close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

The causes of non-attendance in an elementary school

код для вставкиСкачать
THE CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE
IN AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
hy
Myrtle May Evans
«Fuly 19^1
UMI Number: EP54201
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Pubi shmq
UMI EP54201
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
Qd> 4*& £> f Ar
<>
TAw
thesis, written under the direction of t h e ^ Jjj^P
Chairman of the candidate’s Guidance Committee
' '
and approved by a ll members of the Committee,
has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty
of the School of Education of The University of
Southern California in partial fu lfillm e n t of the
requirements fo r the degree of Master of Science
in Education.
August .7*..1941
D ean
G uidance C om m ittee
Louis P* Thorpe
Chairm an
E. E. Wagner
D. Welty Lefever
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED . . .
The problem.
.
1
............... .......... .
I
Statement of the p r o b l e m .............
1
Importance of the study...............
2
Definition of terms used
..........
5
Non-attendance . . .................
5
Tardy.................
5
General illness.
5
.......................
V i s i t i n g .........................
Help at home
. • . .
5
.....................
5
Illness in home.....................
6
Quarrantine.................
6
Kept home to rest.....................
6
Weather.
...................
6
.................
6
. . . . . . .
Accidental injuries. .
Death in family................
6
Other reasons- . . ....................
Limitations of the investigation . . . . . .
7
Scope of the s t u d y .......................
7
Weaknesses of the investigation..........
8
Organization of remainder ofthesis.
II.
6
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
. * . •
...........
9
10
iii
CHAPTER
.PAGE
Directly related literature . . ♦ .......
III.
10
Indirectly related l i t e r a t u r e .......... . . .
15
S u m m a r y ............................ .
23
. . . .
SOURCES OP DATA AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE . . . .
25
Sources of d a t a ..........................
25
Characteristics of the s c h o o l .........
26
Method of p r o c e d u r e ..........
28
Attendance records......................
IV.
28
The reliability of thed a t a .................
31
RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION....................
33
Introduction...............................
33
Enrollment and a t t e n d a n c e ................
33
Analysis of one-day absences.
.........
37
Analysis of absenee for periods longer than
one day . . . .......... ....................
51
Analysis of
number of pupils absent . . . . .
57
Analysis of
the causes of absence . . . . . .
60
Analysis of
number of days absent . . . . . .
78
Analysis of
average length of absences.
83
...
Other eauses of absences. . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of perfect attendance............
S u m m a r y .....................
V.
SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S ........................
Summary
83
93
98
99
99
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
The purpose of this investigation . . . .
99
A description of the conditions under
which the study has been m a d e ....
Conclusions
100
. . . . . . . . . . .
101
An analysis of one-day absences . . . . .
101
An analysis of absences for periods
longer than one day . . . . ......
Illness as a cause of non-attendance. . .
103
105
Other factors which influence school
attendance..........
106
Interruptions affecting school
attendance.
Tardies
. . . . . .
...............
108
. . . . . . . . . . . .
109
Perfect attendance. • • • • • • • • • • •
109
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
110
B IB BIOGRAPHY...................................... . .
117
APPENDIX A
125
APPENDIX B
..........
.......................
135
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I-
Boys Enrolled by Grade and M o n t h ........
34
II.
Girls Enrolled by Grade and Month. . . . . ♦
35
III.
Total Pupils Enrolled by Grade and Month . •
36
IV”. Average Daily Attendance for Boys by
Grade and Month. . . . ................
V.
Average Daily Attendance for Girls by
Grade and Month.
VI.
38
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
* Average Daily Attendance for All Pupils
by Grade and M o n t h ............
VII.
Per Cent of Attendance and Non-Attendance
by Month .
VIII.
........ ...................
...............
..........
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
45
46
Four-Day Absences for All Pupils by
Month and G r a d e . ............
XIII.
44
Three-Day Absences for All Pupils by
Month and Grade.......................
XII.
43
Two-Day Absences for All Pupils by
Month and Grade.
XI.
4l
Relation of One-Day Absences to Days of
the Week by Grade.
X.
.
One-Bay Absences for All Pupils by
Month and Grade.
IX.
40
47
Flve-or-more Days Absences for All Pupils
by Month and Grade
............
48
Vi
TABLE
XIV.
PAGE
Total Number School Bays Lost by Reason
of One, Two, Three, Four, Five-or-more
Bays Absences . . . . . . . . .......
XV.
49
Total Number Absences by Grade of One,
Two, Three, Four, Five-or-more Bays
Buration.
XVI.
.............
. . . . . . . . .
56
Total Number Absences by Month of One,
Two, Three, Four, Flve-or-more Bays
Buration*
XVII.
XVIII.
. . .....................
Number of Boys Absent by Grade and Month.
..........
...........
............... *
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
69
The Causes of Non-Attendance for Boys
by Month............................... * •
XXIV.
64
Total Causes of Non-Attendance for All
Pupils by G r a d © .....................
XXIII.
62
The Causes of Non-Attendance for Girls
by Grade.
XXII.
61
The Causes of Non-Attendance for Boys
by Grade.
XXI.
59
Total Number of Pupils Absent by
Grade and Month
XX.
•
Number of Girls Absent by Grade and
Month
XIX.
58
75
The Causes of Non-Attendance for Girls
by Month.
........ .......... ..
76
vil
tabu
;
XXV.
page
The Causes of Mon-Attendance for All
Pupils hy M o n t h ...................* . . .
XXVI.
Total Bays Absent for Boys by Grade
and M o n t h
XXVII.
.. ...........
.
80
Total Days Absent for All Pupils by
Grade and Month . . * ...................
XXIX.
79
Total Days Absent for Girls by Grade
and M o n t h ............
XXVIII.
77
81
Total Enrollment, Total Days Absence,
and Average Days Absence Per Pupil
84
by Grade..............
XXX.
Pupils Dropped and Restored During the
Year by Grade and
XXXI.
Pupils Admitted and
Sex . . . . ...........
Dismissed by Transfer
During the Year by Gradeand Sex. . . . .
XXXII.
4
..........
9°
Number of Tardies During the Year
by Grade and Sex.........................
XXXV.
89
Total Interruptions in Addition to
Absence . . . . . . . . . . .
XXXIV.
87
New Pupils Admitted During the Year
by Grade and Sex...................
XXXIII.
86
92
Perfect Attendance for Boys by Month
and Grade . . .
.......................
94
vlii
TABLE
XXXVI.
,
Perfect Attendance for Girls by Month
and G r a d e ................... . ..........
XXXVII.
95
Perfect Attendance for All Pupils by
Month and G r a d e ..........................
XXXVIII.
PAGE
96
Perfect Attendance by Grade and Sex
for the Year.
. .
..........
97
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
Education Is concerned with developing socially
creative Individuals*
The newer schools of today are recog­
nizing that they, more than any other institution of
society, are charged with the responsibility of rendering
this service.
Only in this way can they discharge their
unique function of aiding each person to build a socialized,
creative individuality.1
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
The purpose of this study
was to analyze non-attendance of elementary school pupils in
the Abbott School in Kansas City, Kansas, and to ascertain
the underlying causes*
The investigation included kinder­
garten, and grades one, two, three, four, five, and six*
The problems for consideration in this investigation were:
1*
What were the causes and what was the amount of
non-attendance for the entire year?
2*
What was the amount of non-attendance by grades,
L* Thomas Hopkins, Democracy and the Curriculum
(Mew York: John Dewey Society, Appleton-Century Company,
1939), P. 273-
months, and sex?
3*
What was the relation of length of absence to
the problem of non-attendance?
4.
Which causes of non-attendance were variable
and could be reduced?
3*
How were such factors as colds, throat trouble,
visiting, Illness, weather, punctuality, and
social adjustment related to non-attendance?
6.
What principles and procedures are recommended
as remedial measures for decreasing non-attend­
ance as a result of this study?
Importance of the study*
Public education has always been a major concern of
the American people.
From the simple reading and
writing schools of the earliest days to the most complex
educational organizations lies a long story of enduring
faith in and continuous support of educational insti­
tutions.
Equality of opportunity is the persistent goal of
democracy. Universal education, mass enlightenment,
must consider such conditions as illiteracy, unsatis­
factory health status, non-attendance in school, child
labor, and many other such problems*2
"Give the child work that he recognizes as interest­
ing and valuable and a chance to play, and his hatred of
George X. Sanchez, "Equalization of Educational
Opportunity,M University of Hew Mexico Bulletin. Education
Series, No. 1, 1<S:5, 1939-
school will speedily be forgotten.*3
^
Many factors enter into a study of the absence of
pupils, and little can be accomplished In an attempt to
solve attendance problems unless each factor is thoroughly
analyzed.
ttThere are very few intensive scientific studies
concerning the question of relation between school attendance, school marks, and social progress.
Parents and children find it difficult to realize
the serious results that come from interrupted attendance*
Increased regularity of attendance of children
enrolled is of itself an important. item, as studies
show a close correlation between retardation and
dropping from school on one hand, and irregular
attendance on the other.
The wise teacher will de­
velop, in the part of the pupils, an esprit de corps
which will constantly contend for a perfect record.
It is probable that few schools realize the number
of pupils who are present only a fraction of the time.
A school showing average attendance below ninety
;i: per cent of its enrollment, will be greatly handi­
capped In doing effective work, and such a condition
^ John Dewey, Schools of Tomorrow (New York: E. P.
Dutton and Company, 1935), p. 19^
4
Carl w* Zeigler, School Attendance as a Factor in
School Progress (Teachers College Contributions"*!© Edu­
cation, “TfoT"297.
New York: Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1928), p. 4.
^ Elwood P. Cubberley, Public School Administration
(Bostons Houghton, Mifflin Company, 191577 P* -87 •
4
should be remedied.^
Irregular attendance is generally accompanied by
low per cent of promotions, which results In retardation
and finally elimination.
Educational literature is gradually disclosing to
school authorities the necessity for more adequate child
accounting.
Only as a teacher becomes acquainted with each one
of her pupils can she hope to understand childhood.
Every pupil must have a chance to show what he truly
is, so that the teacher can find out what he needs to
make him a complete human being.7
Throughout the United States, school systems are
attempting to improve their average daily attendance by
numerous and different methods.
In terms of the number of persons Involved,
elementary education represents our biggest educational
program.
The numbers are startling, twenty-two and
three-quarter million persons, aged five to fourteen,
make up this group.
The total represents nearly onefifth of all Americans. Most of them are in public
schools.
One in ten are in private elementary schools.
These millions of elementary school children represent
a phenomenal increase in numbers. From 1880 to 1936
the number Increased from nearly ten million to almost
twenty-four million.8
6 William C. Bagley, Education. Crime, and Social
Progress (New Yorks The Macmillan Company, 19317» P* 138.
■7 Dewey, op. clt.. p. 137*
8 Bess Goodykoonta, Assistant Commissioner of Edu­
cation, Elementary Education 1930-1936, Biennial Survey of
Education in the United States, Vol. I, No. 2, Bulletin
1937, Chap. I, p. 1.
5
When September rolls around and students start back
to school, out of every one hundred students, seventyfive march off t© elementary school, twenty-one to
high school, and four to college*
It is easy for the
public to be unaware of this largest group*
The sheer
size of the problem in elementary education cannot be
over-emphasized.9
In this survey the Investigator is ascertaining the
causes of non-attendance with the aim of planning remedial
measures and building a school organization which will
contribute to the needs of its pupils*
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Non-attendance.
Tardy.
The pupil Is absent from school*
The pupil arrives after the tardy bell has
rung at three minutes after 9:00 A.M. and also after 1:00
P.M.
General illness.
When the pupil is 111 and unable
to attend school, and the illness does not fall under any
other specific heading*
Visiting.
When the pupil remains out of school to
go on a trip or to visit at home with company, this term
is used*
Help at home.
9 IblcL.. p. a.
This term also includes running
6
errands as well as helping with the work at home.
Illness In home*
The pupil remains at
of illness of some other member
of the family,
home because
but the
pupil is not ill*
Qnarrantin®.
This term is used when the pupil has
a disease which places him under quarrantine and his return
to school is controlled by quarrantine regulations*
Kept home to rest.
When a pupil is not ill but is
in need of rest this term is used.
Weather.
Severe or unusual weather conditions,
such as heavy or cold rains, deep snow, or extreme cold,
are classified under this term.
Accidental injuries.
An
as coasting accidents, sprained
injury to thepupil, such
ankle, broken
arm, stepped
on a nail*
Death in family*
Remaining out of school because
of the death of some member of the family, or attending
a funeral.
Other reasons.
other headings.
j
An absenee which did not fall under
7
III.
LIMITATIONS OF THE INVESTIGATION
S c o p © of the study.
This survey was carried out
during the school year, from September 11, 1939# to
May 28, 1940, in the kindergarten and grades one, two,
three, four, five, and six of the Abbott Elementary School
in Kansas City, Kansas*
The enrollment was approximately
420 pupils.
Kansas City, Kansas is located in the north-eastern
part of Kansas at the Junction of the Missouri and Kansas
Elvers, and is the largest city in the state.
tion was 150,000 in 1930.
The popula­
It is largely an industrial city
and a city of homes.
Abbott School Is located in the London Heights
District, one of the older residential sections, and was
formerly called the London Heights School.
As a whole, the
community would be classed as substantial, middle-class
citizens, generally all native-born Americans.
The children
who attended Abbott School created few real disciplinary
problems, and while every child was not promoted every year,
there was a policy of not retarding pupils more than two
years during their elementary school life.
This kept the
school from having serious social maladjustment problems.
This particular survey should offer an opportunity
to compare the causes and results of non-attendance with
other studies that have heen made.
The significance of
certain ailments, lack of clothing, epidemics, and
accidental injuries have heen considered.
The extent that
weather affects attendance, the results of poor social
habits, truancy, and many other reasons have been studied.
In addition, the causes of non-attendance by sex, grade,
and month have been considered, as well as the length and
number of all absences of the pupils.
The effect of
transfers and tardiness has been studied*
As a result of
this survey, ways and means of decreasing non-attendance
will be developed, and the many factors which influence
non-attendance will be thoroughly diagnosed.
Weaknesses of the Investigation.
The analysis of
this problem with a school of 420 pupils might be con­
sidered a weakness because of the small samplings.
The
results obtained might not be applicable to other schools
"ML'
of dissimilar type.
Some of the information might not be
correct as written excuses by parents or guardians were
relied upon for causes of non-attendance.
deterred some from stating true facts.
This may have
However, when any
doubt was felt, Investigations were made to determine true
conditions.
While some of the findings of this survey might not
9
obtain under different conditions# they reflect general
trends of what might be found in larger numbers of cases,
and should assist in understanding and helping eradicate
many of the causes of non-attendance*
IV.
ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THESIS
Chapter II deals with a review of the literature
related to this survey.
As only a few investigations were
found that were directly related to the elementary school
/
set-up, this chapter also deals with other indirectly
related studies which Illustrate the technique and organi­
zation but not the content.
Some of the findings most
pertinent to this research are included.
Chapter III presents a discussion of data used and
groups studied; also methods of procedure.
Chapter IV offers tabular material and figures
pertaining to the study, also comparisons of data, findings,
and results obtained from the investigation.
Chapter V evaluates the survey with a summary and
conclusions, closing with recommendations formulated from
a careful study of the results of the survey.
The thesis concludes with a bibliography and an
appendix.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
The investigation of the Incidence and causes of
non-attendance among pupils has heen approached from various
angles.
Several surveys concern the secondary level.
etudies consider nationalities.
Other
Some are interested more
directly in the elementary field.
These were more helpful
to the investigator in planning procedures and organizing
materials, although a review of all available studies
revealed the importance and scope of the work being done
to correct this condition.
Directly related literature.
The Hawthorne Study
by Donahue* is a comprehensive study of the problem in an
elementary school.
The data were compiled monthly over a
period of nine months or one school year.
All absences
were classified by cause, grade, sex, nationality, and
frequency.
The results of bad weather, epidemics, poverty,
broken homes, lack of food and clothing, and their relation
to non-attendance were considered.
The effect of tardiness
1 Harry Edgebert Donahue, 11An Analysis of the Under­
lying Causes of Non-Attendance in the Hawthorne Elementary
Schools,” (unpublished Master’s thesis. University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933)•
II
on good attend anee was also studied.
of attendance Is Included.
Hie relative per cent
A definite check on illness as
a cause of non-attendance brought out the fact that
respiratory diseases caused 49 per cent of all absences of
which the common cold caused 34 per cent.
orders were next in order.
Digestive dis­
Measles led the list of
contagious diseases as a cause of non-attendance.
In an
analysis of one-day absences by grade and sex, illness as
a cause held first place in every grade.
The second
important cause of absence was rainy weather.
As to
absences on certain days of the week, Monday clearly held
first place, and Friday was second for both sexes.
One-
day absences accounted for 41 per cent of the total school
days lost, and 72 per cent of all cases of absence.
Five-
or-more days absences were second, accounting for 30 per
cent of the school days lost, and 7 per cent of all cases
of absence.
tardiness.
Over-sleeping ranked first as a cause of
Monday, then Tuesday, were the days of the week
when children were most apt to be tardy.
In the section
of the thesis devoted to a classification of absence by
nationalities, American children had a lower per cent of
absence due to Illness than the Mexican, Italian, or
Japanese.
The Donahue study was helpful in determining method
v
and technique*
12
The tables and findings were useful in
making comparisons with the present Imrestigation, as both
consider the problem from the viewpoint of the elementary
school.
o
The Los Angeles Study by Little* had for its-purpose,
M. . . t o set forth, chiefly by means of tables, the results
of the at tendance-absence eheck which was made for the Los
Angeles School District during the month of May, 1935*ll^
This study considered the total number of absences and
causes, absences on different days of the week, adverse
effect of a school holiday on attendance.
revealed by this study were:
Important facts
(i) total absence Is higher
In the first grade than In any other grade and decreases
steadily from grade to grade up to and Ineluding the sixth;
(2) more absences occur on Monday, with Friday placing a
close second; (3 ) a school holiday does have an adverse
effect on attendance the following day*
Little found the
major causes of absence are illness, truancy, being kept
at home to work, and dislike of school or teacher, in the
2
Forrest Varner Little, HA Comparative Study of
Pupil Absence by Grades, of Variability of Absence, and of
Causes of Absences, for the Los Angeles City Schools for
May, 1935, and November, 1936,” (unpublished Master^s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1937) *
3 Ibid., p. 1.
13
order of importance*
He reported that 43 per cent of the
absences in the elementary school were due to illness,
18 per cent to truancy, 19 per cent to dislike of school
or teacher, and 16 per cent kept at home to work*
Little's
investigation was interesting as his findings for the
elementary school were separate and distinct, and the tables
were clear and concise.
The study was helpful in planning
this study and in making comparisons of findings.
The Burbank Study, by Sehwerdtfeger,
4
deals with
the causes of non-attendance from the kindergarten through
the senior high school in the city schools of Burbank,
California*
The problems are listed under suoh headings
as causes of absence, kinds of absence by periods of time,
grades in which absences are most prevalent, tardiness,
truancy, and transfers*
and by sex.
The problems are studied by grade
The findings show that illness was the chief
cause of absences, with rain and bad weather next in order,
that single-day absences caused most of the non-attendance,
that a holiday had a direct bearing on non-attendance,
and that most single-day absences occurred on Monday.
Elta Louise Sehwerdtfeger, WA Study of NonAttendance in the City Schools of Burbank, California,H
(unpublished Master's thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933)*
This
14
tli©a Is Is a valuable contribution to the literature on
this subject as it is one of the few that Includes the
kindergarten*
precise*
It contains tables which are definite and
The study was of help to this investigator in
planning and organising techniques and methods.
An analysis of non-attendance in Azusa City Schools
5
by Hinds asserted that absence and late enrollment
seriously affected the entire school system both education­
ally and financially*
The low average attendance reduced
the income from the state ten thousand dollars, which made
it difficult to finance the system.
The study included
the causes and amounts of absence and tardies by grade,
sex, periods of time, and days of the week.
A definite
check on illness and non-attendance brought out the fact
that the common cold ranked first as a causal factor,
with measles second.
The sixth grade had the most tardies
for the year and the second grade had the least.
Most
tardies occurred on Mondays and Fridays.
This survey has many tables and the parts of the
study concerning American children offered a basis for
making comparisons in certain grade levels.
^ Elwin F. Hinds, MAn Analysis of Non-Attendance
in Azusa City Schools,H (unpublished Master’s thesis.
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938).
15
Indirectly related literature.
Cooper,
6
in his
survey of progress and attendance of 832 pupils over a
period of eight years, showed that during the investigation
the average pupil was absent one and four-fifths years.
He
studied the problem from the viewpoint of the retarded
pupils, which In this case amounted to 40 per cent of the
total pupils investigated.
The causes of non-attendance
showed 60 to 75 per cent were absent because of work at
home or on the farm, and 50 per cent of absences in some
grades were because of Illness.
He found retardation in­
creased from 49 per cent in the first grade to .6 9 Per cent
in eighth grade, while the proportion of those making
normal progress decreased.
Irregular attendance accounted
for over 95 per cent of the non-progress.
The study
contains tables which add to the clarity of treatment of
the subject.
It closes with this paragraph:
Regular school attendance Is an attitude of mind
which may or may not become a habit.
It needs to be
Instilled in the mental life of teachers, parents,
and pupils.
The elementary school Is an institute
of society, and passes on to the younger generation
those customs and traditions found to be most worth­
while for the general welfare of society.
Success in
life depends in part upon one's regular attention to
the job at hand.
The school and the home must
6
Herman Cooper, An Accounting of Progress and
Attendance of Rural School Children in Delaware (New Yor k :
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia Univer­
sity, 1930).
16
cooperate to see that such habits of action are firmly
instilled in the youth of the nation.
Punctuality and
regularity of attendance at school are essential to
such training.»
The Cleveland, Ohio study in 1915 by Ayres,® is one
of the earliest, comprehensive investigations of nonattendance of school pupils.
It covered a period of six
years and considered the problem under such headings as
the school census, grades at which pupils leave school,
regularity of attendance, children who are over-age,
children who are making slow progress, size of classes,
and compulsory attendance. — This study disclosed that
practically all pupils in Cleveland completed the fifth
grade, and almost one-fifth finished high school.
The
attendance records indicated unusual regularity of attend­
ance but were considered unreliable because of methods
used in counting all present the first and last weeks of
each semester.
Thirty-two per cent of the pupils in the
elementary schools made slow progress and 22 per cent were
both over-age and making slow progress.
This study was
helpful to the investigator in organizing methods and
techniques.
7 ibia., p. 123.
Q
Leonard P. Ayres, Child AccountIng in the Public
Schools (Cleveland, Ohio? Survey Committee of the
Cleveland Foundation, 1915)*
17
Glaine and Heck,^ in their study of school attend­
ance, gave a summary of current practices In several
investigations made in this field*
They reported a study
of attendance for the United States by Deffenbaugh and
Keeseeker, which showed an average daily absence of 17*2
per cent, of which 84*8 per cent was due to parental
neglect.
Studies hy Stamy of North Carolina and Trenham
of California, showed an increase from 1900 to 1930 from
seventy-one to 154 in average number of school days per
year.
They stressed pupil personnel services and thinking
in terms of the needs of youth rather than the curriculum.
They showed hy statistical studies that from a fifth to
a sixth of the pupils in the schools of the United States
are absent every day.
They emphasized the causes under
such headings as parental neglect and home conditions, as
well as Illness, staying out to work, had weather, and
poverty.
This study is a fine piece of research work,
giving a broader concept to the importance of the investi­
gation*
Abbott and Breokenrldge
10
made a study of non-
^ h. i . Blaine and A. G. Heck, “School Attendance,11
Review of Educational Research. 6:157-63, April, 1936.
Edith Abbott and Sophonlsba Breokenrldge,
Truancy and Non-Attendance in the Chicago Schools (Chicago:
The University of Chicago~Fress, 1917 J•
18
attendance during the compulsory-attendance period.
In
their comprehensive and detailed report, they listed
unemployment of parents as first among the variable causes
of absence.
They expressed this social ideal:
Statistics relating to non-attendance are of little
value unless accompanied hy an inquiry into the causes
of absence.
The causes must be understood in order
to 'accomplish anything along the lines of good attend­
ance.
This requires a trained social worker with
educational background, capable of such understanding.
Their treatment of the problem was from the social-education­
al viewpoint and made clear the necessity of cooperation on
the part of the school with the work of the various social
agencies in the community.
While this study did not deal
intensively with the elementary school, it had helpful
tables and techniques*
• 12
Holliday s
study concerned Mexican pupils in one
of the largest Mexican schools in California, located on an
oasis in the Colorado Desert, nthe last frontier of the
United States.”
The school is 95 P©r cent Mexican.
The
survey concerned the physical and cultural environment of
the schools, the peak enrollment, the relation of age and
^
Loo, clt.
12 fay Milton Holliday, WA Study of Non-Attendance
in Miguel Hidalgo School of Brawley, California,11
(unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1935)*
grade to non-attendance, the reasons and lengths of
absence, and suggestions for decreasing non-attendance In
the school.
An unusual situation in enrollment allowed a
teacher load as high as eighty-six pupils in one classroom.
The Mexican population lived apparently in a ghetto in a
city within a city, had little voice in the goverlament,
practically no social contacts with the Americans,
distinctly different cultural heritage and was isolated
from large centers of population hy the desert.
On a ten-year average, only one-third the peak
enrollment attended the first day of school and the peak
was not reached until the fifth month.
Approximately 3$
per cent of the pupils enrolled were in the first grade,
while only 2 per cent were in the eighth grade.
Sixty per
cent of all pupils were retarded more than six months.
Retardation was the greatest in grade six, S3 per cent
being retarded, indicating that retarded pupils often left
school at sixteen years of age.
Statistics showed that
over-age pupils did not attend as regularly as pupils who
were in their normal grades.
Seventy-five per cent of the
students who enrolled attended 7*2 months and 90 per cent
attended 4.8 months each year.
Two-day absences accounted
for the greatest loss of school time, and Monday and Friday
were the days of greatest absence.
The record of non-attendance of four hundred pupils
was analyzed, and illness, the weather, non-enrollment,
and visiting were found to he the leading reasons for
absence*
Illness was responsible for 43 per cent of the
total absences, and weather was responsible for 16 per cent,
as the rain made the streets and roads impassable*
was a direct ratio between absences and holidays*
There
Work
and poverty accounted for only 8 per cent of the total
absences*
In this study non-attendance hinged more on
social and cultural factors and the approach was social.
A comparison of the findings in this survey and the one
conducted by the investigator was interesting because of
the difference in nationalities*
This thesis gave a
picture of what the problem was in other places and what
was being done to Improve attendance.
J o h n s o n , ^ in a Master’s thesis dealing with methods
used for Improving school attendance in certain cities of
the United States, found that the existence of highly
satisfactory legislation does not solve the problem of
school attendance, since the laws are not always effectively
^ Jay Milton Johnson, *A Study of Methods Used for
Improving School Attendance in Certain Cities of the United
States,11 (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 193&)•
21
enforced.
He found that school systems throughout the
United States are attempting to improve their average daily
attendance by numerous different methods*
The importance
of this problem was evidenced by the large amount of
literature available in this field, such matters as
truancy, compulsory education laws, and studies as to the
reasons for non-attendance of pupils being considered in
books, theses, and educational periodicals*
A summary
made by the United States Public Health Service showed the
Importance of health as related to school attendance.
This
study gave a broad view of what is being done to solve the
problem of non-attendance.
14
Rosenberry
wrote his thesis on the relation between
scholarship and tardiness in the secondary schools of Los
Angeles.
He found practically no association between intel­
ligence and tardiness, but a moderate association between
scholarship and tardiness.
He found a strong association
between intelligence and regular attendance and also
between scholarship and regular attendance*
In this study
It was shown that methods of recording attendance vary
^ Sari L. Rosenberry, f,A Critical Study of Absence
and Tardiness in Secondary Schools of Los Angeles,
California,® (unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1924).
22
greatly*
Some school systems counted all pupils present
the first and last weeks of school, a practice which would
represent a deviation from the reliability of such figures*
This study is unrelated to that of the investigator, but
offers suggestions in method and technique*
A former approach to school attendance problems was
through legal agencies; a more recent approach is through
15
social agencies.
The advantage offered by the new
approach lies in the social service it renders to the indi­
vidual student whose attendance irregularities are primarily
due to unharmonious home conditions.
The particular needs;
of the student are discovered and supplied through channels
provided by the school and the community*
Recent recommendations for modern attendance super­
vision strongly support case studies of absence.
Among six
objectives of modern attendance supervision, as given by
Emmons, several clearly follow the idea of individual casestudles:
1* To keep children in school by removing causes
of absences, such as securing'medical or nursing aid,
providing food, clothing, or scholarship, helping to
^
Cooper, o£. clt*, p* 78*
^ G* L# Mosher, ‘’Helping the Individual Child
Through the Attendance Service, Abstract. Official Report
of the National Education Association. Department of
Superintendence. 1932, p p . '356-66.
23
solve the child’s problems.
2.
To know more about the child, his home, his
environment, his mental and physical peculiarities*
3- To determine the true causes and bring all
social and educational facilities of the community
to meet the needs of the individual child .*7
Summary.
In the studies reviewed in this chapter,
each one mentioned important factors relating to nonattendance of pupils.
Each of the factors, sueh as ill­
ness, keeping at home, going visiting, indifference, school
legislation, compulsory education laws, and unfavorable
weather, has a direct effect on school attendance, whether
in large or small schools, and Is related to the problem
set up in this study.
Remedial measures were listed, such as a uniform
system of child accounting, a thorough recording of cause
of every absence, a clearer comprehension by parents,
teachers, and pupils of the Importance of good attendance,
and health instruction to establish Ideals of good health
and good attendance*
The studies all show the adverse
effects of non-attendance and stress the fact that too
much emphasis cannot be placed upon regularity of attend-
17
F. E. Emmons, City School Attendance Service
(New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1926), p. 157*
ance, beginning with the kindergarten, where school habits
are first established, and continuing through all the
grades* so that the child may obtain the maximum education-*
al and social growth*
Increased regularity of attendance is an important
factor In holding pupils in school, as several of the
studies show a close correlation between retardation and
dropping out of school on one hand, and irregularity of
attendance on the other*
These investigations show that the problem of nonattendance is one of continuous concern to teachers and
administrators and is the cause of great educational and
actual economic loss*
CHAPTER III
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze
the causes of non-attendance in the Abbott Elementary School,
and the data have been gathered with the special alms of the
study in view.
Reasons for all absences were obtained from
written excuses brought by the children upon their return to
school*
Iherever this was not satisfactory, an investi­
gation was made by the teacher and a reason was obtained*
The facts have been exactly determined and carefully
analyzed and reported so that certain important data may be
established and developed as a means of decreasing nonattendance, and others may be encouraged to secure and
study further specific facts*
It is the purpose in this
chapter to explain the sources of data and the method of
procedure in the development of the problem* 5 4^ r
^
4
\0 't\? £*
I*
SOURCES OF DATA
The data used in this study were derived from seven
sources, as follows*
1*
Attendance record cards, marking daily nonattendance of each pupil absent.
2*
Six-weeks report sheet which tabulated attend­
ance and non-attendance daily for each class*
26
3*
Cumulative record cards
whieh recorded attend­
ance and non-attendance for each pupil for the
entire elementary school period.
4.
Mimeographed attendance record sheets, on which
oM/A
were recorded daily absences with the cause of
-
each absence.
5*
written excuses brought by the pupil upon his
return to school after, an absence and given to
the teacher.
6 . Reports of conferences between pupil or parent
on one hand and teacher or principal on the
other hand.
7*
Reports of visits mad© to the homes of absent^^r^ x
pupils by the school nurse or the attendance
officer or both.
*+» p
3 * 4©
s> v'
These data were tabulated for a period of nine
months, or the entire school term, a total of 176 days,
from September, 1939 to May, 1940.
Char act er 1st 1c s of the school.
The Abbott Element­
ary School is located at 15th and Troup Avenue, in the
northwest section of Kansas City, Kansas, in a residential
district.
It has an enrollment of
approximately 420
pupils, and includes kindergarten and grades one, two,
three, four, five, and six.
There are two kindergarten
27
classes, one attending morning session and the other after-'
noon session.
There is a teacher training center in the
school with a cadet instructor in charge of two cade.tteachers each semester.
The principal had an assistant
one-half of each day, who taugiht for her.
This gave the
principal time to supervise her school and do her office
work.
There were twelve members of the faculty including
the principal.
Three rooms of the school had combination
grades, a first and second combination, a third and
fourth, and a fifth and sixth.
The other rooms had one
grade each, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth.
The pupils were all of the white race, as there
were separate schools for white children and for negro
children*
Most of the Abbott School pupils came from
substantial homes, and were American-born, although a few
of the parents were foreign-born.
Abbott School had a progressive Parent-Teaeher
Association, and an active Dad's Club.
Plano and violin
classes, and an orchestra added Interest and tone to the
school curriculum*
The school had no indoor gymnasium
but supervised play on a large playground was a part of
the daily program.
1:00 P.M.
School began at 9*00 A.M. and at
There was a fifteen-minute recess in mid-morning
28
and another in mid-afternoon.
The kindergarten and grades
one and two, dismissed at 11*30 A.M. and 3*15 P.M., while
grades three, four, five, and six dismissed at 12*00 noon
and 3*45 P.M.
XI.
METHOB-QF PROCEDURES
Attendance records.
ljI'"Hn
The method of keeping attend-
H-r (gee. "f*’
F&~i
*
ance in the Abbott Elementary School included the recording
of absence on an attendance card, but not the recording
iS
of the cause or reason of absence.
This card tfsla filled
C,
out at the time of pupil enrollment and recorded eaeh
if
absence during the year.
The attendance record was for
periods of six weeks, but to make this study comparable to
other studies which have been made in this field, the
records were converted to monthly periods.
ire
Reports of attendance w^re collected on larger
report sheets, which were made out each six weeks.
These
0 ‘v-e~were also converted to monthly periods.
They g ^ e the
number enrolled and the-number present each day for the
entire period.
They also gave aver age-dai ly^ enrollment
average daily attendance, number dropped, restored,
PU ‘
^re­
transferred in and out of the building, tardy, truant,
and the number remaining at the close of the period.
Cumulative record cards for each pupil, on which
29
(Xr£^~
w$re transcribed the number of days present and the number
C\y-e>
of days absent,
also used.
To secure a record of causes of non-attendance,
IS
each teacher w$s given a mimeographed sheet of paper at the
|rV{’iI
f irst of each month on which she carefully -kept the names
of the absentee pupils, the dates of absences, and the
w //r ^
causes.
These papers were sent to the investigator*8
office at the close of each month.
These reports were made
out by twelve teachers with an enrollment of approximately
420 pupils.
\S a
The reason for absence whs made known to the teacher
V"'
by a written excuse from the parent or guardian of the
pupil.
If any cause
seem-sat is factory, a
of absence whs not recorded or-~dld-~not
conference was had with the pupil or
i~£
parent and a satisfactory reason obtained.
Pwp .i pe r
If this whs not
!
possible, the-attendance officer and the -school nurse were
called into service.
.,« .
The non-attendance of all pupils enrolled in school
w »/ *
w
was studied.
i11 b
All absences Were
classified according to
cause, month, grade, sex, and duration.
Heretofore many cases of short absence had not been
fully Investigated when the child failed to bring an
excuse.
A special effort was made by the investigator to
determine the cause of absence when the teacher was unable
30
to do so#
The total enrollment of the school was charted hy
month, grade, and sex as was also the average daily attend­
ance#
Using these two charts the per cent of attendance
was obtained for each month, and also the per cent of nonattendance#
Non-attendance was tabulated as to definite lengths
of absence, as one-day, two-days, three-days, four-days,
and five-or-more days, during the entire year, by month
and grade.
The relation between absences of one-day
duration and definite days of the week was shown with the
total for the entire year#
A table showing the total days
of school lost by reason of one-day, two-day, three-day,
four-day, and five-or-more days absence was charted, with
the per cent of each length.
An important phase of non-
attendance is the number of pupils absent, and this number
was tabulated for each month by grade and sex.
The total
number of days of absence were classified according to
cause by grade and sex and also by month and sex#
These
charts were tallied with other charts showing total days
absent by grade, month, and sex, and number of days absent
at specific times during the year.
The average length (days) of absence per pupil was
calculated for each grade by using the total enrollment
31
and total days absence for each grade.
One tabulation
shows the interruption caused by absence when pupils are
dropped and restored.
Pupils dropped have been absent
continuously for long periods and are not counted as
belonging.
Upon their return they are restored.
Another form of interrupted attendance is caused by
pupils transferring from one school to another within the
city limits.
These tabulations, called admitted by trans­
fer and dismissed by transfer, show the total number during
the year by grade and sex.
Interruptions in attendance were also caused by
entering after school started, or entering from a school
district outside Kansas Gity, Kansas.
These pupils are
designated as new pupils and one table classifies these
pupils by grade and sex for the year.
Tardies were charted for the year by grade and sex.
Perfect attendance also was tabulated for the year by
month, grade, and sex.
^
vaA
^ ^
The—reliabi-lity-of— the-data. The material ub'ed in
Wj !I
this study w^s checked thoroughly by the investigator in
order to determine its reliability.
T$e mimeographed
\a
j
( .
it
\
sheets giving data concerning absences and causes, we£e
W^/l kd*
made out by the teachers, and were checked carefully when
VJill
handed in at the end of each month.
"pts
They we)£e also^checked
against a report handed in at the end of each six weeks
and again checked against attendance cards kept for each
Wi } \
'
individual child.
Thus, there w^re three checks on all
material used, making for the reliability of the data.
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OP THE INVESTIGATION
Introduction.
Studies made of non-attendance indi­
cate the increasing importance being given to this problem.
It is probable that few schools realize how many of their
pupils are absent such a large fraction of the time, and
how few are present all or practically all of the time.
Enrollment and atteraianee*
In this study of non-
attendance, it was important to know the number of pupils
enrolled by month, grade, and sex, and also to ascertain
the average dally attendance by month, grade, and sex for
several reasons:
1.
To give a clear picture of the foundation of
the problem.
2.
To give definite bases for computations.
3.
To focalize attention on the definite numbers
to be used in consideration of the problem.
4.
To give definite bases for comparisons with
other similar studies that have been or will be
made.
Table I charts the enrollment for boys by grade and
month, Table II, page 35, charts the enrollment for girls
by grade and month, and Table III, page 36 , charts the
34
TABLE I
BOYS ENROLLED BY G-RADE AND MONTH
Grade
1C
1
2
3
4
5
5
September
27
29
31
26
39
22
31
205
October
28
30
31
26
39
21
31
206
November
26
32
30
25
39
21
31
204
December
25
31
31
26
36
22
31
204
3anuary
25
30
28
26
39
22
32
202
February
23
30
28
26
38
22
32
199
March
23
28
28
28
37
23
32
199
April
22
28
26
27
37
23
31
194
May
23
31
28
27
37
24
31
200
Average
monthly
enrollment
25
30
29
26
38
22
31
201
Month
Total
4t&
NOTES This table should be read as follows: There
were twenty-seven boys enrolled In the kindergarten during
September•
35
TABIE II
G-IRLS ENROLLED BY G-RADE AND MONTH
Orade
3
4
5
£
31
36
32
24
214
29
32
35
32
25
218
39
29
32
34
32
25
219
28
37
30
33
36
33
25
222
January
29
36
30
32
34
35
24
220
February
2?
40
30
32
35
34
25
223
March
29
40
29
32
36
35
24
225
April
27
38
27
33
34
34
23
216
May
29
38
28
33
33
34
23
218
Average
monthly
enrollment
28
38
29
31
35
34
25
220
Month
K
1
2
September
26
36
29
October
26
39
November
28
December
Total
NOTE: This table shouId be read as follows: There
were twenty-six girls enrolled In the kindergarten during
September.
36
TABLE III
TOTAL HJPILS ENROLLED BY GRADE AND MONTH
Grade
3
4
5
6
57
75
54
55
419
60
58
74
53
56
424
71
59
57
73
53
56
423
53
68
61
59
74
55
56
426
January
54
66
58
58
73
57
56
420
February
50
70
58
58
73
56
57
422
March
52
68
57
60
73
58
56
424
April
49
66
53
60
71
57
54
410
May
52
69
57
60
70
58
54
420
Average
monthly
enrollment
53
68
58
57
73
56
56
421
Month
K
1
2
September
53
65
60
October
54
69
November
54
December
Total
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: There
were fifty-three pupils enrolled In the kindergarten during
September*
total enrollment for all pupils fey grade and month.
The
average enrollment for the year was 201 feoys and 220 girls,
a total of 421 pupils.
The number of feoys was smaller
than the number of girls during the entire year.
Tables
IV, V, and VI, pages 3 8 , 39, and 40, show that the average
dally attendance for the school year was 188 feoys and 203
girls, a total of 391 pupils.
Table VII, page 41, shows
per cent of attendance by month.
In Kansas City, Kansas
pupils are dropped from enrollment for continued absence
longer than three days, and are not counted as belonging
until they return and are restored.
The per cent of
attendance is thus higher than it otherwise would fee.
September, with 95*46 per cent of attendance, and May with
95*47 per cent of attendance have the highest per cents
of attendance and the least absence.
This may fee accounted
for fey the fact that September had only fifteen days of
school and that the pupils were rested from a long vaca­
tion.
May is usually a mild month.
January, with 87.62
per cent of attendance, had the poorest attendance and
the most absence.
during that month.
This was due to the very severe weather
The average attendance for the year
was 92.87 P © r cent and the average non-attendance was
7*13 per cent.
Analysis of one-day absences*
The absences in
38
TABLE IV
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE FOR BOYS BY GRADE AND MONTH
;-
•
Grade
3
4
5
s
Total
25
37
21
29
194
30
25
37
19
29
195
30
28
24
37
19
30
192
24
29
28
25
36
20
30
192
January
21
25
24
23
36
20
29
178
February
21
27
25
24
36
20
29
183
March
21
25
25
25
35
21
30
182
April
21
27
25
26
34
22
30
183
May
22
28
27
27
35
23
30
193
23
27
26
25
36
21
29
188
Month
K
1
September
25
28
29
October
26
29
November
24
December
-2
JUuhO
Average
daily
attendance
NOTE: ~ This tahle should be read as follows: The
average dally attendance for boys in the kindergarten during
September was 25*
TABLE V
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCEFOR GIRLS BY GRADE AND MONTH
Month
JS
-1
2
Grade
- ■ 3 • 4 -.
5
nr
Total
September
25
35
27
30
35
31
23
206
October
24
38
27
' 30
32
- 31
23
205
November
26
36
27
30
32
31
23
265
December
27
' 36
28
31
33
32
23
210
January*
25
33
23
27
30
31
21
190
February
25
38
28
30
30
32
23
206
March
27
38
26
29
32
32
22 i
206
April
25
35
25
30
32
33
22
202
May
26
36
26
32
32
34
22
208
>
Average
dally "
attendance
25
36
26
29
32
32
21
203
NOTE5 This table should he read as follows; The
average dally attendance for girls in the kindergarten
during September was twenty-five*
40
TABLE VI
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE FOR ALL PUPILS BY GRADE AND MONTH
■ -- ;■■
Month.
.
-■-
Grade
_3
-
.
K,
1
2
September
50
63
56
55
72
52
52
400
October
50
67
57
55
69
50
52
400
November
50
66
55
54
69
50
53
397
December
51
65
56
56
69
52
53
402
January
46
58
4?
50
66
51
50
3 68
February
46
65
53
55
66
52
52
389
March.
48
63
51
54
67
53
52
388
April
46
62
50
56
66
53
52
385
May
49
64
53
59
67
56
52
401
64
53
55
68
52
51
391
4.
.
5
U
Total
Average
dally
attendance
48
NOTEt This table should be read as followss The
average dally attendance for all pupils in the kindergarten
during September was fifty*
41
TABLE VII
PER CENT OF ATTENDANCE AND NON-ATTENDANCE BY MONTH
Month
Average
Enrollment
Average
Attendance
Per cent
Attendance
Per cent
NonAttendance
September
419
400
95.46
4.54
October
424
400
94.58
5.42
November
423
397
93-85
6.15
December
426
402
94.36
5.64
J anuary
420
368
87.62
12.38
February
422
389
92.18
7.82
March
424
388
91.51
9.49
April
410
385
93-9
6.1
May
420
401
95.47
4.53
Average
421
391
92.87
7.13
NOTE:
This table should he read as follows: The
average enrollment for September was 419 pupils, the
average attendance was 400 pupils, or 95*46 per cent.
The
per cent of non-attendance was 4*54.
42
terms of definite time periods, as one-day, two-days,
three-days, four-days, and five-or-more days, for the
entire year by months and grades, are presented in
Tables VIII to XIV inclusive, pages 43 to 49*
These facts
were brought out %
1*
Number of one-day absences during each month by
grades.
2.
Total number of one-day absences for the year
by months and grades^.
3*
Number of two-day absences during each month
by grades.
4*
Total number of two-day absences for the year
by months and grades.
5.
Total number of days of school lost by reason
of these absences*
6.
These facts were also brought out for absences
of three-days, four-days, and five-or-more days*
These results clarified the study and furnished useful
evidence in planning remedial measures to decrease nonattendance*
One-day absences reached a total of 1,020
cases, or 57 per cent of all absences.
The largest number
of one^day absences was in January, with 233 cases, and
the grade with the largest total number of one-day absences
for the year was the kindergarten with 202 cases*
The
least number of one-day absences was in September with a
TABLE VIII
CNE-DAY ABSENCES FOR ALL PUPILS BY MONTH AND GRADE
Total
cases
Total
absence
2
12
19
17
25
15
17
12
15
21
55
116
108
233
132
140
119
96
21
55
116
108
233
132
140
119
96
2,0
5.4
11.4
10.6
22.8
13.0
13.7
11.7
9.4
125
134
1,020
1,020
100.0
125
134
1,020
1,020
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
6
2
12
21
24
46
25
25
28
19
1
7
25
12
36
13
19
14
7
4
10
11
4
22
7
15
10
16
3
4
6
13
38
26
18
20
6
5
7
22
21
42
29
26
22
18
4
3
12
17
24
17
20
13
15
Total
202
134
99
134
192
Total days
absence
202
134
99
134
192
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
Monthly
average
22.44
14.88
11
14.88
21*33
13.88
14*88
113.3
Per
cent
113.3
NOTE: This table should he read as follows: During September the kindergarten had two
one-day absences. The total one-day absences for September was twenty-one.
44
TABLE IX
RELATION OF ONE-DAY ABSENCES TO DAYS OF THE WEEK
BY GRADE .
Day of
week
K
Monday
Tuesday
Grade
3
g
4
-
Per
cent
1
2
44
43
30
44
57
38
52
308
30.19
35
13
9
20
23
16
21
137
13.43
Wednesday 2?
23
15
19
29
23
12
148
14.51
Thursday
29
18
17
21
35
17
12
149
14.61
Friday
67
37
28
30
48
31
37
278
27.26
202
134
99
134
192
125
134
1,020
100.00
204
100.00
Total
Dally
average
40. 4 26.8 19.9
26.8
38.4
Total
5
25
26.8
NOTE:
This table should b© read as follows: There was
a total of 308 one -day absences on Monday, which was 3°*19 Per
cent of the total one**day absences.
TABLE X
TWO-BAY ABSENCES FOB ALL HJPILS BY MONTH AND GBADE
School
month
2
3
1
17
2
1
4
3
5
6
2
23
7
8
4
6
1
1
4
2
6
5
8
5
3
4
4
4
4
18
2
8
6
3
11
20
30
17
126
36
44
32
22
22
40
60
34
252
72
88
64
44
3.25
5.9
8.9
5.03
37.27
10.65
13.
9.5
6.5
42
30
64
35
53
338
676
100.00
84
60
128
70
106
676
676
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
1
4
5
2
20
7
11
5
2
1
3
4
4
23
9
4
6
3
1
1
4
2
19
4
4
2
5
Total
57
57
114
114
12.66
Per
cent
6
2
12.66
Total
absence
5
1
Monthly
average
Total
cases
4
X
Total days
absence
-k
Grade
3
9.33
6.66
14.22
7.77
11.77
75.1
75.1
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September the kindergarten had one
two-day absence. There was a total of eleven two-day absences, or twenty-two days absence,
during September.
VJl
TABLE XI
THREE-BAY ABSENCES FOR ALL PUPILS BY MONTH AND GRADE
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
1
1
3
2
2
8
1
3
1
3
8
3
1
7
2
2
1
1
1
4
3
1
1
5
1
1
1
3
1
5
1
3
2
2
1
1
13
3
1
6
2
2
6
3
4
1
Total
cases
Total
absence
2
6
11
5
48
17
17
5
6
6
18
33
15
144
51
51
15
18
1.7
5*13
9.4
4.27
41.1
14.5
14.5
4.3
5.1
100.00
Total
16
22
19
18
15
12
15
117
351
Total days
absence
48
66
57
54
45
36
45
351
351
6
5
4
5
39
39
Monthly
average
5.33
7.33
6.33
Per
cent
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September the first grade had one
three-day absence* There was a total of two three-day absences, or six days absence, during
September*
■Is­
os
SABLE XII
FOUR-BAT ABSENCES FOR ALL HJPILS BY MONTE AND GRADE
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
Total
Total days
absence
Monthly
average
K
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
Grade
3
4
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
5
3
3
7
1
1
3
5
6
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
Total
cases
Total
absence
1
5
13
2
18
12
3
7
3
4
20
52
8
72
48
12
28
12
1.6
7.81
20.31
3.12
28.12
18.71
4.7
10.93
4.7
100.00
9
10
11
12
13
5
4
64
256
36
40
44
48
52
20
16
256
256
4
4.66
4.88
5.33
5.77
2.22
Per
cent
1,77 28.44
28.44
NOTE: Tliis table should be read as follows: During September the third grade had one
absence of four-days, making a total for September of one four-day absence or four days.
TABLE XIII
FIVE-OH-MOHE DAIS ABSENCES FOR ALL HJPILS BY MONTH AND SHADE
School
month
K
1
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
4
4
4
2
15
14
4
3
5
1
4
4
13
3
8
7
1G
Total
55
50
Monthly
average
6.11
5.55
Grade
3
4
5
6
2
2
1
5
8
16
7
4
7
7
4
4
3
1
2
3
2
5
6
2
1
2
2
43
4.77
22
2.44
8
8
3
3
4
42
4.66
6
Total
1
1
6
16
27
11
69
47
27
24
23
23
15
250
2
1
2.55
1
1
5
5
2
1.66
27.77
Per cent
2*4
6.4
10*8
4*4
27.6
18.8
10.8
9.6
9.2
100.00
49
tabu
:xiv
TOTAL NUMBER SCHOOL DAYS LOST BY REASON OP
ONE, TWO, THREE, POUR, FIVE-OR-MORE DAYS ABSENCES
Length of
absence
Per cent
of total
absences
Number of
cases
Total days
lost
1
1,020
1,020
21.48
2
338
676
14.23
3
117
351
7.39
4
64
256
5-39
5-or-more days
Total
250
2,446*5
51.51
4,749*5
100.00
NOTE: This table should be read as follows:
1,020
pupils were absent during the year for a period of one-day,
making a loss of 1,020 days of school, or 21*48 per cent
of the 4,749*5 total days absence*
total of twenty-one cases of one-day absences, and in the
second grade with a total of ninety-nine cases of one-day
absences for the year,
The first grade set a record for
one-day absences with only one in September.
The high
number of cases of ode-day absences for January may be
accounted for by the sever© weather which prevailed at
that time-
On January 19> 1940 there was severely cold
weather and 153 pupils were absent on that date.
These
were not all single day absences, however, the large
number absent on that date substantiates the tabulated
figures.
The average one-day absence In each grade is
also shown, the kindergarten having the highest average
with 22.44 cases of one-day absences per month, and the
second grade the lowest average with eleven cases of oneday absence per month.
The average one-day absence for
each month for the entire school was 113*3 cases.
The relation between one-day absences and definite
days of the week is shown in Table IX, page 44.
The
results show that absence occurs to a large extent on
certain days of the week, and special types of remedial
suggestions are necessary.
Monday, with a total of 308
one-day absences had the largest number.
per cent of the total one-day absences.
This was 30.19
Friday was
second with a total of 278 one-day absences, or 27*25 per
51
cent of the total one-day absences.
Wednesday and
Thursday were practically tied for third place with 149
days of one-day absences, or 14.6 per cent for Wednesday,
and 138 days of one-day absences, or 14.58 per cent for
Thursday.
Tuesday had the least one-day absences with
137 days, or 13*43 per cent*
The 1,020 school days lost by reason of one-day
absences was responsible for 21.48 per cent, or about onefifth of the total days absences for all causes for the
entire year.
The findings in this problem of one-day
absences agree with those in similar studies of nonattendance, by Tighe,1 Schwerdtfeger,2 Compton,^ and
Donahue.^
Analysis of absence for periods longer than one d a y .
Mary E. Tighe, "A Study of Non-Attendance in the
Otter Creek Township Consolidated School, Vigo County,
Indiana,11 (unpublished Master's thesis. University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1940).
2
«
Elta Louise Schwerdtfeger, A Study of NonAttendance in the City Schools of Burbank, California,11
(unpublished Master's thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933)*
^ J. L. Compton, "A Study of Non-Attendance in the
Elementary Schools of Bakersfield, California,” (unpublish­
ed Master's thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1929)*
4
Harry Edgebert Donahue, "An Analysis of the Under­
lying Causes of Non-Attendance in the Hawthorne Elementary
Schools,” (unpublished Master's thesis. University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933)*
In an analysis of two-clay absences, Table X, page
45, it was found that the total number of two-day absences
for the year was 338 or a loss of 676 days of school.
The
fourth grade had the largest total or sixty-four two-day
absences, a loss of 128 school days.
January had the
largest number of two-day absences of any month, 126,
which meant a loss of 252 days of school-
This was by
far the largest number of two-day absences for any month,
the next largest being eighty-eight two-day absences In
March.
The large number of two-day absences during January
was due to most unfavorable winter weather.
The total
number of two-day absences, 338, was about one-third of the
total number of one-day absences, 1,020, or 33•17 per cent,
and the total days
ofschool lost by
two-day absences, 676,
was 66.27 per cent of the total days of school lost by
one-day absences.
In investigating the number of three-day absences,
Table XI, page 46,
it was found that the total number of
three-day absences was 117 with a loss of 351 days of
school.
The largest number of three-day absences was in
January, with a total of forty-eight or a loss of 144
days of school.
The first grade had the largest number
of t h r e e ^ a y absences, twenty-two, or a loss of sixty-six
days of school.
The fifty grade had the least number of
53
three-day absences, twelve, or a loss of thirty-six days
of school.
The three-day absences were only 11.46 per
cent of the one-day absences, and the school days lost
by three-day absences were 34*41 per cent of the school
days lost by one-day absences.
Table XII, page 47, considers four-day absences,
and Indicates that there were sixty-four absences of four
days each, a total loss of 256 days of school, or an
average loss of 28.44 days during each month of school.
The fourth grade, with thirteen four-day absences, a loss
of fifty-two school days, had the highest number, and the
sixth grade, with a total of four four-day absences and a
loss of sixteen days, had the least.
January headed the
months with a total of seventy-two four-day absences,
or a loss of 288 days, and September had the least, a
total of four four-day absences, or a loss of sixteen days.
In comparison, the total number of four-day absences,
or sixty-four, was 6.27 per cent of the total number of
one-day absences, while the loss of school days by fourday absences was 25 per cent of the loss of school days
by one-day absences.
Table XIII, page 48, presents the number of cases
of five-or-more days absence by month and by grade for
the school year.
From a review of this table it is found
that the kindergarten had the largest number of five-ormore days absences, fifty-five, due to the fact that they
had several flares of chicken pox, mumps, and scarlet
fever.
The sixth grade had the least number of five-or-
more days absences, fifteen.
January again led the months
with the largest total of five-or-more days absences,
sixty-nine, while September again had the least number of
five-or-more days absences, six.
The total for the year
was 250 five-or-more days absences, or a loss of 2,446.5
days of school.
The total number of five-or-more days
absences was 24.5 per cent of the total number of one-day
absences, but the days lost by reason of five-or-more days
absences was over twice as great as the days lost by oneday absences.
Table XIV, page 49, is a summary of one, two, three,
four, five-or-more days absence in relation to number of
cases, total days lost, and per cent of each as compared
to the total number of days absence for the year.
In considering school days lost, the 1,020 days
lost by one-day absences are four times the 256 days lost
by four-day absences, three times the 351 days lost by
three-day absences, and one and one-half times the 676
days lost by two-day absences, but the4 2,446.5.days lost
by five-or-more days absences are more than twice the days
lost by one-day absences.
Most of the five-or-more days
absences were due to severe illnesses, or quarrantine
and represent a great educational as well as economic
loss.
In regular school work a pupil can afford to miss
a day now and then and not lose as much as he would by a
period of five-or-more days consecutive absence.
Long
periods of non-attendance lessen the chances for regular
promotion and create problems not only for the pupil when
he returns to school and must make up the work missed,
but also for the parents and teachers, who must give extra
time and attention in assisting the pupil to regain lost
ground.
Table XIV, page 49, presents a diagnosis of the
problem of non-attendance by periods of absence, and
helped to give an understanding of the situation which was
useful in planning a remedial program.
Table XV reveals clearly the number of absences of
the various lengths for each grade, and gives the corres­
ponding totals, and per cents.
With few exceptions the
per cents decrease from 18*94 per cent of absence in the
kindergarten to 12.35 per cent of absence in the sixth
grade, a gradual decline from the youngest to the eldest
pupils.
The exception Is the fourth grade which had an
unusually high number of one-day, two-day, and five-or-
56
TABLE XV
TOTAL NUMBER ABSENCES BY GRABS OF'OS®, TWO-, THREE,
FOUR, FIVE-OR-MORE DAYS DURATION
Length of absence in davs
2
3
4
5-ormore
Total
Fer
cent
Grades
1
K
202
57
16
9
55
339
18*94
1
134
57
22
10
50
273
15*25
2
99
42
19
11
43
214
11*96
134
30
18
12
22
216
12*11
4
192
64
15
13
42
326
18*22
5
125
35
12
5
23
200
11*17
6
134
53
15
4
15
221
12*35
1,020
338
117
64
250
1,789
100.00
Total
days
absence 1,020
676
351
256
4,749*5
100.00
Total
2 ,446*5
NOTES
This table should he read as follows: The
Kindergarten had 202 absences by one-day periods, 57 absences
by two-day periods, 16 absences by three-day periods, 9
absences by four-day periods, 55 absences by five-or-more
day periods, a total of 339 absences, or 18*94 per cent of
all absences in the school*
57
more daya absences*
Table XVI presents tbe total number of absences
according to duration of days by month for the school year.
The per cents are figured and it is interesting to note
that the per cents form practically an arch with September,
2 *29 per cent, and May, 8*36 per cent low at each end,
and January, 27*61 per cent, high in the center*
There
is a gradual Increase in per cent of absence from September
to January and a gradual decrease in per cent of absence
from January to May.
This would be in accord with general
weather conditions which have such an effect on health
and the resulting attendance.
Analysis of number of pupils absent.
The problem
of non-attendance should also be approached from the
standpoint of number of pupils absent.
From the follow­
ing tables these facts were obtained:
1.
The months when the most pupils were absent.
2*
The grades which had the most absences during
certain months*
3*
The sex which had more absences during certain
months.
4.
Total number absent for the year by grade,
month, and sex.
Table XVII, page 59 $ giving the number of boys absent by
58
TABLE XVI
TOTAL NUMBER ABSENCES BY MONTH OF ONE, TWO, THREE,
FOUR, FIVE-OR-MORE BAYS DURATION
Length of absence in days
2
3
4
- 5~ormore
Month
1
September.
21
11
October
55
20
November
116
December
-
.
„
_
Total
Per
cent
,
1
6
4l
2.29
6
5
16
102
5.71
30
11
13
27
197
11.01
108
17
5
2
11
143
7-99
January
233
126
48
18
69
494
27.61
February
132
36
17
12
47
244
13.65
March
140
44
17
3
27
231
12.91
April
119
32
5
7
24
187
10.45
96
22
6
3
23
150
8.38
Total
1 ,020
338
117
64
250
1,789
100.00
Total
days
absence
1,020
676
351
256
4,749*5
100.00
May
a>,446.5
NOTE: This table should be read as follows:
September had 21 one-day absences, 11 two-day absences,
3 three-day absences, 1 four-day absence, 6 five-day
absences, a total of 4l absences, or 2.29 P@r cent of all
absences for the school year.
TABLE m i
NUMBER OF BOYS ABSENT BY GRADE AND MONTH
School
month
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
6
Total
boys
absent
Per
cent
4
11
11
9
20
20
16
15
9
4
6
5
4
14
11
14
7
5
>7
11
13
8
20
15
12
14
12
8
11
14
9
17
13
12
12
12
8
16
12
12
18
17
14
13
14
44
79
79
62
132
109
99
87
74
5.75
10.3
10.3
8.1
17.25
14.25
12.95
11.4
9.7
115
70
112
108
124
765
100.00
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
2
6
8
9
19
13
10
10
7
11
18
16
11
24
20
21
16
15
Total
84
152
Monthly
average
9.33
.
.
16.88
12.77
7.77
12.33
12
13.7
85
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September there were two boys absent
in the kindergarten, eleven boys absent in the first grade, etc., making a total of forty-four
boys absent during the month, or 5.75 per cent of all absences for the year.
ui
vo
grade and month, points out that a total of 765 hoys were
absent.
The
first grade had the largest number of boys
absent, 152,
and January had the largest number of boys
absent, with 132.
The average number of
boys absent eaeh
month was listed, the average number of boys absent for
the year being eighty-five.
Table XVIII lists the same Information for girls,
the fourth grade with 154 girls absent during the year,
and January, with 15? girls absent, have the largest
numbers.
The total number of girls absent for the year
was 879> or an average of 97*66 girls absent eaoh month.
The girls averaged 12.66 more absent each month than the
boys.
Table XIX, page 62, tabulates the total number of
pupils absent by month and grade for the year.
January,
with a total of 289 pupils absent, and the first grade
with a total of 301 pupils absent, had the largest numbers,
while September, with a total of ninety-three pupils
absent, and the third grade, with a total of 179 pupils
absent, had the least.
The total number of pupils absent
was 1,644, or an average of 182.6 pupils absent per month.
Analysis of the pauses of absence.
In studying
non-attendance, certain facts, such as average daily
attendance, length and number of absences, number of
TABLE m i l
NUMBER OF GIRIS ABSENT BY GRADE AND MCffiH
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
Total
Monthly
average
K
1
2
Grade
3
6
14
18
12
25
20
19
17
12
7
14
18
14
28
19
20
20
9
7
9
13
10
23
12
17
12
12
5
15
13
7
25
14
11
10
9
9
15
20
15
26
19
24
12
14
9
11
10
14
17
15
12
14
9
6
12
10
12
13
13
13
11
8
49
70
102
84
157
112
116
96
73
5.58
10.24
11.6
9.56
17.86
12.74
13.2
10.92
8.3
143
149
115
109
154
111
98
879
100.00
15.88
16.55
12.77
12.1
4
5
17.11
12.33
6
Total
girls
absent
Per
cent
10.88 .
97.66
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September there were six girls
absent in the kindergarten, seven girls absent in the first grade, etc., making a total of
forty-nine girls absent during the month, or 5.58 per cent of all absences for the year*
ON
h-»
TABLE XII
TOTAL NUMBER OF HJPILS ABSENT BY GRADE AND MONTH
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
Total
K
1
2
8
20
26
21
44
33
29
27
19
18
32
24
25
52
39
41
36
24
11
20
24
19
43
32
33
27
21
227
301
230
Grade
3
Total
absent
Per
cent
14
28
22
24
31
30
27
24
22
93
169
181
146
289
221
215
183
147
5.66
10.27
10.95
8.83
17.55
13.5
13.08
11.16
9.
222
1,644
100.00
4
5
6
9
21
18
11
39
25
25
17
14
16
26
33
23
'46
34
36
26
26
17
22
24
23
34
28
24
26
21
179
266
219
Monthly
average
25.2
33,4
25.5
19.8
29.5
24.3
24.6
182.6
Average
enrolled
53
68
58
57
73
56
56
421
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September there isere eight pupils
absent in the kindergarten, eighteen pupils absent in the first grade, etc., making a total
of ninety-three pupils absent during the month, or 5.66 per cent of all the absences for the
year.
ON
W
*
63
pupils absent, are important, but more important than
any or all of these is the cause of absence*
Without the
cause, a remedy cannot be prescribed.
«/
All the absences of Abbott School pupils were
tallied as to causes.
After careful examination the
causes were listed under nineteen separate headings.
Table XX, giving the causes of non-attendance for boys
by grade, shows that more days were lost by the boys
because of colds than for any other reason, a total of
845 days of school.
The next highest number, 308 days
of absence, was due to the pupil being ill with a con­
tagious disease and being detained under quarrantine
regulations.
General illness, or illness that did not fall under
any other definitely listed cause, accounted for 236 days
of absence for boys.
Throat trouble, sore throat, tonsllltis, and
tonsilectomies, accounted for 140.5 days absence for boys.
Severe weather caused 111 days absence for boys,
the largest number, forty-five days absence, being in
the kindergarten.
Headaches were the cause of thirty-three days
absence and upset stomach of 87*5 days absence.
These
two causes, totaling 120.5 days absence, are generally
TABLE XX
THE CAUSES 03? NON-ATTENDANCE FOR BOYS BY GRADE
Cause of
absence
K
Colds, coughs
134
Child under Quarrantine 54
General Illness
39
7.5
Throat Trouble
Weather
45
Visiting
16
Stomach upset
15.5
2
Help at home
Ear trouble
5
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
4
7
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
2
14
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, funeral
3
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
348
1
2
133.5
122
16
14
23.5
24.5
12.5
2.5
31.5
13.5
14.5
6.5
4.5
18.5
14
3.5
3
1
16.5
229.5
49
71.5
13.5
10
15.5
6.5
6.5
51
4
475.5
471
3.5
2
5
2
1.5
Grade
*
98.5
57
15.5
12.5
10
3.5
7
4
1.5
7
7
4.5
1.5
1
5
1
1.5
238
NOTE: This table should be read as follows:
were due to colds and soughs during the year*
4
5
6
101.5
10
35.5
48
9
8
21
15
6*5
4.5
17
28
5.5
2
.5
1
7.5
1
75
5
29
27
1
11
6.5
50.5
.5
35.5
6.5
3
5
1
3
3
1
1.5
73
11
29.5
18
12.5
8.5
18.5
6
3.5
6
6.5
4
13.5
3.5
3
4.5
9
.5
321.5
265
231
Total
845
308
236
140.5
111
87
87.5
86.5
94
68.5
55.5
59
33
30.5
40.5
17.5
23.5
10
16.5
2,350
Per
cent
35.9
13.2
10.
5.98
4.7
5.7
3.7
3.7
4.
2.91
2.4
2.51
1.4
1.3
1.72
.74
1.
.44
.7
100.00
134 days absence for boys in the kindergarten
o\
4
65
symptomatic of other conditions and furnish material for
timely health teaching*
Bar trouble, earache, mastoid trouble caused
ninety-four days absence.
In many oases these were
closely related to throat troubles, each affecting the
other.
Accidental injuries kept the boys out of school
for 55*5 days.
grounds.
Few accidents occurred on the school
Most of them happened during play time at home
but more effective safety teaching should reduce this
number.
Few absences were due to the boys being kept at
home to rest, which amounted to 16.5 days of school*
This
probably prevented Illness from developing and causing a
longer period of absence.
It is interesting to note that the leading cause
of absence for boys in every grade is the common cold,
and that the days absent were 35*9 per cent of the 2,350
total days absent for boys.
By combining the days absent for colds, coughs,
throat trouble, ear trouble, general illness, headache,
and upset stomach, all of which seem to belong together,
a total of 1,436 days, or 61.1 per cent of all days
absence for boys was obtained.
66
Table XXI lists
the causes of absence for girls
for the year by grade*The total days absent for girls
equals 2,399*5 and of this number, 871*5 days, or 36.32
per cent were due to colds, which holds first place in
the cause of absence for girls.
General Illness
with
was the second highest cause,
a total of 339*5 days
absence, or 14*2 per cent of
the total absence for girls.
The third highest cause was quarrantine, with a
total of 288.5 days absence, or 12 per cent of the total
absence for girls.
There were several near-epidemics of
chicken pox and measles, also a few cases of scarlet
fever and whooping cough.
Throat trouble, sore throat, tonsilitis caused
174.5 days of absence, or 7*3 P©r cent of all absences
for girls.
By combining, as was done for the boys, the days
absent because of colds, coughs, throat trouble, general
illness, ear trouble, headache, and upset stomach, a total
of 1,544 days absence is obtained, or 64.34 per cent of
all the absences for the year for girls.
Going visiting, taking trips, or having company
accounted for 139 days absence for girls while for boys
the total was eighty-seven days absence.
TABLE XXI
THE CAUSES. OP NON-ATTENDANCE FOR GIRLS BT GRADE
Cause of
absenee
Grade
3
1
2
Colds9 eoughs
195
Child under ^uarrantine 116
25
General Illness
53
Throat Trouble
Weather
34
Visiting
39
1
Stomach upset
Help at home
18
Ear trouble
Illness in heme
9
Aeeidental injuries
3
Shoes, elothes
Headache
1
Eyetrouble, glasses
2
Other reasons
1
5
Teeth, Dentist
2
Death, Funeral
Got up late
5
Kept heme to rest
150
41*5
40,5
15
49.5
27,5
29
5
3
5,5
7
5,5
7
12.5
2.5
7.5
8
4.5
2
162,5
52
36.5
1
15
14.5
15.5
1
88
14
RA
V
T
29
7.5
4.5
5
.5
5
2
,5
6.5
1,3
3
13
3
5.5
5.5
1,5
4
3.5
Total
423,5
315
K
509
4
5
6
71
15
26
15,5
1
12
6.5
10
1,5
9.5
3
2.5
6.5
3
1,5
1
1,5
4
74
3
131
50
129
18.5
18
30
5
13.5
4,5
16
3,5
9.5
9,5
8
4,5
6
4
7
243.5
467,5
190
'
28.5
42,5
8
11.5
15.5
26,5
8.5
3.5
2,5
3
10.5
1.5
2
10.5
2
.5
251
Total
Her
cent
871.5
288.5
339.5
174.5
133
139
77,5
56.5
40.5
43.5
34
23.5
40.5
39
14.5
37
17,5
22.5
7
36,3
12.
14.2
7.3
5,6
5,8
3.2
2,4
1.7
1,8
1.4
1.
1.7
1.6
.6
1.5
.7
.9
•3
2,399.5
100.0
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: One hundred ninety-five days absenee for
girls in the kindergarten were due to eolds and eoughs during the year*
o\
68
Kindergarten girla had the most absenee because of
colds, 195 days, and the girls in the second grade were
next with 162.5 days absence, while the fifth grade girls
with seventy-one days absence, and the sixth grade girls
with seventy-four days absence, had the least number of
days absence*
Trouble with teeth and visits to the dentist
caused a loss of thirty-seven days of school, while eye
trouble and visits to the oculist caused a loss of thirtynine days.
Parents were urged to have this corrective
work done, but were asked to make appointments for
Saturday and after school hours.
The kindergarten girls had the largest number of
absences for the year with a total of 509 days absence,
while the fifty grade girls had the least, with a total
of 19° days absence#
Table XXII surveyed the problem of causes of nonattendance by grade for the entire school, and totals
were figured for boys and girls combined.
These totals
give a detailed appraisal of non-attendance and are
essential in consideration of procedures to be developed
in any program organized to improve regularity of attend­
ance .
The ten leading causes of absence with the total
TABLE XXII
TOTAL CAUSES OF NC^-ATTENDANCE FOR ALL PUPILS BY GRADE
Cause of
absenoe
K
329
Colds, eoughs
Child under Quarrantine 170
General Illness
64
6G.5
Throat trouble
Weather
79
55
Visiting
Stomach upset
16*5
2
Help at home
Ear trouble
18
Illness in home
14
Accidental Injuries
7
Shoes* clothes
7
Headache
1
Eyetrouble, glasses
4
15
Other reasons
5
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
2
Got up late
3
5
Kept home to rest
Total
857
Grade
3
1
2
283.5
163*5
56.5
29
73
52
41*5
7.5
34*5
19
21.5
12
11.5
31
16*5
11
11
5.5
18.5
392
101
106
14.5
25
30
22
7.5
51
4
2
3.5
.5
8*5
6*5
3
2
5
186*5
71
69.5
41*5
17.5
8
12
4*5
6.5
899
786
481*5
20
10
10
7
2.5
9
1
4*5
Total
Per
eent
146
20
55
42.5
2
23
13
60.5
2
45
9.5
5.5
11.5
4
4.5
4
2.5
5.5
147
1,716.5
596.5
11
58
575.5
60*5
313
20.5
244
20
226
34
165
32.5
143
12
134*5
9.5
112
9
89.5
7
82.5
24
73.5
5
69.5
5
55
15
54.5
11
41
32.5
1
23.5
36*1
12.6
12*1
6*6
5.2
4.7
3.5
3.1
2.9
2.3
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.1
1.1
.9
•6
.5
455
482
4
5
232*5
60
164.5
66*5
27
38
26
26.5
11
20.5
20.5
57.5
15
10
5
7
11.5
8
789
4,749*5
100.00
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: Three hundred twenty-nine days absenee for
pupils in the Kindergarten were due to colds and eoughs during the year*
o\
vo
70
number of days of non-attendance were:
1.
Colds and coughs
2.
Child ill and quarrantined
596.5
"
3*
General Illness
575.5
*'
4.
Throat trouble
tonsllitis
tons lie ctomy
3X5
5*
Unfavorable weather
244
6.
Visiting, trips, company
226
7.
Upset stomach
165
8.
Helping at home, errands
143
9*
Ear trouble, mastoiditis
13^.5
Illness in the home
112
10.
1,716*5 days
The combined absences for colds and coughs, throat
trouble, ear trouble, general illness, headache, and up­
set stomach which seemed to be kindred ailments, was
2,980 days or 62.74 per cent of the total days absent for
the year.
If to this total is added the number of days
lost by the pupils being quarrantined, the total days
absent will be 3 ,576.5 days and the per cent of absenee
will equal 75*27, or three-fourths*
Here are figures
that show three-fourths of all the absences were due to
illness.
Illness is recognized as a major cause of
absence in school*
In most of the surveys that have been made of
non-attendance the cause of first importance has been
71
illness*
In considering Table XXII, page 6 9 , illness, as a
cause of absence, decreased perceptibly as the grades
advanced, and Increased in the primary department.
It is
in this department that the diseases of childhood are most
prevalent and in the totals for quarrantine the figures
are also largest in the primary department and become much
smaller in the upper grades.
General Illness which included other forms of ill­
ness not mentioned in the list of causes, accounted for
575*5 days of absence.
The second grade, with 108 days
of general Illness, and the fourth grade with 164.5 days
of general illness, had the largest totals while the
other grades were more evenly distributed from fifty-five
days of general illness In the fifth grade to 69-5 days
of general illness in the third grade.
Often general
Illness was a warning of some disorder which could be
corrected if given proper attention.
Throat troubles, tonsllitis, and tonsllectomies
accounted for 3x 5 days absence, quite evenly divided
between the boys with 140 days absence and the girls with
174.5 days absence.
It is highly probable that many
absences, where the causes were given as the common cold,
really were cases of tonsllitis.
The health program
stressed corrective work in this illness, and much good
was accomplished in the way of tonsilectomles.
Corrective
health work is largely a matter of education along that
line, and must he stressed continually, not only in the
school room teaching hut in talks to the Parent-Teacher
Association, and in personal conferences with parents, to
obtain results.
In carrying out a remedial health program the
school nurse gave extremely valuable help, although her
schedule called for only one~half day per week in the
building.
Attention to eye difficulties was stressed in the
health program, and 69*5 days absence was the total for
the year, with thirty days absence for girls, and 39-5
days absence for boys.
This number was .considerably
smaller than the results obtained would justify, as many
appointments with the doctor were scheduled for Saturdays.
Our health program provided examination and glasses for
those indigent pupils with defective vision upon payment
of a very small sum, so that much fine corrective work
was being accomplished.
The weather as a cause of absence cannot be over­
looked, as it was the direct cause of 244 days of
absence, most of which occurred in January, during
73
severely cold winter weather.
Absence because of toothache or going to the
dentist accounted for 54.5 days.
The health program
stressed attention to teeth and this number seems small
but it was the policy for dentists to give pupils appoint­
ments after school hours and on Saturday•
Going visiting, taking trips, or staying at home
to entertain company accounted for 226 days of absence.
The girls remaining out of school for this reason account­
ed for 139 days of absence and the boys for eighty-seven
days of absence.
Some of this absenee was due to the fact
that the fathers of pupils were often given their vacations
during the time school was in session, but often parents
would deliberately plan trips and take their children out
of school, evidently not realizing that the absence might
be the reason for poor scholarship or failure on the part
of the child.
Here again is a place where parents need to
be educated to a realization of the importance of regu­
larity In school attendance.
Being kept at home to help, or to run errands
totaled 143 days of absence, 86.5 days absence for the
boys, and 56.5 days absence for the girls.
Many times
this could have been avoided, as the errands could have
been run before or after school, or during the noon hour.
74
Sometimes an older child was kept at home to look after
the younger children while the mother went away*
JIany
children had regular duties at home which sometimes took
more time than they were allowed and which required them
to miss school*
The hest way to handle this problem was
found to he a conference with the parent, if possible,
or if not, then a special letter explaining the loss the
child suffered in being absent.
The result was usually
better attendance.
In the Appendix are detailed charts for each grade
by month and sex, showing absences according to cause.
Tables XXIII, XXIV, and XXV, pages 75, 76, and 77,
chart the causes of non-attendance by month and sex.
These
tables show the same totals as Tables XX, XXI, and XXII,
pages 64, 67, and 6 9 , but the distribution by month gives
another approach to the problem.
Colds as a cause of absence are more noticeable in
January than any other month, Table XXV, page 77, showing
a total of 722 days of absence due to colds and coughs.
The next highest month Is February, with approximately
half as many, 311 days absence due to colds.
The least
is September, with only 18.5 days absence due to colds.
September is generally a mild month in Kansas City, while
January and February are months of severe winter weather.
TABLE m i l
THE CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOR BOTS BY MONTH
Cause of
absence
Colds, eoughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Hea&aehe
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept heme to rest
Total
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
9*5
5
3
9
16.5
11
25
30.5
85.5
6
9
18.5
66.5 356
164
61
62
9
26.5 26.5
6.5 21
24.5
106.5
2
5
4.5
6.5
14
12
4
3.5 23
1.5
30
30
10
3
3.5
3
6.5
.5
6
5
1
3.5
2
5
2
6
4.5
5
3
.4
1
2
3
1
.5
23*3
2*5
15
2
6*5
•5
1.5
21
.5
1
2
101.5
10.5
11.5
1.5
3
1.5
2
3
3.5
8
2
5
.5
8.5
5.5
9
21
11.5
2.5
.5
4.5
2
1
134.5 185.5 118
Jan.
638
Feb.
391
liar.
Apr.
May
Total
Per
cent
82
58
42
11
27
79
54.5
18
2.5
24.5
12.5
15.5
8
7.5
10
14
5
38
26
40.5
1.5
4
5.5
1
7
.5
7
.5
845
308
236
140.5
111
87
87.5
86.5
94
68.5
55.5
59
33
30.5
40.5
17.5
23.5
10
16.5
35.9
13.2
10.
5.98
4.7
3.7
3.7
3.7
4.
2.91
2.4
2.51
1.4
1.3
1.72
.74
1.
•44
.7
....
6
14
15.5
23
11.5
3.5
4.5
6
19
2.5
.5
•5
8
7
8.5
5.5
20.5
2.5
13.5
4
3
307.5 295.5 178.5 2,350
100.00
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: The boys bad nixie and one-half days absenee
during September due to colds
coughs* There was a total of 845 days absenee for boys during
September due to eolds and coughs, or 35*9 of all absences for the year*
->1
vji
TABLE X O T
THE CAUSES GF NON-ATTENDANCE FOR GIRLS B? MONTH
Cause of
absenee
Feb.
Bar*
Aprw
Bay
Total
Per
cent
147
366
11
49
92*5 40*5
20
41
130
10
7.5 19
4
9
11
5
8
14
2*5 24
10
2
2*5
5
3
3*5
3
5.5
4.5
4
11*5
6
1.5
9
3*5
88
19*5
54
7.5
44*5
84
42.5
16
51.5
12
5
1
7.5
6
4*5
1
5
19
13.5
6*5
.5
20
9
3.5
5.5
13
.5
8.5
1
.5
30
53
30
31.5
1
23
7
5
871.5
288*5
339*5
174.5
133
139
77.5
56.5
40,5
43*5
34
23*5
40.5
39
14*5
37
17*5
22.5
7
36*3
12.
14.2
7.3
5.6
5.8
3*2
2*4
1*7
1.8
1*4
1.
1.7
1*6
•6
1.5
.7
•9
.3
Sept*
Oct*
Nov.
Dec*
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at heme
Bar trouble
Illness in heme
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Byetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Bent1st
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Sept heme to rest
9
19
9
11
52
40
24*5
14
77
37
29*5
20.5
2
11*5
15*5
6*5
2
1*5
58
6
17
13
Total
78*5
6*5
2.5
T
6
1*5
4
1*5
2
4
1
.5
11
5*5
6
.5
2*5
3
3
6*5
5*2
4
1
4*5
5
4
2
2
Jan*
6
10.5
1
149*5 220*5 122.5 734.5 338
2
2
2
5*5
254
288
1.5
6.5
1
2
10.5
2.5
7
2
.5
214 2,399*5 100.00
NOTE; This table should be read as follows; The girls had Bine days absence during
September due to colds and coughs* There was a total of 871.5 days absenee for girls during
September, due to colds and coughs, or 36.3 per cent of all absences for the year*
TABLE XXY
THE CAUSES COT NCN-ATTS23BANCE FOE ALL PUPILS BY MONTH
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat Trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stcoach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
NOTE:
days absence
1,716*5 days
all absences
No t *
Jan*
Feb.
Mar*
Sept*
Oct*
18*5
24
12
20
311
170
71.5
68*5 162*5 124*5 722
72
77.5 163
43
6
21
in
119
67
97
49*5 38.5 26
96
47.5
34
37.5
41
18,5
44*5 39
2
236*5
2
2.5
37,5 43*5
14,5 14
24
21*5 12
23
8
23
26
26
24
17
22
31
20.5
12
17.5
7.5
4*5
2.5 54
2
40
24
8,5
3.5
19
5.5
27.5
10.5
5,5 15
4
9.5 19
2
.5
6
10
21
3
11,5
5
9
17.5
4
16
7
6.5
15
10,5
7.5
6
9*5
2
12
24
,5
13
3
2.5
8*5
5,5
•5
14,5
4
2*5 12.5
14
6.5
7.5
2
2
4
9*5
6,5
1
2*5
1.5
12*5
1
9
1
1*5 13*5
1
7
29
2*5
17.5
3
12*5
2
5*5
1,5
23
4,5
2
2.5
180
284
406
Dec*
240*5 1,372*5 729
Apr.
May
Total
Per
cent
68 1,716.5 36*1
79
596*5 12*6
70,5 575*5 12*1
33
315
6*6
1
5*2
244
30
4.7
226
15.5 165
5.5
10.5 143
3.1
134.5 2.9
112
22
2,3
9
89*5 1.9
14,5
82.5 1.8
6
73.5 1.6
13,5
69*5 1.4
55
1.1
SSA SSL
3
1.1
14
41
.9
2.5
32*5
•6
.5" 23.5
•5
561*5 583*5 392.5 4,749.5 100.00
This tabIs should be rea&asfollows: There was a total of eighteen and one-half
for all pupils during September, due to colds and coughs* There was a total of
absenee for all pupils during the year, due to colds and eoughs, or 36.1 per cent of
for the year*
->1
78
So©© other causes having their largest total number of
days absence in January are general illness, throat
troubles, the weather, ear troubles, headache, and teeth
troubles, all of which seem related to each other and to
severe winter weather*
The tabulation of material
relative to this investigation found in Tables XX to
XXV, pages 64, 67, 69, 75, 76, and 77, is most pertinent
in developing a remedial program to improve attendance.
Analysis of number of days absent.
A distribution
of days absent by grade, month, and sex is charted in
the following tables.
Table XXVI tabulates the days absent for boys,
Table XXVTI, page 80, tabulates the days absent for girls,
and Table XXVIII, page 81, tabulates the totals for boys
and girls*
In Table XXVIII, page 81, January leads with
1,372.5 days absent for all pupils, and February is next
with 729 days absent for all pupils, while September is
last with 180 days absent for all pupils*
There is only
a slight difference between the totals for boys and those
for girls In every month and the grand totals are very
close; boys 2,350 days absent, and girls 2,399*5 days
absent, or a total for all pupils of 4,749.5 &ays absent.
The fifth grad© class had the best total record, an
average of forty days absent per month, or 2.6 days for
TABLE XXVI
TOTAL DAYS ABSENT FOB BOYS BY GRADE AND MONTH
Month
£
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
6
Total
for
oent
27
42
38
29
74.5
40
16.5
31
23.5
5
17.5
35
18
42
52*5
30.5
32*5
32
9
14
15.5
16*5
56
36
33*5
24
26.5
101*5
134.5
185.5
118
638
391
307.5
295*5
178*5
4.3
5.72
7.9
5*03
27.15
16.6
13.1
12*6
7.6
■ _
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
18
15
24
17
109
84
46
24
11
25*5
21
22*5
18*5
117
58
94*5
75*5
43
10
12
40*5
11.
155*5
77
50
80*5
34*5
Total
348
475.5
471
238
321.5
265
231
2,350
39
53
52
26
36
29
26
261
Monthly
average
Daily
average
1,9
2*7
2.7
7
13
10
8*5
83*5
43*5
36*5
28
8
1*4
1*8
1.5
1.3
100.00
13.3
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September the boys in the
kindergarten had eighteen days absenee* There was a total of 101*5 days absenee for the boys
during September or 4*5 per eent of a U absences for the year*
-a
vo
TABLE X m i
TOTAL DAIS ABSENT FOB GIRLS BY GRADE AND MONTH
Month
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
6
Total
Per
cent
6
19
39
15
99
26
38
48.5
24*5
2
18
15*5
6
94*5
85
23
45*5
14
a
39
65*5
35
131*5
66*5
35*5
35
51*5
7
7.5
9
10*5
48*5
58.5
26
13*5
9*5
12
22
23*5
11
75
37*5
33.5
21
15*5
78.5
149*5
220*5
122*5
734*5
338
254
288
214
3*3
6*2
9*2
5.1
30*6
14.
10*6
12*
9.
243*5
467*5
190
251
2,399.5
21
28
267
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
31
51
89
19
133
89
58
75
50
12.5
13
39
26
153
35*5
46
49*5
49
Total
509
423*5
57
47
35
87
52
2*4
1*8
1.3
2*7
Monthly
average
Daily
average
8*9
315
1*1
1*4
100.00
13*6
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: DurJ.Bg September the girls in the
kindergarten had thirty-one days absence* There was a total of 78*5 days absence for the girls
daring September, or 3*3 per cent of all absences for the year*
TABLE XXVIII
TOTAL DAYS ABSENT FOR ALL HJPILS BY GRADE AND MONTH
Month
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
6
Total
Per
cent
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
49
46
43
36
243
175
98
99
61
38
34
61.5
44*5
270
93.5
140.5
125
92
16
31
79.5
26
254*5
103
88
129
59
9
30
25.5
14.5
178
68.5
59.5
73.5
22
35
81
103.5
64
205.5
106.5
52
66
75
12
25
44
28.5
90.5
111
56.5
46
41.5
21
36
39
27.5
131
73.5
67
45
42
180
284
406
240.5
1,372.5
729
561.5
583.5
392.5
3.8
6.
8.5
5.
28.9
15.3
11.9
12.3
8.3
Total
857
899
786
481.5
789
455
482
4,749.5
100.00
95
100
87
54
88
40
54
528
Monthly
average
Dally
average
4*9
5.1
4.5
2.7
4.5
2.6
2*7
26.9
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During September the pupils in the
kindergarten bad a total of forty-nine days absent* There was a total of 180 days absent for
all pupils during September, or 3*8 per cent of the total days absent for the year*
oo
H
each child, while the poorest record was made by the
first grade class, an average of one hundred days absent
per month, or 5*1 days for each child.
The building
seemed to divide itself into two groups; one group com­
prising the fifth grade with an average of forty days
absent, the third grade with an average of fifty-four days
absent, and the sixth grade also with an average of fiftyfour days absent; and a second group of the other classes
as follows:
second grade, average eighty-seven days
absent, fourth grade average eighty-eight days absent,
kindergarten average ninety-five days absent, and first
grade average one hundred days absent*
The greatest number of days absent for any one
grade in any one month was 270 days absent for the first
grade in January, and the least number of days absent for
one grade in one month was nine days absent for the third
grade in September*
In comparison the first grade had
thirty-eight days absent in September, and the third grade
had 178 days absent in January.
Without exception every
grade had its largest number of days absent in January,
because of the severe winter weather*
The findings in these tables are pertinent to the
problem and the results will be most useful in future
remedial programs*
83
Analysis of average length of absences*
Table XXIX is a diagnosis of the problem showing the
average length of absence per pupil for each grade for
the entire year.
It was quite startling to see that
the average yearly absence for the kindergarten was
16.17 days per pupil, and the first and second grades
followed closely with average yearly absences of 13*22
days and 13.38 days per pupil, respectively.
There was
a decided drop in average yearly absence in the third
grade to 8*4-5 days per pupil and in the fifth and sixth
grades to 8.1 days and 8.6 days, respectively, per pupil.
The fourth grade with a yearly average of 10.8
days absence per pupil did not follow the normal curve.
However, in referring back to Tables XIX, page 62, XXII,
page 6 9 , and XXV’III, page 81, the fourth grade showed an
unusually high record of absences.
Table XXIX approached a normal situation with
larger average absences per pupil in the primary depart­
ment and smaller average absences per pupil in the upper
grades, with the exception of the record made by the
fourth grade which was a little higher than the third or
the fifth grades.
Other causes of absences.
Interruptions in the
form of pupils dropped and pupils restored also entered
84
TABLE XXIX
TOTAL ENROLLMENT, TOTAL BAYS ABSENCE,
A N D .AVERAGE BAYS ABSENCE PER PUPIL BY GRADE
Grade
Total
enrollment
Total days
absence
Average days
o r 'length of
absence per
___2HEU..;....
K
53
857
16.17
1
68
899
15.22
2
58
786
13.38
3
57
481.5
4
73
789
10.8
5
56
455
8.1
6
56
482
8.6
4,749.5
11.28
Total
421
•8.45
NOTE: This table should he read as follows: The
fifty-three pupils enrolled in kindergarten had a total
absence of 857 days or an average absence of 16.17 days for
each pupil during the year.
into the attendance situation.
In Kansas Gity, Kansas,
all pupils who moved out of the school district were
dropped as well as those who were absent for a period
longer than three days.
were restored.
Those who returned to school
The difference in numbers represented
those who moved away, or for some other reason did not
return.
Occasionally an ill pupil would remain out of
school and enter the next semester or the next year.
Table XXX shows the total number dropped to be 237 pupils
and the total number restored to be 223 pupils, a differ­
ence of fourteen pupils.
The largest number of pupils
dropped, fifty-one, was in the kindergarten, and the least
number of pupils dropped, fifteen, was in the sixth grade.
The largest and the least numbers of pupils restored
followed the same order.
Another interruption in attendance was in the form
of transfers.
When pupils moved to another school they
were dismissed by transfer, and when they entered they
were admitted by transfer.
Table XXXI, page 87, shows
that forty-five pupils were admitted by transfer and
forty-eight pupils were dismissed by transfer, a total
of ninety-three pupils.
The first grade had the largest
number, fourteen pupils admitted and fifteen pupils dis­
missed by transfer and the sixth grade had the least
86
TABLE XXX
PUPILS DROPPED DURING THE YEAR BY GRADE AND SEX
Sex
*■
K~~ 1
Boys
21
24
28
12
16
14
Girls
30
22
9
11
26
Total
51
46
37
23
42
Grade
j
,
.
2
.
4
Total
Per
cent
8
123
51 ♦9
9
7
114
48.1
23
15
237
...5, . .6
100.
PUPILS RESTORED -DURING THE YEAR BY GRADE AND SEX
5
6
Total
Per
cent
15
13
7
114
51*1
10
24
9
7
109
48.9
21
39
22
14
223
Grade
3
Sex
K
1
2
Boys
18
23
27
Girls
29
21
Total
4?
44
4
11
9
36
100.
NOTE:
This table should be read as follows: During
the year there were twenty-one boys and thirty girls
dropped in the kindergarten, making a total of fifty-one
pupils dropped.
There were eighteen boys and twenty-nine
'girls restored in the kindergarten during the year, making
a total of forty-seven pupils restored.
87
TABLE XXXI
PUPILS ADMITTED BY TRANSFER DURING THE YEAR
.... BY GRADE AND SEX
Per
cent
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
s
Total
Boys
1
7
1
2
2
3
2
XB
40.
Girls
7
7
1
7
4
1
27
60.
Total
8
14
2
9
6
4
45
100.
Sex
2
PUPILS DISMISSED BY TRANSFER DURING THE YEAR
BY GRADE AND SEX
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
Boys
4
8
4
2
3
2
Girls
7
7
2
1
5
1
Total
11
15
6
3
8
3
6
Total
Per
cent
23
CO
Sex
2
25
52.
2
48
100.
NGTEs
This table should he read as follows: During
the year there were eight pupils admitted by transfer to
the kindergarten, one boy and seven girls.- There were
eleven pupils dismissed by transfer in the kindergarten
during the year, four boys and seven girls.
number, two pupils admitted and two pupils dismissed by
transfer.
The reason for this seemed to be that while
the children were young, parents did not hesitate to
move around so much as they did after the children became
older and were in higher grades at school.
Often the
parents of younger children were younger and not so
settled in business or professional life.
Table XXXII tabulates another form of interrupted
attendance.
Pupils who entered the school district from
other school districts were entered as new pupils.
This
table shows that twenty-six pupils entered during the
year.
4s they came from some other locality, days of
school were lost, but no records
show how many days.
The
migratory problem is one of great concern to many
localities, but to date has had little effect on Abbott
School.
Table XXXIII, page 90, charts the three most
noticeable interruptions of attendance; admitted by trans­
fer, dismissed by transfer, and new pupils, making a total
of 119 pupils, which Is more important than is at first
evident.
Allowing a three-day interruption for each case,
which is very moderate, as new pupils arriving from a
distant part of the country have
often been out of school
for several weeks, totals a loss
of 357 school days.
89
TABLE XXXII
HEW PUPILS ADMITTED D 0 R I » THE YEAR
..
BE.GRAD9G A HD SEX
Grade
.1,
Sex
K
Boys
1
airIs
2
3
Total
3
6
Total
Per
cent
2
13
50.
2
2
13
50.
3
4
26
100.
2
3
4
5
3
3
1
4
7
3
6
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: During
the year, three new pupils were admitted to the kinder­
garten, one boy, and two girls*
tabu ; xxxiii
TOTAL INTERRUPTIONS IN AUDITION TO ABSENCE
.6.
Total
Per
cent
4
2
45
37-8
8
3
2
48
40.3
3
4
26
21.9
IT
11
119
100.00
Grade
K
1
2
3
4. 5
Admitted by
transfer
8
14
2
9
6
Dismissed by
transfer
11
15
6
3
3
6
3
22
35
New pupils
admitted
Total
11
7
19
4
NOTE:
This table should fee read as follows: During
the year the kindergarten admitted eight pupils by transfer,
dismissed eleven pupils by transfer and admitted three new
pupils, making a total of twenty-two interruptions in
attendance, in addition to absence.
In many schools the problem of tardiness is
important.
Table XXXIV tabulates tardies during the year,
by grade and by sex.
The total, twenty tardies, Is a
very small number for a school with an average attendance
of 420.
This was accomplished by a program covering a
period of several years of educating not only the pupils
but also the parents to the value of punctuality.
Fosters
were made that said, "This room had no tardies for six
weeks,” and given to the rooms that had no tardies for
six weeks.
At the close of the second six weeks, new
posters that said, "This room had no tardies for twelve
weeks,” were passed to the rooms, and so on to the close
of school.
This plan was carried on throughout several
years.
At the end of each year the principal gave a
program-party for all the pupils who had perfect attend­
ance and no-tardies, and as special guests invited the
best citizens.
In this way all pupils had a chance to
attend, even though they did not have perfect attendance.
Abbott School is proud of its record of punctuality and
hopes to improve its record of attendance also.
The problem of truancy did not enter into this
study as there were no truants among Abbott School
pupils.
92
TABLE XXXIV
NUMBER OF TARDIES DURING- THE YEAR
B Y .GRADE AND S E X ,
Sex
K
1
2
Boys
3
4
Girls
4
Total
7
4
Grade
3
4
5
1
2
3
1
2
2
4
3
5
Total
Per
cent
13
65.
7
35.
20
100.00
NOTE:
This table should be read as follows: The
kindergarten had a total of seven tardieB during the year,
three boys and four girls.
Analy3 ia of perfect attendance*
Tables XXXV,
XXXVI, 2GGCVII, and XXXVIII, pages 94 to 97 inclusive,
are charts of perfect attendance by month, grade, and sex.
These charts are especially illuminating as they show the
fourth grade with the largest monthly average perfect
attendance of 43.3 pupils, and the third grade next, with
a monthly average perfect attendance of 36-8 pupils.
The
kindergarten had the least, a monthly average perfect
attendance of 24.8 pupils.
The monthly average perfect
attendance for the school was 240.4 pupils and when figured
on the average enrollment of 421, the per cent of monthly
average perfect attendance was 57*5, a little over half.
While a monthly average of 57*5 per cent of the pupils
were attending school every day, the other half were absent
4,749.5 days.
September was the best month for perfect
attendance for both boys and girls, 160 boys and 173 girls
having perfect attendance, a total of 333 pupils.
January
had the least number of perfect attendance records, sixtyeight boys, sixty-seven girls, a total of 135 pupils.
The boys in the fourth grade made the best monthly average
perfect attendance record of all the boys, having a monthly
average of 24.5 pupils, while the girls in the third grade
made the best monthly average perfect attendance record of
all the girls, having a monthly average of twenty-three
pupils.
In monthly average per cent of perfect attendance
TABLE XXX7
PERFECT ATTENDANCE FOE BOYS BY MOTH AND GRADE
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
Total
K
1
2
Grade
3
20
16
14
13
3
1
IS
IS
15
21
14
16
21
8
12
11
16
17
25
18
18
20
9
9
13
14
20
22
16
17
19
9
13
10
17
20
30
26
24
29
17
22
25
23
25
106
136
146
143
221
Monthly
average
11.7
15.1
Average
enrolled
51
70
16.2
, 57
Total
pupils
4
5
6
18
15
12
16
8
12
13
13'
13
24
16
20
20
14
15
13
19
18
160
121
121
138
68
74
102
114
128
164
1.026
120
15.3
24.5
13.3
18.2
114
59
73
61
55
426
Per
cent
38.
28.7
28.7
32.7
16.1
17.5
24.2
27.
30.4
27.1
NOTE; This tabls should be read as follows: During September twenty boys in tbs
kindergarten had perfect attendance.
TABLE XXXVT
PERFECT ATTENDEE FOR GIRLS BY U
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
Hay
Total
*
AND GRADS
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
6
6
Total
pupils
Per
cent
23
15
11
17
4
9
10
12
17
31
24
20
25
10
19
18
18
29
21
18
15
18
5
1$
n
16
16
28
22
23
28
10
21
24
25
26
27
21
16
21
10
17
12
24
22
26
24
25
21
18
20
23
21
26
17
11
13
11
10
10
10
12
15
173
135
123
141
67
112
108
128
151
41.1
32.1
29.2
33.5
16.
26.6
25.4
30.4
35.9
US
194
136
207
170
204
109
1,138
Monthly
average
13.1
21*5
15.1
23
18.8
22.6
12.1
126.4
Average
enrolled
51
70
57
59
73
61
55
426
HOTS: This table should be read as follows:
kindergarten had perfect attendance.
100.
30.1
During September twenty-three girls in the
TABLE r a n i
PERFECT ATTENDANCE FOR ALL PUPILS BY MOUTH AND GRADE
School
month
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
Total
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
6
Total
pupils
Per
cent
43
31
25
30
7
10
22
24
32
52
38
36
46
18
31
29
34
46
46
36
33
38
14
25
24
30
36
50
38
40
47
19
34
34
42
46
57
47
40
50
27
39
37
48
47
44
39
37
37
26
32
36
39
41
27
33
31
24
25
28
31
33
353
256
244
279
135
196
210
243
279
79.1
60.8
57.9
66.2
32.1
44.1
49.6
57.4
66.3
224
330
282
350
392
324
273
2,175
%A
u
x
Monthly
average
24*8
36.6
31*3
38*8
43.3
35.9
30.3
240.4
Average
enrolled
53
68
58
57
75
56
56
421
Per cent
perfeet
attendance
47.1
54*4
53.4
68*4
60*2
64.3
53.6
57.2
57*2
ROTE: This table should be read as follows: During September forty-three pupils In
the kindergarten had perfeet attendance.
TABLE XXX\fIII
PERFECT ATTENDANCE BY GRADE AND SEX FOR THE YEAR
Per
cent
Sex
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
~6
Boys
0
1
1
2
10
1
7
22
45*8
Girls
0
3
2
6
l
10
4
26
54.2
Total
0
4
3
8
11
11
11
48
100.00
Total
NOTE:
This table should be read as follows: No
children in the kindergarten had perfeet attendance for the
entire year.
the third grade was highest with 68.4 per cent, while the
kindergarten was lowest with 47.1 per cent.
Table XXXVIII,
page 9 7 , shows that twenty-two boys and twenty-six girls
had perfect attendance records for the entire year, a
total of forty-eight pupils.
Summary.
The analysis of non-attendance is also
one of attendance, and the tabulations which have been
charted are graphic diagnoses of the various phases of
the problem, and assist In a clearer understanding.
They
should help materially in formulating recommendations for
a remedial program which should lessen non-attendance and
increase the educational opportunities of the group.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
I.
SUMMARY
Punctuality and regularity of attendance are being
given greater recognition by school administrators through­
out the country as shown by the many investigations and
surveys that have been made.
To be of value, a study in
non-attendance should be analytical and subjective.
The
justification for the present study is that It is an
analytical, subjective study of non-attendance in many of
its phases, but especially considering the underlying
causes.
This final chapter combines some of the pertinent
findings, with implications of their significance, drawn
from data in this analysis, conclusions regarding their
value, and recommendations they suggest.
The purpose of this 1nvestigatlon.
In Chapter I
the investigator stated that the purpose of this study was
to analyze non-attendance of elementary school pupils in
Abbott Elementary School in Kansas City, Kansas and
ascertain the underlying causes*
The problems listed for consideration in this in­
vestigation were:
1*
What were the causes and what was the amount
of non-attendance for the entire year?
2.
What was the amount of non-attendance by grades,
months, and sex?
3*
What was the relation of length of absence to
the problem of non-attendance?
4.
Which causes of non-attendance were variable
and could be reduced?
5-
How were such factors as colds, throat trouble,
visiting, Illness, weather, punctuality, and
social adjustment related to non-attendance?
6.
What principles and procedures are recommended
as remedial measures for decreasing nonattendance as a result of this study?
4 description of the conditions under which the study
has been made*
This survey was carried out during the
school year from September 11, 1939 to May 28, 1940 in the
kindergarten and grades one, two, three, four, five, and
six of the Abbott Elementary School in Kansas City, Kansas,
with an average enrollment of 420 pupils.
Kansas City is the largest city in Kansas, and is
located in the north-eastern part of the state at the
junction of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers.
It is largely
an industrial city, and a city of homes.
Abbott School is located in the London Heights
101
District, one of the older residential sections*
The
community would he classed as good, substantial, middleclass citizens, practically all native-horn Americans,
with only a few parents foreign-horn*
The pupils were all
of the white race, as there are separate schools for negro
pupils.
There was little retardation greater than two
years as that was the general policy of the school system.
The school was.visited once or twice each week hy
an attendance officer, who was also subject to special
call.
A school nurse was in the building one-half day each
week.
The data for this investigation were secured from
pupil attendance cards, six-weeks attendance reports,
cumulative record cards, mimeographed non-attendance record
sheets, conferences with pupils and parents, and reports of
visits to homes by attendance officer and school nurse.
II.
CONCIXJSIONS
An analysis of one-day absences*
In Chapter IV,
an analysis of one-day absences was made by grade and
month, and also in relation to days of the week.
The
results of the data tabulated revealed the following con­
clusions :
1.
There were 1,020 cases of one-day absences.
2.
September with twenty-one cases of one-day
102
absence, had the least.
3*
January, with 233 cases of one-day absences,
had the most.
4.
There was a gradual increase In number of one-
day absences from September to January and then a gradual
decrease to May with ninety-six cases of one-day absences.
5*
The kindergarten had the most one-day absences,
202 cases.
Often small children are kept at home when the
weather is inclement, when the mother does not feel well,
or when the mother is going to town or to visit.
Many
parents have the mistaken idea that kindergarten is not
of great importance.
6.
The second grade, with ninety-nine cases of one-
day absence, had the least total for the year.
7*
Without exception, the most one-day absences
in every grade, occurred in January.
The weather was most
unfavorable during January.
8.
Most one-day absences occurred on Monday with
a total of 308 cases of one-day absence, or 3°*19 per cent
of the total one-day absences.
Monday absences were often
caused by too many trips, parties, picnics over the week­
end and the pupils were too tired or too worn-out to attend
school on Monday.
Many times the week-end trip did not end
until Monday afternoon.
9.
Friday was next to Monday in number of one-day
absences with a total of 278 oases of one-day absence, or
27.25 per cent of the total one-day absences.
Often
parents start Friday on week-end trips, thinking that an
absence on Friday will not amount to much.
Many parents
have an idea that the school work done on Friday is of
little value.
10,
The 1,020 days of one-day absences were 21.47
per cent of the total days absences for the year, and
exceeded all other absences in number of cases.
There seems to be a great and unnecessary economic
and educational loss in one-day absences which challenges
consideration in this survey.
An analysis of absences for periods longer than
one d a y .
Analyses of absences exceeding one day in length
were made by month and grade for the school and the
tabulated results revealed the followings
1.
There were 338 cases of two-day absences or a
loss of 676 school days.
2.
There were 117 cases of three-day absences or
a loss of 351 school days.
3.
There were sixty-four cases of four-day absences
or a loss of 256 school days.
4.
There were 250 cases of five-or-more days
absences or a loss of 2,446.5 school days.
104
The large number of five-or-more days absences
were due largely to quarrantine for chicken-pox, measles,
whooping cough, and a few cases of scarlet fever.
5*
The number of one-day absences was approximately
three times the two-day absences, nine times the threeday absences, sixteen times the four-day absences, and
four times the five-or-mor© days absences..
6.
The school days lost by reason of one-day
absences were approximately four times the number of days
lost by four-day absences, three times the number of days
lost by three-day absences, one and one-half times the
number of days lost by two-day absences, and half the
number of days lost by five-or-more days absences.
These facts indicated the importance of one-day
absences in the study of non-attendance, justified special
analysis of the problem, and the need of a constructive
health program.
7.
The most two-day and four-day absences occurred
in the fourth grade, the most three-day absences occurred
in the first grade, and the most five-or-more days absences
occurred in the kindergarten.
The primary department, which included the kinder­
garten and grades one and two, was affected more by
epidemics of measles, chicken-pox, and whooping cough than
105
the upper grades, which accounted for the most five-ormore days absences in the kindergarten.
8.
January had the largest total number of absences
by days of any of the months, and September had the least
total number of absences by days.
The weather seemed to have been the cause for the
large number of absences in January as that month had
severely cold weather, while September was a pleasant month.
9*
The average attendance for the entire year was
92.87 per cent.
September with an average attendance of
95*4-6 per cent and May with an average attendance of
95.47 per cent, had the highest records while January, with
an average attendance of 87*62 per cent, had the lowest
record.
These facts seemed to reveal the weather as a con­
tributing cause of non-attendance, much of which could be
eradicated by a constructive, remedial program of pre­
paredness and preventive measures.
Illness as a cause of non-attendance.
Studies of
the causes of non-attendance placed illness far in the
lead as a direct factor.
In this study three-fourths
of all absences appeared to be caused by illness*
Colds
and coughs were the chief illnesses and accounted for a
total of 1 ,716.5 days absence or over one-third of all the
106
days absence.
Other illnesses listed as causes of absence and
their total days of absence were:
1.
General, illness
575*5 days
2.
Throat trouble
315
3*
Stomach upset
165
4.
Ear trouble
134*5
5*
Headache
73*5
6.
Eye difficulties
69*5
The combined days absence for these
2,930 days, or 62.74 Per cent of the total
tt
it
r»
it
it
illnesses was
days absence
for the year, and if the 596*5 &&ys of quarrantine were
added the total would be 3#576.5 days absence, or 75*27
per cent of all the days
absence.
This indicated the need for a more constructive
health program, better health teaching of a more practical
nature, more direct contacts between the school nurse and
the parents in a comprehensive program to prevent illness
and reduce this great educational and economic loss.
Ill
health is one of the most discussed causes of nonattendance and is recognized as the greatest single cause
of absence.
Other factors which Influence school attendance*
Weather as a causal factor of non-attendance
107
accounted for 244 days of absence of which 236.5 days of
absence occurred in January.
In the kindergarten, seventy-
nine days of absence were caused by unfavorable weather,
and in the first grade, 73*5 days of absence listed weather
as the cause.
Unfavorable weather, as a cause of non-attendance,
warrants attention, as much absence due to this cause could
be eradicated or lessened by preparation for such emer­
gencies beforehand.
Here Is an opportunity for constructive,
remedial teaching.
Helping at home, running errands, taking care of the
baby were the causes of 143 days of absence.
Barents seem
to lack understanding of the school program when pupils are
kept at home to help, except in extreme cases.
This
absence occurs principally among the older children, as
120 days of this absence were in the fourth, fifth, and
sixth grades.
An effort should be made to inform parents of their
responsibility in seeing that the pupils are in school and
materially reduce this number of days absence.
Visiting, going on trips, entertaining company,
accounted for 226 days of absence, of which 137 days
absence were in the primary department.
Parents seemed to place little importance on keeping
pupils out of school for trivial reasons, especially the
younger pupils.
More definite understanding by the parents
of the value of regular attendance seems to be needed here.
Accidental injuries caused a loss of 89*5 days of
school.
While only a few of these injuries were caused by
accidents at school, a more intensive program of safety
teaching undoubtedly would reduce this number perceptibly.
Lack of shoes and proper clothing causes an absence
of 82.5 days of school.
This condition should be remedied
by closer cooperation between the home, the school, and
the Mutual Help Oommittee of the local P.T.A.
Getting up late, clock wrong, accounted for 32.5
days absence.
This seemed to be carelessness and a better
understanding of the meaning of ‘’punctuality” should assist
in correcting this loss of school time.
Interruptions affecting school attendance.
Late
enrollment, admittance and dismissal by transfer to and
from other schools in the same school district, the drop*
ping of pupils who move to other school districts and
the entering of pupils from other school districts
constituted a total of 132 cases with an undeterminable
number of days, absence, as records were not available for
the complete tabulation.
If only three days were allowed
for each change the loss would be 396 days, and this is
109
a conservative estimate for pupils often remained out of
school for long periods when moving from one district to
another.
More exacting child accounting should remedy this
situation.
Tardies.
Many schools considered tardies as one of
their main interruptions of attendance.
In this study the
number of tardies was exceptionally small considering the
enrollment.
The total for the year was twenty.
This
condition was brought about by a constructive remedial
program over a period of years*
In order to keep this fine
record, the remedial program must be continued every year
as new pupils are constantly enrolling in the school, and
the school spirit must be made known to them.
Perfect attendance*
In a study of non-attendance
the problem of regular attendance seemed to merit individual
attention, as the increase of regular attendance facilitated
the planning and execution of work by the teacher, so that
more time could be given to the important work of teaching.
Educators agree as to the important relations existing
between sehool attendance and school progress.
Regular
attendance of pupils is reflected In the results accomplish­
ed by pupils in efficiently managed schools*
There were
333 pupils who had perfect attendance for September, or
79*3 P©** cent of the pupils enrolled, which was, by far,
110
the best record for the year.
The next best record was In
May, with a total of 279 cases of perfect attendance, or
66.4 per cent of those enrolled.
The number of pupils having perfect attendance
gradually lessened from September to January, which had
but 135 pupils with perfect attendance reeords, or 32.14
per cent of those enrolled.
There was a regular increase
in the numbers having perfect attendance from January to
May, which closed the year with 279 cases of pupils having
perfect attendance, or 66.43 per cent of those enrolled.
Of the large number of pupils having perfect attendance
reeords for one or more months, forty-eight pupils, or
11*4 per cent of the enrollment, had perfect attendance
records for the entire year.
Perfeet attendance is quite difficult to achieve.
All the causes that enter into non-attendance, enter also
into the problem of perfect attendance.
But in achieving
a perfect attendance record, the pupil has succeeded in
an unusual and difficult accomplishment.
Perfect attendance records are often impossible to
achieve, but better attendance with less and less nonattendance is the goal for which to strive.
III.
RECOMMENDATIONS
A thorough survey of the problem of non-attendance
Ill
suggests many steps which might he used to improve attend­
ance, but experimentation is needed to check the effective­
ness and evaluate the procedures best suited to the problem
applicable to a certain district-
From the findings of
this study, the investigator has evolved the following
principles which seem pertinent to any remedial program
Instituted.
1.
There should be a more adequate system of child
accounting; more careful, prompt, and persistent inquiry
concerning each absence; case-studies of absentees.
2.
Organization of child guidance clinic as a
medium of treatment for the maladjusted pupils.
3*
Home visitation by the teacher or nurse, as a
means of better cooperation between home and school.
4.
Improved teaeher-pupil relationships on concepts
of progressive education.
5-
A sympathetic relationship should exist between
the school and the h o m e , as many parents have an inadequate
understanding of the necessity of regular attendance.
6.
Parents and school should be brought Into closer
harmony by having the problems affecting attendance dis­
cussed by a member of the school staff in F.T.A. meetings
and adult education classes.
7-
The school and the P.T.A. should keep posted
on the needs of underprivileged children, and see that
1X2
none are absent from want of shoes, clothes, books, etc.
8.
Environments that are detrimental to the forming
of habits of good attendance should be Improved as far as
possible.
9*
Much absence could be prevented by a carefully
functioning attendance department, with trained attendance
officers available at all times to work with teachers and
principal, and capable of analyzing attendance problems.
The attendance officer should have a knowledge of the
school*s educational offerings, knowing (l) the subject
matter taught,
purposes,
(2 ) the school requirements, policies, aims,
(3) classification of pupils,
(4) actual effects
of irregular attendance on school progress, and (5 ) be able
to make proper use of this knowledge.
10.
The attendance department should maintain a
continuous school census, a continuous pupil accounting
system, a file of case studies, a file of up-to-date
addresses.
A very careful check-up should be made on pupils
with poor attendance habits and a constructive, remedial
case-study made of each individual pupil.
11.
The attendance department should also have the
assistance of trained pupil-personnel workers such as home
visitor, field worker, psychologist, psychiatrist, nurse,
counsellor, visiting teacher, to make scientific studies
of individual problems in non-attendance instead of the
113
typical "truant officer.”
12*
The health program should be continuous in the
school, maintained to establish ideals of good health and
good attendance.
Modern education recognizes that the
care and growth of the body are just as important as the
development of the mind, and the schools are places to
learn to live physically as well as mentally.
13*
More attention should be paid to preventable
illnesses, especially one-day absences; and the importance
of the school nurse in the general school set-up, and the
value of conferences with her concerning the needs of the
pupils should be stressed.
14.
The school nurse should be a trained social
worker with educational background, who will understand
the social-educational problems presented by non-attend­
ance, and be capable of sympathetically and efficiently
dealing with parents as well as pupils.
15-
Careful daily inspection of the health and
physical condition of each pupil should be made; those
suspected of colds or other diseases should be referred
to the school nurse or principal at once, and isolated
at home until allowed to return to school with a health
permit.
16.
Improve health conditions by a more thorough
teaching of health in a way that is understandable to the
1X4
pupil.
IT*
More effective teaching of safety first with
organization of “Safety Clubsw in each room to overcome
nonfattendance caused by accidental injuries.
18.
Special programs of highly interesting class-
work provided for Mondays and Fridays, the days when most
absences occurred.
19*
The school should be made more interesting and
attractive to pupils through the functioning of revised
and enriched curriculum, better teaching methods, more
attractive appearance within and without the building
special programs, extra and co-currieular activities,
special recognition of pupils for various reasons, special
pupil guidance programs, adjusted programs and procedures
to fit the needs of exceptional and individual pupils,
contributing in the highest degree to the needs of all.
20.
Establish oorrect ideals and attitudes in the
pupils concerning the fundamental and Important value of
punctuality and good attendance; developing pride in the
school*s record of attendance; building school morale and
school spirit in this direction.
21.
Stress the importance of first day enrollment
and attendance.
22.
Principals should inform themselves of the
relation between attendance and progress In specific
115
s u b l e t s and grades*
They should Investigate the efficiency
of instruction provided in making each class period so
essential that pupils feel they cannot afford to lose even
one day without a genuine loss.
23.
There should he close cooperation between the
school, the P.T.A*, the Dad's Olub, the churches, the
newspapers, and all other social and welfare organizations
of the community.
24.
American Education Week should be used as an
opportunity to sell the school to the patrons and the
community.
Make preparations for special visiting days,
and make supreme effort to have all parents visit during
the week.
For several years Abbott School has conducted
regular school classes for one hour on Friday evening
of American Education Week so that parents employed during
the day might have an opportunity of seeing the school in
operation*
The attendance has always far exceeded the
number of parents, revealing the interest of the entire
community in the school.
25*
The results of this survey should be brought
to the attention of the teachers and parents of Abbott
School, and an organized, educational battle be waged
against non-attendance, showing the Importance of attend­
ance as a foundation upon which the structure of the
pupil's education is built.
Special surveys to point out
weak spots in the attendance program should he conducted,
and remedial measures adopted to correct the economic and
educational loss.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Abbott, Edith, and Sophonisba P. Breckenridge, Truancy
and Non-At tendance in the Ohioago Schools* Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press, 1917* 4'72 pp.
Bagley, William C., Education. Crime, and Social Progress.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1931*
15^ pp.
_______ , Classroom Management.
Company, 19^6*
New York:
The Macmillan
Bode, Boyd Henry, Progressive Education at the Crossroads.
New York and Chicago: Newson and Company, 1938.
128 pp.
Burt, Cyril Lodowic, The Young Delinquent.
D. Appleton Company, 1925*
619 PP*
New York:
\/6ox, Philip Wescott Lawrence, Guidance by the Classroom
Teacher. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 193$.
535 pp
Cubberley, Elwood P . , Public School Admlnlstration.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922.
______ , The Principal and His School.
Mifflin Company, 19157
Boston:
Dewey, John, Democracy and Education.
Company, 1937-
New York:
_______ , Schools of Tomorrow.
Company, 1935.
3lS pp.
New York:
Boston
Houghton
Macmillan
E. P. Dutton and
v^Dougherty, James Henry, Elementary School Organization
and Management. New York: The Macmillan Company,
1936^ 453 pp.
Hopkins, L. Thomas, Democracy and the Curriculum. New York
John Dewey Society, Appleton-Century Company, 1939*
536 pp.
. The Current Educational Awakening.
D. Apple ton-Century Company.
New York:
Kilpatrick, William H . , The Educational Frontier.
Appleton-Century Company, 1933*
325 PP*
New York
119
McAllister and Otis, Child Accounting Practice* Yonkerson-Hudson, Hew York: World Book Company, 1927*
McKown, Harry 0., and Marion LeBron, A Boy Grows U p .
Hew York and London: Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 194-0. 299 pp.
McKown, Harry Charles, Activities in the Elementary School.
First Edition.
New York ani London: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc., 1938. 473 pp.
Stanford University Faculty, The Challenge of Education.
Hew Yorks McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1937*
Strang, Ruth May, Pupil Personnel and Guidance.
The Macmillan Company, 1940. 356 pp.
Hew York:
_______ , The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work.
New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1932.
332 pp.
II.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Blaine, L. J . , and A. 0. Heck, ’’School Attendance,” Review
of Educational Research, 6 :157“6 3 , April, 1936.
Elliott, Harriet W . , ’’Equalization of Educational Oppor­
tunities; An Essential Step In Democracy,” Journal of
the American Association of University Women.
Washington, D.C., 32:11, October, 1938.
Harvey, 0. L . , ’’Use of Age-Grade and Promotion Tables in
the Study of Enrollment Trends,” The Elementary School
Journal. 39*751-59, June, 1939**
Healy, William, lfThe Mental Factors in Crime, ” Mental
Hygiene, 12:761-7, October, 1928.
Mason, Howard H . , M .D., "Health and Regularity of School
Attendance,” Teachers College Record, Vol. XXIV.
Hew York: Columbia University, January, 1923*
Mosher, C. L . , "Helping the Individual Child Through the
Attendance Service,” (Abstract), Official Report of,
the National Education Association, Department of
Superintendence, 1932.
120
Punke, H. H . , "Sociological Factors in Absence from
School*11 Journal of Educational Research. Vol. XXXII.
Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Pub11shing
Company, December, 1938, pp. 282-90.
Quinn, John B . , "Compulsory Education and Its Implications,11
Proceedings,-National League of Compulsory Education
Of f ic iala. 13; I-IBTTq^^:
:... ......
.....
Rochester Public Schools, Report of the Work of the Visiting
Teacher Department. Rochester, New York: 1936•
9 pp.
Wilson, D. L. , "improving At tendance,,11 Nation’s Schools,
25:60, May,- ^ O .
!
III.
~
:
~
BULLETINS
Ayres, Leonard P., Child Accounting in the Public Schools.
Cleveland, Ohio: Survey Committee of Cleveland
Foundation, 1915*
68 pp.
Bender, John Frederick, Functions of Courts in Enforcing
School Attendance Laws. Teachers College Contributions
to Education, No. 262. New York: Teachers College,
Columbia University, 1927*
187 PP*
Cooper, Herman, An Accounting of Progress and Attendance
of Rural School Children in Delaware. New York:
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1930*
Deffenbaugh, W. S., Chief, Division of American School
Systems, Effects of t h e .Depression Upon Public
Elementary and Secondary Schools< Biennial Survey
of Education in the United States,- 1934— 1936,
Bulletin, 1937, No. 2. Emmons, F. E . , City School Attendance Service. New York:
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1926.
173 PP*
Foster, Emery M . , Chief, Division of Statistics, Elise
H. Martens, Specialist in the Education of Exceptional
Children, Statistics and Special Schools and Classes
for Exceptional Children. Vol. II* Washington, D.C.:
Biennial Survey of Education in United States, 19341936, Bulletin 1937, No. 2.
121
Goodykoontz, Bess, Assistant Commissioner of Education,
Elementary Education, 1930-1936, Biennial Survey of
Education in United States, Vol. I, No. 2, Bulletin
1937.
Hanson, Whittier Lorenz, The Costs of Compulsory Attendance
Service in the State of New York. "“New York* Columbia
University, .Teachers College, -1924.
Herllhy, Lester B . , and Walter S. Deffenbaugh, Statistics
of City School Systems. 1935-36 $ Biennial Survey of
Education in United States, Bulletin 1937, No. 2.
Keesecker, Ward W . , Laws Relating to Compulsory Education.
Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing
Office, 1929. 70 pp.
MacLatchy, Josephine Harriet, Attendance at K indergarten
and Progress in the Primar y Grade3~ Monograph No. 8,
Bureau of Educational Research. Columbus, Ohio:
The Ohio State University Press, 1928.
144 pp.
Odell, Charles W . , The Effect of Attendance Upon Sohoo 1
Achievement. Bulletin No.~31, Vol. XX. Urbana,
Illinois: Educational Circular, No. 16, April 2, 1923*
Sanchez, George I., Equalization of Educational Opportunity.
University of New Mexico Bulletin, Education Series,
Vol. 10, No. 1, 1939*
Thorndike, Edward Lee, The Elimination of Pupils from
School. Washington, D.C. : United States Bureau of
Education Bulletin, No. 4, 1907.
White House Conference, Child Health Protection and
Prevention of D elinquency, Committee on Special
Classes, Special Edition:
"Present Social Trends,"
New York:
The Century Company, 193°*
Wood, Thomas D., M .D., Health Education. Report of the
National Education Association, 1930*
Zeigler, Carl W . , School Attendance as a Factor in School
Progress.
Teachers College Contributions to Education
No. 297. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1928.
122
IV.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Compton, J. L . , A Study of Non-Attendance in the Element­
ary Schools of Bakersfield, California.” Unpublished
Master s thesis. University of Southern;California,
Los Angeles, 1929.
Couch, Gretchen P . , “Adjustment Problems in Child Welfare
and Attendance Service in the Glendale City Schools,
1932-1938.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1940.
Darby, Olin Earnest., “An Analysis of Non-Attendance in
the Horace Mann Junior High School.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1935*
Donahue, Harry Edgebert, ”A n Analysis of the Underlying
Causes of Non-Attendance in the Hawthorn© Elementary
Schools.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern,California, Los Angeles, 1933Gordon, Leslie Oral, ”A Study of the Comparable Factors
of Attendance Service in the Los Angeles and San Diego
City Schools.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935*
Haley, William Howard, ’’Case Studies of Non-Attendance in
the Inglewood Union,High School District.” Unpublished
MasterT s thesis. University of Southern California,
Lo s Ange le s , 1940.
Hinds, Edwin F * , ”An Analysis of Non-Attendance In Azusa
City Schools.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1938.
Holliday, Jay Milton, ”A Study of Non-Attendance in Miguel
Hidalgo School of Brawley, California.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1935Hunt, J . K . , ”A Critical Study of Attendance Supervisions
in the School Districts of Los Angeles County,
California.” Unpublished Master's thesis, University
of Southern,California, Los Angeles, 1928.
123
Hyde, Lafayette, ffA Study of Absences and Tardiness of
Boys in High School*
Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935.
Johnson, J, M . , ”A Study of Methods Used for Improving
School Attendance in Certain Cities of the United
States.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936.
Jones, Lilian Sara, ”A Study of the Activity Program in
Elementary Schools.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931
Kawachi, ttA Comparative Study of Administration of
Compulsory Attendance in the United States and Japan.”
Unpublished Mast e r ’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1933*
Kerr, R. A., ’’Causes of Non-Attendance in Crested Butte.”
Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1936.
Last, Virginia Faye, ”An Analysis of Procedures in Home
Room G-uidance.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1939*
Lawing, John Leslie, ’’Standards for State and Local
Compulsory School.Attendance Service.” Unpublished
Doctor’s dissertation, Columbia University, New
York, 193**
Lieb, Philip Walter, ”A Survey of the Attendance Procedures
Used by the Los Angeles Schools.” Unpublished Master’s
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
19*0.
Little, Forrest Varner, ”A Comparative Study of Pupil
Absence for the Los Angeles City Schools for May,
1935 and November, 1936.” Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937*
Rosenberry, Earl L . , ”A Critical Study of Absence and •
Tardiness in Secondary Schools of Los Angeles,
California.” Unpublished Master’s thesis, University
of Southern California, Los Angeles, 192*.
Schwerdtfeger, Elta Louise, ”A Study of Non-Attendance in
the City Schools of Burbank, California.” Unpublished
Master’s thesis, University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1933*
124
Turner, Mary Lillian, ’’Factors that Influence Attendance
in Rural Communities.M Unpublished Master’s thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1932.
Tighe, Mary E . , ttA Study of Hon-Attendance in the Otter
Creek Township Consolidated School, Vigo County,
Indiana.1* Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of
Southern;California, Los Angeles, 1940.
APPENDIX A
CAUSES OF NGN-ATTENBANCI FOB BOYS BY GRADE DURING SEPTEMBER
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat Trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at hone
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble t glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept heme to rest
Total
K
1
2
2.5
2,5
-
7
.
Grade
3
4
2
2
5
1
3
3,5
1
10,5
5
6
1.5
1
9.5
5
3
9
2
11
2.5
1
5,5
.5
1.5
2
4
1
1.5
•5
.5
1
9
10
•5
1
25.5
10
7
NOTE: This table should be read as follows:
absence during September due to colds and coughs*
27
5
22,5
2.5
15
2
6,5
•5
1.5
21
.5
1
2
1.5
.5
2
18
Total
days
9
101.5
The boys in the first grade had 2.5 days
CAUSES GP NON-ATTENDAKCE F0B-BOYS-BT-0BftUB~OTiB^CTCBER
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat Trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at heme
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth. Dentist
Death. Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
K
1
2
1.5
1
4
1
4
6
4
3
5
Grade
3
1
6
4.5
4
7
5
7
15
1.5
2.5
3.5
5
6
1.5
4*5
1*5
10
1
1*5
1
1
1*5
•5
3
1
•5
1
1
1.5
•5
.5
3
19
2
.5
3
81
1
2
1
1
1.5
18
1
IS
42
17.5
.5
.5
2
14
Total
days
16.5
11
25
30.5
10.5
11.5
1.5
3
1*5
2
3
3.5
S
2
5
134.5
CAUSES OF NCN-ATTENDAHCE FOB BQ7S B5T GRADE BUR2HG NOVEMBER
Causa of
absence
K
1
2
Grade
3
4
5
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Threat Trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Far trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
12
11
6
2
28
4
13
15.5
1.5
.5
11
2
Total
24
2
1
2.5
6.5
6
Total
days
85.5
6
9
18.5
.5
.5
8.5
5.5
1
.5
1
1.5
.5
2
2
9
21
11.5
2.5
•5
4.5
2
1
1
2
.5
.5
2
5
2
3
.5
.5
3
.5
.5
22.5
40*5
1
5
1
13
7
1
10
5
2.5
.5
38
'.5
35
15.5
185.5
CAUSES 07 HCN-ATTENDANCE TOR BOYS BY GRADE DURING DECEMBER
Cause of
absence
K
17.
2
Grade
3
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
far trouble
Illness in hams
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, funeral
Cot up late
Sept hose to rest
15
18.5
3
4
1
11•5
2
4
21
1
3
Total
17
2
♦5
.5
1
•5
•4
'' 5
6
Total
days
8.5
66.5
2
1
9
25
2
2
1
.5
2
1,5
♦5
1
.5
•5
18*5
n
•5
1
•5
8*5
4*5
4
1*5
3*5
.5
1
2
1
29
18
16.5
118
129
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOR BOYS BY GRADE DURING JANUARY
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at hose
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept hosne to rest
Total
K
1
2
36
11
12
§3
39
114.5
11
44
21
1
Grade
3
58
10
3.5
5.5
9
20
1.5
.5
2
5
6
38,5
27.5
26
4.5
1
9
1
6.5
2
5
3
4
1.5
1
1
2
3
1
106
117
155.5
83.5
1
1
1
1
4.5
1
1.5
2
.5
Total
days
3.5
12.5
.5
1
1,5
3.5
1.5
2.5
1
2
3
1
74.5
1.5
42
.5
56
353
61
26.5
6.5
106.5
6.5
11.5
3.5
30
3
3
6
3.5
2
5
4
3
634.5
130
CAUSES 07 HQH-ATTBHDANCE FOR ROTS BY GRADE DOHIHG FKBHUAHY
Cause of
absence
1
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
49
24
2
83*5
Total
84
1
3
1
1
Grader
3
2
g
1
8
28.5
17
4.5
4
5
6
20
17
.5
7
1
7
5
5
1
14
6
6.5
3
3.5
•5
12
15
1
2.5
8
3
6.5
2
22
5
2.5
1.5
1
1.5
3.5
2
19
2.5
1
•5
1
4
.5
2
1
1
2.5
2
1
1
1
.5
•5
.5
58
77
43*5
40
52.5
36
Total
day's
164
62
26.5
21
2
5
14
23
30
10
6.5
5
5
6
4.5
5
1
2
♦5
391
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOB BOYS BY GRADE DURING MARCH
Grade
3
Cause of
K
1
2
Colds, coughs
Child under ^uarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at heme
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble! glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
16
IB
6
13
20
2.5
2
24.5
1
1
1
5
Total
46
ab 86X106
15
9
15
4
■
1
2
11
5.5
7
1
4
2.5
1
13.5
*5
1*5
2
1
1.5
8
3
3
1
1
15
2
12
7
9.5
19
1
1*5
6
5
.5
.5
2
2
.5
1
.5
2
1
.5
.5
50
82
58
42
11
6
14
15.5
23
11.5
3.5
4.5
6
19
2.5
.5
•5
8
•5
8
94*5
Total
days
56.5
16.5
30.5
33.5
307.5
CAUSES OF NOH-ATraTOANCE FCffl BOSS BY QfiADE 0URHJG Ami.
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Qnarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetroubla, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
K
1
2
3
3
36
5*5
7
21
26,5
5
7
4
7
1
2
2,5
4
•5
2,5
5*5
13
2
4
1
Grade
3
4
17
2
2
4
5
6
6.5
1
5
5
2
2,5
4,5
4
1
1,5
1,5
1,5
,5
4
7
.5
1.5
7*5
7
2
7
2,5
•5
9.5
1
1
75,5
80,5
1.5
2
1
4
4
5,5
1
7
32,5
24
295.5
•5
28
31
27
79
54,5
18
2.5
24.5
12.3
15.5
8
7.5
10
14
5
3
1
7
24
Total
days
133
CAUSES OF NON-JOTENDANCE FOB BOYS BY GRADE DURING MAY
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrant ine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness In home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
K
1
2
Grade
3
15
4
6
7.5
21
4
2
4
4
2
1
3.5
3
1
1
1
20.5
1.5
>
5
6
@•5
19.5
3
2.5
5
1.5
6
1
.5
2
4
3
5
5
1.5
38
26
40.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
7
8.5
5.5
1
1
2.5
1
20.5
2.5
13.5
4
3
.5
3
.5
7
.5
26.5
178.5
.5
11
43
34.5
8
23.5
32
Total
days
APPENDIX B
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOB GIRLS BY GRADE DOBING SEPTEMBER
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Eelp at home
Ear trouble
Illness in heme
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothing
Headaehe
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
K
2
1
Grade
3
4
1
1
5
$
*5
1.5
♦5
3*5
3
•5
1
2
•5
5
19
10
2
1
1.5
1
1
6
1
3
•5
•5
1
1*5
1.5
1
1
1
1
.5
31
12.5
6
2
8
7
9
19
9
11
6.5
2.5
1
Total
days
12
2.5
1
6
1.5
4
1.5
2
4
1
.5
78.5
NOEE: This table should be read as follows: The girls la the first grade bad one-half
days absence daring September, due to colds and coughs.
CAUSES OF NGN-ATTEHDANCE FOR GIRLS BY GRADE DURING OCTOBER
Cause of
absence
Grade
3
k
1
2
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, funeral
Got up late
Kept heme to rest
1
10
2
8
3
3
8.5
31.5
11
5,5
1
1
1
2
Total
31
4
1
3,5
2
1.5
,5
2
1.5
4
5
.5
6
5
1.5
5
1,5
1
•5
4
2
.5
1
2
2
1
1
1,5
1.5
1
1.5
1
.5
.5
.5
.5
13
19
18
.5
39
7*5
2
1.5
1
1
2
22
Total
days
52
10
24,5
14
11
5,5
6
.5
2*5
3
3
6.5
5.5
4.5
1
149.5
CAUSES Of H(23-ATTENDANCE FOR G3RIS BY GRADE DURING NOVEMBER
Cause of
absence
K
1
2
Colds, coughs
Child under Q,uarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stcsoaeh upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness In home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
17
ia
5
2
24.5
12
Total
29
3
6
3
1
11.5
Grade
3
2.5
9.5
2.5
1.5
4
5
6
9.5
20
16.5
.5
1.5
3
3
3
4
6
1
1.5
.5
1
7V
37
29.5
20.5
2
11.5
15.5
6.5
2
1.5
•5
1.5
4.5
3
*5
1
•5
4
2
2
23.5
220.5
5.5
4.5
.5
.5
2
1*3
*5
1
1.5
3.5
.5
1
2.5
♦5
1
2
39
39
15.5
65,5
Total
days
9
*
CAUSES 0? NON-ATTENDANCE FOR GIRLS BY GRADE DURING DECEMBER
Cause oi
absence
Colds, coughs
-’Child under Quarrantine
v General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at heme
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
K
10
?
6
1
8.5
5
10
.5
1
2
Grade
3
11.5
4
2
1
26
£
14.5
6
7
5
4.5
1
1
1
•5
Total
days
58
6
17
13
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
4
6
35
10.5
11
122.5
•5
1
15
5
2.5
•5
1
•5
1
1
19
4
1.5
1
1
10
4
3
2.5
2
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE EC® GIRLS BY GRADE DURING JANUARY
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Q,uarrantina
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at heme
Bar trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
Total
K
-1
88
79
34
11
8
1
49*5
1
2.5
2
.5
.5
2~
77
4
Grade
3
4
44
15
26
5.5
7.5
3
3
5
27
11
47.5
10.8
15,5
6.5
•5
~
4
Total
days
5
6
26.5
24,5
2
12
1
5
12
7.5
1
♦5
.5
1
2
1
366
11
92.5
41
130
7.5
U
14
24
2*5
3
5.5
11*5
6
9
1
U.5
3
1
3
2
♦5
1
4
2
153
1
-1
1
1
133
.5
5
99
94.5 131.5
3.5
48.5
.5
75
6
734.5
140
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOR GIRLS BT GRADE DURING FEBRUARY
Cause of
absence.
r~
Colds, coughs
Child under Q,uarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at heme
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth,, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept hone to rest
35
34
Total
89
T
nr
g,
i
T Grade
14*5
17.5
3
4
— T
21.5
16
1,5
1
8
1
6
1
2
22,5
4
1
2
2,5
13
1
14
2
,5
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3,5
147
49
40,5
20
19
9
8
10
5
3,5
,5
4,5
6
1
,5
Total
days
,5
3
3
1
35.3
29.5
15
7
1
,5
2
1
5
8,5
3
7
mmmT m.. “
1.5
3,5
.5
.5
4,5
10.5
1
26
25
66.5
58.5
37.5
338
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOB GIRLS BY GRADE DOBING MARCH
Cause of
absence
K
1
2
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in heme
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept heme to rest
27
15
9,5
10
12
8
9,5
Total
52
S
7
6
•5
5
3
3
Grade
3
5,5
2
6
1
•5
4
5
6
12*5
5
11
9
2*5
6
5
5
3*5
9*5
3
7.5
1
♦5
2*5
1
1*5
1
6
2
2,5
.5
•3
2
•5
1
1*5
1
.5
.5
2
0
♦5
.5
45
38
1
.5
23
35*5
26
33*5
Total
d8ys
88
19*5
54
7.5
31.5
12
5
1
7.5
6
4.5
1
5
2
2
2
5*5
254
•£*
fo
CAUSES OF NGN-AITEHDANCE FOR GIRLS BY GRASS DURING APRIL
Cause of
absence
K
1 '
2
Colds9 coughs
Child under ^uarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in haae
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept home to rest
17
32
9
5
5*5
11
7
8
29
2
4
9*5
.5
1
Total
75
2
3
Grade
3
4
12
11
11
2
5*5
1*5
1
4
5
6
7
1
2
5
5
3*5
2
4
1
.5
1*5
2
13.5
3
1
7.5
2
.5
1
•5
2*5
1
1.5
2*5
2
11
*5
2*5
2
3
1
1
•5
49.S
48.5
45.5
35
13.5
21
Total
days
44.5
84
42.5
16
19
13.5
6.5
.5
20
9
3*5
5.5
13
.5
8.5
1
.5
288
CAUSES OF NON-ATTENDANCE FOR GIRLS BY GRADE DURING MAY
Cause of
absence
Colds, coughs
Child under Quarrantine
General Illness
Throat trouble
Weather
Visiting
Stomach upset
Help at home
Ear trouble
Illness in home
Accidental injuries
Shoes, clothes
Headache
Eyetrouble, glasses
Other reasons
Teeth, Dentist
Death, Funeral
Got up late
Kept hose to rest
Total
2
K
1
21
3
21
8
16
1
3
7.5
3
.5
1
Grade
3
5
.5
4
5
6.5
13
17.5
3
6
3
4.5
2.5
3
1
2
2*5
2
.5
1
5
11*5
4
1
3
1
.5
.5
2
1
1*5
3
1
4*5
*5
.5
•5
5.5
•5
2
1
1
14
51*5
*5
50
49
24*5
30
53
30
31.5
1
23
7
5
1.5
6.5
1
2
10.5
2*5
7
2
.5
7
1
Total
days
9*5
15*5
214
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
6 978 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа