women which was
22.5 per cent of the total school enrollment.
There were 3,716 students enrolled in the entire school
of which 2 ,200 , or 59.5 per cent, were men, and 1 ,516, or
40.5 per cent were women.
From these statistics, it can readily be seen that the
lower division is approximately evenly distributed by sexes
but that there is a larger proportion of men in upper divi­
sion, especially in the fourteenth grade.
One reason for this
46
might be assumed to be a lack of subjects offered to attract
women in the upper division*
No attempt was made to determine
this point except as it related to the Business Education
Department *
Age-grade distribution of students at Pompton Junior
College as of March 21, 1941* All students who received a
questionnaire to fill out were requested to state their age
to their nearest birthday*
answers regarding age*
Table V is a compilation of these
It was not thought necessary to segre­
gate them by sex since there was only a slight difference, the
girls being slightly younger on the average than the boys*
The significance of this table lies in the fact that two thirds
of those answering fell in the seventeen, eighteen, or nine­
teen age group*
The other third was about evenly divided be­
tween those under seventeen and over nineteen*
The average age in the eleventh grade seemed to be be­
tween sixteen and seventeen, the twelfth grade between seven­
teen and eighteen*
This may explain why so many students
dropped out between the eleventh and twelfth grade, having
reached the age where school is not compulsory and they were
old enough to obtain jobs.
In the upper division, the average age was from eighteen
to nineteen in the thirteenth grade, and nineteen to twenty
in the fourteenth grade, the majority falling in the twentyyear age group*
This might indicate that some students drop
47
TABLE V
AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS AT COMPTON JUNIOR
COLLEGE AS OF MARCH 21, 1941a
Age
11th
Grade
12th
Grade
13th
Grade
14th
Grade
Total
by ages
Fifteen
37
1
Sixteen
291
19
3
1
314
Seventeen
310
205
69
1
585
Eighteen
52
233
181
51
517
Nineteen
4
36
238
96
374
Twenty
4
2
26
182
214
35
99
134
552
430
2,176
Over twenty
Totals
698
496
38
a Source: Obtained from questionnaire to all students in
school on above date.
48
out to work and then find it necessary to return to receive
additional training.
This table had quite a bearing on this study in that
it indicated the average age of drop-out, marriage, employ­
ment, draft, et cetera, and anticipated transfers and promo­
tions from previous classes when used in connection with
tables showing these facts.
Registration distribution trend for three-year period
showing normal average trend compared with current year by
sex and grade. The statistics on Table VI showing normal
average were taken from Table III, page 42, and average age
from Table V, page 47. Actual registration figures for 19401941 were taken from Table I, page 37. By combining these
figures in Table VI, it was possible to determine the increase
or decrease compared to normal in registration for the current
year.
There was no decrease shown in any grade.
The increase
was shown as follows:
Grade
Eleventh
Twelfth
Thirteenth
Fourteenth
Men
Women
24.4
25.6
6.4
13.1
2.7
7.5
0.0
6.3
Average
25.0
6.9
5.1
3.9
Age-Average
17
18
19
20
The increase of men and women in the eleventh grade
was approximately the same ratio.
The 25 per cent increase
for the eleventh grade might be explained by the increase in
49
TABLE VI
HEGISTRATION DISTRIBUTION TREND FOR THREE-YEAR PERIOD
SHOWING NORMAL AVERAGE TREND COMPARED WITH
CURRENT YEAR BY SEX AND GRADE
Grade
11th
12th
13th
14th
Average
agea
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
Actual
registration
1940-1941°
Increase
or
decrease
407
507
366
460
773
967
2A •A
25.6
25.0
Men
Women
Total
334
311
645
359
331
7.5
690
6.9
Men Women
Total
759
0.0
412
466
1,166
1,225
13.1
5.1
395
205
575
25.9_
$34
6.3
2.7
3.9
Sex
Normal
averageb
Men
Women
Total
Men
Women
Total
754
600
6.4
a Source: Questionnaire given March 21, 1941, Table V.
b Source: Derived from Table III.
° Source: School records.
50
population in surrounding areas due to influx of population
for defense industry employment.
The 6.9 per cent increase in
the twelfth grade was made up of approximately the same ratio
of men and women.
The smaller percentage here was probably
due to the fact that most of those persons in this grade were
eighteen years of age and eligible to go to work.
In the thirteenth grade, no increase or decrease was
found in the number of men registered at Compton Junior College
for the year, but a 13 per cent increase of women was shown.
This would indicate that the women find it necessary to return
for additional training before obtaining employment.
The fourteenth grade indicated a 6 per cent increase in
enrollment for men and only 2.7 per cent for women.
This was
probably due to the inclusion of all special students in the
fourteenth grade group.
These probabilities are treated as
such and are determined by a later analysis.
Geographical source of enrollment of students at
Compton Junior College. Table Til shows the geographical
source of enrollment of students at Compton Junior College as
of March 21, 1941*
Out of a total of 2,176 students who an­
swered the questionnaire, 1,194 were lower-division students,
and 982 were upper-division students.
There were 698 eleventh-
grade students and 496 twelfth-grade students.
All of these
were residing in the district as it was a school requirement
that all lower-division students must reside in the secondary
TABLE VII
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE OF ENROLMENT OF STUDENTS AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
AS OF MARCH 21, 1941a
Number in Per cent in Number out
district
district
of district
Grade
Per cent out
of district
Totals
11th
698
100.0
698
12th
496
100.0
496
Total lower division
1,194
1,194
13th
198
35-8
354
64 •2
552
14th
131
30.5
299
69.5
430
Total upper division
329
33.5
653
66.5
982
1,523
69.9
653
31.1
2,176
Total school
a Source: Questionnaire given on March 21, 1941.
52
school district.
Of the upper-division students, 329 resided
in the district and 653 came from outside the secondary school
district.
There was a slightly larger number in the thir­
teenth grade, approximately 36 per cent of whom resided in the
district and 64 per cent outside.
In the fourteenth grade,
approximately 31 per cent were inside and 69 per cent were
from without the district.
Of the total, 2,176 students an­
swering the questionnaire, 1 ,523 , or 70 per cent, were from
within the district and 653, or 30 per cent, from outside the
district.
Therefore, it can be readily seen from this table
that two thirds of the upper-division students are from out­
side the district.
This would seem to indicate that the ma­
jority of lower-division students do not go beyond the twelfth
grade of Compton Junior College.
Table VIII indicates the enrollment of students in the
secondary district only.
As was previously stated, the Compton
Secondary School District is divided into five districts,
Compton City, Enterprise, Lynwood, Clearwater-Hynes, and
Willowbrook.
Since it is difficult to distinguish between
Compton City and Enterprise District, these have been com­
bined.
There were 666 students from these two districts which
comprised 56 per cent of the total number in the district.
Of
the 866 students, 76 per cent were lower division and 24 per
cent upper division.
The next largest represented district
TABLE Till
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE Of ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
BT HOME RESIDENCE8
(In secondary district only)
Home residence
Compton-Enterprise
Lynwood
Clearwater-Hynes
WillowhrooE
Total in secondary
school district
Per cent of
total (1,523)
11th 12th Lower Per
grade grade
div. cent
84
61
296
126
43
31
698
496
373
180
45.8
32.5
669 75.6
306 82.5
127 73.5
92 89.3
1,194
78. 3
13th
grade
Total
14th Upper Per
grade div. cent school
121
54
21
. 2
76
30
16
9
197
24.4
84
17.5
26.5
10.7
198
131
329
13.1
8.6
a Source: Questionnaire given on March 21, 1941.
37
11
21.7
866
390
164
103
1,523
100.0
Per
cent
56.2
25.6
10.7
7.5
54
was Lynwood which had 390 students represented*
This totaled
26 per cent, approximately, of the entire number in the district.
Only 17 per cent were upper-division students.
Clearwater-Hynes
had a 10 per cent representation and Willowbrook, a 7 per cent
representation.
Seventy-five per cent or more from each district were
lower-division students except Clearwater-Hynes which had
74 per cent lower division.
This indicated that 2,5 per cent
or less were to be found in the thirteenth and fourteenth
year.
Of, those in lower division, 46 per cent were in the
eleventh grade and 32 per cent in the twelfth grade.
In the
upper division, 13 per cent were thirteenth graders and 9
per cent fourteenth graders.
This again bears out the fact
that the majority of lower-division students do not seem to
go on into upper-division classes.
Table IX shows the geographical source of enrollment
from outside the secondary school district.
upper-division students.
These were all
The largest representation was from
Los Angeles and San Pedro which represents approximately
32 per cent of all of the students from outside the district.
Huntington Park, South Gate, Wilmington, Inglewood, and
Gardena were next in order.
This represented about 37 per
cent of the total from outside.
The remainder of the students
were scattered over a larger area which included nineteen
cities in the county; twenty-seven students were from out of
the countyt of which eleven were from out of the state.
55
TABLE IX
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE OF ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS AT COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE BY HOME RESIDENCE8,
(Out of secondary district)
Totals by grades Enrolled Per cent*3 Enrollment out of secondary district
Uth
698
32.2
In county:
12th
496
22.7
1,194
54.9
13th
552
25.4
14th
430
19.7
Upper division
982
45.1
2,176
100.0
Los Angeles
San Pedro
Huntington Park
South Gate
Wilmington
Inglewood
Gardena
Bell
Redondo Beach
Torrance
Long Beach
EL Segundo
Downey
Lomita
Heraosa Beach
Hawthorne
Maywood
Lawndale
Hondo
Mbneta
Harbor City
Dominguez
Watts
Manhattan Beach
Norwalk
Pico
Lower division
Total school
13th 14th Total
60
51
27
21
16
12
18
11
12
15
7
4
7
5
5
4
1
3
1
2
1
2
1
107
105
72
50
40
40
36
28
26
26
16
12
13
12
9
9
4
4
4
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
9
6
7
5
16
11
354
299
653
47
54
45
29
24
28
18
17
14
11
9
8
6
7
4
5
3
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
Out of county:
In state
Out of state
Totals
a Source: Questionnaire given on March 21, 1941.
k Per cent of total enrollment (2,176).
This table was shown to indicate the wide territory
served by Compton Junior College and indicates that the needs
of these students are not necessarily the same as the needs
of those students coming from the immediate locality.
a cosmopolitan school.
It is
Also on this table is shown the
number enrolled by grades and the percentages.
Approximately,
55 per cent were lower division of those answering the ques­
tionnaire and 45 per cent were upper division.
Those answer­
ing from each grade were quite evenly distributed so that the
questionnaire should be reasonably accurate, as this number
appeared to be sufficient to have some real bearing on the
school as a whole.
Legal residence for upper-division students. As a
basis for comparison with the questionnaire study made in
March, 1941, Table X was compiled to show the legal residence
of upper-division students for 1939-1940 and 1940-1941 for
the entire school as of October of each year.
In 1939, 44 per
cent of students registered on October 6th were in the upper
division and in 1940, 51 per cent.
This indicated an in­
crease in those students coming in to the upper division from
outside the district, as only five additional persons regis­
tered from within the Compton Junior College District.
This
51 per cent compared with 66 per cent in March, 1941 would
seem to indicate that additional students registered from out­
side the district after October or that students within the
57
TABLE X
COMPTON JUNIOR COLIEGE UPPER-DIVISION STUDENTS' LEGAL
RESIDENCE FOR 1939-1940 AND 1940-1941a
Legal residence
1939-1940
1940-1941
Los Angeles City
715
684
Los Angeles County
210
262
Compton Junior College district
493
498
Other junior college districts in
Los Angeles County
32
33
Other counties in California not
having junior colleges
8
Other counties in California having
junior college districts
From outside of California
14
120
111
Unclassified students
... 95
.
Total upper division
1,687
1,617
Lower division
1,406
1,540
Grand total
3,093
3,157
?2
a Taken from school records as of October 6, 1939, and
October 9, 1940.
k Withdrawals, those being investigated for classifica­
tion.
58
district withdrew in a larger proportion prior to March, 1941.
This is only an assumption*
The significant fact for this study is that a large
majority of students come to Compton Junior College from out­
side the district and that there was an increase in that
registration of 7 per cent over the previous year.
Withdrawal trend for three-year period showing normal
average hy sex and grade. The three-year period, 1937-1938,
1938-1939, and 1939-1940 were taken as average on the same
basis as Table III, page 42.
The following was the average
withdrawal trend by grade and sex as shown on Table XI.
Grade
Men
Women
Total Average
Lower Division
Eleventh
Twelfth
Total
58
73
131
59
47
155
117
120
237
Upper Division
Thirteenth
Fourteenth
Total
179
110
2$9
Entire School 420
100
52
T5Z
279
162
441
257'
677
The average normal was taken for comparison purposes
which will be made later in this study.
Withdrawals for current year. Table XII shows the
number withdrawn from Compton Junior College from September,
1940 to March, 1941.
Beduced to percentages, it is shown as
59
TABLE XI
WITHDRAWAL TREND FOR THREE-TEAR PERIOD FROM 1937-1938 TO 1939-1940
SHOWING NORMAL AVERAGE BY SEX AND GRADEa
Grade
Year
1
11th
12th
Men
Lower division
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
50
63
62
175
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
52
84
81
217
11th
12th
175
217
392
Total L»D.
Total
Average Women Average men and Total
women average
113
63
38
58
111
__
73
175
43
38
60
141
59
316
117
95
122
47
141
358
120
350
175
i/ti
131
126
350
106
358
708
237
Upper division
13th
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
14th
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
Total
13th
14th
Total U.D.
168
77
99
125
169
200
537
179
90
122
.-112
331
301
245
268
32?
100
838
279
52
135
163
187
485
162
45
a
68
110
154
301
537
331
b6b
838
485
154
455
1,323
Entire school
Lower div.
Upper div.
Total school
392
868
1,260
a Source: School records♦
420
316
455
771
708
18?23
257
2,031
677
6o
TABLE XII
t a b u : s h o w i n g w i t h d r a w a l s o f a l l st ud en ts by gr ad e a n d s e x fr om
•COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FROM SEPTEMBER,- 1940, TO THE END OF THE
FIRST SCHOOL MONTH OF THE SECOND SEMESTER, MARCH, 1941
Sex
Grade
Numbera
withdrawn
per cent
Per cent13 Average
withdrawn
for
withdrawn
both sexes
Lower division
11th
12th
Total
Men
Women
Total
102
,,54
20.0
10-0
Men
Women
Total
91
25.0
63
154
19.0
Men
Women
Total
193
117
310
22.5
14.5
156
15.0
22.0
18.5
Upper division
13th
14th
Total
Men
Women
Total
249
134
383
32.9
28.7
Men
Women
Total
207
63
270
36.0
24.0
Men
Women
Total
456
197
653
34.4
26.3
30.8
30.0
30.4
Entire school
Men
Women
Total
8.
649
314
963
Source: School records.
b See Table XX.
28.4
20.4
24.4
61
follows:
Grade
Per cent of
Men
Per cent of
Women
Average
Per cent
Lower Division
Eleventh
Twelfth
Total
20.0
10.0
15.0
25.0
22.5
19.0
14.5
22.0
28.7
18.5
Upper Division
Thirteenth
Fourteenth
Total
32.9
36.0
34.4
24.0
30.8
30.0
26.3
30.4
Entire School
28.4
20.4
24.4
In the eleventh grade there was a 10 per cent larger
withdrawal of men than women and 6 per cent in the twelfth
grade.
There was a 19 per cent withdrawal in the lower di­
vision.
In the thirteenth grade, 4 per cent more men withdrew
than women and in the fourteenth, 12 per cent more.
In the
upper division there was approximately a 30 per cent with­
drawal.
For the entire school, the statistics showed that
8 per cent more men withdrew.
There was a 25 per cent with­
drawal for the school as a whole.
Average enrollment. withdrawal, and survival. In order
to have a basis of comparison of the present year with the
normal it was necessary to establish a norm.
in Table XIII.
This is shown
TABLE XIII
TABLE SHOWING AVERAGE ENROLMENT, WITHDRAWAL, AND SURVIVAL BY NUMBERS AND
PERCENTAGES OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR
THE THREE-IEAR PERIOD FROM 1937-1933 TO-1939-1940
Grade
Average
Average
enrollment3- withdrawal^
Average normal
per cent of
withdrawals
Average
survivals
Average normal
per cent of Average
agee
survivals
Men
11th
12th
Lower division
407
334
741
J1
131
14.2
21.5
17.5
349
261
610
13th
14th
Upper division
754
1,149
179
110
289
23.8
28.0
25.1
Total men
1,890
420
366
58
85.8
78.5
82.5
17
18
575
76.2
JS i
72.0
19
20
860
74.9
22.2
1,490
77.8
16.1
15.1
14.2
307
264
571
83.9
84.9
85.3
17
18
677
59
JlL
106
412
100
312
153
465
75.8
74.0
75.4
19
20
1,038
80.0
Women
11th
12th
Lower division
13th
14th
Upper division
Total women
205
617
152
24.2
26.0
25.6
1,295
257
20.0
a Source: Table VI.
k Source: Table XI.
c Source: Table V.
Occupations of parents of students. Table XIV shows
the occupations of parents of students registered at Compton
Junior College during 1940-1941 taken from a questionnaire
given on March 21, 1941.
students.
It is arranged by grade and sex of
This questionnaire was answered by 2,716 students
and was considered broad enough to be taken as a community
measure.
All of the 1,194 lower-division students were found
to be residing within the secondary district.
Of the 982
upper-division students, only 33 per cent were from inside
the district.
(See Table VII, page 51.)
For this reason, the
lower-division high school level and the upper-division junior
college level will be treated separately.
Table XIV indicates
that the Compton community was an average working man’s area.
All of the lower-division students and 30 per cent approxi­
mately of the upper-division students come from homes of par­
ents living in this area.
Therefore, on the average they come
from the working man’s home.
The 70 per cent coming from out­
side the area cannot be measured but the tabulation shows
that they came from a slightly higher bracket.
Approximately
70 per cent of those students whose fathers were in profes­
sions were from outside the district.
This was also true of
proprietors and civil service employees.
There was a con­
siderable lower percentage in the skilled labor and semi­
skilled labor groups.
There was an indication of about 85 per
cent permanency in the occupations of these parents which
TABLE XIV
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR TEE TEAR
1940-1941 FROM A QUESTIONNAIRE.GIVEN IN MARCH, 1941a
'.
Number
Occupation of father
1
2
*3a
*3b
Professions
Proprietors
Civil service
Skilled labor, permanent and
semi-professional
*3e Skilled oil workers
4 Office workers
5 Sales workers
6 Agriculture
7 Skilled and semiskilled labor,
semipermanent
a Small businesses
9 Defense industries
10 Unskilled industries
11 Retired or disabled
12 Unemployed or on relief
13 Deceased, divorced, unknown
Totals
Grade Grade Total lower
llth 12th
division
13
14
42
13
13
36
26
2?
78
35.2
35.2
42.2
24
27
60
24
21
48
48
48
108
53
95
17
39
68
36
66
15
20
37
89
161
32
59
105
70.0
68.0
45.0
44*0
60.0
19
53
20
40
13
22
19
29
30
32
75
39
75
70
187
46
22
23
17
33
139
37
15
17
7
25
20
326
83
37
40
24
58
49
57.7
52.5
80.0
46.0
46.0
78.0
40.0
126
46
5
25
16
11
34
113
29
5
20
12
5
Ifi
239
75
10
45
28
16
552
430
982
29
698
496 1,194
Per cent distribution of
questionnaire
32.0
22.9
Per cenb of entire school
86.0
93.0
. i.
_i
Grade Grade Total upper
13th 14th
division Grandtotal
•
46
64.8
64.8
74
75
57.8 186
3*4
3.4
7.9
30.0 121
32.0 236
55.0 71
56.0 134
40.0 175
5.6
10.6
3.2
6.2
6.9
42.3 565
47.5 158
20.0 47
54.0 85
54.0 52
22.0 74
74 60.0 123
26.5
7.4
2.2
3.9
2.5
3.4
6.9
2,176
54.9
25*4 i9.7
45*1
100.0
89.0
6$.0 76*0
70.0
80.0
a Total in school when questionnaire was given out— 2,754*
# A breakdown of those engaged in skilled labor of a permanent nature.
might he indicative of the permanency of the community as a
whole.
This was also indicated by the reasons for withdrawal.
Approximately 14 per cent of the withdrawals were made because
parents were moving away.
(See Table XIX, page 72.)
Tables XV and XVI are further groupings of the occupa­
tions of the parents.
Table XV lists the occupations accord­
ing to the percentages and Table XVI groups them into skilled
and unskilled labor groups and semiprofessional and profes­
sional groups.
unknown.
Also those who are unemployed, retired, or
The latter table indicates that 49 per cent were in
the skilled and unskilled labor group and 38 per cent in the
semiprofessional and professional group.
Approximately
13 per cent were unemployed, retired, et cetera.
Educational status of parents. Table XVII shows the
educational status of parents of students enrolled at Compton
Junior College at the time the questionnaire was given out in
the general student body on March 21, 1941.
This table has
no particular significance except to further indicate the
type of community from which Compton Junior College draws its
students.
Again it indicates a working man’s area.
Only
about 13 per cent of the parents had completed a four-year
college.
Thus, 87 per cent had education up to the twelfth
grade or less.
Forty-five per cent had elementary school
education or less.
This may be an indication why more stu­
dents from Compton Junior College do not go on to higher
66
TABLE XT
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE YEAR 1940-1941 FROM A
QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN IN MARCH, 1941®
(Grouped by percentages)
Num­
ber
Occupations
Skilled and semiskilled labor,
semipermanent
3c Skilled oil workers
3a Public service and civil service
8
Small businesses
Agriculture
6
Sales workers
5
3b Skilled labor, permanent and semiprofessional
Unskilled labor
10
Professions
1
Proprietors
2
Unemployment or on relief
12
Office workers
4
Retired or disabled
11
Defense industries
9
Deceased, divorced, unknown
13
Percentage
7
® Source: Table XII.
26.5
10.6
7.9
7.4
6.9
6.2
5.6
3.9
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.2
2.5
2.2
6.9
67
TABLE XVI
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE TSAR 1940-1941 FROM A
QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN IN MARCH, 1941
(Combination of classifications in Table XIV)
Group
Manufacturing and skilled labor
group (Nos. 3b, 3c, 7, 9)
Unskilled labor group (No. 10)
Percentage
44 •9
3.9
Skilled and unskilled labor group
total
Public service and civil service
group (No. 3a)
Office workers, clerical workers
and salesmen (Nos. 4, 5)
Business operators (Nos. 2, 8}
Agriculture (No. 6)
Professions (No. 1)
48.8
7.9
9.4
10.8
6.9
3.4
Semiprofessional and professional
total
Unemployed or on relief (No. 12)
Retired or disabled (No. 11)
Deceased, divorced, unknown (No. 13)
Unemployed and unknown group
total
Total
38.4
3.4
2.5
6.9
12.8
100.0
68
TABLE XVII
TABLE SHOWING EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS
ENROLLED AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE DURING 1940-1941a
Educational
status
Lower division
11th 12th
Attended but did
not complete
elementary school
Upper division
13th 14th
Total
school
Per
Cent*3
70
69
38
23
200
9.1
Completed elementary
school
251
169
197
163
780
35.8
Graduated from
high school
300
194
236
186
916
42.3
69
57
86
68
280
12.8
690
489
557
440
2,176
100.0
Graduated from fouryear college,
university, or
teacher’s college
Totals
a Source: Questionnaire given on March 21, 1941.
k Per cent of total questionnaires.
education, as will be shown in a later chapter.
Since this
table was based on a questionnaire given to the total enroll­
ment of Compton Junior College on a certain day and does not
include those persons absent on that day, it is not a total
of the entire enrollment at that particular time but repre­
sents the majority of the school enrollment.
In comparing the enrollment of the entire school with
the Business Education Department, the education of the par­
ents was found to parallel closely.
Thus, it is indicated
that in general all students take commercial subjects regard­
less of their home background.
It was also shown that just
about as many students from homes where the education did not
go beyond elementary and high school went on to junior col­
lege as did those who came from homes having a better back­
ground of education.
Comparison of normal withdrawal trend with current
year. The entire school showed an increase over the normal
withdrawal, as shown on Table XVIII.
In the eleventh grade
there was a 5*8 per cent increase in withdrawal of men and a
5 per cent increase in withdrawal of women.
In the twelfth
grade, the increase of withdrawalwas evenly distributed
being approximately 4 per cent men and the same percentage
for women.
In the thirteenth grade, the withdrawals of men
increased 9 per cent while women withdrawals increased 5 per
cent.
In grade fourteen, withdrawals of men increased
70
TABLE XVIII
COMPARISON OF NORMAL WITHDRAWAL TREND WITH WITHDRAWAL TREND
FOR 1940-1941 BY SEX AND GRADE
Per cent Per cent
Average
of
of
agec
increase decrease
Sex
Grade
Lower division
Men
Women
Average
14.2
16.1
15.1
20.0
10.0
15.0
5.8
Men
Women
Average
21.5
15.1
18.3
25.0
19.0
22.0
3.5
3.9
3.7
Total L.D. Men
Women
Average
17.8
15.1
16.4
22.5
14.5
18.5
4.7
11th
12th
4.9
17
17
.4
18
18
.6
2.1
Upper division
13th
Men
Women
Average
24.2
24.0
32.9
28.7
30.8
9.1
4.5
6.8
Men
Women
Average
28.0
26.0
27.0
36.0
8.0
24.0
30.0
3*0
TotalU.D. Men
Women Average
25.9
25.1
25.5
34.4
26.3
30.3
8.5
1.2
4.3
14th
23.8
2.0
Entireischool
Total of
school
Men
Women
Average
21.8
20.1
20.9
a Taken from Table XIII.
b
c
Taken from Table XII.
Taken from Table V.
28.4
20.4
24.4
19
19
6.6
.3
3.5
20
20
71
8 per cent and women decreased 2 per cent.
The total lower-
division withdrawals increased 3.4 per cent and upper division
increased approximately 5 per cent.
The men withdrawals for
the school as a whole increased 6 per cent and the women
withdrawals .3 per Gent.
Reasons for withdrawal. Table XIX.reveals the reasons
for withdrawal as stated by the student at the time of with­
drawal.
These records were obtained by going through the
school files and pulling the card for each student in the
lower and upper division, recording the reason by sex and
grade, as no compilation of individual student records had
been made.
Of the 1,193 withdrawing during the year 1940-1941,
374 withdrew from the lower division and 819 from the upper
division.
In summarizing the withdrawals for the entire school, it
was found that out of a total of 1,193 withdrawals in lower
and upper division, 437, or 36.3 per cent, of the students
stated their reason for withdrawing was nto go to work."
Of
this number, 102 upper-division students stated they were def­
initely going into Rational defense work.
sons were women.
Jour of those per­
Others may have been leaving for defense
work but did not state so.
Three hundred and sixty-nine, or
approximately 30 per cent, withdrew for the following reasons:
end of semester, graduation, needed at home, or were dropped
because of continued absence.
It might be assumed that the
TABLE XIX
TABLE SHOWING REASONS FOR WITHDRAWAL OF ALL STUDENTS WHO WITHDREW FROM
COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE DURING 1940-1941a
Reason
Illness of pupil
To go to work
National defense work
Military
CCC work
Absence
End of semester
Moving
Needed at home
Marriage
Finances
Graduation
Business college
No transportation
Unable to get course
Other reasons13
Totals
Lower division
Upper division
Male Female Total, Male Female Total
3
66
19
19
31
15
52
2
21
10
19
13
85
18
7
47
23
19
19
49
22
99
2
23
19
1
40
1
8
15
1
1
1
1
374
1
229
145
Total
school
Par cent
of school
46
14
167
98
41
19
83
4
33
250
102
41
82
74
39
4
3
15
32
32
36
13
13
3
4
3
2
2
12
114
106
75
17
13
11
19
4
2
5
27
335
102
60
19
163
128
174
19
36
11
59
5
2
6
28
561
258
819
1,193
3.7
28.0
8.5
5-8
1.8
13-7
10.7
14.5
1.7
3.0
.8
4.8
)
)
)
1.0
2.0
100.0
a Figures given as of the end of school, June, 1941 > from school records,
b
Other reasons were given as: student’s request, parentfs request, trip
east, not interested, low grades, et cetera. -
73
majority of those people went to work upon leaving school due
to the nature of their withdrawal.
These two groups consti­
tuted 66.5 per cent of the total withdrawals.
Of the remain­
ing 33.5 per cent, 79, or approximately 7 per cent, went into
military service or CCC camps; 174, or 14.5 per cent moved or
transferred to another school, and of the remaining 12 per
cent, 46 withdrew because of illness, 36 married, of which
23 were lower division and 13 were upper division, 5 went to
business college, and 47 withdrew for various reasons such
as, unable to get course wanted, finances, low grades, et
cetera.
Of the total 1,193, 819, or approximately 68 per cent,
were upper division and 32 per cent were lower division.
Of
greatest significance in this study, however, is the fact
that so many left to go to work.
Out of 374 lower division
withdrawals, 145 were women and 229 were men.
Eighty-five,
or approximately 38 per cent, stated definitely they planned
to go to work.
In the upper division, out of a total of 819,
which was approximately 43 per cent of all withdrawals, 258
of which were women and 561 men, 352 stated they planned to
go to work, of which 187 were women, (four of whom named
national defense work specifically) and 264 were men, (102 of
\
whom named national defense work).
From these figures, it was indicated that in all prob­
ability there will be an increasingly larger number of stu­
dents leaving for national defense work and for military
74
reasons*
There was approximately a 30 per cent drop-out of
students during the year 1940-1941 of which two thirds were
upper-division students and one third lower division.
Geographical distribution of withdrawals. All of the
lower division withdrawals were from within the secondary dis­
trict.
(See Table VII, page51*)
The distribution of upper-
division withdrawals was as follows:
Residence
Thirteenth Grade
Men Women Total
Fourteenth Grade
Men Women Total
Total
Withdrj
In District
127
73
200
87
40
127
327
Out of Dis­
trict
Total
191
99
290
156
46
202
492
313
172
490
243
■■gs
329
3l"9'
There were 374 lower-division withdrawals from within
the district and 327 upper-division withdrawals from within
the secondary district making a total of 701 out of 1,193
withdrawals.
Thus, approximately two thirds of the with­
drawals were from within the secondary district.
In the upper
division, the withdrawals were about evenly distributed within
and without the secondary district.
Withdrawals and survivals. Table XX shows the with­
drawals of all students by grade and sex from Compton Junior
College from September, 1940, to March, 1941> inclusive.
also includes survivals of students by sex and grade.
It
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77
In the eleventh and twelfth grades there is a slightly
higher enrollment of men than women and a correspondingly
higher percentage of men withdrawals.
The number of men and
women survivals in these grades is evenly distributed.
Of
the lower division survivals approximately 30 per cent are
eleventh graders and 20 per cent twelfth graders.
The lower-
division survivals constitutes 49 per cent of the entire
school survivals.
In the upper division, the enrollment of
men over women is almost two to one, and the withdrawal of
men and women is double that of the lower-division withdrawals.
Approximately, a third more men withdraw than women leaving
the survivals made up of 65 per cent men and 35 per cent wo­
men in both the thirteenth and fourteenth grades.
For the
entire school, the average per cent of withdrawals of both
sexes amounts to about 25 per cent of the enrollment.
Per cent of increase or decrease in survival. Tables
XXI and XXII shows the survival of students by grade and sex
for the year 1940-1941 compared to the normal survival trend.
For the current year, there was a decrease in the survival
of all groups except eleventh grade women and fourteenth grade
women.
The former showed a 6 per cent increase and the latter
a 2 per cent increase.
In the lower division, there was an
approximate decrease of 6 per cent men and in the twelfth,
3 per cent men and 4 per cent women.
In the upper division,
the thirteenth grade showed a 9 per cent decrease in men and
78
TABLE XXI
TABLE SHOWING SURVIVAL OF STUDENTS BY GRADE AND SEX FROM COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE^FROM SEPTEMBER, 1940, TO THE END OF THE FIRST
SCHOOL MONTH OF THE SECOND SEMESTER, MARCH, 1941a
Grade
Sex
Per eent
Per cent
Per cent of
Survivals distribution
of
students sur­
of survivals survivals viving by grade
Lower division
11th
Men
Women
Total
405
407
812
50.0
50.0
Men
Women
Total
268
268
536
50.0
50.0
11th and 12th Men
Women
Total
673
674
1,347
50.0
12th
50.0
80.0
90.0
85.0
29.5
75.0
81.0
78.0
19.5
77.8
85.5
84.6
49.0
67.1
71.3
69.2
30.6
64.0
76.0
70.0
20.4
65.5
73.6
69.5
51.0
Upper division
Men
Women
Total
510
332
842
60.5
39#5
Men
Women
Total
369
196
565
65.0
35.0
13th and 14th Men
Women
Total
878
528
1,406
65.0
35.0
13th
14th
Entire school
Men
Women
Total
1,551
1.202
2,753
a Source: Table XX.
56.3
43.7
71.6
79.5
75.5
79
TABLE XXII
COMPARISON OF NORMAL SURVIVAL TREND WITH 19XO-19A1
BY SIX AND GRADE
Grade
Sex
Normala
.percentage
194-0-l941b
percentage
Per cent of
Increase Decrease
Lower division
Men
Women
Average
85.8
83.9
8X •8
80.0
90.0
85.0
12th
Men
Women
Average
78.5
ax.9
81.7
75.0
81.0
78.0
Total
Men
Women
Average
82.1
8X.X
83.2
77.8
85.5
81.6
lltk
. 5.8
6.1
.2
2.5
3.9
3.7
1.1
X. 3
1.6
Upper division
13th
Men
Women
Average
76.2
75*a
76.0
67.1
71.3
69-2
lXth
Men
Women
Average
72.0
7X.0
73.0
64 .0
76.0
70.0
Men
Women
Average
7X.9
75. X
75.1
65.5
73.6
69.5
Total
9.1
X. 5
7.2
8.0
2.0
3.0
9.X
1.8
5.6
Entire school
Men
Women
Average
77.a
80.0
78.9
a Source: Table XIII.
b
Source: Table XXI.
71.6
79.5
75.5
6.2
.5
3.X
80
5 per cent women; the fourteenth grade, 8 per cent decrease
in men and 2 per cent women.
The entire school showed a
6 per cent decrease in men and *5 per cent increase in women
and a total decrease of about U per cent.
This has a signifi­
cant bearing on the commercial department as will be found in
a later chapter.
On page 72 is a table showing the reasons students
gave for withdrawals.
As can be seen on the table, the ma­
jority of men withdrew to go to work.
This would tend to
have the opposite reaction on the women.
Because the men in
the family are able to obtain positions, the women are more
likely to remain in school longer which seems to be shown on
Table XXII, page 79 because the number of women survivals
increased.
From these facts, it may be assumed that the school
enrollment may decrease in enrollment of men in the next few
years but will tend to increase in enrollment of women at the
same time.
Therefore, it would appear logical to provide
ample courses to take care of the needs of the women students
over that period of time.
Comparison of enrollment trend with state employment
trend. Table XXEII shows the enrollment trend over the last
eleven years for Compton Junior College compared with the
state employment trend over the same period*
This table pro­
vides additional verification of the statement that the en­
rollment of the school is quite stable at all times.
The only
TABLE r a n
STABILITY OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE SHOT BY A COMPARISON OF ENROLLMENT TREND
?/ITH STATE MPLQIMPT T IM ).
..
.
1
State employment trend
Junior college enrollment
Total school enrollment
Per centa
Upper division
Lower division
employed Per cent** Enrolled Per cent^ Enrolled Per cent*5 Enrolled Per centb
Year
1926°
1929-1930
1930-1931
1931-1932
1932-1933
1933-1934
1934-1935
1935-1936
1936-1937
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
1940-1941
100.0
96.0
86.0
65.0
58.0
68.0
71.0
77.0
93-0
79.0
82.0
98.0
100.0
-4.0
-10.0
-20.0
-7.0
10.0
3.0
510d
664
847
970
1,093
1,082
6.0
1,102
16.0
-15.0
3.0
16.0
1,253
2.0
1,120
610
30.0
27.0
14.0
13.0
-0.1
1.8
1,306
14.5
4.3
1,456
1,504
1,657
11.2
11.0
10.0
683
947
1,139
, 948
1,022
1,319
1,404
12.0
39.0
20.0
-17.0
8.0
29.0
1,466
6.4
4*4
1,797
2,035
2,059
12.0
13*0
1.0
1,347
1,794
2,109
2,041
2,104
21.0
2,421
15*0
2,657
2,772
3,243
3,539
3,716
9.7
4.3
33.0
17.0
-4.0
7.0
11.0
12.0
5.0
a Source: State report,
b
Per cent of increase or decrease over preceding year.
c Year 1926 is the norm set up by the state.
j
Source: School records.
oa
H
82
time there was a decrease in enrollment, even during de­
pression times, was during the earthquake in 1933 and 1934
when the school was reduced to shambles and the school had
to be conducted in tents and makeshift buildings.
This was
to be expected.
The economic or employment trend does not seem to af­
fect the high
school level but does affect the junior col­
lege level as
indicated on Table XXIII. Enrollment in the
upper-division level seems to rise or fall with average eco­
nomic conditions.
An exception to this is for the year 1940-
1941 where abnormal employment opportunities apparently re­
versed this trend.
The current year shows a smaller increase in enrollment
which is indicative of more persons who would normally enroll
in junior college being able to obtain gainful employment.
There was only a 1 per cent increase in enrollment in upper
division this
year against a 13 per cent increase last year.
An attempt was made
later in
this study to showhow
this may effect the Business Education Department.
No -statistics were available on the-number of graduates
who transferred to other institutions from the junior college
over a period of years so that no comparison could be made
of the number of students continuing their higher education.
A follow-up study was started recently, however, which in­
dicated the survival of junior high school graduates through
83
Compton Junior College over a period of years.
Survival of .junior high school graduates. Table JXTV
is a follow-up study of junior high school graduates.
Of
those students who graduated from the junior high schools of .
the secondary district in 1931, 84 per cent entered junior
college; 46 per cent graduated from the lower division and
9*6 per cent graduated from the upper division.
This indi­
cates a large drop-out in the eleventh and thirteenth grades.
Approximately, the same ratio was found in 1933, 1934, 1933,
and 1936.
Indications are that the same will hold true of
1937 although it has not as yet been determined.
The class of 1936 ranks highest in percentage of junior
high school graduates to enter junior college.
The percentage
of lower-division graduates increased from 46.1 per cent in
1931 to 49*3 per cent in 1934*
The survival rate between the
twelfth and thirteenth year has changed very little.
The sur­
vival rate of the district through graduation from junior
college dropped 1.3 per cent in 1933, 1934, and 1933, then in­
creased .7 per cent in 1936.
These figures indicated that
the large majority of those students coming in from within
the district dropped out of school or transferred before they
reached the fourteenth year.
Questionnaire sent to February and June ’
graduates for
v
year 1939-1940. A questionnaire was sent to February and
84
table
xxiv
SURVIVAL OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES THROUGH
THE COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGEa
Grade
Per cent of class graduating from junior high in:
1931 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
Graduated from
junior high
100.
school
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
Entered the
junior college 84.0
81.2
79.3
79.0
86.8
82.8
86.8
Graduated from
lower division 46.1
56.1
49.3
54.8
57.5
56.0
58.4
Entered upper
division
19.7
19.1
20.4
25.1
27.3
25.9
9.6
7.9
7.4
8.9
10.3
Graduated from
junior college
a Source: School records.
100.
86.8
S5
June graduates of the upper division only for the year 19391940#
Table XXV shows that out of a total of 349 graduates,
96 were transferring to another school, 33 were returning to
Compton Junior College and 220 were leaving school.
This
study was concerned primarily with those graduates who were
leaving school.
were returned.
Out of the 220 questionnaires sent out, 132
This represented a 60 per cent return.
Employment status of graduates. Table XXVI shows the
employment status of the 132 graduates at the time the ques­
tionnaire was sent out.
Eighty-six were employed full time,
eight part time, five in the army, navy or air corps, and
eighteen were unemployed.
Of those eighteen unemployed, seven­
teen were seeking employment.
Fifteen did not answer.
Women graduates. From Table XXVII which was an analy­
sis of the questionnaires sent to terminal graduates of the
upper division, it was found 'that out of fifty-two women
graduates who were employed, thirty, or 57«7 per cent, had
taken one or more commercial subjects, and twenty-six of them
had found it helpful in their occupations.
It, therefore,
must be assumed that commercial training was an important
part of the training of women students at Compton Junior Col­
lege from the graduates’ point of view.
Of the thirty who had taken commercial subjects, twentysix found commercial subjects helpful to employment and six­
teen found the subjects adequate.
Eleven stated that they were
86
TABLE XXV
QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO FEBRUARY AND JUNE GRADUATES
FOR THE YEAR 1939-1940
(Upper division only)
Graduates
Men
Women
Total
57
39
96
111
109
220
18
. ..11
33
186
163
349
^Questionnaires returned
80
52
132
^Percentage of return
72.7
47.7
Transferring to another school
aLeaving school
Re-enrolling in Compton
Junior College
Total questionnaires sent
60.0
Ql For the purpose of this study only those leaving
school will he used.
Id Source: Questionnaire (see Appendix).
87
TABLE XXVI
EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF GRADUATES LEAVING SCHOOL AS
DETERMINED FROM A QUESTI ONNAIREa
Employment status
Men
Women
Total
Employed full time
54
32
86
Employed part time
2
6
8
Defense (army, navy, air)
5
0
5
Unemployed
6
12
18
12
17
62
134
Seeking employment (nowunemployed) 5
Totals
72
a Source: Questionnaire sent to graduates.
ss
TABLE XXVII
ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE SE N T TO TERMINAL GRADUATES FROM
THE UPPER DIVISION AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR
FEBRUARY AND JUNE, 1940a
.
J?JLiiUJLiigS
Women graduates
„ ,Number
Per cent
Men graduates
Number Per cent
1. Returns
Questionnaires sent out
Questionnaires returned
completed
Per cent of return
3. Analysis of those having
taken commercial
subjects
Number who found subjects
helpful to employment
Number who found subjects
adequate to meet needs
Number who found subjects
inadequate to meet needs
Number who found no
employment
80
52
47.7
72.7
-
2. Findings
Number employed
Number unemployed
Number in military service
Number who had taken
commercial subjects
Number who found
commercial subjects
helpful to employment
111
109
42
10
80.8
19.2
66
9
5
82.5
11.3
6.2
30
57.7
8
12.1
26
50.0
5
7.6
8
30
26
87.0
5
62.5
16
50.0
2
25.0
11
37.0
3
10.0
Number employed in com­
mercial work who had not
taken commercial courses at
Compton Junior College
a Source: Questionnaire to graduates.
(No replies)
1
10
12.5
inadequate*
It may be assumed that by this report they have
indicated that they needed further training in the commercial
department which they were unable to obtain or did not elect
to take*
As far as women students needs were concerned,
37 per cent stated a definite inadequacy in the commercial de­
partment*
(See Table LI, page 155, for comparative analysis
of students questionnaire on subjects desired.)
It cannot be
assumed that the fifty-two replies, or 47.7 per cent return,
expressed the facts and conditions of the students who did not
reply.
However, the results of both questionnaires indicated
a definite inadequacy.
These replies are significant because
they are from students who have graduated and had an oppor­
tunity, through employment, to determine what they lacked and
what subjects they should have taken to be more efficient in
their work*
Therefore, they can be taken as needs.
Eleven who prepared for commercial work did not get
work in this field.
Of the eleven, three were unemployed.
Sixteen prepared for commercial work and obtained work in this
field.
Twenty-six found their school training helpful in
their work.
Of this group, the courses were mentioned in im­
portance in the following orders typing, fourteen; shorthand,
eight; business English, five; intensive secretarial training,
five; bookkeeping, three; business machines, two; accounting,
one; mimeographing, one; commercial law, one, filing, one;
public speaking, one.
Men graduates. Table XXVII, page 88, shows a small
percentage of men graduates who had taken commercial subjects.
This is indicative of a lack of enrollment in commercial sub­
jects by men students.
However, it may be noted that ten
students, or 12.5 per cent, are engaged in work of a commer­
cial nature without having had commercial training at Compton
Junior College.
Two students stated that it was necessary for
them to obtain commercial training at a business college be­
cause it was not available at Compton.
Therefore, from the
returns as shown on Table XXVII, page 88, it could be concluded
that the present needs of men students are being met by the
commercial department.
The commercial students1 questionnaire
does not reflect the same conclusion as the above, therefore,
no definite conclusions may be drawn.
(See Table LIII,
page 158 .)
The commercial students1 questionnaire did indicate a
demand for more subjects to meet the needs of upper-division
men students in the commercial field.
If more subjects of
this nature had been previously offered in the upper division,
it is probable that more men graduates would have gone into
commercial work.
Type of position obtained by graduates and how obtained.
Table XXVIII indicates the type of work the graduates obtained
and by what method they obtained the position.
The two most
successful methods seemed to be by direct solicitation and
through the aid of an acquaintance. Only ten received their
TABLE 2XVTII
TYPE OF POSITION OBTAINED BY GRADUATES AND HOW OBTAINED3
Obtained first full-time
position through
Compton Junior College
Employment Office
Type of position
Secretarial
Junior clerk
Aircraft
Lathe hand
Total
Direct solicitation
Secretarial
Teaching
Office boy
Waitress
Factory
Office boy
Aircraft
Clerk (store)
Mechanic
Salesman
Total
Relatives* help
Secretarial
Aircraft
Farmer
Mechanic
Total
Aid of acquaintance
Aircraft
Secretarial
Nursemaid
Teaching
Clerk
Pianist
Oil company
Mechanic
Florist
Total
a Source: Questionnaire to graduates.
Men
1
1
6
JL
9
Women
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
10
1
17
1
1
2
2
5
3
3
1
6
1
14
1
6
1
1
2
1
11
TABLE XXVIII (continued)
TYPE OF POSITION OBTAINED BY GRADUATES AND HOW OBTAINED
Obtained first full-time
position through
Instructor* s help
*
Type of position
Secretarial
Aircraft
Aviation cadet
Total
Advertisement
Secretarial
Nursemaid
Naval air station
Total
Application letter
Secretarial
Aircraft
Aviation cadet
Salesman
Army
Men
1
9
1
10
1
1
A
3
1
1
1
1
A
Employment office other .than Aircraft
Compton Junior College
Stenographic
Accountant
Nursery
Teaching
Total
1
Total employed in commercial work
1
3
1
Total
Total employed
Women
3
1
5
1
1
1
8
61
37
8
26
positions through' the employment office at the junior college.
Six of the men obtained secretarial or office positions and
twenty-five of the girls stated they obtained secretarial
positions.
One girl stated she obtained am accounting posi­
tion.
Answers to questions asked the graduates. Table XXIX
is a compilation of the answers to general questions asked of
the graduates.
SIS. you secure employment in the field in which you
specialized while at Compton?
Of the women graduates, twenty-
one answered "yes,* twenty-nine, "no,” and two failed to
answer.
Of the twenty-one who obtained employment in the field
in which they specialized, sixteen were engaged in secretarial
work.
Of the twenty-nine who answered "no,” ten were engaged
in commercial work but had not specialized in that field in
junior college.
Eight had specialized in commercial work but
were not employed in that line of work.
Of this eight, three
were unemployed and two were working under N.Y.A., leaving
three graduates employed in other lines of work.
This seems
to indicate that women graduates seem to fall into commercial
line of work whether they have definitely prepared for it or
not.
Those who prepare for it seem definitely to follow this
line of work.
Out of the eighty men graduates who answered the ques­
tionnaire, only twenty stated that they secured employment in
TABLE XXIX
COMPILATION OF GENERAL ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ASKED OF THE
1939-1940 GRADUATES OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE8
Question
Yes
Men graduates
No Not answered
- Women graduates
Yes No Not answered
Did you secure employment in the
field in which you specialized
while at Compton?
20
50
10
21
29
2
Do you plan to remain in your
present line of work?
23
36
21
25
21
6
Has your Compton training been
helpful to you in your present
job? •'
50 18
12
36
9
7
Was your Compton training adequate
for your present work?
37
23
20
25
18
9
If you were enrolling at Compton
again, would you take the same
course of study?
37
27
16
37
13
2
a Source: Questionnaire to graduates
95
the field in which they specialized while at Compton.
Fifty
answered "no,*1 and ten failed to answer the question.
Of the
twenty who stated ^yes*’ to the question, only two were in the
secretarial field, one of whom was a junior clerk and the
other a secretary.
Eight were machinists, three in engineer­
ing, two were electricians and two in agriculture.
Of the
other three, one was a mortician, one a musician, and the
other in the petroleum industry.
22. you rlan to remain in your present line of work?
Twenty-five women answered f,YesM and twenty-one answered "no."
Six failed to answer.
Of those answering in the affirmative,
five were in secretarial work and one in accounting.
not indicate what field they were engaged in.
Ten did
The other five
were engaged in miscellaneous types of work such as dressmak­
ing, dietetics9 nursing, et cetera.
Of the twenty-one who
answered "no,ft that they did not intend to remain in their
present line of work, eight stated they desired commercial
work as their ultimate goal; four did not indicate, and the
other nine indicated miscellaneous types of work.
Only two
engaged in commercial work indicated that they desired to
change.
Of these two persons, one stated commercial photog­
raphy as the ultimate goal, the other indicated work in a
department store.
These figures show that commercial work
played a very important part in the future of the women gradu­
ates at Compton Junior College.
Of the men graduates, twenty-three stated they planned
to remain in their present line of work and thirty-six stated
they did not plan to do so.
Of those twenty-three, one was
engaged in secretarial work, three in the air corps and the
rest were mechanics, machinists, printers, clerks, et cetera.
Of the thirty-six men who did not plan to remain in their
present line of work, only two were engaged in office work,
the other thirty-four were engaged in factory work, as mechan­
ics, machinists, unskilled labor, truck drivers, et cetera.
Here again is a definite lack of men engaged in commercial
work and again the question may be asked "why?”
The answer
may be found perhaps in some degree in the following chapters.
3. Has your Compton training been helpful to you in
your present .1ob?
Thirty-six women answered "yes," nine said
"no," and seven did not answer.
Of the thirty-six, twenty-two
prepared for commercial work, listed as accounting, steno­
graphic, secretarial, or commercial work.
The courses listed
as being of special value were mentioned in the following
order: typing, fourteen; shorthand, eight; business English,
five; intensive secretarial training, five; bookkeeping,
three; business machines, two; accounting, one; mimeographing,
one; commercial law, one; filing, one; and public speaking,
one;" Of the other fourteen answering in the affirmative,
four had prepared for other types of work but were engaged
in commercial work.
The remaining seven were engaged in
97
dressmaking, clerking, nursing, et cetera.
Gf the nine stu­
dents who found their school training not helpful in their
work, two prepared for commercial work hut are unemployed;
two prepared for teaching, one of whom was doing office work
and the other was unemployed; the other five had taken general
courses in school and were engaged in miscellaneous work such
as clerking, power machine operator, shoe inspector, et cetera.
Fifty men stated their Compton training had been help­
ful to them in their job, eighteen said "no" and twelve did
not answer.
Only four were engaged in commercial work but
they all stated their commercial work at Compton had been
helpful to them.
Thirty were engaged in skilled labor such
as electricians, engineering, machinists, draftsman, welders,
pipe fitters, et cetera.
The other sixteen were engaged in
farming, truck driving, florist, aircraft, salesmen, et cetera.
Of the eighteen who found their training at Compton
Junior College not helpful in their present positions, two
prepared for commercial work and were engaged in farming and
riveting; two prepared for engineering and industrial educa­
tion and were engaged in office work, the other fourteen pre­
pared for general college courses and are now engaged in
skilled and unskilled labor.
Evidently these eighteen were
not counselled carefully or failed to heed the advice of their
counselors.
4** ^aS y°ur Compton training adequate for your present
work?
Twenty-five women stated "yes" to this question,
eighteen stated ,fno,f and nine made no answer*
Of the twenty-
five women who stated !fyes,fT fifteen prepared for commercial
work and were engaged in it*
Two prepared for teaching and
were engaged in commercial work*
The other seven were en­
gaged, in various occupations such as dressmaking, nursing,
accompanist, et cetera*
This again shows the important part
the Business Education Department plays in the future of these
graduates.
Of the eighteen who found their Compton training
inadequate for their present work, seven were engaged in com­
mercial work who had prepared for it in school.
Of these
seven, all stated that additional training was found necessary.
Three indicated a further need for the study of shorthand.
Five who had prepared for work in other fields were engaged
in the commercial field.
The other six were engaged in mis­
cellaneous occupations.
Thirty-seven men found their training at Compton Junior
College adequate for their present position.
only two were engaged in secretarial work.
Of this number
The other thirty-
five were engaged in skilled and unskilled labor for which the
majority had taken the required mechanical courses in school.
There were twenty-three men who found their training inade­
quate for their present position.
in commercial work.
None of these were engaged
Most of them had taken academic courses
and were engaged in work of a mechanical nature.
stated that the courses needed were not available.
Some of them
In the
99
majority of cases it was simply the fact that the student
did not take the type of work in school necessary to fit him
for the occupation.
This was probably due to the fact that
the student had not decided as to the type of work he wanted
to take and so took a general course which did not fit him
for a specific occupation.
This was not necessarily the fault
of his counselor as he can only advise the student and let him
do the deciding.
5 • ££ you were enrolling at Compton Junior College
again, would you take the same course of study?
Thirty-seven
women said they would take the same course of study again.
Of this number twenty-four were in the commercial department,
five in teaching, two in art, and the other six in nursing,
sewing, social work, agriculture, et cetera.
Here again was
found evidence of the importance of the Business Education
Department.
Of the thirteen students who said they would not
take the same course of study again, four prepared for aca­
demic and teaching who stated they would take a business
course if they were returning.
Three prepared for commercial
work and stated they would take more commercial work than
they had, including bookkeeping and intensive secretarial
training.
One prepared for commercial who stated she would
take a straight academic course for the background it offered.
Of the remaining five, three prepared for teaching and stated
they would take academic work, two prepared for home economies,
100
and one stated a preference for general academic course, the
other for a managerial course.
Here again is shown the
preference for commercial training.
Two of the graduates
did not answer this question.
Thirty-seven men stated they would take the same course
of study again.
Seven of them had taken accounting or secre­
tarial courses, although only four were engaged in that type
of occupation.
The other three evidently found it helpful
in their work.
The remaining thirty who said they would take
the same course were engaged in skilled and unskilled labor
and the majority of them had taken mechanics, engineering,
electricity, agriculture, et cetera in school.
Twenty-seven
men said they would not take the same course of study again.
Two of these had taken the commercial course and stated that
it was not in the line of work which they wished to follow.
Eleven had taken straight academic training and stated that
it was not practical enough and that if they returned they
would take industrial courses or secretarial work.
The other
fourteen took industrial courses and later found out that it
was the wrong line of work for them.
Here it was a question
of fitting a round peg into a square hole.
From the answers to these questions, it can be seen
that the Business Education Department plays a very important
part in the life of the students at Compton Junior College.
The question arises as to why more men do not go into the
Business Education Department and an attempt was made to find
the answer to this question in the study of the Business
Education Department.
Summary. The following facts have been brought out in
this chapter:
1. Over the past four years there has been a steady
increase in registration in each grade.
The upper division
has increased considerably more than the lower division.
The
ratio of men to women remained approximately six to four for.,
the entire school over the four-year period.
During the cur­
rent year there was a slight drop in the number of men enrolled
in the thirteenth grade and a slight increase of men in the
fourteenth grade.
The number of women increased in each grade
for the year 1940-1941 except for the fourteenth, which showed
a slight decrease.
2. The average enrollment over the four-year period
indicated that the eleventh and twelfth grades were quite
evenly divided
in enrollment but that the thirteenth grade
was a third larger than the fourteenth on the average.
The
upper division showed a larger registration than the lower
division on the average.
There was a 20 per cent drop indi­
cated from the eleventh to the twelfth grade, and a 44 per
cent drop-out from the thirteenth grade to the fourteenth.
3. During 1940-1941, 45 per cent of the junior college
was composed of lower-division students and 55 per cent
102
upper-division students.
The school was made up of 60 per
cent men and 40 per cent women.
In the lower division, the
number of men and women was evenly distributed but in the
thirteenth grade there were 62 per cent men and 38 per cent
women, and in the fourteenth grade, 65.per cent men and 35 per
cent women.
Thus, it was apparent that more men continue
their junior college education than do women.
The reason for
this might be a lack of subjects offered to attract women in
the upper division.
This was analyzed in the next chapter as
far as the Business Education Department is concerned.
4. The average age in the eleventh grade seemed to be
sixteen and seventeen; the twelfth grade between seventeen
and eighteen.
The girls seemed to be slightly younger on the
average than the boys.
In the upper division, the average age
was from eighteen to nineteen in the thirteenth grade and
nineteen to twenty in the fourteenth grade.
5. There was an increase in registration shown in each
grade for the year 1940-1941.
In the eleventh grade, there
was a 25 per cent increase which was evenly divided between
men and women.
This increase might be explained by the in­
crease in population in surrounding areas due to influx of
population for defense industry employment. There was a
7 per cent increase in the twelfth grade made up of approxi­
mately the same ratio of men and women.
The smaller percent­
age here was probably due to the fact that most of those per­
sons in this grade are eighteen years of age and eligible to
103
go to work.
In the thirteenth grade, no increase or decrease was
found in the number of men registered at Compton Junior College
for the year, but a 13 per cent increase of women was shown.
The fourteenth grade indicated a 6 per cent increase in enroll­
ment for men and 2.7 per cent for women.
Special students
were included in this group.
5. Two thirds of the upper-division students were from
outside the district.
All lower-division students must re­
side within the district.
Therefore, the conclusion can be
drawn that the majority of lower-division students do not go
beyond the twelfth grade at Compton Junior College.
6. Compton City and Enterprise Bistricts comprise
56 per cent of the total number of students in the district,
of which two-thirds v/ere lower division.
Lynwood vms next
with 26 per cent approximately and the remainder was divided
between the other two districts.
7• Los Angeles and San Pedro represented 32 per cent
of all students from outside the district in the upper divi­
sion.
Huntington Park, South Gate, Wilmington, Inglewood and
Gardena represented about 37 P©r cent of the total from out­
side.
The remaining 31 per cent was scattered over a large
area and included nineteen cities in the county; twenty-seven
students from out of the county, eleven of which were from
out of the state.
Thus, it is indicated that the needs of the
students at Compton Junior College are not necessarily the
104
needs of the immediate community but it takes in a wide area
of the surrounding communities and their needs must necessar­
ily be considered*
8. There was an increase in registration of students
from outside the district of 7 per cent over last year*
9* For the year 1940-1941 there was a 19 per cent with­
drawal in the lower division and a 30 per cent withdrawal in
the upper division.
For the entire school, 8 per cent more
men withdrew than women, the largest withdrawal of men occur­
ring in the eleventh and fourteenth grades*
There was a
2£ per cent withdrawal for the school as a whole.
10. The Compton community and surrounding area is an
average working man’s area.
All of the lower-division stu­
dents and 30 per cent of the upper-division students come from
homes of parents living in this area.
Therefore, on the aver­
age they come from the working man’s home.
The 70 per cent
coming from outside the area cannot be measured but a tabula­
tion indicated they came from a slightly higher bracket.
Ap­
proximately, 70 per cent of those students whose fathers are
in professions come from outside the district.
true of proprietors and civil service employees.
This was also
There was
a considerable lower percentage in the skilled labor and semi­
skilled labor groups in the upper division.
There was an in­
dication of about 80 per cent permanency in the occupation of
parents of Compton Junior College which might be indicative
-
105
of the permanency of the community as a whole*
11* Only 13 per cent of the parents of pupils of
Compton Junior College had completed a four-year college.
Forty-five per cent had not attended school beyond the ele­
mentary grades , Thus, 87 per cent had not attended school
beyond the high school level.
Again, it indicated a working
man* s area.
12. During the year 1940-1941, the entire school showed
an increase of withdrawals over the normal average.
The with­
drawals of men increased 6 per cent and the women withdrawals
only *3 per cent.
In the eleventh grade, the men withdrawals
increased approximately 6 per cent but the women withdrawals
decreased 5 per cent.
In the twelfth grade the withdrawals
of men and women were about even.
In the thirteenth grade,
withdrawals of men increased 9 per cent and women, 5 per cent.
In grade fourteen, withdrawals of men increased 8 per cent and
of women decreased 2 per cent.
The total lower-division with­
drawals increased 3*4 per cent and upper division increased
about 5 per cent.
Thus, it appears that the enrollment of
women would remain about the same but that the enrollment of
men would in ail probability decrease to some extent.
13. The majority of the pupils withdrawing did so in
order to go to work or for military reasons. Two thirds of
the withdrawals were from students residing within the dis­
trict.
Of the students in the upper division, the withdrawals
were about evenly distributed within and without the secondary
district.
14. In the eleventh and twelfth grades, there was a
slightly higher enrollment of men than women and a corres­
pondingly higher percentage of men withdrawals.
The number
of men and women survivals in those grades was evenly disi
tributed.
The lower-division survivals constitutes 49 per
cent of the entire school survivals.
In the upper division
the withdrawals of men and women were double that of the
lower-division withdrawals.
Approximately a third more men
withdraw than women, leaving the survivals made up of 65 per
cent men and 35 per cent women in both the thirteenth and
fourteenth grades.
Forty-nine per cent of the entire school
was made up of lower-division students and 51 per cent made
up of upper-division students for the year 1940-1941*
15. The enrollment of Compton Junior College seemed to
be stable as was indicated from a comparison of the enroll­
ment trend with state employment trend over an eleven-year
period.
There was only a 1 per cent increase in enrollment
in upper division this year against a 13 per cent increase
last year.
A gradual increase was indicated in the lower division
or the high school level, which is possibly in conformity with
the increase in population.
Statistics for 1938-1939, 1939-
1940, and 1940-1941 indicated the junior college entrants in
the thirteenth grade have reached an average level and no
appreciable increase was indicated over the four years.
The
fourteenth grade indicated an appreciable increase over the
same period which may be because of the inclusion of special
students with fourteenth grade students.
16. Only about 10 per cent’of junior high school gradu­
ates entering the eleventh grade completed the fourteenth
grade.
Out of 84 per cent entering the eleventh grade from
junior high school, only 46 per cent graduated from the twelfth
grade or lower division and only about 25 per cent entered the
thirteenth grade.
Thus, these figures indicated that the large
majority of students coming in from within the district drop
out of school or transfer before they reach the fourteenth
year.
17. Sixty per cent of the graduates for the year 19391940 from the upper division did not go on to school.
five per cent were employed.
Forty-
Approximately 58 per cent of
the women employed had taken one or more commercial subjects
and 86 per cent had found it helpful in their occupations.
Fifty per cent found the subjects adequate, and 50 per cent
found them inadequate.
Very few men were found to have taken
commercial subjects at Compton Junior College.
18. Most of the graduates obtained their positions
through direct solicitation or through the aid of an acquaint­
ance.
Very few obtained^them through the employment office
at the junior college.
108
19* Women graduates apparently go into the commercial
line of work whether they have definitely prepared for it or
not.
Those who prepare for it seem definitely to follow this
line of work.
Very few men go into commercial work, perhaps
.hecause they are not prepared for it.
Compton Junior College
prepares men students for industry and the majority of the
terminal graduates go into skilled or semiskilled industries.
20. About 50 per cent of the women stated they planned
to continue in their present line of work.
Sixty per cent of
the men wanted to make a change in their present work, but of
those the majority were engaged in factory work as machinists,
mechanics, truck drivers, et cetera.
Very few were engaged
in commercial work.
21. Fifty per cent of the women stated their Compton
training had been helpful to them.
Of the thirty-six women
who said it had been helpful, twenty-two prepared for com­
mercial work.
The courses listed as being of special value
were mentioned in the following order: typing, shorthand,
business English, intensive secretarial training, bookkeeping,
business machines, accounting, mimeographing, commercial law,
filing, and public speaking.
Only four men were engaged in
commercial work but they all stated their commercial work at
Compton had been helpful to them.
22. Twenty-seven out of fifty-two women answering the
questionnaire indicated that their Compton training had been
-109
inadequate for their present work.
Thus, it appears that
twenty-five of the women found their work adequate or help­
ful in their present work.
This is less than 50 per cent.
Of this number, fifteen prepared for commercial work and were
engaged in it.
commercial work.
Two prepared for teaching and were engaged in
Of the twenty-seven who found their Compton
training inadequate for their present work, seven were en­
gaged in commercial work who had prepared for it in school.
Of these seven, all stated that additional training was found
necessary.
Five who had prepared for work in other fields
were engaged in the commercial field.
About 50 per cent of
the men found their training inadequate for their present
position.
Of these, the majority had taken academic training
in school and were engaged in work of a mechanical nature.
The questionnaire was incomplete in regard to the above
in that no measure or definite indication of the efficiency,
completeness, thoroughness or extent of training was indicated
by the position and salary obtained.
A student may have
trained for four years for a commercial position and upon be­
ing employed was not considered capable in this category and
yet was glad to obtain a position as a typist or other lowpaid position, on the same level or in competition with a
high school graduate.
The fact that a position was obtained
in the commercial field and 50 per cent found their training
helpful does not necessarily indicate that the other 50 per
cent were adequately trained.
However, it was taken that at
110
least 50 per cent found their training inadequate and the bal­
ance either adequate or helpful to their position.
23.
All of the women who had taken commercial courses
stated they would take commercial courses of study as their
preference if they were starting over again.
Several who had
taken academic and teaching courses stated they would take
commercial work if they were returning to enroll again.
Here
again is shown the preference for commercial courses by gradu­
ates who have been out in the field and have had some experi­
ence in working.
About 60 per cent of the men said they would
take the same course of study again, of which only a few were
engaged in commercial work.
Thus, about 50 per cent of the
graduates seemed to be satisfied with the course which they
followed at Gompton Junior College.
In this chapter an attempt was made to study the back­
ground of the junior college by which the present might be
compared with the past, with additional information that might
be taken to some extent as an indication or prediction for the
future.
It is by this procedure that the school can ade­
quately determine the educational needs of the students.
Thus, in the following chapters an effort was made to
determine the adequacy of the Business Education Department
to meet the needs of Compton Junior College students both in
the lower and upper division and to determine, if possible,
what revisions or additions might be instituted to meet these
needs.
CHAPTER V
CRITERIA FOR JUNIOR COLLEGE BUSINESS EDUCATION
In order to set up criteria for junior college
business education it was necessary first to determine the
accepted functions of the junior college.
For this study
the accepted functions of the junior college as defined by
Walter Crosby Eells were used, namely:
Popularizing function. To give the advantage of
college education of a general nature to high school
graduates who could not otherwise secure it for geo­
graphical or economic reasons; and to give similar
benefits to mature residents of the community.
Preparatory function. To give two years of work
locally, equivalent to that given-in the freshman and
sophomore years of standard universities, which will
adequately prepare students for upper division speciali­
zation in the university.
Terminal function. To give specific preparation by
vocational courses for specific occupations on the semiprofessional level, qualifying students who finish them
for immediate place in a definite life occupation.
Guidance function. This assumes a scientific inter­
est in the individual traits and ability and the personal
welfare of young students, in training them to think,
in organizing their studies effectively, in supervising
their teaching, and in making the college experience of
each profitable to him to an optimum degree.^
The popularizing function of the junior college may
be met by a scheme of business education designed to serve
the local business man and the high school graduate who is
^ Walter Crosby Eells, The Junior College, p. 191.
112
now in business and who has some desire to go farther.
Such
courses as accounting, marketing, advertising, purchasing,
business economics, secretarial training, are types of
courses which will appeal to people who have already made
some business contacts but who wish to further their business
education on the junior college level.
Business education on the junior college level which
is to fulfill the guidance function must be a type of educa­
tion which gives the student a chance to find himself in the
business world.
It must be a type of curriculum similar to
the orientation courses which are given to the students.on
the first-year level.
Business education in the junior college considered
from the standpoint of the terminal function must be viewed
in an entirely different light.
Here the question is:
Are
the students leaving the junior college for direct engage­
ment in industry?
If so, the business training curriculum
should be based on facts concerning occupations, their
opportunities, wage rates, and skills demanded.
There is a
host of occupations in the business world, as yet unanalyzed,
which require more maturity than that of the ordinary high
school graduate and demand training that might be classed as
semiprofessional.
Such occupations as the high grade secre­
tary, the junior executive, the branch manager, salesmen of
various types, are among those which the junior college
113
business education should aim to fulfill*
If the junior
college graduates are to leave their formal education at the
end of their junior college years, training for these posi­
tions may definitely be extended*
The details of the cur­
riculum are dependent upon the economic activities of the
community which the junior college serves*
It may be well to define vocational education and
semiprofessional education so that it will be clear just
what is meant when the word **semiprofessional" is used.
Definitions* 1* Vocational education includes all
activities directed by schools for the specific purpose of
preparing individuals for successful participation in differ­
ent fields of service.
2* Semiprofessional education differs from strictly
vocational education in that it takes in that field of oc­
cupations which require a training of two years beyond high
school graduation but do not need the four years of training
required in the professional fields.
In the following chapter the writer attempted to
determine how well Compton Junior College fulfills its
generally accepted program in business education according
to the criteria here set up for junior college business
education.
CHAPTER VI
AN EVALUATION OF THE PRESENT PROGRAM OF BUSINESS EDUCATION
AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
Purpose of this chapter* In order to determine how
well the junior college is fulfilling its generally accepted
program so far as business education is concerned it was
necessary to evaluate the program as now offered.
This was
done in the light of the type of school, the community to be
served, and the students to be trained.
Rosco C. Ingalls has set up the following direct
objectives for the evaluation of semiprofessional courses:
(1) To determine the effectiveness for youth and
for the community of the business education course.
(2) To establish plans for further progress.
(3) To clarify thinking about objectives and in­
structional methods for the specific course.
(4) To recognize the fact that research and experi­
mentation in educational courses must be followed by
evaluation procedures.
(5) To encourage studies that develop techniques for
solving educational problems without prejudice and with
adequate prospective.
(6) To stimulate instructors, administrators, and
everyone concerned to more vigorous cooperative
activities when setting up new courses or revising or
discontinuing old ones in semiprofessional fields in
junior colleges.1
1
Rosco G. Ingalls, "Evaluation of Semi-professional
Courses," The Junior College Journal, 7:480-487, May, 1937*
115
In the following chapter it was the attempt of the
writer to evaluate the Business Education Department of
Compton Junior College in the light of the aims and functions
of the junior college according to the following criteria:
1 . Does the philosophy and specific purposes of the
junior college meet the needs of its own community and the
larger communities of which it is a part*
2. Is the curriculum and course of study in the
Business Education Department of Compton Junior College
meeting the needs of the youth in the area in which the
junior college is located and in which it serves.
3* Is the Business Education Department doing its part
in guidance of young people to various types of problems
which they must meet— educational, vocational, health, moral,
social, civic, and personal.
4* Is the Business Education Department efficiently
preparing pupils for vocational service.
5* Is the Business Education Department adequately
equipped to meet the needs of the young people it serves.
6 . Are the teachers in the Business Education Depart­
ment fully prepared to meet the demands of the students in
their teaching field and teaching procedures.
7 . Are the textbooks and other instructional materials
adequate to provide all necessary equipment for learning.
The School Code of the State of California provides
116
that junior colleges may be established as part of the secon­
dary school system of the state, and upon their establishment
there may be admitted thereto, graduates of any high school
and such other candidates over eighteen years of age as may
be recommended for admission by the principal of the junior
college•
In this type of education the range of variation of
the students as to ability, interest, and subjects desired is
greater than that characteristic of the students in any other
unit of education which has up to this time been established
in any school system*
The problem is:
How shall that individual student be
treated who completes his high school education through the
twelfth year, but who does not, for reasons of economy,
because of parental preference, or because of insufficient
recommended units, enter an institution of higher learning?
The theory of equal educational opportunity for all
children is basic in American education; therefore, to live
up to this basic principle, it is necessary to diagnose with
great care, characteristics of each and every individual type
of student and provide adequate facilities for his proper
educational treatment*
The following is a brief survey of the Junior College
Business Education Department of Compton Junior Gollege, not
from the administrative viewpoint, as is so often done, but
117
through, the eyes of over seven hundred students in the
department•
Method of procedure* The method was that of the
questionnaire#
Whatever may be said against the question­
naire for certain types of studies, there can be no doubt
that it is a legitimate instrument of research, in fact, the
only possible one for a study of opinion.
Although some
factual questions were included, the primary object of the
study was to secure opinion, feeling, personal reaction of
the students themselves to various significant aspects of
their junior college life and relationships.
The question­
naire was arranged so as to qualify and prove all statements
made by the students.
The questionnaire may be found in the
appendix.
In this study a detailed analysis was made of the
replies for men, women, and both combined, for all grades
from the eleventh to the fourteenth, including special
students•
In order to evaluate the Business Education Department,
{also referred to as the Commerce Department), as a unit it
was deemed necessary to analyze and evaluate certain aspects
of the school as a whole.
Therefore, these aspects were
treated first in Chapter IT, in order to compare and analyze
their effect on the Business Education Department as a unit.
118
1. A questionnaire was sent to all students of the
entire school who were present on that day, asking for place
of residence, age, sex, year in school, father’s occupation
(if living), scho'ol graduated from, et cetera, (See question­
naire in Appendix).
2. The total enrollment, withdrawal of students, and
other statistical information of the entire school was ob­
tained from the school records#
(See Chapter 17.)
3# Returns of questionnaire was compiled which had
been sent to all upper-division graduates for the year 1940 .
(See Chapter 17 and Appendix.)
4* A questionnaire was given to all business-education
students.
(See Appendix.)
5# A questionnaire was given to all business-education
teachers in the Junior College#
(See Appendix.)
Two thousand one hundred and seventy-six general
questionnaires were returned completely filled out.
Out of a
total enrollment of 2,757 students on that day, this consti­
tuted approximately an 80 per cent return.
This was assumed
to be broad and representative enough to be useful#
A questionnaire was given to every student enrolled
in at least one or more subjects in the Business Education
Department.
Seven hundred and thirty-two questionnaires were
returned completely filled out by the Business Education
Department students which represented approximately 90 per cent
119
of the students enrolled in the department at the time the
questionnaire was given out*
This chapter presents a summary
of the information obtained.
ENROLLMENT
Trend of enrollment of Business Education Department
compared with entire school * Tables I and II, pages 37 and
40, indicated the registration and distribution of students
at Compton Junior College over a four-year period.
From
these tables the average was obtained and tabulated in
Table III, page 42*
These tables indicated that there was a
•34 per cent increase in the school as a whole and particularly
in the upper division.
The increase by grades was as follows:
(See page 38*)
G-rade
Eleven
Twelve
Per cent
35
17
Grade
Per cent
Thirteen
Fourteen
23
70
The average enrollment by grades was as follows:
(See page 39.)
Grade
Eleven
Twelve
Per cent
36
45
Grade
Per cent
Thirteen
Fourteen
64
36
There were no available statistics for the Business
Education Department for use as a comparison with the above.
However, some statistics were found which may indicate the
trend of the department, at least as far as the upper
120
division was concerned.
The California State Department of
Education, Bureau of Business Education, issued a Bulletin
No. 3 entitled Achievement Standards in Selected Subjects in
Business Education in California Junior Colleges from which
the following statistics were taken.
2
These statistics,
taken from a questionnaire, show the enrollment in the upper
division of the Business Education Department of Compton
Junior College for the last four years to be as follows:
1936-1937
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940
149
161
166
148
While these statistics may not be exactly comparable
with the previous statistics shown for the entire school, yet
it does show the trend of enrollment in the upper division
of the Business Education Department. 'While the thirteenth
grade has increased 25 per cent over this period of time and
the fourteenth grade 41 per cent, for the school as a whole
the Business Education Department has shown a very small in­
crease for 1937-1938 and a decrease for 1939-1940.
This was
decidedly out of line with the school enrollment and indicated
a definite need for improvement in the upper division of the
Business Education Department.
2
California State Department of Education, Achievement
Standards in Selected Subjects in Business Education in
California Junior Colleges (Bureau of Business Education,
Bulletin No. 3* Sacramento, California: State Printing Office,
1941), p. 5•
121
Number of students enrolled in commercial subjects
for 1940-1941* Table. XXX shows the number of students en­
rolled in at least one or more commercial subjects between
September 1940 and March 1941*
To obtain this information it
was necessary to go through all of the registration cards of
students enrolled at Compton Junior College between those
dates, as there was no compilation of records available*
This
table reveals that approximately 85 per cent of eleventhgrade students had enrolled in at least one or more subjects
in the commercial department, and that 71 per cent of the
twelfth grade had done the same.
Seventy-eight per cent of
the lower division were represented in the commercial depart­
ment between those dates.
However, only 35 per cent of the
upper division were represented, of which 36 per cent were
thirteenth grade and 41 per cent were fourteenth grade and
special students.
An attempt was made to ascertain the reason
' for the small number of upper-division students enrolled in
the commercial department in the latter part of this study.
Fifty-five per cent, or over half of the school enrollment,
had enrolled in at least one or more subjects in the commer­
cial department.
The ratio of women to men was two to one in
the lower division but very nearly even ratio in the upper
division, with the women having slightly the upper edge.
Number of students enrolled in Business Education
Department second ,semester, 1940-1941* In order to obtain the
TABLE XXX
TABLE SHOWING TOTAL NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN AT LEAST ONE COMMERCIAL
SUBJECT COMPARED TO TOTAL ENROLLMENT FROM. SEPTEMBER, 1940, TO THE-END
OF THE FIRST SCHOOL MONTH OF THE SECOND SEMESTER3
Men
Grade
Per cent
Women
Per cent
Total
in
Commerce
Total
in
school
Per cent
of school
in commerce
Lower division
11th
12th
Total lower div.
301
171
472
36.7
34.9
35.8
519
318
837
63.3
65.1
64.2
820
489
1,309
967
690
1,657
70.8
445
285
730
1,225
834
2,059
36.3
41.3
35.4
2,039
3,716
54.9
84.8
77.8
UERer division
3.3th
14thb
Total upper div.
188
15?
341
i
40.0
53.5
46.7
257
132
389
60.0
46.5
53.3
Entire school
Grand totals
813
39.4
1,226
60.6
a Souree: School records.
122
^ Includes special students.
total number of students enrolled in the Business Education
Department during the second semester, it was necessary to go
through all the program cards of the entire school and enum­
erate those students who were enrolled in one or more classes
in the department for the second semester.
the results of this tabulation.
Table X2GCI shows
Sixty-two per cent of the
enrollment in the department consisted of lower-division
students, of which the women predominated at more than a two
to one ratio.
Approximately 38 per cent were upper-division
students, of which more than half were men students.
The
total number registered in the department in one or more
subjects for the semester was 955 students.
Of this number,
115 withdrew during the semester, leaving a total of 840
students enrolled in the department on the day the question­
naire was given out.
Of this number, 732 were present and
answered the questionnaire, which constituted a return of
87 per cent, which was deemed large enough to be valid.
Of the number enrolled in the department, 40 per cent
were in the eleventh grade, 22 per cent in the twelfth grade,
23 per cent in the thirteenth grade, and only 15 per cent
enrolled in the fourteenth grade which also included special
students•
The eleventh and twelfth grade or high school level
was approximately 65 per cent women and 35 per cent men.
From
this a slight drop in the ratio of men from the eleventh to
the twelfth grade was indicated.
On the junior college level the thirteenth grade indi­
cated a 60-40 ratio of women over men.
From the thirteenth
to the fourteenth grade this ratio changed to 55 per cent
men and 45 per cent women.
Approximately 80 per cent of the women in the entire
junior college and 37 per cent of the men were enrolled in at
least one commercial subject.
Table XXXI indicated that 62 per cent of the commercial
department was composed of students on the high school level.
An indicated drop of approximately 48 per cent of eleventh
grade students occurred in the twelfth grade.
This was
probably due to the fact that many students were interested
only in obtaining one year of typewriting which they received
in the eleventh year.
The upper-division level was approximately 22 per cent
of the commercial department.
This was not on a par with the
whole school which indicated a 55 per cent upper-division
enrollment (see Table IV, page v44)• The commercial department
was, therefore, not drawing as many upper-division students as
it appeared it should.
Number and distribution of students who answered the
questionnaire on June 14, 1941* Table XXXII shows the
number of students who answered the questionnaire and the
distribution by grade and sex.
In the eleventh grade 314
125
TABLE XXXI
TABLE SHOWING ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT SECOND SEMESTER, 1940-1941a
Men
Grade
Per cent
Women
Per cent of
total in
commerce
Per cent
Total
65.3
65.7
65.5
383
210
593
40.1
22.1
62.2
56.0
50.0
53.0
216
146
362
22.6
15.2
37.8
62.0
955
100.0
Lower division
11th
12th
Total lower div.
133
72
205
34.7
34.3
34.5
250
138
388
Upper division
13th
14thb
Total upper div.
95
73
168
44.0
50.0
47.0
121
__ 23
194
Entirei school
Total for school
373
38.0
582
Withdrawals
Lower division
Upper division
Total withdrawals
17
-22
17
58
34
81
40
75
115
!
Enrollment
Enrollment as of
June 14, 1941 >
in commerce
333
a Source: School records.
b Includes special students.
507
840
126
TABLE X X X II
TABLE SHOWING NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS WHO ANSWERED
QUESTIONNAIRE ON JUNE 14, 1941a
Grade
Men
Per cent
Women
Per cent
Per cent of
Total
total
questionnaires
Lower division
11th
12th
Total lower div.
93
61
154
29.7
33.3
31.5
221
122
343
70.3
66.7
68.5
314
183
497
42.8
25.0
67.8
57.0
50.0
53.5
135
100
235
18.5
13.7
32.2
64.3
732
100.0
Upper division
13th
14th*3
Total upper div.
58
108
43.0
50.0
46.5
77
127
Entire school
Total for school
262
35.7
470
Enrollment0
Enrollment as of
June 14, 1941,
in commerce
333
840
507
Questionnaire
Questionnaire
return
Per cent of return
262
470
78.7
732
92.7
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students,
k Includes special students.
C Source: Table XXXI.
87.1
127
answered the questionnaire, of which 221 were women and 93
men.
In the twelfth 244 answered, of which 183 were women
and 61 men.
Of the total lower division answering the ques­
tionnaire, 497 , ^9 per cent were women and 31 per cent men.
This constituted 68 per cent of the department.
Of the 32
per cent in.upper division who answered the questionnaire,
19 per cent were thirteenth grade and 13 per cent were
fourteenth grade.
The number of men and women answering the
questionnaire in the upper division was about equal.
In comparing Tables XXXI and XXXII with Table IV,
page 44 , which showed the number of students registered in
the whole school by grade and sex, the ratio was found to be
quite different.
There were more men than women in school
as a whole and more upper-division students than lower divi­
sion, yet the findings were just the reverse in the Business
Education Department.
to be drawn.
There was only one logical conclusion
Evidently the offerings in the Business Educa­
tion Department were more suitable for lower-division students
than for upper-division students.
Age-grade distribution of students enrolled in Busi­
ness Education Department classes. Table XXXIII shows the
ages of students enrolled in the department and are listed
according to the grade the student was enrolled in.
The
average age was seventeen in the eleventh grade, eighteen
in the twelfth grade, nineteen in the thirteenth, and twenty
128
TABLE XXXIII
AGE-GRADE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN BUSINESS
GLASSES DURING THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
11th
Grade
Age
12th
Grade
13th
Grade
14th
Grade^
Total
by ages
Fifteen
5
0
5
Sixteen
77
1
78
183
48
3
Eighteen
45
114
35
1
195
Nineteen
2
17
71
25
115
Twenty
2
3
15
51
71
Over twenty
0
0
12
22
34
314
183
136
99
732
Seventeen
Totals ■
234
a Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941.
Includes ipecial students.
129
or over in the fourteenth grade.
In comparing this with
\/ Table V, page 47 , it was found to be about the same as that
listed for the school as a whole.
The only significance that
could be drawn from these tables was the fact that the students
were at the age when they were preparing to enter the world of
business and should be given the opportunity to receive that
business training which would best fit them to take their
place.
Geographical source of students enrolled in business
classes. Table XXXIV shows the number of students enrolled
in the department from inside and outside the district.
The
lower division was entirely from within the district as this
is a local ruling.
The upper division, however, shows that
approximately 70 per cent of the students are registered from*,
outside the district.
This follows quite closely the per
cent of the entire school from outside the district as shown
on Table VII, page 57.
This would seem to indicate that for
some reason, the majority of students in the lower division
do not go on into the upper division, at least in the
Business Education Department.
Again it would appear that
only one reason could prevail, that courses are not offered
to attract them into this department in the upper-division
field.
Table XXXV is a breakdown of students residing within
the district to show the distribution of students by dis­
tricts.
Eighty-five per cent of all of the students within
the district come from the Compton-Enterprise District and
TABLE XXXI?
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE OF ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
CLASSES DURING THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Grade
Number in Per cent in Number out
district
district
of district
Per cent out
of district
Totals
11th
313
100.0'
313
12th*
184
100.0
184
Total lower division
497
100.0
497
13th
49
36.3
86
63.7
135
14th
36
26.6
64
73.4
100
Total upper division
85
36.1
150
63.9
235
582
79.5
0
UN
1
—1
20.5
732
Total school
a Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941•
TABLE 232T
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE OF ENROLMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
CLASSES DURING THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
(In secondary district only)
Home residence
Compton-Enterprise
Lynwood
Glearwater-Hynes
Willowbrook
Total in secondary
school district
Per cent of
total (5^2 )
11th
12th Lower Per
grade grade div. cent
188
75
34
120
308
43
16
10
11
118
44
27
313
184
497
53*7
31.6
83.5
83-7
86.2
87.8
85.3
13th 14thto Upper Per Total
Per
grade grade div. cent school cent
29
15
4
20
8
__ 1
3
5
49
36
8.4
6.3
49 16.5
23 16.3
7 13.8
6 18.2
357
141
51
33
85
582
14.7
100.0
61.3
24.2
8.7
5.8
Q
Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941.
Includes special students.
131
132
Lynwood District#
This compared favorably with the school as a whole,
as found on Table VIII, page 53#
Table XXXVI indicates the source of enrollment outside
of the secondary district#
Seventeen towns were represented
from within the county, in the Business Education Department#
The majority come from Los Angeles, San Pedro, Huntington
Park, and South Gate#
This was right in line with the school
as a whole as shown on Table VIII, page 53•
The Business
Education Department, then, does not have a local problem of
placement to meet, judging from this table, but must be able
to offer subjects and prepare students for employment through­
out the county and state#
Withdrawals of students in business classes # Table
XXXVII shows the number of students who withdrew from school
during the second semester of 1940-19419 who were enrolled in
business classes#
This table indicated a very low withdrawal
average of 12 per cent for the department as a whole.
Only
6 per cent withdrew in the lower division, but of this number
the sex distribution withdrawal was equal, seventeen boys and
seventeen girls having withdrawn.
However, in the upper
division, 22 per cent withdrew, of which the ratio of women
to men was almost three to one.
This appears to be a logical
conclusion as women students go into a one-year intensive
secretarial course and brush up on the commercial courses and
133
TABLE XXXVI
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE OF ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
CLASSES DURING THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
(Out of secondary district)
Totals by
grades
Enrolled
Per
cent*5
Enrollment out of secondary district
11th
313
42.8
In county:
12th
184
25*1
Lower division
497
67.9
13th
135
18.4
14th
100
13.7
Upper division
235
22.1
Total school
732
100.0
Los Angeles
San Pedro
Huntington Park
South Gate
Wilmington
Inglewood
Gardena
Bell
Redondo
Torrance
Long Beach
Downey
El Segundo
Lomita
Moneta
Watts
Hondo
Total
l?th
14th
13
10
15
4
4
4
6
5
4
4
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
18
7
4
9
2
1
6
1
3
2
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
31
17
19
13
6
5
12
6
7
6
5
2
1
2
1
1
1
4
4
.-A
8
7
Total out of
district
Total in district
85
Jk2
65
150
-2k
Total upper
division
134
101
Out of county:
In state
Out of state
8l
Sourcer Questionnaire given June 14, 1941*
k Per cent of total enrollment (732),
235
TABLE XXXVII
TABLE SHOWING WITHDRAWALS OF ALL STUDENTS BY GRADE AND SEX FROM COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
BUSINESS EDUCATION CLASSES DURING THE SECOND SEMESTER OF THE YEAR 1940-l%laNumber and
Per cent
Sex
Number
Per cent Average
per cent withdrawn withdrawal Survivals
survivals
of
withdrawn
registered
distribution survivals
both sexes
Sex
Total
school
survival
Lower division
Men
Women
Totals
17
17
34
205
m
34.5
65.5
188
8.3
4*3
SSL.
6.3
593
33*5
66.5
559
91.7
95*7
77.8
85.1
93.7
81.4
86.9
70.0
78.0
66.0
74.0
68.0
88.0
74.2
Upper division
Men
Women
Totals
23
58
81
wmmmmm
168
194
362
46.4
53.6
13*1
30.0
22.0
145
126
281
51.2
48.8
Commercial Department
Men
Women
J1
373
582
Totals
U5
955
40
39*0
61.0
a Source: School records.
10.7
12.2
333
m
12.0
840
39.6
60.4
135
then withdraw as soon as an opportunity arises to obtain a
position.
(Note that this was for second semester.
* XLII, page
was for the entire school year.
Table
Apparently
withdrawals were greater the first semester than the second.)
In comparing Table XXXVTI with Table XII, page 60,
showing withdrawals for the school as a whole, there was
found to be approximately the same ratio of upper and lowerdivision withdrawals.
However, the men withdrew in larger
numbers than the women, in the school as a whole.
This again
was logical since a greater number of men find it necessary
to be self-supporting in comparison with the women students.
v This was borne out in a study of Table XLV, page 147 , which
shows the number of students working part time.
Occupations of parents of students registered in
business classes. Tables XXXVIII, XXXIX, and XL show the
occupations of parents of business-education students.
This
was obtained to determine, if possible, the type of homes
from which the students come, and to compare them with the
students in the whole school.
(See Table XIV, page 64 .)
It was found that the occupations of those parents of students
In the department paralleled that of the school as a whole.
Approximately 40 per cent of the parents were engaged in
public service, office work, business operators, and a small
proportion (9 per cent) in agricultural pursuits.
This would
indicate that the occupations are somewhat stabilized and not
TABLE m
ra i
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS REGISTERED IN BUSINESS EDUCATION CLASSES AT COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE DURING THE SECOND SEMESTER OF THE IEAR 1940-1941a
Num­
ber
Occupation of father
Per
Grade Grade Total lower Grade Grade Total upper Grand cent
total total
nth 12th
division
13th 14thc division
1 Professions
2 Proprietors
*3a Civil service
#3b Skilled labor, permanent and
semiprofessional
*3c Skilled oil workers
Office workers
4
Sales
workers
5
6 Agriculture
7 Skilled and semiskilled labor,
semipermanent
8 Small businesses
9 Defense industries
10 Unskilled industries
11 Retired or disabled
12
Unemployed or on relief
13 Deceased, divorced, unknown
Totals
15
11
39
55.5
37.9
62.9
4
7
15
8
11
8
12
18
23
44.4
.62.1
37.1
27
29
62
3.8
4.0
8.5
16
44
1
13
26
30
14
30
74
3 - 4
20
7
40
14
52.6
87.0
50.0
64.5
63.5
13
9
2
8
14
14
6
2
3
9
27
15
4
11
23
47.4
13.0
50.0
35.5
36.5
57
89
8
31
63
7.9
10.9
1.0
4.3
8.6
81
31
9
6
8
6
29
36
20
8
1
3
5
21
117
51
17
7
11
11
50
77.6
70.8
70.8
50.0
47.8
90.9
71.4
19
14
5
6
6
12
15
7
2
1
6
0
8
151
72
24
14
23
12
70
20.9
10.0
3.6
2.0
3.3
1.7
9.5
314
183
497
135
100
7
8
29
Per cent distribution of
questionnaire
42.9
Per cent of entire department^ 37*3
8
■ 3
10
25.0 67.9
21.8 ..........
1
18.4 13.7
16.2 12.0
34 22.4
21
29.2
7 29.2
50.0
7
52.2
12
1 , 9.1
20 28.6
*
235
32.1
28.2
732
100.0
87.?
a Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941, to Business Education Department,
k Breakdown of those engaged in skilled labors of a permanent nature,
Q
Includes special students,
^ Number enrolled in department when questionnaire was given out— 640, see Table XXXVII.
137
TABLE XXXIX
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS' OF STUDENTS'REGISTERED AT COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE IN BUSINESS EDUCATION DURING THE SECOND
SEMESTER OF THE YEAR 1940-1941 GROUPED BY PERCENTAGES*
Number
7
3c
8
6
3a
3b
5
2
1
9
11
10
12
4
13
Occupations
Skilled and semiskilled labor,
semipermanent
Skilled oil workers
Small businesses
Agriculture
Civil service and public service
Skilled labor, permanent and semiprofessional
Sales workers
Proprietors
Professions
Defense industries
Retired or disabled
Unskilled industries
Unemployed or on relief
Office workers
Deceased, divorced, unknown
a Source: Table XXXVXII.
Percentage
20.9
10.9
10.0
8.6
8.5
7.9
4.3
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.3
2.0
1.7
1.0
9.5
138
TABLE XL
OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS REGISTERED AT COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE IN BUSINESS EDUCATION DURING THE SECOND
SEMESTER OF -THE YEAR 1940-19418
(Combination of classifications in Table XXXVTII)
"T" n r -a m■
ji ' . r . . ..r
1n.
.........
— j-rra, t:: r - u 's i t b . : . - -tv t
1r
m js . a . :rm : a i-x ’in
Group
Percentage
Manufacturing and skilled labor
group (Nos. 3b, 3c, 7, 9)
Unskilled labor group (No. 10}
43.3
2.0/
Skilled and unskilled labor group
total
45.3
.Public service and civil service
group (No. 3a}
Office workers, clerical workers
and salesmen (Nos. 4, 5)
Business operatores (No. 2, 8}
Agriculture (No. 6)
Professions (No. 1)
8.5
5.3
14.0
8 6
3.8
.
Semiprofessional and professional
total
Unemployed or on relief (No. 12}
Retired or disabled (No. 11)
Deceased, divorced, unknown (No. 13}
Unemployed and unknown group
total
Total
40.2
1.7
3.3
.
14.5
100.0
a Source: Table XXXVTII.
of a migratory nature.
Table XXXIX indicated tiiat 45 par
cent are in the skilled and semiskilled labor group.
was indicative that it was a working man’s area.
This
It also
indicated that the students in the Business Education Depart­
ment were a cross section of the entire school and not just
the students who must get out and earn a living as soon as
possible.
Educational status of parents of students enrolled in
business classes. To further obtain the background of the
students, the educational status of the parents of commercial
students, Table XLI, was compared with that of the entire
school.
{See Table XVII, page 68.)
This again parallels the
school as a whole, showing that 47 per cent of the parents
had completed high school and 12 per eent completed college.
Enrollment and withdrawals of all students in the
Business Education Department during the year 1940-1941
including both semesters♦ This information is found on
Table XLII, page 142.
This table indicates the trend of
withdrawal in the commercial department.
In the lower divi­
sion the men withdrew by a two to one ratio over the women.
In the upper division the ratio was almost reversed.
In the
fourteenth grade the withdrawals were almost equal for men
and women.
This may be because the enrollment of men and
women was approximately the same in the fourteenth grade.
TABLE XLI
TABLE SHOWING EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF PARENTS OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN
BUSINESS EDUCATION CLASSES AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE DURING
THE SECOND SEMESTER, 1940-1941a
Educational status
Lower division
11th
12th
Upper division
13th
14th
Total
school
Per cent
of total
Attended elementary school
129
66
38
28
261
35.7
Graduated from high school
144
84
68
44
340
46.5
35
19
18
20
92
12.6
6
14
11
8
39
5.2
314
183
135
100.
732
100.0
Graduated from four-year
college, university, or
teacher*s college
No answer
Totals
a Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941*
140
141
The withdrawal for the department was small in comparison
with the entire school.
Reasons for withdrawal were not available for the
Business Education Department separately.
However, Table XIX,
page 7 2 , shows the reasons for the school as a whole which
might be taken as the trend for the students enrolled in
business education classes.
A large withdrawal occurred in
the intensive secretarial training classes because of the
many calls for stenographers and secretaries for National
Defense Industries.
Probably the large majority of with­
drawals from the commercial department were students who
were going into positions immediately.
The geographical distribution of withdrawals paralleled
that of the entire school as shown on Table VII, page 51
The number of withdrawals within and without the district was
approximately equal.
(See Table XLII, page 142*)
Years in attendance at Compton Junior College. Tables
XLIII and XLIT show the number of years the students have been
in Compton Junior College.
This is important only as far as
the upper division is concerned.
Approximately 46 per cent
of the thirteenth grade had been at Compton for two years,
25 per cent one year, and 21 per cent three years.
This
would indicate that very few eleventh grade students from
Compton Junior College were enrolled in the commercial de­
partment in the thirteenth grade.
This is probably due to
142
TABLE X L II
TABLE SHOWING ENROLLMENT AND 'WITHDRAWALS OF ALL STUDENTS BY GRADE AND SEX
WHO WERE ENROLLED IN AT LEAST ONE SUBJECT IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE DURING THE YEAR 1940-1941a *
Grade
ex
Number
registered
Per cent
Number
Per cent
registered withdrawn withdrawn Average
Lower division
11th
12th
Lower division
Men
Women
Total
301
519
820
37.0
63.0
39.0b
62
47
109
20.0
15.0
Men
Women
Total
171
318
489
35.0
65.0
23.0b
40
42
82
23.0
13.0
Men
Women
Total
472
$31
36.0
64.0
62.0b
102
89
191
22.0
11.0
32
17.0
23.0
1,309
17.0
23.0
16.5
Upper division
13th
14th
Upper division
Men
Women
Total
.251
445
42.0
58.0
21.0b
Men
Women
Total
168
194
362
47.0
53*0
17.0b
17
Men
Women
Total
356
451
807
44.0
56.0
38.0b
49
88
137
188
20.0
97
10.0
12.0
11.0
40
11.0
19.0
15.0
Business Education Department
Both divisions
Men
V/omen
Total
828
1,288
2,116
39.0
61.0
100.0b
a Source: School records.
Per cent of students registered.
151
172
' 238
18.0
12.0
15.0
143
TABLE X L III
TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF YEARS IN ATTENDANCE AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE,
INCLUDING THE YEAR 1940-1941, FOR STUDENTS ENROLLED IN
BUSINESS CLASSES, SPRING OF 1941a
Grade
Sex
One
year
Two
years
Three
Four
years years
Five
years
No
answer
Total
Lower division
11th
Men
Women
Total
93
221
314
12th
Men
Women
Total
17
49
66
42
2
J2°
Jl
Total lower div .Men
Women
Total
110
270
380
42
70
112
93
221
314
112
5
2
-2
5
61
122
183
154
343
497
Upper division
13th
Men
Women
Total
18
15
33
30
_J2
62
5
24
29
Men
Women
Total
14
.1k
28
23
27
50
6
Total upper div. Men
Women
Total
32
29
61
14thb
2
3
6
9
2
-5
11
4
-1
7
' 1
2
1
3
53
11
6
1
5
-52
-22
112
40
■
1
-2
9
1
6
1
9
1
58
JXL
135
50
- 52.
100
-2
12
108
127
235
7
10
17
262
470
732
Commercial Department
Both divisions
Men
Women
Total
142
299
341
95
129
224
11
.22
40
a Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941*
*h
Includes special students.
144
TABLE X L III (c o n tin u e d )
TABLE SHOEING NUMBER OF TEARS IN ATTENDANCE AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE,
INCLUDING THE YEAR 1940-1941, FOR STUDENTS ENROLLED IN
BUSINESS CLASSES, SPRING OF 1941a
Grade
One
year
Sex
Two
years
Three
years
Four
years
Five
years
No
answer
Total
Compton High School graduates
Number in attendance
13th
Men
Women
Total
11
26
37
14th
Men
Women
Total
v16
9
25
Total number
Men
Women
Total
a Source: Questionnaire given on June 14, 1941•
27
-22
62
TABLE XLIV
TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF XEARS IN ATTENDANCE AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE, INCLUDING THE IEAR
1940-1941, FOR STUDENTS ENROLLED IN BUSINESS CLASSES, SPRING OF 1941a
Lower division
Upper division Total Commerce
Years attended 11th 12th Total 13th 14th Total
Department
Per
cent
One year
66
380
33
28
61
441
60.3
112
112
62
50
112
224
30.7
Three years
29
11
40
40
5.5
Four years
2
7
9
9
.2
1
1
1
.1
314
Two years
Five years
No answer
314
5
9
3
12
17
2.2
183
497
135
100
235
732
100.0
37
25
62
37
25
62
Source: Table XLIII.
srt
Totals
5
Number of Compton
High School graduates
13th 14th Total
a lack of subjects offered to induce them to stay.
is true in the fourteenth grade.
The same
Fifty per cent of the four­
teenth grade stated that they were in their second year, 28
per cent had been there only one year, and 11 per cent had
been there three years.
Thus, it was found that students
were not enrolling in the commercial department at Oompton
Junior College to any great extent from the lower division.
Table XLIV, page 145, shows that 60 per cent of those en­
rolled in the business classes had been in Compton Junior
College only one year (including upper and lower division),
31 per cent two years, and 9 per cent more than two years.
Thus it can be seen that few lower-division graduates continue
to junior college, upper division, in the commercial depart­
ment.
The interesting fact shown by Table XLIV was that only
62 students out of 732 were Compton High School graduates.
This would indicate that courses were not offered of sufficient
variety to draw the high school graduates back into the com­
mercial department for the thirteenth and fourteenth years.
Students working part time. Table XLV shows the num­
ber of students in the Business Education Department who
stated that they were working part time, and Table XLVI shows
the nature of their work.
Thirty-four per cent of all stu­
dents in the department stated that they were working part
time.
Of that number (251), 138, or 53 per cent, were lower
division.
Of the lower-division students working, approximately
147
TABLE XLV
TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF STUDENTS WORKING FART TIME WHO WERE ENROLLED
IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
DURING THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Sex
Grade
Working part time?
No
Yes No answer Totals
Per cent*5
working
part time
Per cent
of total
Com'l. Dept,
Lower division
11th
12th
Lower div.
Men
Women
Total
39
Men
Women
Total
32 26
Men
Women
Total
10
28
38
93
221
314
42.0
14.0
28.0
12.7
30.2
42.9
3
10
13
61
122
183
52.0
29.0
40.0
8.4
16.7
25.1
71 70
13
67 238 _J8
138 308
51
154
m.
47.0
20.0
34.0
21.1
46.9
78.0
62.0
36.0
49.0
7.9
10.5
18.4
50
-52
100
64.0
34.0
49.0
6.8
6.8
13.6
108
127
235
63.0
35.0
49.0
14.6
44
71 205
35
77
67 103
497
Upper division
13th
14th
Upper div.
Men
Women
Total
36 19
_2§ 42
64 62
3
6
9
Men
Women
Total
32
_17
49
5
Men
Women
Total
32
.73
113 105
13
3.0
43
68
8
8
17
58
JZZ
135
.Usk
32.0
Commercial Department
Both div.
Men
Women
Total
Per cent of total
£t
21
139 102
112 311 J±L
68
251 413
34.3 56.4
9. 3
262
422
732
100.0
Source: Questionnaire given June 14, 1941*
52.0
28.0
35.7
J.k±3.
100.0
148
TABLE XLV I
TABLE SHOWING TIFE OF WORK STUDENTS ?®RE ENGAGED IN WHO WERE
WORKING PART TIMEa
Nature of work
Office work
Store clerk
House work
Farming
Service station
Labor
Restaurant
Usher in theatre
Newspaper
Beauty shop
Music
Salesman
Shop work
Not stated
Lower division
Men Women Total
5
12
13
14
9
2
22
14
20
4
2
4
4
1
1
1
7
2
Totals
70
67
Per cent of
totals
27.9
26.7
8l
Upper division
Men Women Total
Per cent*3
3
4
48
18
4
4
6
9
5
5
3
1
1
1
8
1
75
44
24
21
20
18
9
9
7
2
2
2
15
3
30.0
17.2
9.6
8.3
8.0
7.2
3.5
3.5
3.2
.8
.8
.8
6.0
1.1
66
48
114
251
100.0
26.3
19.1
27
26
20
17
14
9
4
4
4
1
1
1
7
2
17
12
137
54.6
Total
4
6
9
2
1
3
1
1
1
8
1
Source: Questionnaire of June 14, 1941*
Per cent of total working part time.
31
6
4
45.5
100.0
.
149
12 per cent were working in offices, 12 per cent working as
store clerks, and the remaining 76 per cent engaged in vari­
ous occupations including manual labor.
Of the upper-division students working, 42 per cent
were working in offices, 16 per cent as store clerks, and the
other 42 per cent in various occupations including manual
labor.
From these figures it can be seen that the need for
early training in office courses was necessary to allow these
students an opportunity to obtain some skill in those subjects
which they will use as an aid to obtaining further education,
or occupations.
Business subjects completed at Compton Junior College.
Tables XLVII and XLYIII show the subjects completed and per­
centages, by students at Compton Junior College in the
Business Education Department.
Five hundred and twenty, or
71 per cent, of the students enrolled in the Business Educa­
tion Department had completed typewriting for two semesters.
One hundred and forty-four, or 20 per cent, had completed two
years of typewriting.
Forty-four per cent had completed'
shorthand for two semesters, and 7 per cent for two years.
Twenty-seven per cent had had one year of bookkeeping at
Compton, and 15 per cent had completed a course in commercial
law.
From these statistics it can be seen that the students
150
TABLE XLVII
TABLE SHOWING LIST OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS COMPLETED AT COMPTON JUNIOR
COLLEGE BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Subjects completed
at Compton J.C.
Lower division
Upper division
Men Women Total ’ Men Women Total
Typewriting 1 and 2
Shorthand 1 and 2
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Typewriting 3 and 4
Commercial Law
Business Machines
Economics
Shorthand 3 and 4
Accounting 1 and 2
Business English*3
Secretarial Practice
Typewriting $ and 6
135
8
24
9
18
2
21
0
0
0
0
0
235
143
70
75
14
22
19
21
4
0
0
0
370
151
94
84
32
24
40
21
4
0
0
0
Total answering
questionnaire
154
343
497
ci
b
Grand
total
61
16
40
13
38
7
32
3
28
0
0
2
89
81
66
47
35
44
25
24
22
39
39
15
150
97
106
60
73
51
57
27
50
39
39
17
520
248
200
144
105
75
97
48
54
39
39
17
108
127
235
732
'
Source: Questionnaire given June 14* 1941*
Included in Secretarial Practice Course.
151
TABLE XLVIII
TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS COMPLETED AT COMPTON JUNIOR
COLLEGE BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Subjects completed
at Compton J. C.
Typewriting 1 and 2
Shorthand 1 and 2
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Typewriting 3 and 4
Commercial Lav/
Business Machines
Economics
Shorthand 3 and 4
Accounting 1 and 2
Business English
Secretarial Practice
Typewriting 5 and 6
Lower division
Men Women Total
87.6
.5
15.6
8.4
11.6
.1
13.6
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
a Source: Table XLVII.
68.2
41.6
20.3
21.8
4.1
6.4
5.5
6.1
1.1
.0
.0
.0
77.9
30.3
18.9
16.9
6.4
4.9
8.1
4.2
.9
.0
.0
.0
Upper division
Men Women Total
56.4
14.8
27.0
12.0
35.1
5.5
29.6
2.7
25.9
.0
.0
1.8
70.0
63.7
51.9
37.0
27.5
34.6
11.8
18.9
17.3
30.7
30.7
11.8
63.2
41.2
45.1
25.7
31.0
21.6
24.2
11.5
21.2
16.5
16.5
7.2
Grand
total
;
71.0
33.8
27.3
19.6
14.3
10.2
13.2
6.5
7.3
5.3
5.3
2.3
152
were taking advantage of the courses offered but that since
the majority of those students were in lower division, there
was little left for them to take in the upper division.
They
practically exhausted the offerings in the commercial departu ment in the lower division.
Table XL711, page 150, shows the
extent of the offerings in the commercial department at the
present time.
A glance at the number of students completing
those courses would make it apparent that more upper-division
courses were necessary in order to give them a full businesseducation training.
Business subjects completed at other schools.
In order
to obtain a true background of the commercial students it was
thought necessary to ascertain what subjects in commerce they
had taken at other schools before coming to Compton.
Tables
XLIX and L show the results.
Only ninety-seven, or 13 per cent, had taken typewriting
outside of Compton Junior College.
Less than 10 per cent had
taken any of the other commercial subjects outside of Compton
Junior College.
Business subjects desired by students. Tables LI and
LII show the number and percentage of subjects desired by
students enrolled in the business classes at Compton Junior
College.
In answering this question, the students were asked
to give their answer as though they were entering the eleventh
153
TABLE X L IX
TABLE SHOWING LIS T OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS COMPLETED AT OTHER SCHOOLS
BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF
COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Subjects completed
at other schools
Typewriting 1 and 2
Bookkeeping
Penmanship
Typewriting 3 and 4
Salesmanship
Business Mathematics
Business English
Filing
Shorthand
Office Practice
Advertising
Office Etiquette
Shorthand 3 and 4
Merchandi sing
Business Machines
Economics
Commercial Geography
Commercial Law
Accounting
Banking
Typewriting $ and 6
Total answering
questionnaire
Lower division
Men
Women
Total
Upper division
Men
Women
Total
Grand
total
3
6
1
2
1
3
0
2
0
3
2
1
0
3
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
16
22
16
1
6
8
3
13
1
4
4
1
0
2
2
3
2
0
1
3
1
19
28
17
3
7
11
3
15
1
7
6
2
0
5
3
4
3
0
1
3
1
36
21
14
11
13
11
10
5
4
10
3
4
7
4
2
2
4
5
3
1
0
42
21
20
20
12
8
4
4
15
12
1
3
2
0
3
1
0
1
1
1
0
78
42
34
31
25
19
14
9
19
22
4
7
9
4
5
3
4
6
4
2
0
97
70
51
34
32
30
17
24
20
34
10
9
9
9
8
7
7
7
5
5
1
134
343
497
108
127
235
732
a S o u rc e : Q u e s tio n n a ire g iv e n June 1 4 , 1941*
154
. TABLE L
TABLE SHOEING PERCENTAGE OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS COMPLETED AT OTHER SCHOOLS
BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF
COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Subjects completed
at other schools
Typewriting 1 and 2
Bookkeeping
Penmanship
Typewriting 3 and A
Salesmanship
Business Mathematics
Business English
Filing
Shorthand
Office Practice
Advertising
Office Etiquette
Shorthand 3 and 4
Merchandis ing
Business Machines
Economics
Commercial Geography
Commercial Law
Accounting
Banking
Typewriting
Lower division
Men Women Total
1.9
3.9
.0
.1
.0
.1
.0
.1
.0
.1
.1
.0
.0
.1
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
. .0
.0
a Source: Table XLIX.
4.6
6.3
4.8
.0
.1
2.3
.8
3.7
.0
1.1
1.1
.0
.0
.6
•6
.8
•6
.0
.0
.8
.0
3.8
5.6
3.4
.0
1
2.2
.6
3.0
.0
1.2
1.2
.0
.0
3.5
.5
.6
.0
.0
.0
.6
.0
.
Upper division
Men Women Total
33.3
19.4
12.9
10.1
12.0
10.1
9.2
4.6
3.7
9.2
2.7
3.7
6.4
3.7
1.3
1.3
3.7
4.6
2.7
.0
.0
33.1
16.5
15.7
15.7
9.4
6.3
3.1
3.1
11.8
9.4
2.3
1.5
1.0
.0
1.5
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
■ .0
33.1
17.9
14.4
13.1
10.6
8.0
5.9
3.8
8.0
9.3
1.7
2.9
8.0
1.7
2.1
1.2
1.7
2.2
1.7
.0
.0
Grand
total
13.4
9.5
7.0
4.6
4.3
4.0
2.3
3.2
2.7
4.6
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
.1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
.6
.6
.0
155
TABLE L I
TABLE SHOWING L IS T OF SUBJECTS DESIRED BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE
BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Subjects
Lower division
Men Women Total
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Filing
Business English
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Office Practice
Secretarial Training
Shorthand 3 and 4
Office Etiquette
Accounting 1 and 2
Typewriting 5 and 6
Business Mathematics
Penmanship
Salesmanship
Advertising
Merchandis ing
Commercial Law
Banking
Economics
Commercial Geography-
124
51
44
40
27
30
33
24
16
14
14
42
19
35
27
35
28
28
21
27
16
0
Total answering
questionnaire
154
.
Upper division
Men Women Total
Grand
total
95
83
65
52
55
60
59
1
89
42
31
39
25
34
33
22
14
17
11
35
10
34
24
25
40
30
21
26
22
11
113
61
65
78
56
55
49
65
58
54
46
37
42
39
36
24
23
24
19
16
16
0
202
103
96
117
81
89
71
87
72
71
57
72
52
73
60
49
63
54
49
42
38
11
641
314
294
265
248
240
234
212
213
185
172
165
160
150
155
132
128
106
104
102
97
12
497
108
127
235
732
315
160
154
108
140
121
130
101
125
100
101
51
89
42
68
48
37
24
’34
33
43
1
439
211
198
148
167
151
163
125
141
114
115
93
108
343
77
a S o u rc e : Q u e s tio n n a ire g iv e n June
14, 1941*
156
TABLE L I I
TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS DESIRED BY STUDENTS ENROLLED
IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
(Based on number of students who answered the questionnaire)
Lower division
Subjects
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Filing
Business English
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Office Practice
Secretarial Training
Shorthand 3 and 4
Office Etiquette
Accounting 1 and 2
Typewriting 5 and 6
Business Mathematics
Penmanship
Salesmanship
Advertising
Merchandi sing
Commercial Law
Banking
Economics
Commercial Geography
Upper division
Men
Women
Total
Men
Women
Total
80,5
33.1
28.5
22.0
17.5
19.4
21.4
15.5
10.4
9.0
9.0
27.2
12.3
22.7
17.5
22.7
18.1
18.1
13.6
17.5
10.0
.0
91.8
46*6
31.4
31.4
40.8
35.2
37.8
29.4
36.4
29.1
29.4
14.9
38.5
12.2
20.0
14.0
10.8
.7
9.9
9.6
12.5
.0
88.3
42.4
30.0
29.7
33.6
30.4
32.9
25.1
28.3
22.9
23.0
18.7
21.8
15.5
19.3
16.7
13.1
10.4
11.0
12.0
11.8
.0
82.7
38.8
36.1
36.1
23.1
31.4
30.5
20.3
13.0
15.7
10.1
38.6
9.1
31.5
22.2
23.1
37.0
27.7
19.4
24.0
20.3
10.1
89.7
48.1
61.4
61.4
44.0
43.3
38.6
51.1
45.6
42.5
36.2
29.1
33.0
31.4
28.2
18.9
18.1
18.9
15.0
12.6
12.7
.0
86.2
43.8
50.0
50.0
34.4
38.0
30.2
37.0
30.6
30.2
24.2
30.6
20.0
31.1
25.2
21.2
26.8
23.0
20.8
17.8
16.1
10.1
a S o u rc e : T a b le s X X X II and X L V II.
Total
per cent
request"
subjecl
87.5
42.8
40.1
40.1
33.9
32.7
31.9
28.9
29.0
25.2
23.5
22.5
21.8
20.5
21.1
18.0
17.4
14.4
14.0
13.9
13.2
1.0
grade and expected to attend all four years.
The majority
of the students did this in making their answers.
Students
who had already taken typewriting, for example, answered
this question as though they had not yet enrolled.
Thus,
641 students stated that they desired typewriting 1 and 2
(first year). Of this number 439 were lower division and
202 upper division.
This represented 88 per cent of those
answering the questionnaire (732 answering). Hext in order
of importance was business machines.
Three hundred fourteen
students desired this subject, 211 lower division and 103
upper division, or 43 per cent of those answering.
Forty
per cent desired first year shorthand; 34 per cent filing;
33 per cent Business English; 32 per cent bookkeeping; 29
per cent office practice, of which 125 were lower division
and 87 upper division.
Twenty-three subjects were requested.
Table LII, page 156 gives the percentages of men and women
who desired the various subjects and the total lower and
upper-division students desiring them.
Tables LIII and LIV
show the percentage of subjects desired by men and women
students separately.
Thus, it can be seen that the men
desired approximately the same subjects as did the women,
with the exception of a pronounced desire of the men in the
upper division for advertising, salesmanship, merchandising,
and banking.
Table LV,combined Tables LIII and LIV to show
the average number of men wanting the subjects and the average
158
TABLE LIII
TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OP SUBJECTS DESIRED BY MEN STUDENTS
ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COMPTON
JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
(Listed in order of desires)
Subject
Lower division
men
Per cent
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Typewriting 3 and 4
Accounting
Business Mathematics
Salesmanship
Shorthand 1 and 2
Bookkeeping
Business English
Advertising
Merchandising.
Banking
Filing
Penmanship
Office Practice
Commercial Law
Typewriting 5 and 6
Secretarial Training
Economics
Shorthand 3 and 4
Office Etiquette
Commercial Geography
80.5
33-1
28.5
27.2
22.7
22.7
22.0
21.4
19.4
18.1
18.1
17.5
17.5
17.5
15.5
13.6
12.3
10.4
10.0
9.0
9.0
0.0
a Source: Table LIX.
Subject
Upper division
men
Per cent
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Accounting
Advertising
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Business Mathematics
Business English
Bookkeeping
Merchandising
Banking
Salesmanship
Filing
Penmanship
Economics
Office Practice
Commercial Law
Shorthand 3 and 4
Secretarial Training
Commercial Geography
Office Etiquette
Typewriting 5 and 6
82.7
38.8
38.6
37.0
36.1
36.1
31.5
31.4
30.5
27.7
24.0
23.1 1
23.1
22.2
20.3
20.3
19.4
15.7
13.0
10.1
10.1
9*0
TABLE LIT
TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS DESIRED BY WOMEN STUDENTS
ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COMPTON
JUNIOR COLIEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
(Listed in order of desires)
/
Subject
Lower division
women
Per cent
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Filing
Typewriting 5 and 6
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Secretarial Training
Business English
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Office Practice
Office Etiquette
Shorthand 3 and 4
Penmanship
Accounting
Salesmanship
Economics
Business Mathematics
Advertising
Commercial Law
Banking
Merchandising
Commercial Geography
91.8
46.6
40.8
38.5
37.8
36.4
35.2
31.4
31-4
29.4
29.4
29.1
20.0
14.9
14.0
12.5
12.2
10.8
9.9
9 •8
.7
a Source: Table LII.
.0
Subject
Upper division
women
Per cent
Typewriting 1 and 2
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Office Practice
Business Machines
Secretarial Training
Filing
Business English
Shorthand 3 and 4
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Office Etiquette
Typewriting 5 and 6
Business Mathematics
Accounting
Penmanship
Salesmanship
Merchandising
Advertising
Commercial Law
Economics
Banking
Commercial Geography
89.7
61.4
61.4
51.5
48.1
45.6
44 •0
43.3
42.5
38.6
36.2
33.0
31.4
29.1
28.2
18.9
18.9
18.1
15.0
12.7
12.6
.0
160
TABLE LV
TABLE SHOWING AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS DESIRED BT MEN AND
WOMEN STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
,.
Subject
Upper and lower
division
Men
Average per cent
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Accounting
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Business Mathematics
Advertising
Bookkeeping
Business English
Salesmanship
Merchandising
Banking
Filing
Penmanship
Office Practice
Economics
Commercial Law
Shorthand 3 and 4
Secretarial Training
Typewriting 5 and 6
Office Etiquette
Commercial Geography
81.0
37.0
32,9
32.3
29.0
27.1
27.1
25.8
25.4
22.9
22.9
20.7
20.3
19.8
17.4
15.2
14.5
12.3
11.5
10.7
9.5
5.0
«
,. ^
Subject
Upper and lower
division
Women
Average per cent
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Shorthand 1 and 2
Typewriting 3 and 4
Filing
Secretarial Training
Office Practice
Business English
Bookkeeping
Shorthand 3 and 4
Typewriting 5 and 6
Office Etiquette
Penmanship
Accounting
Business Mathematics
Salesmanship
Advertising
Commercial Law
Economics
Banking
Merchandising
Commercial Geography
a Source: Tables LIII and LIV.
89*7
47.3
<46.4
46.4
42 .4
41.0
40.5
39.2
38.2
35.8
35*7
32.8
24.1
22.0
21.8
16.5
14.5
13.0
12.5
11.1
9.9
.0
161
number of women desiring them.
This percentage was based
upon the total number of men and women answering the ques­
tionnaire.
The table speaks for itself.
Table LVI is a combined report of subjects taken at
Compton and elsewhere, together with the subjects which the
students desired.
Subjects majored in by students in Business Education
Department. Although Compton Junior College counselors do
not stress majors as such because of the feeling that by
doing so it limits the opportunities of the students, this
question was asked in ordrer to determine just what the inter­
ests of the students who answered the questionnaire were, and
how many were actually majoring in commerce.
Table LVII
shows the replies to these two questions: "Are you a commerce
major?" if not, "What is your major?"
The answers show that
47 per cent of the students definitely stated they were
majoring in commerce.
Of these 202 were lower division and
141 upper division, out of a total of 343 students.
Only
24 were lower-division men and 84 upper-division men.
This
indicated that most of those majoring in commerce were women.
The other majors, in order of popularity, were: social science,
science, mathematics, home economics, language, shop, music,
and art.
These majors do not necessarily indicate the
student’s interest, as a major consists of a subject or sub­
jects taken for at least three years in a certain field.
162
TABLE L V I
TABLE SHOWING LIST OF SUBJECTS CHECKED BY STUDENTS ENROLLS) IN THE
BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR
THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941a
Subjects
Typewriting 1 and 2
Business Machines
Typewriting 3 and 4
Shorthand 1 and 2
Filing
Business English
Bookkeeping 1 and 2
Office Practice
Secretarial Training
Shorthand 3 and 4
Office Etiquette
Accounting 1 and 2
Typewriting 5 and. 6
Penmanship
Business Mathematics
Salesmanship
Advertising
Merchandising
Commercial Law
Banking
Economics
Commercial Geography
PBX and Mimeograph
Number who took
subjects at:
Compton*5 Elsewhere*5
$20
75
144
248
0
39
200
0
39
48
0
54
17
0
0
0
0
0
10$
0
97
0
0
97
8
34
20
24
17
70
34
0
9
9
5
1
51
30
32
10
9
7
5
7
7
0
Total answering questionnaire
a Source: Questionnaire given June 14* 1941.
b Source: Tables XLVII, XLIX, and LI.
Number of subjects
students desire and
per cent requesting*
641
314
294
26$
248
240
234
212
213
18$
172
16$
160
155
1$0
132
128
106
104
102
97
12
4
87.5
42.8
40.1
36.2
33.9
32.7
31.9
28.9
29.0
2$.2
23.5
22.$
21.8
21.1
20.$
18.0
17.4
14.4
14.0
13.9
13.2
1.0
.0
732
100.0
.
TABLE LVII
TABLE SHOWING- ANSWERS' BT STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941,
TO THE QUESTIONS, ffARE LOU A COMfetCE MAJOR?*,
IF NOT, "WHAT IS YOUR MAJOR?"a
Major
Commerce
Social Science
Science
Mathematics
Home Economics
Language
Shop
Music
Art
Not stated
Totals
Lower division
Men Women Total
Upper division
Grand
Men Women Total total
Per cent
of
total
24
35
34
13
0
4
21
5
1
17
178
28
21
26
36
12
0
9
7
26
202
63
55
39
36
16
21
14
8
43
57
13
13
4
0
3
11
0
0
7
84
10
7
0
1
11
0
4
1
9
141
23
20
4
1
14
11
4
1
16
343
86
75
43
37
30
32
18
9
59
46.8
11.7
10.2
6.0
5.1
4.1
4.3
2.4
1.2
8.2
154
343
497
108
127
235
732
100.0
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students.
164
Many students fall into a major just because they happen to
have the required number of years in that field and not be­
cause it was their major interest.
It seems possible, however,
that those majoring in commerce have done so because of a real
interest, because most of the work in commerce had to be
elected in the last two years of high school and, therefore,
it was more likely a definite choice made by the student.
Table LYII, page 163 , indicated that approximately 46 per cent
of the students In the Business Education Department were
majoring in commerce.
If this was true and the majority of
these students were lower division, it would indicate that
more courses should be offered in upper division so that these
students could continue their business education on the junior
college level and by so doing be prepared to obtain and main­
tain a position in a higher salary bracket than those entering
the business field upon high school graduation.
Do you have a typewriter at home?
To this question on
the questionnaire 62 per cent answered Myes.,f Out of 453
answering thus, 288 were lower division and 165 upper division.
This indicated a pronounced interest in typewriting both at
home and at school.
Do you plan to go to business college after finishing
at Gompton Junior College?
Sixty-eight per cent answered
wnow to this question, 20 per cent nyes,ft and 12 per cent
165
were "undecided."
Are you thinking of leaving Compton Junior College to
take a special commercial course in a business college?Seventy-nine per cent answered "no," 13 per cent "yes," and
8 per cent were ,"undecided."
If you could obtain employment now would you give up
your school education?
Eighty-one per cent answered "no"
and 19 per cent answered "yes."
These three questions tabulated on Table LVIII bear
out the fact that the students know what they are doing, at
least as to their immediate future.
The majority were not
planning on going to business college immediately or upon
finishing at Compton Junior College.
However, the 12 per cent who stated they were planning
to leave immediately or upon finishing Compton Junior College
to go into business college should be considered.
Twelve
per cent of the total 732 answering the questionnaire were
evidently not satisfied with the offerings at Compton Junior
College•
Do you intend to get a job on finishing at Compton
Junior College?
Sixty-two per cent answered "yes" to this
question and 38 per cent answered "no" or failed to reply
-f
(see Table LIS).
Of those who stated they intended to work
immediately, 315 were lower division and 141 upper division,
TABLE LVIII
TABLE SHOTMG ANSWERS BT STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT AT
COMPTCN JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941, TO THE QUESTIONS LISTED BELOW*
Question
Lower division
Upper division
Total
Per cent
288
209
165
70
453
279
61.8
38.2
Are you thinking of leaving CJC to Yes
take a special commercial course No
in a business college?
Undecided
77
386
34
31
188
16
108
5741
. 50
13*4
78.4
8.2
Do you plan to go to business
college after finishing CJC?
Yes
No
Undecided
106
330
61
40
169
26
146
499
87
19.9
68.2
11.9
If you could obtain employment
now would you give up your
school education?
Yes
No
78
419
60
175
138
594
18.9
81.1
Do you have a typewriter at home?
3^
Answer
Yes
No
Sourcet Questionnaire to commercial students.
166
TABU] LIX
TABLE SHOWING ANSWERS BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941, TO THE QUESTION,
”DO YOU INTEND TO GIT A JOB ON FINISHING AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE?,ta •
Lower division
Men Women
Total
Upper division
Men
Women Total
Total
department
p
cent
Yes
109
206
315
55
86
141
456
62.3
No
45
137
182
53
41
94
276
37-7
154
343
497
108
127
235
732
100.0
Totals
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students.
168
oat of a total of 456.
This indicated that the majority in
the Business Education Department were terminal students and
should be prepared to go into the business world upon finish­
ing at Compton Junior College.
Thus, it was indicated that
subjects should be offered which would be of greatest use to
them immediately upon entering their occupations.
Of the 38 per cent who stated they were not going to
obtain a position on finishing at Compton Junior College it
might be assumed that they were going on in further prepara­
tion for their occupation..
It would be wise to ascertain if
the reason for their continuance elsewhere was due to lack
of courses offered at Compton.
If you intend to get a job on finishing at Compton
Junior College what kind of work will you try to obtain?
Table LX shows the answers to this question.
Two hundred
twenty-six students, or 20 per cent, stated they planned to
obtain secretarial work.
This included bookkeeping and ac­
counting as well as stenographic and secretarial work.
Of
this number 137 were lower division and 96 upper division.
Only about sixteen out of each division were men., Occupa­
tions next in importance were sales clerk, machinist, news­
paper work, aircraft industry, aviators, et cetera.
Only
14 per cent stated they "didn* t know” what kind of work they
would try to obtain.
This table indicated that the students
seemed to know quite definitely what they hoped to do.
169
TABLE LX
TABLE SHOWING ANSWERS BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER,
1941, TO THE QUESTION, “IF TOO INTEND TO GET A JOB ON
FINISHING AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE WHAT KIND OF WORK
WILL TOO TRY TO OBTAIN?1ta
Type of work
Secretarial
Telephone company
Sales clerk
Aviator
Aircraft industry
Commercial art
Newspaper work
Librarian
Radio
Beauty operator
Nurse
Seamstress
Machinist
Drafting
Factory worker
Civil service
Service station
Waitress
Truelong
Agriculture
Oil worker
Music teacher
Don’t know
Totals
Per cent of totals
Lower division
Men Women Total
Unoer division
Men Women Total
Total
Per ceni
20.1
2.1
8.3
2.4
2.1
16
2
6
5
6
0
3
0
2
0
0
0
29
4
1
4
2
0
1
1
1
0
32
121
6
21
3
0
2
4
3
0
3
7
3
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
20
137
8
27
8
6
2
■ 7
3
2
3
7
3
29
4
5
4
2
1
1
1
1
2
52
17
1
7
4
4
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
72
1
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
96
2
11
4
4
0
5
0
1
0
1
0
9
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
226
10
38
12
10
2
12
3
3
3
8
3
38
6
6
5
2
1
1
1
1
2
63
115
200
315
51
90
141
456
11. 1
19.7
25*:2, 43.8
69.0
30.8
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students".
100.0
2.4
1.7
8.3
1.3
1.3
1.0
13.8
170
Twenty-two occupations were listed.
In the majority of the
occupations listed commercial training would be an asset to
the individual, at least in the basic subjects such as typ­
ing, bookkeeping, Business English, business arithmetic, et
cetera.
Are you planning to attend the thirteenth and four­
teenth grades?
Table LXI*shows the answers to this question.
The interpretations of this question were a little difficult
to make as the answers were vague.
Fifty-one per cent
answered "yes" they were planning to attend the thirteenth
and fourteenth grades.
Thirty-five per cent answered "no.”
Three per cent stated they planned to attend the thirteenth
grade only and 11 per cent were "undecided."
Of those stating
"yes," in the lower division, 132 were women and 79 men; in
the upper division 54 were women and 49 men.
The thirty-five
per cent answering "no" were, of course, lower-division
students.
What are your plans after graduation?
the answers to this question.
planned to go to work.
Table LXII lists
Forty per cent stated they
Seven per cent were going to business
college, 16 per cent to a four-year college and 15 per cent
to junior college.
This last per cent was probably high school
graduates who expected to continue on at junior college.
Others stated they planned to attend a trade school, beauty
TABLE LXI
TABLE SHOWING ANSWERS BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE EOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941, TO THE QUESTION,
"ARE YOU PLANNING TO ATTEND Tip THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH GRADES?Ma
Answers
Lower division
Men Women
Total
Upper division13
Men Women
Total
Yes
79
132
211
No
61
154
215
12
12
7
23
36
59
5
163
334
497
61
13th only
Undecided
Totals
49
314
50.9
215
34.7
7
19
3.0
7
12
71
11.4
61
122
619
100.0
54
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students,
b
Fourteenth grade students not included.
103
Total
department Per cent
172
TABLE LXII
TABLE SHOWING ANSWERS BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941,
TO THE QUESTION, ,TWHAT ARE YOUR PLANS AFTER GRADUATION?**
Answers
Business college
Four-year college
Junior college
Trade school
Beauty college
Farming
Air corps
Navy
Nursing
Marriage
Work
Don*t know
Totals
Lower division
Men Women Total
Upper division
Men Women Total
Total
Dept.
4
16
53
2
0
2
3
2
0
0
64
8
42
23
57
3
11
0
1
0
12
22
105
67
46
39
110
5
11
2
4
2
12
22
169
75
3
57
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
39
9
4
22
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
86
11
7
79
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
125
20
53
118
110
5
11
2
4
2
14
24
294
95
154
343
497
108
127
235
732
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students.
Per cent
7.3
16.1
15.0
3.0
40 j1
12.9
173
college, go into farming, join the navy or air corps, take
up nursing, or get married.
know.”
Thirteen per cent stated "don1t
The interesting fact was that the majority seemed to
know quite definitely what they planned to do.
Of those
planning to work, 294 were upper division, 169 lower division.
This question was interpreted to mean graduation from high
school or junior college, as some of the students were in
lower division and some upper division and would interpret it
from that angle.
Are you planning to attend a college or university
upon leaving this institution?
If so. where?
This question
was asked, as some students would be transferring before
graduation and so were not covered by the previous question.
Table IXLII gives the answers to these two questions.
Twenty-
four per cent stated they were planning to transfer to a
four-year college or university.
Fifty-four per cent stated
definitely "no” and 22 per cent were "undecided.”
This again
indicated that over 50 per cent of students in the Business
Education Department were terminal students.
Of the 24 per
cent going on to junior college upper division or a four-year
college, which totaled 175 students, about evenly divided in
lower and upper division, 26 per cent stated The University
of Southern California as their choice, 30 per cent the
University of California at Los Angeles, 5 per cent University
of California, and approximately 17 per cent were divided
174
TABLE EXIII
TABLE SHOWING ANSWERS BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1941,
TO THE QUESTION, "ARE YOU PLANNING TO ATTEND A COLLEGE OR ,
UNIVERSITY UPON LEAVING THIS INSTITUTION?
Answers to the
questions
Yes
No
Undecided
Lower division
Men Women Total
43
105
6
46
159
138
89
264
144
IF SO, WHERE?"3,
Upper division
Total
Men Women Total Dept.
61
30
17
Per cent
86
130
19
175
394
163
23.9
53.8
22.3
5
10
0
o
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
29
19
7
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
1
6
2
46
53
9
2
3
2
1
4
1
1
2
1
7
3
26.2
30.1
5.2
• 1
1.6
1.1
.9
2.2
.9
.9
1.1
.9
4.0
1.6
25
100
2
College!s or universities
12
U. S. C.
U. C. L. A.
14
U. of California
2
Stanford
1
Occidental
1
0
Redlands
Pomona
0
Santa Barbara State 0
Pepperdine
1
0
Fresno State
San Diego State
0
0
Loyola
San Jose State
1
1
Whittier
Out of state
2
schools (11)
8
Undecided
5
20
0
0
2
2
1
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
17
34
2
1
3
2
1
3
1
1
0
0
1
1
24
9
.7
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
5
1
3
9
5
17
8
4
3
3
11
7
16
24
9.1
13.1
Totals
43
46
89
61
25
86
175
100.0
Per cent of total
24. 5 26.3
50.8
34.8
14*4
34.8
100.0
.
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students.
175
among eleven other California schools.
Nine per cent named
eleven out-of-state universities or colleges.
cent were undecided.
Thirteen per
The majority of the students in the
commercial department seem to know where they were heading
and have their immediate future mapped out.
The excellent
counseling facilities at Compton Junior College may have been
responsible to a large extent for these definite decisions.
Table LXIV shows the students’ answers to the following
questions, which were inserted in.the questionnaire to ascer­
tain whether it would be worth while to establish a commerce
club in the Business Education Department.
Do you belong to one or more school clubs?
Thirty-two
per cent answered ’’yes” to this question and 68 per cent "no."
The clubs mentioned totaled seventeen, and included the T.W.C.A.,
Y.M.C.A., ¥fomen’s Athletic Association, Mirmirthenian (Honor
Scholarship Society), Finance Commission, Japanese Club,
Newman Club (Catholic club), Vox (dramatics), Student Talent
Association, Deseret Club, Manager’s Club (athletics), Band,
Ytfriters’ Club, Crew Club, Kappa Eta, International Forum, and
South American Club.
Do you attend them regularly.?
stated "yes," 21 per cent "no."
Seventy-nine per cent
This indicated that the
majority of those belonging to clubs attended them and took
an interest in the activities.
TABLE LXIV
TABLE SHOWING ANSWERS BY STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THE BUSINESS EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COILECE FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER,
1941, TO THE QUESTIONS LISTED BELOWa
Questions asked
Upper division
Total
Lower division
Per
Answer Men Women Total Men Women Total dep* t. cent
Do you belong to one
or more school clubs?
Yes
No
33
121
10?
236
140
357
27
81
67
60
94
141
234
498
31.9
68.1
Do you attend them
regularly?
Yes
No
27
6
81
26
108
32
21
6
56
11
78
17
186
*49
79.0
21.0
44
45
65
137
110
96
181
155
161
28
47
36
66
23
35
94
70
71
275
225
232
37.6
30.7
31.7
Would you belong to a
Yes
Commerce Club if one
No
were organized?
Undecided
a Source: Questionnaire to commercial students.
177
Would you belong to a Commerce Club if one were
organized?
Thirty-eight per cent stated ”yes,” 31 per cent
wno,” and 32 per cent were "undecided.”
Of those who were
undecided a number stated that they would have to know more
about the club, which shows they were not idly answering the
questionnaire but were really giving the questions some
serious thought.
From these answers it would seem that a
Commerce Club might be a good activity in stimulating inter­
est and be an aid to those who planned on going into commer­
cial work upon finishing school.
On the whole the answers to the questionnaire indi­
cated that the majority of students answered the questions
thoughtfully and seriously.
Only one questionnaire was not
completely filled in and so was discarded.
The careful man­
ner in which they answered the questions showed their interest
in the department and subjects offered.
On the back of the questionnaire the students were
asked to give constructive criticisms of courses which they
were taking.
They were requested not to deal in personali­
ties but rather to list outstanding good points or defects
in the course.
These criticisms were tabulated and will be
used in the department wherever the suggestions were of a
practical nature.
Teachers’ questionnaire. A questionnaire was presented
to the nine teachers of the Business Education Department to
17 B
obtain their opinion on some questions pertaining to the
department.
The following is a summary of the returns.
The
questionnaire used will be found in the Appendix.
you believe the present offerings in the
Business Education Department meet pupil needs?
In answer
to this question, two stated "yes" and seven "no."
If "no," list the defects. Some of the defects listed
were:
(1) Seven teachers stated the need for Business
English for both lower and upper-division students.
(2) Five stated a need for merchandising and sales­
manship courses.
Other statements were made as follows:
(1) Terminal work for lower-division graduates needs
expansion.
(2) Insufficient elective courses.
(3) Need a clerical major; also a course in filing
and business machines for lower-division students.
(4) Need advanced accounting course. Also business
arithmetic for vocational and terminal students.
(5) Need a clerical training for lower intellectual
levels.
2* 22 you believe that better outcomes could be ob­
tained by separating lower- and upper-division students in
commercial classes?
three made no answer.
Six answered "yes" to this question and
Under "yes" one teacher qualified the
179
answer by stating "yes” in some classes such as shorthand
and applied economics.
Under "no answer" one teacher said
she had had no opportunity to observe, since she had been in
the department but a short time.
classes such as shorthand.
Another said "yes" in some
Some of the teachers hesitated
to answer the questionnaire with frankness and so qualified
practically all statements made.
3* 1£ the above answer is "yes" state which classes
you feel should be segregated. Three teachers stated all
classes should be segregated including typing, bookkeeping,
accounting, and shorthand.
Two teachers stated those subjects
should be segregated which give the upper-division students
too great an advantage over the younger students because of
more English background, et cetera.
Two teachers did not
qualify their "yes" statement.
Cbeck the following class size you believe would be
most conducive to efficient teaching and the length of period.
Subjects
Typewriting
Shorthand
Stenography
Bookkeeping
App'. economics
Accounting
Bus. machines
Business law
Sec. Training
Glass size
30 - W
50, no answer
1
6
5
5
3
6
6
1
5
6
1
1
2
A
1
1
6
1
1
-1
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
(2 teachers did not answer this
question)
-Length of period.
(with comment)
B stated classes
should be 55 minutes
1 "no answer"
3 stated transcription.
or stenography should
be 110 minutes in
1ength
2 stated accounting
should be 110 minuts in length
180
The majority of the teachers felt that between thirty
and forty students should be the average class size for ef­
ficient teaching*
5* ££ it were feasible to organize some additional
classes in the Commerce department, check the following list
in the order in which you feel they should be added to attain
the best results in fulfilling pupil needs * The following is
a list shown in the order that the teachers listed them:
1. Business English
2.
3*
4•
5*
6.
7*
8.
9*
10.
11.
(6 gave it first place, 3 second
place)
Business mathematics (6 gave it 1, 2, or 3rd place)
Salesmanship
Third-year typing
Filing
Penmanship
Third-year shorthand
Office machines
Merchandising
Business organization
Advertising
From these results it would seem that most of the
teachers believe that Business English, business mathematics,
and salesmanship should be offered both upper and lowerdivision students.
6* Are the outcomes of the Commerce Department as a
whole meeting business requirements?
and four, answered "partially."
Five answered "yes"
This probably indicated that
they do meet business requirements as far as the offerings
go, but that not all of the subjects were offered which are
necessary to meet business needs.
181
7* Should there be closer cooperation with business?
Eight answered "yes” and one teacher answered "no."
Thus
there is indicated a need for closer cpntact with business.
At the time the study was made there was no contact being
made directly with business by any member of the department.
there overlapping of courses in the Commerce
Department?
One stated "yes,” three stated "no,” and six
stated "some.”
One teacher stated that some overlapping
might be considered desirable, as the repetition of certain
principles improves learning.
9* If above answer is "yes” state where the over­
lapping occurs. Only four teachers answered.
Four teachers
indicated an overlapping in shorthand, typing, and intensive
secretarial training.
Two of them stated an overlapping in
bookkeeping and intensive secretarial training.
This over­
lapping was interpreted to mean an overlapping in the ad­
mittance of students to courses for credit who have had previous
work in the same subjects and to some extent in subject
matter.
Students were allowed to repeat courses and to take
intensive secretarial training and then come back into other
classes offering same type of work.
I®* I® tfoQ equipment of the Commerce Department adequate
to meet the needs of the community?
seven answered "no."
Two answered "yes” and
182
11# Recommendation for additional equipment or room
changes# Some room changes were recommended, such as more
blackboard space and better lighting; individual typewriting
tables {there are now two typewriters on one table), et
cetera.
The only equipment recommended was the addition of
some bookkeeping machines and office machines.
12* 52. y°a believe meetings of the department are held
as frequently as they should be?
Six answered "yes," one
stated "no,” and two made "no answer."
13. How frequently should departmental meetings be
held?
Two answered "once a month,
four "when considered
necessary," and three made "no answer."
The meetings have been held only when some special
matter had to be brought to the attention of the department
faculty.
Apparently this was considered a satisfactory ar­
rangement •
14* Do you believe problems which concern the depart­
ment as a whole should be presented to the administration by:
(1) Individual teachers
(2) By department head upon recommendation of teachers
as a whole
(3) By a coordinating committee of the Commerce
Department
(4) By department head only.
183
Eight teachers stated §2 ”by department head upon recom­
mendation of teachers as a whole.”
”by department head only.”
One teacher stated #4
Two teachers said all of the
first three should be done, #1 for individual matters and
#3 if it were found to be more practical.
But the majority
seemed to agree that #2 was the best method to. be followed.
15.
Are you of the opinion that the function of the
.1unior college is largely terminal, filling the need of a
vocational field for students on the level between high school
and university? All of the teachers stated ”yes” to this
question.
One qualified the answer: ”if question concerns
Commerce Department the answer would be ’yes,* if it concerns
the whole junior college the answer is ’no.1 This answer is
measured by the number of students concerned rather than by
the attitude of the student body as a whole as they enter
junior college.
I believe the junior college has a dual
function.”
The question was asked from the standpoint of the needs
of the majority of the students in the Business Education
Department and it has already been shown in this writing that
it was largely terminal.
It is a recognized fact that the
junior college must also take care of those students who
desire to go on to higher education as well as those who will
terminate their education with the completion of their junior
college training.
184
16. Since high schools teach shorthand, typewriting;,
bookkeeping, and salesmanship, is it necessary for junior
college to do thesame?
felt these
All
nine of the teachers stated they
subjects should be taught on the junior college
level even though offered inthe high school.
3-7• 322. you
think thatcoursesshould be offered beyond
the high school level such as insurance salesmanship, civil
service exams, junior accounting, window display, store dis­
play, retail merchandising, personal finance, store manage­
ment and merchandising, et cetera?
"yes" and one answered "no."
"Hot at Compton at present.
enrollment."
light teachers stated
That one qualified the answer:
Perhaps in a school of larger
The question did not specify Compton and was
only asked to obtain the opinion of the teachers as to whether
they thought there was a place for these subjects in the
junior college.
The answers indicated that there was a
definite place for them on the junior college level.
18. Do you feel that the community needs and intent of
students served by Compton Junior College is largely vocational
and terminal?
light teachers stated "yes," one stated "no,"
and qualified it by "If this means commerce "yes," if whole
school "no."
The affirmative to this question has previously
been shown by the tables in this writing.
It seemed to be the
consensus of opinion of the teachers in the Commerce Depart­
ment also.
185
19« £o yQ{X fQel that Compton Junior College should
devise a means of adjusting our curriculum to the needs and
standards required of business?
Sight answered "yes" to this
question, one answered "no" with the remark, "Perhaps this
would be an ideal situation.” Much can be done toward reach­
ing this ideal situation, and this survey seemed to indicate
that further effort should be made along this line.
20. Should we set up reliable standardized performance
tests of vocational ability to be used as a measure of
achievement? Eight answered ”yes,” and one made ”no answer.”
Some of the comments were:
"Perhaps this would be an ideal situation.”
"If possible and practical.”
"Doubtful whether tests could be devised which would
be absolute in determining such factors.”
"If possible” (stated by two teachers).
21. If answer to the above is ”yes” should we organize
a procedure for continuing the development and progress of
such tests?
Seven answered ”yes,” and two made ”no answer.”
A comment was made: "Perhaps this would be an ideal situation."
Little had been done in the department along this line at the
time of this writing.
Each teacher apparently set up her own
standards and two teachers teaching the same subject might
have different standards of achievement.
The general reaction
to this statement seemed to be that something could well be
done in this regard.
186
22 • £2 you believe a separate record of business
education students would be of value or should be installed
to act as a perpetual record in placement, follow-up, and
aid in measuring outcomes and adequacy?
Six answered "yes"
and two "no"; one made "no answer*"
23. Do you feel that Compton Junior College as a whole
leans toward academic training rather than terminal education?
Five teachers stated "yes," two stated "no," and two stated
"don’t know?"
One teacher stated "yes" and "no" by saying:
"I believe the institution serves the needs of both," which
is, of course, a recognized fact.
24. Do you feel that the progress of the Commerce
Department is being retarded for this reason?
Two teachers
answered "yes," four stated "some," two stated "don’t know,"
and one answered "no."
Some of the comments were: "yes,
for other vocational training."
This was interpreted to mean
for vocational subjects in other departments.
Another comment
was "there are many other factors which act as a retarding
jtorce, e.g., funds with which to start the improvement
process."
This, of course, is also a recognized fact and is
one which is taken into consideration in the progress of any
department in any school.
187
25* Do you feel that the Commerce Department should
be revised and adjusted in order to obtain more practical
outcomes? Sight teachers answered "yes” and one made "no
answer."
Some of the teachers stated that they hesitated to
give frank answers to the questions because they might not
agree with administrative policy, so that these questions
may not have been answered frankly in all cases.
However,
the faculty was aware that this survey was made with the full
consent and cooperation of the administration.
Those teachers
in closest contact with the students would necessarily know
their needs and desires and be best able to judge whether the
department comes up to the highest standard or whether it
could be improved.
The administration indicated it would
welcome a frank opinion by the teachers as an aid in obtaining
a true picture of the needs of the department, and would wel­
come suggestions on ways and means of bringing the department
up to the highest standards attainable.
26. Mark the following general aspects as follows:
*Check column 1 if condition is present or made to a satistory degree.
^Gheck colunn2 if condition is present or made to some
extent or fairly well.
***Check column 3 if condition is present but not satisfactory
or is not present.
188
THERE IS DEFINITE EVIDENCE IN THE COMMERCE CLASSES
THAT PUPILS ARE DEVELOPING:
4c
1
(1) A knowledge of the common language of
business
(2) General understanding of economic na­
ture of business and how it operates.
(3) Vocational efficiency in at least one
type of business employment sufficient
to permit a graduate to secure an
initial position.
(4) A general understanding and knowledge
of present day economic problems and
phases of citizenship from the stand­
point of theconsumer.
(5) The ability to adapt onesself to occu­
pational changes brought about by
inventions or other social and
economic changes.
(6) A knowledge of business practices and
being proficient in those business
skills needed by all intelligent
consumers.
(7) A personality which will be welcomed
in business and society alike.
(8) An understanding of ethical business
standards.
>U 'i'
2
^
3
5
4
2
5
7
2
2
6
1
2
4
3
2
6
2
1
6
5
2
2
2
The majority of the teachers seem to agree that these
aspects are being taken care of to some extent at least.
One
teacher failed to answer #7 . One teacher stated "these ques­
tions are entirely subjective."
Another stated: "The above
was difficult to answer in that the courses may be offered
but the students may not elect to take them." This is, of
course, very true, but it would be assumed that the students
would have to take the subject in order to obtain the desired
results.
The question to be decided was: "does the subject
189
teach it so that if the student takes the course he will
obtain the desired outcome?"
The answers show that the in­
structors felt that the courses were designed to give these
desired outcomes, at least fairly well.
This check list was obtained from a study made by the
committee on the Gooperative Study of Secondary School
1
Standards
and was listed under desired outcomes for business
education.
Their statement of guiding principles is stated
herewith:
In the educational program of a good secondary school,
major concern should be given to attaining desirable
outcomes and to the various kinds of evidence indicating
that such outcomes are being realized. . . . There should
be evidence that pupils are able to make desirable choices
or to exercise good judgment in the selection of friends,
vocations, . . . .
Evaluation of such activities involves
more than determining the amount of knowledge possessed,
measuring the degree of skill, and testing the scope of
understanding . . . , important and necessary as all of
these are. Among others, intangible qualities such as
cooperativeness, tolerance, open-mindedness, respect for
law and self-reliance are highly desirable outcomes.
Evaluation of such outcomes is by no means easy; for
most of them there is no standard measure and therefore
evaluation of them necessarily will be largely a matter
of judgment. . . .
In evaluating the answers to these questions three
questions were asked:
for vocational service?
(1) How efficiently are pupils prepared
(2) How well do pupils understand the
importance of personal qualities in securing and holding a
Evaluative Criteria and Educational Temperatures,
pp. 81-93*
190
job?
(3) How well do they appreciate the part business
plays in the everyday life of the individual and of society?
•The teachers* answers indicated that students were
being well prepared for vocational service at least to obtain '
an initial position.
The importance of personal qualities
in securing and holding a job was taught to some degree and
their appreciation of the part business plays in the everyday
life of the individual and of society was being stimulated to
some extent in the various business subjects which were
taught.
In general, the questionnaire revealed that there were
many places wherein the efficiency of the department might be
improved.
However, many factors were indicated which contribu­
ted to the difficulties of approaching an ideal situation.
Lack of funds was found to be the greatest of these.
Another
difficulty indicated was the lack of rooms available for the
offering of more subjects.
However, analysis of opinions of the members of the
department seemed to indicate that there was need for re­
visions and improvements in the department.
In order to evaluate the Business Education Department
as a whole, certain other phases besides the questionnaires
had to be taken into consideration.
Courses offered, enroll­
ment in these subjects, number of teachers in the department,
class load, educational background of the teachers, business
191
background of the teachers and the equipment in the Business
Education Department*
Courses offered in the department* Courses offered
for the year 1940-1941 were as follows:
*
First semester
Second semester
Stu­
dents
Course
*Beg. typing 11a
lib
^Shorthand
12a
12b
*Bookkeeping 14a
14b
App. econ. 15a
15 b
*Adv. typing 21a
21b
*Adv. shthnd«.22a
22b
*Adv. bkkpg. 24a
24b
**App. econ. 35a
35b
*Accounting 41a
41b
**Com,l law
47a
471
Int. sec.Tr.46a
46b
556
Clas­ Load
ses
9
155
4
162
4
62
??
40
45
1
45
132
3
44
46
1
46
(See accounting)
(See accounting)
40
1
40
72
2
35
51
1
51
90
1
90
Stu­
dents
Clas­
ses
Load
64
32
5S
45
53
94
2
7
1
3
1
3
39
1
39
125
3
41
39
1
39
33
1
33
36
1
36
46
1
46
60
1
60
409
45
159
46
46
31
* includesi upper and lower-•division. students in the same
classes.
** includes only upper-division students and gives college
transfer credit.
The numbers under class load indicated the average
number of students per class.
The beginning typewriting
classes had a room capacity of seventy-five students, the
advanced classes in typewriting had a room capacity of fifty
students.
The load indicated the number of students over
the year.
Intensive secretarial training is a one-year
course for upper-division students only and includes short­
hand, typewriting, bookkeeping, machines, office practice
and Business English.
It was designed to prepare students
for general office work or secretarial work.
At the time
the questionnaire was given out only about thirty-nine
students remained in the course as the majority had succeeded
in obtaining positions through the placement office or on
their own initiative.
All commercial subjects admit upper
and lower-division students in the same classes with the
exception of accounting, applied economics, commercial law,
and intensive secretarial training.
subjects gave university credit.
The first two of these
Mathematics of finance and
economic geography also give college credit and are sometimes
listed as commercial subjects in the catalogue*
However, in
the schedule of classes they were listed under the departments
of Mathematics and Barth Science and not under the Gommerce
Department.
Thus they were not included in this evaluation.
In analyzing the school records of enrollment for the
past six years, the average class size has changed very
*
little in the Business Education Department.
This was proba­
bly due to the fact that the class size was governed by room
capacity.
However, the number of classes over the last six
years has changed some and was found to be as follows:
193
Year
Humber of classes
1935-1936
1936-1937
1937-1936
1936-1939
1939-1940
1940-1941
I
II
15
16
18
19
23
24
18
18
24
25
(Semesters)
22
22
Thus it can be seen that enrollment in the department
has increased steadily up until the year of this evaluation.
This slight decrease might be due to national Defense
projects which employed many people who might otherwise be
in school.
This was, of course, only an assumption.
Class enrollment for spring semester 1940-1941
Table L'XV shows the enrollment of classes for the spring
semester, 1940-1941;
There were a total of 1,279 students
enrolled in commercial classes.
Of this number 820, or 65
per cent were lower division and 35 per cent upper division.
These totals were taken at the beginning of the semester and
so the classes were filled to capacity in most cases.
Humber of teachers♦ At the time of the survey there
were eight full-time teachers and two part-time teachers in
the Business Education Department.
One part-time teacher
taught two beginning typing classes, the other teacher taught
three Business English classes for the intensive secretarial
training course.
194
TABLE I2Y
T A B LE SHOW ING E N R O LM E N T OF C LASSES FOR TH E S P R IN G SEM ESTER
IN THE B U S IN E S S ED U C ATIO N FOR THE YEAR 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 a
_ .. ,
Subjects
Lower
division
Accounting
Applied Economics II
Applied Economics II
Bookkeeping I
Bookkeeping II
Bookkeeping II
Bookkeeping II
Commercial Law II
Commercial Law II
Intensive Secretarial Training
Office Machine I
Shorthand I
Shorthand IV
Shorthand II
Shorthand II
Shorthand II
Typewriting I
Typewriting II
Typewriting II
Typewriting II
Typewriting II
Typewriting II
Typewriting II
Typewriting II
Typewriting IV
Typewriting IV
Typewriting IV
Totals
Per cent of totals
a S o u rc e :
S c h o o l re c o rd s .
Upper
division
40
38
22
28
16
26
34
27
10
11
6
38
46
77
19
22
27
32
23
30
14
51
40
60
54
59
46
27
15
14
16
7
18
14
14
8
5
5
4
4
10
5
4
820
459
46
71
40
45
65 .O
35.0
Total
40
38
34
49
38
27
32
38
4b
77
19
49
42
46
39
37
32
65
54
68
70
64
50
75
50
50
50
1,279
100.0
195
Teacher load. Table LXVT gives the teacher load for
the Business Education Department for the spring semester
of 1940-1941.
The table is self-explanatory and indicates
the number of upper and lower-division students enrolled in
each class, as well as the hours per week, length of period,
and total load for each teacher in the department.
In the
intensive secretarial training course there were two full­
time teachers who taught the subjects as listed.
Some of the
classes met twice a week, some three times a week, and others
five times a week.
These were not listed separately as it was
not deemed necessary.
The Business English classes were
taught by a teacher who also taught in the English Department
of the school.
The extracurricular activities of the teachers
were also indicated on this table.
Those teachers who counseled
had from 100-150 students to advise and counsel during the
year.
The class advisors and club advisors met with their
organizations from once a week to once a month, depending on
the organization.
They also attended any social functions of
the organization.
In addition to those activities indicated
some of the teachers were also sponsoring a social group meet­
ing each Monday evening, which was similar to the Greek
organizations of the four-year colleges.
Thus, the instructors
were also assisting in the social life of the students of
Compton Junior College.
Educational background of teachers in the department.
Seven of the nine instructors in the department majored in
196
TABLE LX V I
TABLE SHOWING TEACHER LOAD FOR SPRING SEMESTER, 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 , IN THE
BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE3*
Upper
Lower
division division
students students
Subject
Accounting
Bookkeeping
Bookkeeping
Bookkeeping
Teacher load*3
40
10
11
6
67
Bookkeeping
Applied Economics
Commercial Law
Applied Economics
Commercial Law
Teacher loadc
27
0
38
34
145
Beg. Shorthand
Beg. Shorthand
Beg. Shorthand
Beg. Shorthand
Adv. Shorthand
Teacher load
14
27
16
7
Beg. Typing
Beg. Typing
Beg. Typing
Beg. Typing
Beg. Typing
Teacher load
14
14
8
5
79
46
28
16
26
70
22
38
0
0
0
60
5
5
5
_5
20
55
55
55
55
5
5
3
2
55
55
55
55
55
5
5
5
5
J5l
51
40
60
65
_S2
275
5
5
5
5
-5
L.
Department head and counselor.
40
38
27
JZ
137
49
38
38
34
Jt6
18
32
22
23
30
27
134
a Source: School records*
C Counselor
Hours Length of
period Total Teacher
per
load
week (Minutes) load
205
55
55
55
55
55
46
49
39
37
J±2
213
25
25
55
55
55
55
55
65
54
68
70
J>k
321
197
TABLE L X V I (c o n tin u e d )
TABLE SHOWING TEACHER LOAD FOR SPRING SEMESTER, 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 , IN THE
BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT AT COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
Subject
Upper
division
students
Adv. Typing
Adv. Typing
Beg. Typing
Beg. Typing
Adv. Typing
Teacher load^
10
5
4
4
12
35
Lower
division
students
40
45
46
71
21
223
Teacher load*1
Intensive Secretarial
Training1
Teacher load
Beg. Typing
Beg. Typing
Teacher load
(Part time)
Totals
Length of
period
(Minutes)
5
5
5
5
-1
25
55
55
55
55
55
-21
25
55
55
77
-21
25
77
77
_9
9
55
5
55
55
Intensive Secretarial
Traininge
J7Z
Teacher load^
77
Intensive Secretarial
Trainings
Hours
per
week
JZI
8
18
26
48
JJt
62
475
824
Total
load
Teacher
load
50
50
50
75
33
258
249
249
339
J l
77
56
-J2
10
88
1,887
1,887
J
Glass advisor.
e Includes shorthand, machines, mathematics, typing, office
practic e, and transcription.
** Club sponsor.
S Includes typing, machines, mathematics, bookkeeping, transcrip­
tion, and office practice.
Counselor.
x Includes three Business English classes. (Part-time teacher in
Commercial Department•}
198
economics or commerce in college#
majored in English.
Three of the instructors had obtained
their Master’s degrees.
gree.
The other two instructors
Each of them had a bachelor’s de­
Six of the instructors had been teaching commercial
subjects for five years or more.
The other three;-had taught
less than three years.
Business background or experience of teachers in the
department. Four of the teachers in the department had had
actual working experience in the business field.
One teacher
was employed for a number of years in the personnel department
of a large retail store.
Two of the teachers had five or more
years’ actual experience in the secretarial field.
One
teacher had been engaged in selling work.
Equipment of the Business Education Department. There
are six rooms comprising the Commerce Building.
However, the
department had overflowed the capacity of the building built
to serve its students and several classes had to be held in
the Home Economics Building.
There were three typewriting
rooms, holding seventy-five students, fifty students, and
fifty students respectively.
The five standard makes of
machines, Royal, Underwood, L. C. Smith, Remington, and
Woodstock are used in all the rooms.
the following equipment:
3 Underwood Sundstrand listers
3 Remington-Rand listers
The machines room had
199
1 Monroe lister
2 Monroe calculators
2 Burroughs adding machines
2 Adding and bookkeeping machines
1 Bookkeeping machine
2G adding machines
14 comptometers
The model office was equipped with the following:
3 dictaphones
6 Underwood typewriters
1 mimeoscope
1 electric mimeograph
1 four-drawer file case
This comprised the equipment in the Business Education
Department.
Summary. The following facts were brought out in
this chapter:
1.
Fifty-five per cent, or over half the school, had
enrolled in one or more subjects in the Business Education
Department between September 1940 and March 1941*
Eighty-,
five per cent of the eleventh grade students and 71 per cent
of all twelfth grade students registered in the entire
school between those dates had enrolled in one or more com­
mercial subjects.
Seventy-eight per cent of the lower divi­
sion were included, of which the women had a two to one ratio
200
over the men students enrolled.
In the upper division 35
per oent were represented between those dates, of whiGh 36
per cent were thirteenth grade and 41 per cent were fourteenth
grade and special students.
The sex distribution .was evenly
divided in the upper division.
During the spring semester when the survey was made,
the distribution was as follows:
62 per cent lower division,
two to one ratio of women over men; 38 per cent upper divi­
sion, more than half men.
Distribution by grades: 40 per cent
eleventh grade, 22 per cent were twelfth grade; 23 per cent
thirteenth grade, and 15 per cent were fourteenth grade.
2.
Average age in school as a whole and in the Business
Education Department was seventeen to nineteen years of age.
The boys were slightly older than the girls on the average.
Approximately 70 per cent of all upper-division
students in the school as a whole and in the Business Educa­
tion Department were from outside the district.
4» There were 26 towns in Los Angeles County represented
by students at Compton Junior College outside of the secondary
school district, from which there came approximately 626 stu­
dents of whom 135 were represented in the upper division of
the Business Education Department.
5.
Withdrawal of students in Business Education Depart­
ment: 6 per cent withdrew from the lower division, 22 per cent
withdrew from the upper division during 1940-1941.
There was
201
a fifty-fifty withdrawal of men and women in lower division
and a three to one withdrawal of women over men in upper
division.
6 . The following figures'were given' for the entire
school and include the withdrawals from the Business Educa­
tion Department.
Reasons for withdrawals: 37 per cent
withdrew to go to work, of which 9 per cent stated National
Defense work; 6 per cent withdrew for military enlistment';
25 per cent were dropped Because of absence or left at the
end of the semester and no reason was stated; 15 per cent
stated they were moving away; 3 per cent stated marriage as
the reason for withdrawal.
7 . Compton is average or above.in its recreational
facilities and community projects.
The following statistics
indicated that it was a working man1s area.
Forty-five per
cent of the parents of students in the Business Education
Department were in the skilled and semiskilled group; 85 per
cent were engaged in permanent or semipermanent occupations;
13 per cent of the parents were college graduates; 36 per cent
completed only elementary school.
This was approximately
parallel with the school as a whole.
9* Yery few eleventh and twelfth grade students from
Compton Junior College enrolled in the Business Education
Department in the thirteenth and fourteenth.grades.
This was
due to the fact that the offerings were apparently too limited
to permit them to enroll in the department daring those years
as they had previously completed most of the limited subjects
offered in the lower-division years.
Only about 5 per cent
of those enrolled in the department had attended Compton
Junior College three years.
Only sixty-two students out of 732
were Compton High School graduates.
10.
Thirty-four per cent of students enrolled in
Business Education Department classes stated they were working
part time.
Of this number 49 per cent were upper division and
34 per cent lower division.
Fifty-two per cent were men and
28 per cent were women.
.11.
Business education students were engaged in vari­
ous types of work.
Thirty per cent were engaged in office
work, including N.Y.A., 17 per cent were store clerks, 10 per
cent doing domestic work, and 53 per cent engaged in miscellan­
eous work: newspaper, labor, ushers, beauty shop, service
station, farming, et cetera.
12 .
The students were found to be taking advantage of
the courses offered in the Business Education Department.
Seventy-one per cent of all students enrolled in the depart­
ment had completed one year of typewriting.
had completed two years of typewriting.
Twenty per cent
Forty-four per cent
had completed one year of shorthand, and 7 per cent two years.
Twenty-seven per cent had completed one year of bookkeeping,
and 15 per cent had completed a course in commercial law.
It
203
was shown, however, that most of these subjects were completed
while the students were in the lower division.
Thus, there
were few courses left for them to enroll in when they entered
the upper division.
This may explain why they do not enroll
in the Business Education Department in the upper division.
13♦ Less than 10 per cent had taken any of the com­
mercial subjects outside of Compton Junior College, other
than typewriting.
Thirteen per cent stated they had taken
typewriting at other schools.
Therefore, it was apparent
that they attended junior college expecting to obtain their
commercial work, since few had taken any elsewhere.
14• The students expressed a desire for a great many
subjects which were not offered at Compton Junior College.
The men and women desired approximately the same commercial
subjects.
Many subjects were listed as desired which were
not offered in the department.
15* Eifty per cent of the students in the Business
Education Department vi?ere majoring in commerce.
Since
commercial work is entirely elective choice, it would seem
to indicate a real interest by the student in this work.
Sixty-two per cent have their own typewriters.
16 .
Twenty per cent planned to go to business college
after finishing at Compton Junior College.
Thirteen per cent
stated they were thinking of leaving Compton Junior College
to take a special commercial course in a business college.
204
These percentages indicated a dissatisfaction in the courses
offered or an inadequacy of course offerings in the Business
Education Department.
Only 19 per cent stated they would
give up school immediately if they could obtain employment.
Thus, it is indicated that these students seemed to know what
they wanted to do and their plans for the immediate future.
The majority seemed to find the courses adequate but too large
a percentage seemed to find an inadequacy, which, as indicated,
should be remedied.
17 . Sixty-two per cent stated they planned to go to
work upon finishing junior college.
This indicated that the
majority of business education students were terminal students
and should be prepared to go into the business world upon
finishing at junior college.
Subjects should be offered
which would be of greatest use to them immediately upon enter­
ing their occupations.
18. Eighty-six per cent of the commercial students
stated definite occupations they planned to go into upon com­
pleting their education at Compton Junior College.
occupations were listed.
Twenty-two
Twenty per cent listed secretarial
work, 15 per cent listed factory work, 13 per cent stated they
did not know, and the other 30 per cent listed various occupa­
tions such as nursing, beauty operator, sewing, agriculture,
et cetera.
19* Thirty-five per cent of the lower-division students
stated they were not planning to attend the upper division.
Eleven per cent were f,undeeided."
20. Forty per cent stated they planned to go to work
upon graduation from Gompton Junior College.
lower- and upper-division students.
This included '
Under No. 18, the per­
centages indicated the number completing their education but
not necessarily graduating from the junior college.
explains the difference in the figures.
This
Sixteen per cent
■stated they were going to a four-year college, 7 per cent
to business college, and a few were going to trade schools.
21. Thirty-eight per cent of the students stated they
would belong to a Commerce Club if one were organized.
On the whole, the answers to the questionnaire in­
dicated that the majority of students answered the questions
thoughtfully and seriously.
The constructive criticisms of courses made by the
students were tabulated and have been considered in the
final analysis and recommendations by the writer.
The majority of the teachers in the Business Education
Department stated the present offerings did not meet the pu­
pil needs.
They stated a need for courses in business
English, merchandising, salesmanship, business arithmetic,
filing, business machines, et cetera.
Additional courses
for lower- and upper-division students were needed.
was also indicated in the students1 questionnaire.
This
The
206
majority of the teachers stated they believed that better
outcomes could be obtained by separating lower- and upperdivision students in commercial classes.
This was also
indicated in the general criticisms on the students' ques­
tionnaire.
A number of students in the lower division
stated they felt it was unfair competition to have to com­
pete in the same class with, older and more advanced students.
On the other hand, the upper-division students stated the
work was too elementary and they were being retarded by be­
ing placed in the same class with younger and less advanced
students.
Some of the teachers indicated that all classes
should be segregated and others believed that only those
classes should be segregated where the upper-division stu­
dents would have an advantage over the lower-division stu­
dents.
There was a question as to whether the upper-division
students would not have an advantage in any class over the
lower-division student.
The majority of the teachers indicated that no classes
should have an enrollment exceeding forty pupils and that the
fifty-five minute period was conducive to efficient teaching
with the exception of the transcription and accounting which
should be 110 minutes in length.
The teachers listed the additional classes which might
be added to the curriculum in the following order: Business
English, business mathematics, salesmanship, third-year
207
typing, filing, penmanship, third-year shorthand, office
machines, merchandising, business organization, and advertis­
ing.
These subjects listed indicated that the instructors
seemed to be thinking in terms of the high school level rather
than the semiprofessional level.
This might be due to the
fact that the Compton Junior College Business Education De­
partment was composed largely of students on the high school
level and the faculty was thinking in terms of the needs of
those students which they served rather than the semiprofes­
sional needs of students on the junior college level.
The instructors indicated that,the outcomes of the
Commerce Department met business requirements to the extent
of the offerings, but that not all of the subjects were of­
fered which were necessary to meet business needs.
All but one instructor stated a need for closer co­
operation with business.
The majority of the teachers felt there was an over­
lapping of courses in the Commerce Department, especially in
shorthand, typewriting, and the intensive secretarial training
courses•
There was a lack of equipment indicated in office
machines and bookkeeping machines.
The faculty seemed very well satisfied with the num­
ber of department meetings held and the way in which the head
of the department handled all matters between the members of
208
the department and the administration*
The teachers all indicated that the function of the
Business Education Department of the junior college was
largely terminal and should fill the needs of students on
the level between high school and university.
All but one teacher stated that they believed the
needs of the community and intent of students served by
Compton Junior College were largely vocational and terminal.
This has been indicated by this study.
All of the teachers indicated that shorthand, type­
writing, bookkeeping, and salesmanship should be taught on
the junior college level even though offered in the high
school.
In addition to these subjects, courses should be
offered on the junior college level such as insurance sales­
manship, civil service, junior accounting, window display,
store display, retail merchandising, personal finance, store
management, and merchandising.
The faculty was in accord that a means should be
devised for adjusting the curriculum to the needs and stan­
dards required of business.
Effort should be made along this
line of work toward the adjustment.
The majority of teachers
also felt that reliable standardized performance tests of
vocational ability should be set up to be used as a measure
of achievement in so far as they have been devised, and there
should be organized a procedure for continuing the develop­
ment and progress of such tests.
209
The majority of teachers felt that a separate record
of business education students should be installed to act as
a perpetual record in placement, follow-up, and as an aid in
measuring outcome and adequacy.
This study has definitely
shown a need for this to be done.
Fifty per cent of the teachers in the department felt
that Compton Junior College leans toward academic training
rather than terminal education.
A few felt that this fact
retarded the progress of the Business Education Department.
The majority of the teachers in the department agreed
that the Commerce Department should be revised and adjusted
in order to obtain more practical outcomes.
They indicated
a belief that the students were being well prepared for voca­
tional service at least to obtain an initial position.
The
importance of personal qualities in securing and holding a
job was taught to some degree and their appreciation of the
part business plays in the everyday life of the individual
and of society was being stimulated to some extent in the
various business subjects which were taught.
As stated’before, there was an indication that some
of the answers by the teachers were influenced somewhat by
administrative reaction but, on the whole, appeared to be
frankly and sincerely answered.
There were nine courses offered in the Business
Education Department.
These included the following:
210
first- and second-year typewriting, first- and second-year
shorthand, applied economics, accounting, bookkeeping, com­
mercial lav/, and intensive secretarial training.
Applied economics and commercial law admitted only
upper-division students and gave college transfer credit.
All other courses admitted both upper- and lower-division
•students in the same classes.
The average class size was
approximately fifty, although some classes ranged as low as
twenty-five students and others as high as seventy-five
students.
There has been an increase in the number of classes
offering commercial courses over the past six years which was
due to the increase in the enrollment as shown in Chapter III.
Of the enrollment in spring classes, 65 per cent were
lower-division students and 35 per cent were upper division.
There were eight full-time teachers and two parttime teachers employed in the department at the time the
survey was made.
The teacher load indicated a variation in the size
of classes and number of hours per week.
Lower-division
instructors had a minimum of twenty-five hours a week plus
extracurricular activities, and the upper-division teachers
had a minimum of eighteen hours per week.
The number of
students an instructor had was based on room capacity.
The majority of the instructors in the Business
211
Education Department were following the line of work for
which they, prepared in college.
In addition, four of the
nine teachers have had actual working experience in the busi­
ness field.
The Commercial Department, on the whole, was well
equipped with typewriters, office appliances, filing cabinets,
and office machines.
Ho typewriter in the department was
more than three years old.
There was, as has been previously
stated, a need for additional office machines and bookkeeping
machines to take care of the number of students desiring to
learn to operate these machines.
The textbooks and supple­
mentary teaching materials were all modern and no text was
more than five years old.
CHAPTER VII
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In the previous chapters, the writer has attempted to
obtain the background of Compton junior College and its stu­
dents so that criteria might be developed which could be used
in determining the curricular offerings in the field of busi­
ness education at that institution with relation to the eco­
nomic needs of the community it serves.
In order to do this,
it was deemed necessary to study the enrollment, type of
students enrolled, ages of students enrolled, background of
parents, occupations of parents and students, and follow-up
of the students.
Inasmuch as the findings of eaeh phase of this study
have been previously shown, the purpose of this chapter is to
summarize the investigation and to make suggestions and recom­
mendations which might be used for the improvement or revision
of the curriculum in business education at Compton junior
College.
Ira W. Kibby,^ Chief of the Bureau of Business Education
of the California State Department of Education has stated:
„ California State Department of Education, Achievement
Standards in Selected Subjects in Business Education in
California Junior Colleges (Bureau of Business Education
Bulletin, No. 3* Sacramento, California: State Printing Office,
1941), p. 1.
213
. . . the training of youth for business employment
has become one of the major objectives of the
California public junior colleges* Twenty-five per
cent of the students enrolled in the California pub­
lic junior colleges are training for business occupa­
tions .
He goes on to state that the programs of business education
have grown so rapidly in the junior colleges that it has not
been possible to develop any uniform plan for the training of
students to enter the various types of business employment.
Each institution has had to develop its curricula~in terms of
the needs of its students and the community it serves.
In
view of this, each institution should give serious thought to
the question, "Does the Business Curriculum in my Junior
College give adequate preparation for successful performance
in business occupations?*1
It was the purpose of this study to determine the
adequacy of the business education program in terms of"com­
munity and student needs and, if possible, to point out some
of the ways and means by whic.h the program could be revised
or stimulated.
At the inception of this study it was the intention of
the writer to set up the results by weights and scores, in
order to show an evaluation of the-Business Education Depart­
ment as a unit of Compton Junior College.
As the research
work progressed, it was found that pertinent aspects could not
be fairly weighed, in that no definite standards of measure­
ment had been set up, and arbitrary weights or standards would
214
have to he set up by the writer by a comparison with other
schools.
This could only be an opinion and as there was no
uniformity*7or conformity found between the schools, compari­
son would not be a true measure.
It, therefore, seemed advisable to adhere to the
actual, by determination from the tables and findings.
Con­
clusions and recommendations were based on these findings.
In the course of compiling data for this study, it was
found that no separate records were kept for commercial stu­
dents.
No^-record of achievement in commercial work based on
standards set up by the department, no record of follow-up,
et cetera.
Each work studied revealed the same findings.
It
appeared that there must be a starting point and the writer
recommends that Compton Junior College Business Education
Department set up a separate set of records for the students
majoring in business education which will serve as a perma­
nent, perpetual record revealing outcomes by periodical
follow-up study of transfer students and terminal students.
Such a set-up could be designed and administered by the ad­
ministration at a very nominal cost and the keeping of such
records and follow-up studies could be made a part of the
commercial curriculum as an office practice project.
In that this study has revealed that approximately
75 per cent of the business education students terminate their
education with the junior college, the efficiency of the
215
commercial preparation«imparted to the student, the needs of
the student and its usefulness to the student can he measured
only in the outcomes of the student as revealed through
follow-up studies.
The junior college occupies a unique position in the
business education field.
Through the establishment of termi­
nal courses, it is assured of the greatest flexibility in ad­
justing and adapting the curricula to the needs of the business
community that its students are going to serve.
2
On the one
hand, it recognizes the needs of those students who desire
broader training in the basic principles of economics, business
organization, and business management.
Yet, at the same time,
it also prepares the student for the specific job, and equips
him with an occupational skill that he can market in- competi­
tion with other trained individuals.
In addition, it gives
him that training that will serve as a stepping stone to the
more responsible positions.
The business curriculum of a high school and junior
college should meet the demands of society and business by
offering a flexible program of training.
California State Department of Education, Commission
for Vocational^Education, A 'Survey to Determine the Need for
Vocational Education. Central Union,High School and Central
Junior College. El Centro. California {Bureau of Trade and
Industrial Education and Bureau of"Business Education.
Sacramento, California: State Printing Office, July, 1939),
pp. 51-52.
216
Summary. In the early part of this study, certain as­
pects were set up and it has been the intent of the writer to
attempt to determine whether the Business Education Depart­
ment was meeting the needs as set forth in the criteria.
1.
Does the philosophy and specific purposes of.the
junior college meet the needs of its own community and the
larger communities of which it is a part? In the school as
a whole, this study revealed that the philosophy and purpose
of Compton Junior College adequately met the needs of the
local community, but not of the larger community of which it
is a part.
In the Business Education Department, skill sub­
jects should be offered in such varied fields as will meet
the demands of students with differing abilities and aptitudes.
Those students not going on into upper division should be
given an opportunity to obtain such commercial preparation
as will enable them to obtain and hold positions on the lower
bracket salary level in the commercial field.
Likewise, those
students with the ability, aptitude and desire to obtain fur­
ther preparation should be given the opportunity to obtain
that training on the upper-division semiprofessional level
which could enable them to obtain and hold positions in a
higher salary bracket field than the high school graduate.
The study revealed that students in the Business Education
Department should not be limited to local business placement
demands as the needs are wide and varied due to the proximity
217
to California’s largest metropolitan area which offers a field
of placement for all of the students.
The survey showed that
this was being done in the Business Education Department on
the high school level to some extent, but not on the junior
college level in the semiprofessional field.
the curriculum and course of study in the Business
Education Department of Compton Junior College meeting the needs
of the youth in the area in which the junior college is located
and in which it serves?
To some extent, but the survey showed
a much greater demand for subjects than was being offered at
the time of the study.
In order to fully meet the needs of the
students and community there was indicated a need for expansion
of facilities and curriculum both in the lower and upper di­
vision of the Business Education Department.
The results of
the questionnaire study of both the students and teachers re­
vealed that the curriculum and course of study in the depart­
ment met the needs of the youth in so far as the thoroughness
of the courses offered were concerned, but that there was a
need and demand for more course offerings.
The study indi-.
cated that approximately 70 per cent of the students on the
high school level did not go on to the upper division or junior
college and that they terminate their education at the end of
the twelfth year.
Students on that level are local community
students and the courses offered on that level did not appear
to be sufficient to adequately prepare those students to obtain
218
an initial position in the commercial field.
This situation
should be remedied as high school graduates should be prepared
to hold initial positions in the commercial field.
Those con­
tinuing on for further training should not be required to take *
one or two more years of work which ordinarily would be con­
sidered high school level preparation and would only prepare
them for positions in competition with high school graduates,
but should receive training on the semiprofessional level
which would prepare them for semiprofessional work in a more
lucrative field.
The offerings on the upper-division or junior college
level were also found to be inadequate.
Approximately 70 per
cent of the students on this level come from an area outside
of the local community and terminal students should be given
thorough commercial education where desired, to enable them
to obtain positions in the semiprofessional fields.
3♦ is the Business Education Department doing its part
in the guidance of young people to various types of problems
which they must meet— educational, vocational, health, moral.
social, civic. and personal?
The survey indicated that the
students seemed to have a definite idea—of what they wanted
to do in the near future and their answers to the questionnaire
indicated that they have been well counselled and guided.
ai9
4. Is the Business Education Department efficiently
preparing pupils for vocational service?
The study revealed
that students are being prepared to some extent for at least
an initial job in the lower salary bracket but are not being
trained in the upper division for better commercial positions
due to a lack of course offerings in the semiprofessional
field.
5 * Is the Business Education Department adequately
equipped to meet the needs of the young people it serves?
The junior college has grown so rapidly that apparently the
Business Education Department has not been able to keep pace
with it.
Therefore, there was found to be a need for expansion
of facilities and equipment.
The equipment on hand was found
to be modern and adequate to take care of the present enroll­
ment of classes as now organized.
6 * Are the teachers in the Business Education Depart­
ment fully prepared to meet the demands of the student in
their teaching field and teaching procedure?
The study re­
vealed that the teachers in the department, through educational
training and actual business and teaching experience are well
qualified to meet the demands of the students.
7• Are the textbooks and other instructional materials
adequate to provide all necessary equipment for learning?
The
textbooks and supplementary materials were found to be adequate
220
and up to date.
By and large, the study revealed that the Business
Education Department was attempting to meet the needs as set
forth in the criteria in so far as it was possible to do so.
In the following pages certain suggestions and recom­
mendations were made based on the findings of this study.
Academic preparatory courses. Compton Junior College
provides the academic preparatory course that will be required
for continuation of the advanced work in these fields in the
higher institutions but lists them under other department
headings, such as Mathematics Department, Social Science,
et cetera.
Among these subjects are the following:
Mathematics 2
(Mathematics of Finance)
Economics la-lb (Elementary Economics)
Geography 1 - 2
(Elements and Regional)
Economics 40
(Elementary Statistics)
The following lower-division courses are required for
graduation from the College of Commerce of the University of
California:
Jurisprudence lSa-18b
(Commercial Law)
Economics 10 or 11
(Economic History of the United
States or Europe)
Economics 6a-6b
(Principles of Accounting)
These courses should be included in the junior college
business education curriculum for both terminal and college
preparatory students.
221
Suggestions and recommendations.
The following general
recommendations and suggestions are made from findings as re­
vealed by this study.
1. In that the study revealed that approximately 70 per
cent of the students dropped out upon completion of the lower
division or high school level, and that it was indicated that
65 per cent of such pupils went to work,
it is suggested
that the Business Education Department be revised to offer a
broader commercial curriculum on the high school level.
This
recommendation is based on the findings of this study in re­
lation to the philosophy of the school studied.
2. It is suggested that the upper division include
additional courses of a semiprofessional nature in order to
train students to be acceptable to present-day business re­
quirements and demands on the semiprofessional level.
3. It is suggested that supplemental courses related
to the semiprofessional field and specialized trend of manual
trades be included in the Business Education Department as an
aid to men and women students taking semiprofessional and
specialized courses in other fields both on the high school
level and on the junior college level.
4 . It is recommended that class size be governed by
the number of students a teacher may adequately train rather
than room capacity.
The questionnaire revealed that an aver­
age of forty pupils per instructor was considered a normal
load.
222
5. It is suggested that upper-division students be
allowed to enroll for lower-division subjects but not be al­
lowed to receive upper-division credit for such courses.
6. There was found to be a definite need for a broader
curriculum, more room expansion and additional equipment to
adequately meet the needs of the students served.
7. It is suggested that remedial courses in spelling,
penmanship, arithmetic be offered either in the junior high
school or in the lower division of the junior college.
The
survey indicated a demand for these courses by the students.
8. There was indicated a need for additional courses
including: business English, business machines, business
mathematics, salesmanship, merchandising, as. requested by the
majority of students and instructors in the department.
9. It is suggested that transcription and bookkeeping
classes be 110 minutes in length.
A review of other junior
colleges revealed that these classes were usually two-hour
courses.
10. It is recommended that a Commerce Club be organized
admitting both lower- and upper-division students in the
Business Education Department.
11. It is recommended that a separate record of business
education students should be set up in the department to act
as a perpetual record in the placement and follow-study of
all commercial students.
223
12. It is suggested that lower-division students be
given an opportunity to enroll in an office practice class
without having to take Intensive Secretarial Training.
13. It is recommended that greater use be made of re­
liable standardized performance tests and of vocational
ability tests now available, and that a continuous effort be
made toward improving these tests and in the development of
new ones.
The following suggestions and recommendations are based
upon the eleventh to the fourteenth grades at Compton Junior
College.
The first two years, or the eleventh and twelfth
grades, would be designed to provide a well-rounded training
that would fit the present and future needs of every student
in his civic, cultural, soeial, and economic activities.
Courses relating to commerce and business would serve to ac­
quaint him with the practices, institutions and relationships
of the business world and serve as vocational exploratory ac­
tivities.
This group of business subjects, consisting of
business English, business arithmetic, typewriting, filing,
shorthand, economic geography, and bookkeeping, should be
open to students who expect to train for business as their
life’s vocation and to students who desire to know more about
the world of business and business practices, so that they
may be able to carry on business affairs more satisfactorily.
These courses would not be open to upper-division students
224
for credit.
The courses would be designed to give the stu­
dents an opportunity to acquire facility in certain business
skills such as typewriting, shorthand, and bookkeeping to
prepare them to obtain an initial job, or in the case of nonvoeational students, for their own personal use.
The following curriculums are suggested for the lowerdivision students, or the eleventh and twelfth grades.
Clerical curriculum. This curriculum would be designed
to prepare students for general office work, such as calcu­
lating machine operators, filing clerks, mailing clerks and
typists.
To prepare students to pass civil service examina­
tions for general clerical positions.
LOWER PI‘VISION COURSES
Clerical Curriculum
Eleventh Grade
Twelfth Grade
Bookkeeping
5-5
Business Mathematics 5-0
Shorthand
5-5
Office Practice
0-5
Home Making or
5-0
El. Economics
0-5
Physical Education
5-5
Total
25-25
25^5
Business or Remedial English 5-5
Typewriting
5-5
U. S. History
5-5
Science
5-5
Physical Education
..$-5
Total
Substitions may be made for the above courses if
desirable. Electives: penmanship, merchandising, salesman­
ship, commercial geography, business mathematics, spelling,
commercial law, consumer education, citizenship, job-getting
traits.
Stenographic curriculum. This course is designed to
225
prepare students to pass the junior stenographic civil service
examination and to obtain an initial position as a stenographer.
Stenographic Curriculum
Eleventh Grade
Business or Remedial English
Typewriting
U. S-; History
Science or Shorthand
Physical Education
Total
Twelfth Grade
Shorthand
5-5
Typewriting
5-5
Business Machines or 5Home Making
Science
5-5
Office Practice
-5
Physical Education
Total
25-^5
25-25
5-5
5-5
5-5
5-5
5-5
Slectives: Elementary economics, bookkeeping, retailing, or
any of the electives listed above.
Merchandising curriculum. ;This course is designed for
those students who expect to work in retail stores, or be em­
ployed in bookkeeping and general office clerical work by
retail stores, oil companies, packing houses, dentists, doc­
tors, banks, city offices, county offices, et cetera.
Merchandising Curriculum
Eleventh Grade
Typewriting
5-5
Business Mathematics
5
Business or Remedial English 5-5
Science
5^5
Physical Education
5-5
Office Practice
5
- Total v
25-55
Twelfth Grade
Bookkeeping
5-5
Elementary Economics 5-5
Retailing
5Home Making
• -5
U. S. History
5-5
Physical Education
5-5
Total
25-25
Electives: Penmanship, merchandising, business mathematics
salesmanship, office practice, commercial geography, spelling,
personal finance.
226
The following suggestions were made for the thirteenth
and fourteenth grades or the upper division of Compton Junior
College.- The assumption was made that counselors would guide
students into basic courses in commercial work in the eleventh
and twelfth years and that they would enter the semiprofessional
field of the upper division with at least one year of typewrit­
ing and shorthand for the Secretarial Course and at least one
year of bookkeeping for the Accounting Course.
Accounting curriculum. This course is designed for
those students who desire to prepare for accounting work of
an advanced and technical nature, with the idea of becoming
junior accountants in the public accounting field, or to
qualify eventually for positions of responsibility in the ac­
counting department of a business enterprise.
UPPER DIVISION COURSES
Accounting Curriculum
Thirteenth Grade
Intermediate Accounting
Mathematics of Finance
Economics
Business Law
Adding and Calculating
Machine Practice
Electives
Physical Education
Total
Fourteenth Grade
3-3
33-3
-3
33-6
1-1
16-16
Advanced Accounting
3-3
Real Estate and Property
Law
3Public Speaking
-3
Office Methods
3Money and Banking
3Statistics
-3
Electives
3-6
1-1
Physical Education
l6-l<
Total
Electives: Auditing, cost accounting, philosophy, advertising,
banking, job placement, filing, investments, personal develop­
ment, salesmanship.
227
Merchandising curriculum. This curriculum offers
fundamental training in preparation for entering positions in
advertising, selling, retail buying and various phases of
marketing.
Some of the positions that it might give funda­
mental training for would be: retail and chain store managers,
salesmen, shipping department heads, commercial designers,
commission merchants, credit men, department store buyers,
jobbing merchants, et cetera.
Me rchand ising Curri culum
Thirteenth Grade
Economics of Marketing
Advertising
Window Display
Commercial Law
Special Selling
Hygiene
Electives
Physical Education
Total
Fourteenth Grade
3-3
3-3
3-2
6-6
1-1
Textiles and Nontextiles
3Techniques ofRetail
Selling -3
Store English, Arithmetic,
Mechanics
3Marketing
-3
AdvertisingCopy and Lay Out 3Political Institutions
-3
Electives
^
6-6
Physical Education
1-1
16-16
Total
16-16
Electives: Salesmanship, insurance, personnel management,
credits and collections, business organization, color and
design.
Intensive secretarial curriculum. The Intensive
Secretarial Curriculum as now organized prepares students to
obtain a secretarial position at the end of the thirteenth
year and includes business English, shorthand, bookkeeping,
machines, office practice, and typewriting.
This course has
proven very satisfactory and no change is recommended.
228
General secretarial curriculum. This course would be
designed for* upper-division students not desiring to take the
intensive -course but desiring additional courses in the
business education field.
Also designed for those students
desiring to further prepare themselves for better positions
i
in the commercial field.
Thirteenth Grade
Stenography {2 hours)
Commercial Law
Economics
Office Etiquette
Filing
Physical Education
Electives
Total
Fourteenth Grade
Specialized Stenography
3-3
{Law, Aviation, Reporting)
Office Practice
3-2
Political Institutions
Business Machines
3-2
Hygiene
Business Management
3Electives
3-8
Physical Education
1-1
16-16
16-16
Total
6-6
3-3
3-3
1-1
3-3
Electives: Business organization:, real estate law, psychology,
philosophy, civil service examinations, job placement, dupli­
cating machines, personnel management, advertising, color and
design.
These courses would aid students to obtain positions
in a higher salary bracket than students graduating from the
lower division.
Business education on the secondary level should be
designed to result in an increased general education, an ap­
preciation of the nature and functions of business in modern
society, a knowledge of the occupational opportunities which
business offers to young people, and a training in vocational
proficiency for one or more of the initial positions of busi­
ness employment.
229
In his work on the junior college, Dr, Dells defines
the terminal function thus:
. . . to give specific preparation by vocational courses
for specific occupations on the semiprofessional level,
qualifying students who finish them for immediate place
in a definite life occupation.3
It appears that some revisal of the Compton Junior College
Business Education Department in this direction would be bene­
ficial*.
The following group of business occupations might be
classified under the general heading of the semiprofessional
group for which business education on the junior college level
might well prepare:
Accounting
Banking
Brokers
Chief clerks
Collection men
Commercial designers
Commission merchants
Correspondent s
Credit men
Department store buyers
Insurance adjusters
Insurance agents or brokers
Jobbing merchants
Proprietors of small busi­
nesses
Beal Estate agents
Retail and chain store managers
Salesmen and sales clerks
Secretaries
Statistical clerks
Shipping department heads
Wholesale merchants
Well-trained graduates of the junior college who have
completed two years beyond the high school in the commercial
field should be qualified to fill initial positions in the
semiprofessional field and to be prepared by their educational
experience for promotions to better positions in those lines
of work.
3
Compton Junior College Business Education Department
Walter Crosby Eells, The Junior College, p. 191#
230
has been found, through this survey, to be fulfilling to a
large extent, the requirements of the'initial job on the high
school level but there was found to be a definite lack of
subjects offered in the semiprofessional field to take care
of the needs of those students desiring work beyond the high
school level.
An effort has been made in outlining the suggestions
and recommendations, as revealed by this study, toward the
fulfillment of the objectives as set forth in the philosophy
of the school as outlined by its leaders.
It is the hope of the writer that a review of the find­
ings of this study might be useful in the future progress of
the Business Education Bepartment toward the ultimate attain­
ment of the objectives as outlined in the philosophy of the
school.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Counts, G. S., The Senior High School Curriculum. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1926. l6o pp.
Douglass, Carl R., Organization and Administration of .
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57# pp
Bells, Walter Crosby, The Junior College. Boston: Houghton
Miff1in Company, 1931. 833 pp.
. Present Status of Junior College Terminal Education.
Terminal Education Monograph No. 2. Washington, B.C.:
American Association of Junior Colleges, 1941. 340 pp.
______ , Why Junior College Terminal Education? Terminal
Education Monograph No. 3. Washington, B.C.: American
Association of Junior Colleges, 1941* 324 pp.
Koos, Beonard Y., The Junior College Movement♦ Boston: Ginn
and Company, 1925. 436 pp.
Proctor, William Martin, The Junior College. Its Organization
and Administration. Stanford University, California:
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Shields, Harold G #, Junior College Business Education. Chicago
University of Chicago Press, 1936. 94 pp.
Tonne, H. A., Social Business Education. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1936. 94 pp.
B.
PERI OBICAB ARTICLES
Baley, Floyd P., "Adaptation to Changing Community Needs,"
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, "A Modem School of Commerce," Business Education
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, "A Modern School of Commerce," Business Education
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233
Eell^, Walter Crosby, "Evaluation of Junior College," Junior
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______ , "Junior College Terminal Education,” Junior College
Journal., 10:244-230, January, 1940.
Graham, Jessie, "General Business Education Appropriate for
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3:23-29, May, 1933.
______, "New Developments in Business Education," Junior
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:319-322, March, 1937.
Harmon, Henry G #, "Commercial Courses in the Junior College,”
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Hayden, Sheldon M., "Junior College as a Community Institu­
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Hill, Merton E.,"Junior College Developments in California,”
Junior College Journal, 6:333-335, April, 1936.
Hutchins, Robert Maynard, "The Junior College and Terminal
Education," Junior College Journal. 11:347-557, May, 1941.
Ingalls, Roscoe C., "Evaluation of Semi-professional Courses,"
Junior College Journal. 7:480-487, May, 1937.
. "Vocational Education in the Junior College," Junior
College Journal. 9:449-455, May, 1939.
Jones, Edna M., "Commercial Education in the Junior College,"
Junior ,College Journal. 6:242-244, December, 1935.
Jones, Ralph leslie, "Problems in Junior College Commercial
Education," Journal of Business Education. 12:10-12,
March, 1937.
Kibby, Ira W., "Objectives of Commercial Education in the
Junior College," National Business Education Quarterly,
1:35-39, March, 19JT.
Lyon, Leverett S., "Education for Business and the Junior
Colleges,” Journal of Business. 4:283-298, July, 1931.
Martin, Paul, "Education for the Consumer at Compton," Junior
College Journal. 6:111-116, December, 1935*
Mertz, Paul A., "Junior College Terminal Education as I See
it— from the Standpoint of Commercial Life," Junior
College Junior. 11:333-537, May, 1941.
234
Rice, L. A., "Content of Terminal Business Curricula,” Junior
College Journal,, 9:353-360, April, 1939.
Shields, H. G., "Status of Junior College Business Education,”
Junior College Journal. 2:433-442, May, 1932.
Thompson, 0. Scott, "The Union High School District and the
6-4-4 Type of Organization,” California Quarterly of
Secondary Education. 8:154-153, January, 1933.
Webb, Paul E., "Analysis of Junior College Offerings,” Junior
College Journal. 6:77-82, April, 1936.
Williams, Joseph E., "Success of the Semi-professional
Curricula,” Junior College Journal. 6:358-359, April, 1936.
Wilson, Karl M., "Vocational Objectives in the Junior College,”
Junior College Journal. 6:358-359, April, 1936.
C. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS
OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Barnhard, Earl W., "Making Business Curriculums for Junior
Colleges,” Eastern Commercial Teachers * Association Second
Yearbook. New York: Eastern Commercial Teachers* Associa­
tion, 1929 . Ep• 67-82.
Blackstone, E. G., Continuing Survey of Commercial Education
in Iowa Public Schools. University of Iowa Monographs
in Education, College of Education Series, No. 19. Iowa
City, Iowa: University of Iowa, 1926.
..
A Survey of Occupational Histories of Iowa Commercial
Students. University of Iowa Monographs in Education,
Research Studies in Commercial Education, III; 1st Series
No. 9. Iowa City, Iowa: College of Education and the
College of Commerce, University of Iowa, 1928. Pp. 3-7.
California State Department of Education, Achievement Standards
in Selected Subjects in Business Education in California
Junior Colleges. Bureau of Business Education'Bulletin
No. 3. Sacramento, California: State Printing Office,
1941. 39 pp.
______ , Commission for Vocational Education, A Survey to
Determine the Need for Vocational Education. Central Union
High School and Central Junior College. El Centro.
California. TBureau of Trade and Industrial Education and
Bureau of Business Education. Sacramento, California:
State Printing Office, July, 1939. 87 pp.
235
Evaluation of Secondary Schools. Cooperative Study of Second­
ary School Standards; Washington, B.C.: American Council
on Education, 1939* 526 pp.
Evaluation of Secondary Schools, Supplementary Reprints.
Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards;
Washington, B.C.: American Council on Education, 1939.
340 pp.
Evaluative Criteria and Educational Temperatures. Cooperative
Study of Secondary School^Standards; Washington, D.C.:
American Council on Education, 1940. 161 pp.
How to Evaluate a. Secondary School. Cooperative Study of
Secondary School Standards; Washington, B.C.: American
Council on Education, 1940. 139 pp.
Le Bow, Robert, A Survey of Commercial Education in the Junior
College. Research Studies in Commercial Education, Vol. IV,
No. 11, January, 1929. 13S pp.
Shields, H. G., Economics and Business Education on the Junior
College Level. Tenth Annual Meeting, American Association
of Junior Colleges, Atlantic City, New Jersey, November
19, 20, 1929. Pp. 16-24.
Weersing, F. J., The Administration of Commercial Education
in the Public High Schools of Minnesota. -University of
Iowa Monographs in Education, Research Studies in
Commercial Education, III; 1st Series No. 9. Iowa City,
Iowa: College of Education and the College of Commerce,
University of Iowa, 1928.
B.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Anderson, John A.., "Fitting the Vocational Course in Commerce
to the Needs of a Particular Community." Unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California, 1926. 75 pp.
Bean, A. V., "Organization and Administration of Semiprofessional Business Curricula in the Junior College."
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1937. 116 pp.
Cutler, Frederick Arthur, "The Status of Business Education
in the Junior Colleges of California." Unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California, 1935. 93 pp.
236
Fullenwider, Francis, ”The Aims and Curricular Organization
of Commercial Education on the Junior College Level.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles-, California, 1932. 187 PP*
Holdridge, T* Engstrom, ’’Business Education in the Public
Colleges of California.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1938. 219 PP.
Laidlaw, Lois flells, ’’The Organization of Business Education
in the Junior College.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1934. 188 pp.
McAlmon, Victoria, ’’The Development of Occupational Courses
in the Los Angeles Junior College.” Unpublished Master’s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1931. 88 pp.
Moses, Virginia Holmes, ’’Articulation in Business Education
Between Junior Colleges and Higher Institutions in
California.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, California,- 1932.
181 pp.
Nash, Dorothy G., ”A Follow-up Study of Stenographic Commercial
Graduates of Washburn High School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1939. 16,5 pp.
O’Mara, James Patrick, ’’The Organization and Administration of
Curricula in California Public Junior Colleges.” Unpub­
lished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1932. 93 pp.
Bindone, Joseph, Jr., ’’Business Education in the Public Junior
College of California.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1937. 108 pp.
Rivers, Lillian F., ”An Evaluation of the Commercial Curriculum
of the Fullbrton ■ Union High School and Junior College in
Terms of the Subsequent Experiences, of the Graduates.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1928. 104 pp.
Rockwell, Irene Schut, ’’The Present Status of Business
Education in the Public Secondary Schools of Arizona.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, California, 1934. 115 pp.
237
Slothower, David Wendell, "Community Needs as a Basis for the
Improvement of the Commerce Department in Compton Junior
College.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1934.
115 pp.
Wall, Charles August, "An Analysis of Courses of Study in
Business Education as a Basis for Revising Business
Curricula in Junior Colleges of Utah.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, California, 1936. 142 pp.
Watkins, Ina-Ree, "Evaluating Business Education Curricula
in Terms of a Survey and the Curricular Practices of
Fifty-six California High Schools.” Unpublished Master’s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1934. 182 pp.
Weitzel, Henry Irving, "The Curriculum Classification of
Junior College Students.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1926. 75 pp.
APPENDIX
Form U
STUDENT BLANK
Name
Date
(Last)
(First)
City of home residence (or post office)
Age: Years
Months
194
(Second)
State
Date of birth: Month
Year in College. Check (X): First
Second _ _ .
________
19
Day
Sex: M
F
Year 19________
Date of entrance to first college year: Month
Name of school you attended during your last high-school year (Grade XII)
_______________
______ City_______________ State___________ _
Year 19_______
When did you complete Grade XII? Month
Information about Father: Living?
Check (X) Yes _________No
Present occupation__________
work?
Where or for whom does he
.
Is he either owner or
part owner of the business in which he works?
Occupation while alive or while working if not living and working now?
Check (X) schools of which father is (or was) a graduate:
Elementary School
High School______
If you have a guardian, name his occupation
____
(Do not write below this line)
College or University
240
Form L
STUDENT BLANK
Name
Date
(Last)
(First)
194
(Second)
City of home residence (or post office)
Grade in school.
Check (x): 10
State _ _ _ _ _ _
11
12
F
Sext M
____
Age: Years ______ _ Months _____ Date of birth:_Month______ p a y ____ 19_
Information about Father: Living?
Check (X ) Yes ________ No
Present occupation
.
___________ Where or for whom does
.Is he either owner
_
he work?
or part owner of the business in which he works?
Occupation while alive.or while working if not living and working
now? _______ .
_______ ____
Check (X) schools of which father is (or was) a graduate:
KLementary School _______ High School
If you have a guardian, name his occupation
College or University_____
.
(Do not write below this line)
2kX
Date _ _
COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT
If you are employed, or seeking employment, please answer these questions.
All information given by you is confidential and will be used by the
Personnel Department only. This information will not be available to
employers or others.
Bnployed?
.Yes(
)
No(
Seeking employment?
Yes(
)
)
Unemployed?
No(
Yes(
) No(
)
)
If employed check how you secured your first full-time position:
J.C. Placement Office’s aid__________ _____ Any instructor’s help
_____ Direct solicitation_________________ _____ Advertisement
Relative’s help
Newspaper news item
_____ Aid of an acquaintance
____ Application letter
_____ Employment office other than ours (Name)
What occupation or profession did you prepare for at Compton? _________
Did you secure employment in the field that you specialized in at Compton?
Yes ( ) No( ) If not what type of work are you doing now? _ _
___
Do you plan to remain in your present line of work? Yes ( ) No(
not what type of work do you hope to ultimately work into? _____
)
If
.
Has your training at Compton been helpful to you in your present job?
Yes (
) No (
) What particular courses have been of special value
to you on the .job?
______
____________________ _____
Was your training at Compton adequate for your present work?
No (
) If not explain___________________
-
Yes (
)
If you were enrolling at Compton again would you take the same course of
study that you did? Yes (
) No (
) If not what course would you
take?
.
What suggestions would you offer for the training of other Compton students
planning to enter similar work?
___________
.
242
Firm name _____________ _____________
_
Firm address _______ __________________ ______ ________________ _
Description of duties _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______________
■^Approximate salary_____________ Date of beginning work
_____
Signed________________________ Street address
City and State _______________________ Telephone No, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
■^Although the answer to this question would be very helpful to us, and
would be kept entirely confidential, do not fill in this item if you
prefer not to.
243
SEX: M
Date
COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
TO THE PUPIL: This is not a test of any kind. It is a request for your
frank, thoughtful opinions and judgments on certain matters
connected with your school, for the purpose of helping us
to offer business courses which will be most useful.
Please do not sign your name or leave any identification
on this questionnaire.
i
GRADE: (Encircle)
11
12
13
14 Special
City of home residence (or post office)
State
Age: Years
. Months _______
If in 13 or 14 grade what year did you graduate from high school?
From what high school did you graduate?
Where located?
No
Information about Father: Living? Check (x) Yes'
________
■
Where or for whom does he work?
Present occupation________
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Is he either owner or part owner of the business
in which he works?
Yes ______ No
_
Check (X) Schools of which father is (or was) a graduate:
Elementary School
High school _ _ _ _ _ College or university^
How many years have you been in Compton Junior College including the
present year?
Are you working part time? ______ What kind of work?
____
__________How many hours a day? _ _ _ _ _ _ A week?
In the three columns below check as follows:
Column 1 - place an (x) opposite the subjects you have completed
at Compton J.C.
Column 2 - place an (0) opposite the subjects you would like to
take.
Column 3 - place a (-) opposite the subjects you completed at
another school.
1 2 ' 2---1 2
2
Third Year Typewriting
Typing Semester I
Business Mathematics
Typing Semester II
Business English
Typing Semester IU
Banking
Typing Semester IV
Advertising
Bookkeeping
I
Penmanship
Bookkeeping
II
Accounting
Merchandising
I
Filing
Accounting
II
Salesmanship
Shorthand
I
Shorthand
II
Office Etiquette
Shorthand
III
Office Practice
Other subjects:
Shorthand
IV
Business Machines I
244
1 2
Secretarial Training
Applied Economics I
Applied Economics II
2
1 2
.
_______ _____
~
___________________
2
_________
.
_________
Do you find the commercial courses at Compton Junior College adequate to
meet your needs?
Yes ___ No
. Give criticism
,
Are you taking any commercial courses outside of Compton Junior College?
Yes
No ___
If so, state where taken (night school, correspondence school', etc,,)
_ _ _ _ _ What courses?
Are you a commerce major? Yes
No _______ If not, what is your major?
Do you have a typewriter at home?
Yes
No ___
Are you thinking of leaving Compton Junior College to take a special
commercial course in a Business College? (Check) Yes
. No __ __
Do you plan to go to business college after finishing Compton Junior
College? ___________________ _
Do you intend to get a job on finishing at Compton JuniorCollege?
If so, what kind of work will you try to obtain?
•
If you could obtain employment now would you giveup your school education?
What are your plans after graduation?
Are you planning to attend the 13 and 14 grades?
_________
Are you planning to attend a college or university upon leaving this
institution?
if so, where?
:
What will be your major?
,>
What school clubs do you belong t
o
?
____
Do you attend them regularly?
Would you belong to a commercial club if one were organized?
GIVE CRITICISMS OF COMMERCIAL COURSES YOU ARE TAKINGS
Name of Course
Teacher
Length of time in Course
Criticism
245
COMPTON JUNIOR COLLEGE
Bate __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
TO THE TEACHERS OF THE COMMERCE DEPARTMENT:
The following concepts and questions are presented for your honest
and frank consideration and answer, with the hope that such frank opinions
may reveal information which will be constructive to our institution*
Evaluation of the educational program of an institution should be a con­
tinuing process. It should provide a basis for the constant revision of
the curriculum* With this thought in mind the following list has been
compiled* (All questions are qualified with the following: tfIf funds are
available and the administration deems it advisable lfl) Do not sign or
leave any identification.
1*
Do you believe the present offerings in the Commerce department meet
pupil needs? Yes
No
• If ”no,f list the defects:______ ____
2. Do you believe that better outcomes could be obtained by separating
upper and lower division students in commercial classes?
No
Yes
3*
If the above answer is "yes” state which classes you feel should be
segregated ______________
4*
Check the followingclass size you believe would be most conducive to
efficient teaching; and the length of period:
Class size
Jfc2
JZO _B0
________________ _ _ _ _ _
____________________ _
Length of Period
55
110
Typewriting
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Shorthand
_______________
Stenography
_________
Bookkeeping
______________ _________
Applied Economics
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Accounting
.
______________
Business Machines
_________ ____________
______________
Business Law_______ ___________________ ___________________
Secretarial Training ___________ .
__________ _________________
Remarks
________
________
_ _ _ _ _
.
_
Class
5*
________
________
________
________
If it were feasible to organize some additional classes in the Commerce
Department, check the following list in the order in which you feel they
should be added to attain the best results in fulfilling pupil needs.
(Number in order of importance 1, 2, etc.)
Business Organization
Business English
Third Year Typewriting
Penmanship
246
Business Mathematics
_____ ___
Banking
.
Advertising
.
Merchandising_______ ________
Filing______________ _____________
Office Etiquette
6.
Salesmanship
Thomas Shorthand^
Other subjects:
_________ ___
_____ __
'
________
Are the outcomes of the Commerce Department as a whole meeting business
requirements?
Yes ____ No_____ Partially_____
7. -Shouldthere be closer cooperation with business?
Yes ___
No_______
8.
Is there over-lapping of courses in the Commerce Department?
No
Some _ _ _
Yes_
9.
If the answer is ^yes," state where the over-lapping o c c u r s ___
10.
Is the equipment of the Commerce Department adequate to meet the needs
of the Community? Yes .
No ,
11.
In the particular subjects you teach list any additional equipment or
any changes which you believe should be made for the improvement of
the classes involved, (e.g. height of tables, additional machines,
room alterations and other facilities.)
12.
Do you believe meetings of the Commerce Department are held as fre­
quently as they should be? Yes ___ No ___
13.
How frequently should departmental meetings be held?
14*
Do you believe problems which concern the department as a whole
should be presented to the administration by:
(Check)
(
(
)
)
(
)
1* Individual teachers
2. Department head upon recommendation of the
teachers as a whole
3. A coordinating committee of the Commerce
Department.
15.
Are you of the opinion that the function of the Junior College is
largely teminal, filling the need of a vocational field for students
on the level between high school and University? Yes _____ No _____
16.
Since high schools teach shorthand, typewriting, bookkeeping and
salesmanship, is it necessary for junior colleges to do the same?
Yes
No
247
17*
Bo you think that courses should be offered beyond the high school
level such as insurance salesmanship, civil service exams, junior
accounting, window display, store display, retail merchandising,
personal finance, store management, and merchandising, etc.
Yes
No
Gomment:
_ .
18.
Do you feel that the community needs and intent of students served by
Compton Junior College is largely vocational and terminal?
Yes
No _____
19•
Do you feel that Compton Junior College should devise a means of
adjusting our curriculum to the needs and standards required of
business? Yes
No
20.
Should we set up reliable standardized performance tests of voca­
tional ability to be used as a measure of achievement? Yes ___
No ____
21.
If answer to the above is ’’yes,11 should we organize a procedure for
continuing the development and progress of such tests? Yes
No __ _
22.
Do you believe a separate record of Business Education students would
be of value or should be installed to act as a perpetual record in
placement, follow-up and aid in measuring outcomes and adequacy?
Yes
No_____
23*
Do you feel that Compton Junior College as a whole leans toward
academic training rather than terminal education? Yes
No ____
24*
Do you feel that the progress of the Commerce Department is being
retarded for this reason? Yes
.
No
•
Some
25*
Do you feel that the Commerce Department should be revised and
adjusted in order to obtain more practical outcomes? Yes _ _ _ _ No
26.
Mark the following general aspects as follows:
Check Column 1 if condition or provision is present or made to a
veiy satisfactory degree.
Check Column 2 if condition or provision is present to some
extent or fairly well made.
Check Column £ if condition or provision is not present or is not
satisfactory.
There is definite evidence in the commerce classes that pupils
are developing:
248
1
■ w p M M
2
mmmmmmm*
3
mmdmmmmm
_____
__________
__________
__________
__________
(l) A knowledge of the common language of business*
(2) A general understanding of the economic nature of
business and how it operates, including intermingling
of the functions of management, finances, production,
marketing, and accounting*
(3) Vocational efficiency in at least one type of business
employment sufficient to permit a graduate to secure
an initial position.
(4) A general understanding and knowledge of present day
economic problems and phases of citizenship from the
standpoint of the consumer.
(5) The ability to adapt oneself to occupational changes
brought about by inventions or other social or
economic changes.
(6) A knowledge of business practices and being proficient
in those business skills needed by all intelligent
consumers •
(7) A personality which will be welcomed in business and
society alike.
(8) An understanding of ethical business standards.
GENERAL REMARKS:
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