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The role of the classroom teacher in an organized program of guidance in secondary schools

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THE ROLE OF THE CLASSROOM TEACHER IN AN ORGANIZED
PROGRAM OF GUIDANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
A T h e sis
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S ch o o l o f E d u c a tio n
T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e
th e D egree
in E d u c a tio n
by
M ario n D o n a ld so n
Ju n e 1943
UMI Number: EP54195
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54195
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
Th is thesis, w ri tt en under the direction of the
C hairman of the candidate's Guida nce C o m m i t t e e
and a p p r o v e d by all memb ers of the C om m it te e ,
has been p r es e n te d to and a c ce p te d by the F ac u lt y
of the S c h o o l of Ed uc atio n of T h e U ni ve rsi ty of
Southern California in p a r tia l fulfillment of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
D ate Jan'uary 21, 1942
Guidance Committee
F. J . Weersing
Chairman
D. Welty Lefever
Louis P. Thorpe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION .
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem
,
.
1
• • • • • • • • »
1
Im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m • • • • • • • . .
1
N e c e s s ity o f p r o v id in g g u id a n c e
• , • .
•
1
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r
in g u id a n c e
.....................
. . . . . . . . .
Im p o rta n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n
Summary o f t h e
3
. . . . . . .
7
im p o rta n c e o f th e
p ro b lem
R e v ie w o f r e l a t e d
11
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and
lite ra tu re
12
S u rv ey o f g u id a n c e p r a c t i c e s
. . . . . .
T e a c h e r s ’ g u id a n c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
A t e x t b o o k on g u id a n c e
G u i d a n c e by t h e
Summary o f r e l a t e d
• . •
• • • • . • • • *
A g u id a n c e te x tb o o k f o r t e a c h e r s
A y e arb o o k on g u id a n c e
12
.
• .
16
*
. ....................
. . . . .
c o lle g e te a c h e r
in v e s tig a tio n s
18
20
22
and
lite ra tu re
23
O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e p re s e n t stu d y
II.
14
. . . . .
24
THE ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMS
IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
. . . . .
..........................
28
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
S u rv ey s o f g u id a n c e o r g a n iz a tio n s
• , * • *
28
S u rv e y by Koos and K e f a u v e r . . . . . . .
29
S u rv e y by R e a v is
32
» * * • • • • . • • • •
S u r v e y b y C hen a n d P r o c t o r
34
S urvey by W illia m s
• . • • • • • » • • •
35
S urvey by Fox . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
O rg a n iz a tio n o f g u id a n c e
sy ste m s
in c i t y
school
• • • • • • • » * » » . . » • • .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id a n c e
R hode I s l a n d
37
in P ro v id e n c e ,
• * • • • • • • • • « • «
37
O r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id a n c e
i n C h ica g o
. . .
39
O r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id a n c e
in B o sto n
. . .
40
O rg a n iz a tio n o f g u id a n c e
i n M in n e­
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
a p o lis
O r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id an c e
n a ti
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id an c e
O r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id a n c e
sc h o o ls
in C in c in ­
. . . . . . .
41
i n M ilw a u k e e * «
42
in s p e c i f i c
.....................
• • • • •
U se o f t e a c h e r s a s g u i d a n c e o f f i c i a l s
.
43
,
44
• • •
44
J o h n H. F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c H i g h
S c h o o l, Los A n g e le s,
C a lifo rn ia
U n i v e r s i t y H ig h S c h o o l a n d C la re m o n t
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l, O a k la n d ,
C a lifo rn ia
. . . * . * • • * • * •
45
P l a i n f i e l d H ig h S c h o o l, P l a i n f i e l d ,
........................
New J e r s e y
M ech an ic A r t s H ig ji. S c h o o l, B o s to n
. «
48
49
L a S a l l e - P e r u T o w n s h ip H ig h S c h o o l ,
Illin o is
• • • • • • » • . . * • • *
U se o f home ro om a s f o c a l p o i n t
49
* * • .
50
E l l i o t J u n io r H i$ i S c h o o l, P a sa d e n a ,
C a lifo rn ia
. • • • • * » + * • • • •
50
T h o r n t o n T o w n s h ip H i g h S c h o o l , H a r v e y ,
Illin o is
53
M o n t p e l i e r H ig h S c h o o l, M o n t p e l i e r ,
V e rm o n t
..................... ....
.
.
54
R o c h e s t e r J u n i o r - S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l ,
R o c h e s t e r , New Y o r k
* • • • • • * •
A r s e n a l T e c h n i c a l H ig h S c h o o l
.
55
. * *
55
S c a r s d a l e H ig h S c h o o l , S c a r s d a l e ,
New Y o r k
.............................................
-
56
...................................
57
New T r i e r T o w n s h i p H i ^ i S c h o o l ,
W in e tk a , I l l i n o i s ,
G u i d a n c e t h r o u g h rTb a s i c c o u r s e ”
te a c h e rs
.
,
.
.
........................................
57
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
E a g le Rock H ig h S c h o o l, L os
A n g e le s,
C a lifo rn ia
. . . . . . . . .
S e q u o i a U n i o n H i g h S c h o o l , Redw ood
C ity ,
C a lifo rn ia
58
• .
•
59
C a r p i n t e r i a U n i o n H i$L S c h o o l ,
C a rp in te ria ,
C a lifo rn ia
59
B u rb a n k S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l, B u rb a n k ,
C a lifo rn ia
.
.
. . . . . .
O r g a n iz a tio n f o r group
G ro u p g u i d a n c e
school
g u id an c e
. . . . .
60
61
in a sm a ll h ig h
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61
U n c l a s s i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id an c e
in s p e c if ic
sc h o o ls • . . . • • • • . .
6E
B i l l i n g s H ig h S c h o o l, B i l l i n g s ,
M o n ta n a ...............................
. . . . . . . .
J o l i e t T o w n s h ip H i g h S c h o o l ,
Illin o is
. . . . .
62
Jo lie t,
.........................................
63
R o b e rt E. F i t c h H i$ i S c h o o l, G ro to n ,
C o n n e c tic u t
• . . . • • • • • • . • *
63
Y u b a C i t y U n i o n H i g h S c h o o l , Y uba
C ity ,
C a lifo rn ia
64
P asa d en a J u n io r C o lle g e , P a sa d e n a ,
C a lifo rn ia
64
vi
CHAPTER
PAGE
S u g g e s tio n s f o r g u id an c e o r g a n iz a tio n s
P u rp o se o f o r g a n iz a tio n
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
65
65
♦ .
N e c e ssa ry e le m e n ts in o r g a n iz a tio n
* .
,
•
I m p o r ta n c e o f "k n o w in g " p u p i l s
A s u g g e s te d p ro g ram
.
* .
#
66
.
.
67
•
67
.
• * .........................
. . . . . . . . . .
69
T ren d to w a rd b e t t e r p la n n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n .
70
P u p il as e n tity
70
C lassro o m t e a c h e r in th e p la n f o r
g u id a n c e
• • • • • * . *
................................
G u id a n ce i n b a s i c c o u r s e s
71
P re v a le n c e o f' v o c a t io n a l g u id a n c e
III.
. * .
.
71
.
.
,73
• • • * ♦
73
TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN GUIDANCE WORK
‘The t e a c h e r i n o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m s
H irin g of te a c h e rs f o r
g u id a n c e a b i l i t y
.
.
In -s e rv ic e tr a in in g of te a c h e rs
M e a s u rin g o f g ro w th o f a b i l i t y
g u id a n c e
*
74
*
76
in
. * • • • * • • • • • • , . » *
M a in te n a n c e o f a l i b r a r y
p u b lic a tio n s
.* *
..........................
* .
82
f o r g u id a n c e
G u id a n ce r e c o r d s f o r t e a c h e r u s e
Summary o f c h a p t e r
71
• * . ♦ *
. . . »
82
*
83
*
88
v ii
CHAPTER
IV .
PAGE
GUIDANCE IN HOME R O O M S ...................................................
90
E s t a b l i s h i n g o f home ro o m s
. . . . . . . .
90
V a l u e o f t h e home ro o m
..........................
92
R e tu r n s from t h e
..
q u e stio n n a ire
. . . . . .
.9 4
Num ber o f s c h o o l s h a v i n g home ro o m s . . .
The home r o o m , a n d t h e
g u id a n c e f u n c tio n
The s u c c e s s o f home ro o m g u i d a n c e
94
.
. . . .
95
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
V.
98
GUIDANCE IN THE CLASSROOM . . . . . . . . . .
The c l a s s r o o m a s a p l a c e f o r g u i d a n c e
R e tu r n s fro m th e
Summary o f t h e
V I.
94
q u e stio n n a ire
100
. . .
100
. . . . . .
104
c h a p te r
106
THE GUIDANCE SPECIA LIST; COORDINATING
GUIDANCE ACTIVITY; AND SUCCESS OF GUID­
ANCE PROGRAMS
The g u i d a n c e
.
s p e c i a l i s t .............................................
R e tu r n s from th e
q u e stio n n a ire
. . . . .
C o o r d in a tin g g u id a n c e a c t i v i t y
R e tu r n s fro m th e
R e tu r n s fro m t h e
110
. . . . .
- 114
. . . . . . .
116
q u e stio n n a ire
C h a n g e s t o be made i n p r o g r a m s
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
108
11 5
q u e stio n n a ire
S u c c e ss o f g u id a n c e pro g ram s
108
. . . . .
118
• * .
118
« .
. * . . • • • • • •
119
v iii
CHAPTER
V II.
PAGE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
R e c a p itu la tio n o f th e
The t e a c h e r ’ s p l a c e
p ic tu re
4
*
p ro b le m . . . . . . .
131
in th e g u id a n c e
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .
Im p o rta n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n
p ra c tic e s
121
in g u id a n c e
• • • • • • • . • •
. . * • «
125
. . . . . . .
126
. . • • • • • » • •
126
R e s ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem
Summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s
123
The p r e v a l e n c e o f o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m s
o f g u id a n c e
. .
..............................
In c lu sio n of te a c h e rs
125
in g u id a n c e
a c tiv itie s
• •
Home ro o m g u i d a n c e
C la ssro o m g u id a n c e
130
......................... * • * . .
U se o f a g u i d a n c e s p e c i a l i s t
. . . . . .
C o o rd in a tio n o f g u id a n c e a c t i v i t y
S u c c e ss o f g u id a n c e p ro g ram s
C o n c lu s io n s and rec o m m e n d atio n s
G u id a n ce i n t h e
sm a ll sc h o o l
T each ers need t r a i n i n g
128
13 1
13 3
. . . .
133
. . . . . .
134
• • .
135
.
• ♦
. . . . . .
in g u id a n c e
.
. *
135
136
M ore a n d b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e
w o rk n e e d e d
Home ro o m p l a n n e c e s s a r y
137
137
ix
CHAPTER
PAGE
G u id a n c e m u ste n t e r
The p l a c e
BIBLIOGRAPHY . .
.
.
A P P E N D IX ..............................
th e c la s s ro o m
. . .
o f th e g u id an c e
sp e c ia list
.
* .................... ......
..........................
.
1 38
* .
13 8
140
149
L IS T OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I.
T eacher P a r tic ip a tio n
i n G u id an ce P ro g ra m s
II*
T each ers E ire d P a r t ly
fo r A b ility
III*
,
75
. ,
77
. * •
80
i n G u id a n ce
I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g o f T e a c h e r s i n G u id a n ce
IV*
• *
L i b r a r y o f G u id a n ce P u b l i c a t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r
U s e .........................
V*
84
The K e e p i n g o f P u p i l G u i d a n c e R e c o r d s a n d
T h e i r A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r T e a c h e r s ..............................
VT*
U se o f Home Rooms f o r G u i d a n c e
V II*
V III*
IX .
87
* • • • • • • • *
96
S t a t u s o f C la s sro o m G u id a n ce
* • • • • • • • • •
106
S t a t u s o f G u id a n ce S p e c i a l i s t
, * • . * • • • « *
Ill
C o o r d i n a t i n g o f G u id a n ce A c t i v i t y
X*
*
• • * • • • • *
S u c c e s s o f O rg a n iz e d G u id a n ce A c t i v i t y
.
. .
* .
1 15
117
L IS T OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.
PAGE
G u id a n ce P ro g ra m o f Jo h n H. F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c
H i^ i S c h o o l, Los A n g e le s,
Zm
C a lifo rn ia
. * . * • •
46
A P ro p o se d O r g a n iz a tio n f o r G u id an ce, by
C o m m itte e o f G u i d a n c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f S e c o n d ­
a ry School P r in c ip a ls
* • » * • • » • • • • * * •
68
CHAPTER I
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE INVESTIGATION
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s
s tu d y was to
d is c o v e r th e e x te n t
a n d m anner in w h ic h p ro g ra m s o f g u id a n c e u t i l i z e d
ro o m t e a c h e r a s a g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n a r y
th e c la s s ­
in seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
Such i n f o r m a ti o n w as o b t a i n e d th r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i n g th e g u i d ­
an ce p ro g ram s o f s e l e c t e d
s c h o o l s by m eans o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e
and by c o n s id e r in g r e p o r t s o f g u id a n c e p r a c t i c e s th ro u g h o u t
th e c o u n try .
It
i s t h e a im o f t h e
f i r s t c h a p te r to
in d ic a te th e
p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b lem , to p r e s e n t a re v ie w o f r e l a t e d
e ra tu re ,
im ­
lit­
and to d e s c r i b e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and m eth o d o lo g y o f
th e p r e s e n t stu d y .
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
It
is
th e
in te n tio n o f th is
se c tio n to e s ta b lis h
th e
im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m th ro u g h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th r e e
p h a s e s o f th e g u id a n c e pro g ram .
c e s s i t y o f g u id a n c e
se rv ic e s;
t y o f th e c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r ;
th e
The f i r s t
co n cern s th e ne­
seco n d , th e g u id a n c e a c t i v i ­
and th e t h i r d ,
th e
im p o rta n c e o f
th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f g u id an c e p r o c e d u r e s .
N e c e s s ity o f p ro v id in g g u id a n c e .
G u id a n ce i s n o t an
2
in n o v a tio n
in e d u c a tio n .
I t had i t s
in c e p tio n a t th e v e ry o u t­
s e t o f fo rm a l e d u c a tio n and h a s m a in ta in e d t o
th e p r e s e n t d a y .
S u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s h a v e a lw a y s b e e n aw are t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d
among t h e i r p u p i l s g r e a t
in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s o f ev ery con­
c e iv a b le n a tu r e and o u t o f t h i s a w a re n e ss th e y t r i e d
to g u id e
t h e i r p u p i l s i n t o c h a n n e l s t h a t m i g h t p r o v i d e f o r o p tim u m
g ro w th .
The n a t u r e o f t h e m o d e r n s c h o o l w i t h i t s g r e a t l y
c re a se d a tte n d a n c e
b ility
a c c o m p a n ie d b y a g r e a t e r r a n g e o f p u p i l a~
and i n t e r e s t h a s b ro u g h t th e g u id a n c e q u e s tio n
p ro m in e n c e .
in ­
in to
A d m in is tra to rs th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n try e i t h e r
in
a s in c e r e e f f o r t to p ro v id e g u id a n c e o r m e re ly to f o llo w th e
le a d e r have e s t a b l i s h e d p ro g ram s o f g u id an c e w ith in t h e i r
sc h o o ls.
D u rin g th e p a s t d e ca d e th e num ber of w r i t e r s co n ­
s i d e r i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f g u i d a n c e h a s g ro w n t r e m e n d o u s l y .
Out o f t h i s v o lu m in o u s w r i t i n g ,
e n c e s on o t h e r i s s u e s ,
b a sic
re g a rd le ss o f d if f e r ­
tw o b e l i e f s h a v e e m e r g e d w h i c h se e m
to any p ro b le m o f g u id a n c e .
The f i r s t
is th a t,
in o r ­
d e r to p ro v id e th e c h il d w ith p ro p e r t r a i n i n g
in a t t i t u d e s
and a p p r e c i a t i o n a s w e ll a s f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l ,
t h e r e m u st be
g u id a n c e ;
th e
s e c o n d , t h e c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s an i n d i s p e n s a ­
b le p a r t o f th e g u id a n c e f u n c t i o n .
I n s o f a r a s th e f i r s t
t h i s b e l i e f m akes b u t l i t t l e
i s co n cern ed , th e u n i v e r s a l it y o f
com m ent n e c e s s a r y .
L on g b e f o r e
t h e t e r m , g u i d a n c e , came i n t o g e n e r a l u s e , Dewey p o i n t e d
.o u t t h a t th e n arro w c o n c e p ts o f te a c h in g s u b j e c t m a tte r m ust
g i v e way t o
th e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e c h i l d and h i s n e e d s and
p ro b le m s .^
O th e r w r i t e r s
school l i e s
in sist
t h a t th e p rim a ry d u ty o f any
in g u id in g p u p i l s i n t h e
e s ta b lis h in g o f p ro p er
a t t i t u d e s a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n s , a n d i n a i d i n g t h e m t o m ake w o r t h ­
w h ile c h o ic e s , and d e c i s i o n s .
F a c tu a l m a te r ia l,
th ey say ,
com es s e c o n d .
Im p o rta n c e o f th e c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r i n
w ith t h e i r c o n v ic ti o n t h a t g u id a n c e
g u id a n c e .
A lo n g
i n s c h o o l s was n e c e s s a r y ,
t h e r e h a s come a r e a l i z a t i o n am ong l e a d e r s
in e d u c a tio n t h a t
a maximum o f g u i d a n c e o f a n a d e q u a t e n a t u r e m ay b e o b t a i n e d
o n ly i f a sy m p a th e tic and w e l l - t r a i n e d
h a s th e o p p o rtu n ity to u t i l i z e
la b o ra to ry .
in stru c tio n a l s ta ff
th e c la s s ro o m a s th e g u id a n c e
In t h i s c o n n e c tio n , E . H. W ilk in s i n d i c a t e s a
b e l i e f t h a t th e
te a c h in g r e s u l ts
s e p a r a t i o n o f th e f u n c t i o n o f g u id a n c e from
in a lo s s o f a v i t a l fo rc e
in c h ild d e v e lo p ­
m e n t.^
^ J o h n D ew ey, D e m o c r a c y a n d E d u c a t i o n
M a c M i l l a n C om pany, 1 9 1 6 ) p . 4 6 .
(New Y o r k ;
The
2E . H . W i l k i n s , "T he O r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e C o l l e g e S t u d e n t
P r o b l e m s o f C o l l e g e E d u c a t i o n ( M i n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M in ­
n e s o t a P r e s s , 1928) p . 2 5 3 .
4
C o n c u rrin g w ith W ilk in s and s t r e s s i n g th e
stra te g ic
p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r r e g a r d i n g g u id a n c e , A rn o ld G e s e l l ,
fo rem o st a u th o r ity
a key p o s itio n
in t h i s f i e l d ,
sta te s
th a t:
3
a
"T e a c h e rs h o ld
i n th e e n v iro n m e n t o f th e g ro w in g c h i l d ;
and
c o n s c io u s ly o r u n c o n s c io u s ly th e y w ie ld a c u m u la tiv e in f lu e n c e
on h i s p s y c h o lo g ic a l g ro w th .”
He c l o s e l y a g r e e s w i t h E rn e s t
R , G r o v e s a n d P h y l l i s B l a n c h a r d who a c c e p t t h i s
sta te m e n t o f
th e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r and add t h a t th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
o f th e
sc h o o l in th e m a tte r o f g u id a n c e i s d e f i n i t e l y bound
by th e c a p a c i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f i t s c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s .
Two r e c e n t t e x t b o o k s i n t h e f i e l d
t e r e d a ro u n d th e b e l i e f t h a t th e
4
o f g u id a n c e a re c e n ­
t e a c h e r s h o u ld be th e c h i e f
g u id a n c e p e rs o n a g e .
S h i r l e y A. H a m rin a n d C l i f f o r d E . I r i k s o n
5
i n t h e i r b o o k , G u id an ce i n th e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l h a v e d e v o ­
te d an e n t i r e
c h a p te r to e s ta b li& iin g th e
t e a c h e r i n h a n d lin g p ro b le m s o f g u id a n c e .
im p o rtan c e o f th e
G u id a n ce b y t h e
3 A r n o I d G e s e l l , "T h e T e a c h e r - C h i l d R e l a t i o n s h i p , " U n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g t h e C h i l d . I ( J a n u a r y , 1931) p . 7 , c i t e d b y R u th
S t r a n g , The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l Work (New Y o r k :
B u r e a u o f P u b l i s h i n g , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m F Ia U n i v e r s i t y ,
19 3 5 ). p . v i i i .
4 E r n e s t R. G roves and P h y l l i s B la n c h a r d , I n t r o d u c t i o n
t o M e n t a l H y g e i n e (New Y o r k :
H e n r y H o l t a n d C o m p any, 1 9 3 0 ) .
p . 187.
3 S h i r l e y a . H a m rin a n d C l i f f o r d E . E r i k s o n , G u i d a n c e i n
t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l (New Y o r k :
D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Com pany,
I n o / 4 l 5 " p p .
C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r b y W, L* Cox a n d J o h n C a r r D u f f
its
title
a n d th e m e t h e
6
ta k e s as
im p o rta n c e o f th e t e a c h e r in t h i s r o le *
The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e
in g u id a n c e
to rs
is
te a c h e r
i s r e c e i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a l e r t a d m i n i s t r a ­
s u g g e s te d by R u th S tra n g *
She s a y s :
Many s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a r e
s e l e c t i n g t e a c h e r s who n o t o n l y know t h e i r s u b j e c t
m a t t e r b u t a l s o p o s s e s s th e p e r s o n a l i t y , k n o w led g e,
an d s k i l l w h ic h w i l l e n a b le th em t o g u id e s t u d e n t s
a c c o rd in g t o t h e i r p e rs o n a l needs*
I t m ust be a ssu m e d , h o w ev er,
t h a t th e fo re g o in g i s
in
d e fe n s e o f a g u id a n c e p ro g ram b a s e d s o l e l y on t h e f u n c t i o n o f
th e
c la ss ro o m te a c h e r*
u tiliz a tio n
The i d e a l s e e m s t o p o i n t t o w a r d t h e
o f e v e r y t e a c h e r a s an a d v i s e r b u t i t
t h a t t h e r e may b e c e r t a i n g u i d a n c e
e r i s u n t r a i n e d o r f o r w h ich he h a s
r e s p e c t to
s e r v i c e s f o r w h ic h th e t e a c h ­
i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e *
W it h
t h i s , R o y al Im b ree i s o f t h e o p in io n t h a t a good
g u id a n c e p ro g ram r e q u i r e s ,
istra tio n ,
i s ap p aren t
th e
in a d d itio n
to
a ^ r m p a th e tic a d m in ­
s u p p o rt o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r d e p a rtm e n t co n ­
cern e d w ith th e c l i n i c a l a s p e c ts of g u id a n c e .
a d d , th o u g h ,
He h a s t e n s t o
t h a t th e r e m ust be a r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e p a r t
L* Cox a n d J o h n C a r r D u f f , G u i d a n c e b y t h e C l a s s r o o m
(New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . 1 9 3 8 ) . 5 3 5 p p .
Teacher
7
R u t h S t r a n g , The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l Work
New Y o r k :
B u re a u o f p u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia
U n iv e r s ity , 1 9 3 5 ), p . 61.
p la y e d by th e
in stru c tio n a l
sta ff.
8
O t h e r w r i t e r s a s Wood
a n d S t r a n g 1^ i n d e t e r m i n i n g c a u s e s o f t h e
s u c c e s s o f g u id a n c e
p r o g r a m s l a y m uch s t r e s s o n t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y t h e
A n o th e r a s p e c t o f th e
im p o rta n c e o f th e
g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t w hen i t
9
is
te a c h e r.
te a c h e r
in th e
show n t h a t m o re
th a n t e n th o u sa n d h ig h s c h o o ls in th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
rep re­
s e n tin g a p p ro x im a te ly t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e h ig h sc h o o l popu­
la tio n ,
have
p ils * ^
tie s ,
s t u d e n t b o d y s o f n o t m o re t h a n o n e h u n d r e d p u ­
O b v io u sly in th e s e s c h o o ls w ith t h e i r l i m i t e d f a c u l ­
t h e r e c a n b e n o g u i d a n c e s p e c i a l i s t w h o se d u t i e s a r e
c o n fin e d s o l e l y to
F u rth e r,
t h i s phase o f e d u c a tio n .
in th e m a jo rity o f th e
seco n d ary le v e l th e
fa c ts
l a r g e r s c h o o ls on t h e
in d ic a te th e re
s p e c i a l o f f i c e r to c o o rd in a te th e
i s no h i g h l y t r a i n e d
g u id a n c e pro g ram and c a re
f o r t h e m o re t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s
t y p e o f s e r v i c e . 12
® R oy al E m b r e e , "T h e G u i d a n c e F u n c t i o n i n S c h o o l s a n d
C o l l e g e s , " E d u c a t i o n a l M e th o d . 1 9 :3 3 9 , M arch, 1 9 4 0 .
9B en D. Wood, " F a c t o r s M a k in g a n E f f e c t i v e G u i d a n c e
P ro g ra m ," E d u c a tio n a l R e c o rd s B u l l e t i n , $28 (O c to b e r, 1939)
p. v iii.
10 R u t h S t r a n g , "Why G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s F a i l a n d S u c c e e d ,
E d u c a t i o n a l M e th o d , 1 9 :3 2 1 , J u n e , 1 9 3 8 .
11R u t h S t r a n g ,
12
Loc• c i t .
o jd
.
c i t . , p. 63.
7
Im p o rta n c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .
t h e t e a c h e r who h a s made t h e
I t h a s been su g g e ste d t h a t
g r e a te s t c o n tr ib u tio n to
th e d e­
v e lo p m e n t o f p u p i l s h a s a lw a y s had th e g u id a n c e v ie w p o in t and
h a s p ro c e e d e d a lo n g l i n e s w h ich have a s t h e i r b a s i s th e p r i n ­
c i p l e s o f g u id a n c e .
W ise a n d s y m p a t h e t i c c o u n s e l i n g b a s e d o n
c a r e f u l a n a ly s e s o f th e
s i t u a t i o n may e x i s t i n
d isa v o w th e e x i s t e n c e o f a g u id a n c e p ro g ram .
s c h o o ls w h ich
T hro u g h o u t a
s c h o o l s y s t e m t h e r e may b e t e a c h e r s w h o s e g u i d a n c e u n d e r s t a n d ­
in g and s e r v i c e r e n d e r in v a lu a b le a s s i s t a n c e
p u p ils .
to o c c a s io n a l
H o w ev er, t o r e a c h a l l p u p i l s and p r o v i d e f o r th em a
p ro g ram o f c o n tin u o u s and p u r p o s iv e g u id a n c e t h e r e m ust be an
o rg a n iz e d p la n .
A nna L . D a v i s a n d M a r g a r e t 2 . B e n n e t t a r e o f
th e o p in io n t h a t an a d e q u a te g u id a n c e
re s u lt of
i n c i d e n t a l and h a p h a z a rd a t t e n t i o n .
s i o n t h e y s a y m u s t b e made i f
o f e ffic ie n c y
se rv ic e s.
s e r v ic e c a n n o t be th e
13
th e p ro g ram i s
S p e c ia l p r o v i­
to re a c h a sta g e
i n w h ic h a l l p u p i l s h av e a c c e s s t o g u id a n c e
A s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n h a s b e e n d ra w n b y R o y a -l- B .
E m b re e i n s t a t i n g
t h a t th e fu n d a m e n ta l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f any
o rg a n iz e d e d u c a tio n a l s i t u a t i o n
lie s
"When ( e d u c a t i o n )
in t h i s fa s h io n ,
i s c o n sid e re d
in i t s
g u id an c e f u n c t i o n .
it
t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s c a n n o t be o b ta in e d by t h e
i s o b v io u s
iso la te d
1 3 A nna L . - D a v i s a n d M a r g a r e t E . B e n n e t t , "T he C o u n s e l o r
i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l , " The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 2 0 3 , M ay,
1940.
8
w ork o f a n y i n d i v i d u a l o r d e p a r t m e n t . ” "^
Many o t h e r w r i t e r s i n d i c a t e
th a t o rg a n iz a tio n l i e s
th e b a s i s o f any good g u id a n c e p ro g ram .
at
Among t h e m , D a v i d G.
R yans w r i t e s t h a t "a th o ro u g h and s y s te m a tic p e rs o n n e l s e r v ­
ic e
i s rec o m m e n d e d a s a n e c e s s a r y
w ays o f e d u c a t i o n . ”
15
su p p le m e n t to th e o t h e r
Cox a n d D u f f a g r e e t h a t " s u f f i c i e n t o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v i s e r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a rra n g e m e n ts
l6
s h o u l d b e m ade t o m ake s u c c e s s p r o b a b l e . ”
in in v e s tig a tin g
th e
th a t
te n d e n c ie s i n g u id a n c e p r a c t i c e s ,
A rth u r J .
J o n e s fo u n d
th e o n ly w e l l - d e f i n e d te n d e n c y w as t o be fo u n d i n th e
d is p o s itio n o f sc h o o l a d m in is tr a to r s to re c o g n iz e
fo r
"o rg a n iz e d ,
to p ro v id e fo r
It
is
c o n sid e ra b le
S c h o o l.
th e need
c o o p e ra tiv e e f f o r t ” to g e th e r w ith th e
17
it.
sta ff
i n t h e same v e i n t h a t H a m r in a n d E r i k s o n d e v o t e
s p a c e i n t h e i r b o o k , G u id a n ce i n t h e S e c o n d a ry
They a r e o f t h e o p in io n t h a t :
14E m bree,
o jd
.
c i t ..
p. 337.
1 5 D a v i d G. R y a n s , ” The R o l e o f G u i d a n c e
S ch o o l and S o c i e t y . 5 0 :3 4 5 , O c to b e r 1939.
in E d u c a tio n ,”
1 6 Cox a n d D u f f , o£ . c i t . , p . 2 3 2 .
17
A r t h u r J . J o n e s , " T e n d e n c i e s i n G u i d a n c e , ” The H i g h
S chool J o u r n a l . 2 3 :1 6 6 , A p r il, 1940.
9
G u id a n ce and p e r s o n n e l w c rk r e p r e s e n t s a n o r g a n i z e d
e f f o r t on th e p a r t o f th e s c h o o l, e q u ip p e d w ith b o th a
k n o w led g e o f t h e p u p i l a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o o p p o r ­
t u n i t i e s o f an e d u c a t i o n a l , a s o c i a l , and a v o c a t io n a l
c h a r a c t e r , t o h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l b ecom e a d j u s t e d
t o h i s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n s u c h a w ay a s t o p r o v i d e
t h e g r e a t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t f o r h i m a n d t o a i d h im i n
p la n n in g h i s fu tu re* ^ -8
H e n r y C, M o r r i s o n ,
an a u t h o r i t y
in th e
fie ld ,
c o n sid e rs
th e n e c e s s i t y o f o rg a n iz e d g u id a n c e and e d u c a tio n p ro c e d u r e s
fro m th e
s t a n d p o in t o f th e t o t a l e f f e c t on th e p u p i l s e r v e d .
The s c h o o l i s a u n i t i n i t s i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e p u p i l .
E v e r y e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h he h a s i n t h e s c h o o l t e n d s t o
m o d ify h i s a t t i t u d e to w a rd l i f e .
S u c h e x p e r i e n c e s may
be l e f t to i n h i b i t o r c o u n t e r a c t one a n o th e r .
U nder th e
b a n e f u l in f lu e n c e o f th e f a c t o r y s t e r e o t y p e , th e sc h o o l
may b e f o r g e t f u l t h a t i t i s d e a l i n g w i t h o r g a n i s m s i n
t h e s h a p e o f hum an b e i n g s a n d a c t a s i f p u p i l s w e r e a
p i e c e o f p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l c a p a b le o f b e in g w rap p ed up
a f t e r e a c h o p e r a t i o n a n d o f b e i n g f o u n d u n c h a n g e d w hen
i t may b e c o n v e n i e n t t o a p p l y t h e n e x t .
The p u p i l i s
i n d e e d p l a s t i c , b u t g r o w t h i n many d i r e c t i o n s g o e s on
w h e th e r th e s c h o o l o p e r a t e s o r n o t .
U n le ss th e n e e d fu l
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p ro c e d u re i s p r o p e r l y c o n c e iv e d and a d e ­
q u a te ly c a r r ie d o u t, th e e d u c a tio n a l p ro d u c t i s p u re ly
i n t h e h a n d s o f c h a n c e - - i t may b e a b r i l l i a n t s u c c e s s
a n d a n o r m a l l y a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y o r i t may be a
w r e tc h e d f a i l u r e and a p e r f e r t e d , u n h a p p y , and v i v a ­
c io u s p e r s o n a l i t y . ^
In a d d i t i o n to th e w id e -s p re a d f e e l i n g t h a t g u id a n c e
p r a c t i c e s w i t h in a s c h o o l m ust be o r g a n iz e d ,
tin c tio n
i s m ade i n t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .
a carefu l d is­
To m any a d m i n -
18H a m rin a n d E r i k s o n , o £ . c i t . , p . 2 ,
^ H e n r y C, M o r r i s o n , The P r a c t i c e o f T e a c h i n g i n t h e
S e c o n d ary s c h o o ls (C h ica g o :
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ,
1931) R e v is e d E d i t i o n . p . 543•
10
istra to rs,
o r g a n i z a t i o n m eans th e
s e t t i n g up o f a p la n in
w h ic h a s i n g l e p e r s o n o r p e r h a p s d e p a r tm e n t i s e n t i r e l y r e ­
sp o n s ib le fo r
such a p la n i s
Jones*
a n y p e r s o n n e l w o rk d o n e b y t h e
sc h o o l.
That
in a d e q u a te h a s been p o in te d o u t by A rth u r J .
P r o c e d in g on t h e
a ssu m p tio n t h a t a l l e d u c a tio n
is
g u i d a n c e , h e a s s e r t s t h a t g u i d a n c e m u s t n o t be o r g a n i z e d
sin g le
d e p a rtm e n t b u t s h o u ld be th e w ork o f th e e n t i r e
A ll f o r c e s o f th e
in a
sc h o o l.
s c h o o l s h o u ld be b r o u g h t to b e a r on th e p r o b ­
lem o f g u id a n c e a n d , w i t h d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e a c h
p h ase o f th e p ro g ram f i x e d ,
an e f f e c t i v e
p l a n o f g u i d a n c e may
be i n s t i t u t e d . ^
I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o b le m s w h ic h a r i s e
in th e
o rg a n i­
z a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a sc h o o l*
he sa y s f u r t h e r t h a t :
♦ ...g u i d a n c e i s n o t s o m e th in g t h a t can be s e p a r a t e d
fro m th e g e n e r a l l i f e o f th e s c h o o l , n o r i s i t so m e th in g
t h a t c a n b e l o c a t e d i n some p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l ;
. i t c a n n o t b e t u c k e d aw ay i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e c o u n s e l o r
o r t h e e m p lo y m e n t b u r e a u .
I t is a p a r t o f every a c t i v i t y
o f e v e ry te a c h e r in th e sy ste m .
I t i s , th e n , a fu n c tio n
t h a t i s s h a r e d b y a l l a n d m u s t be s o a d m i n i s t e r e d . 21
T h is b e l i e f
i s made t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o r o r ­
g a n iz a t i o n o f g u id a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s
set fo rth
by R u th S t r a n g .
20A rth u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e ,
M c G r a w - H i l l B o ok C om pany, 1930} p . 3 4 6 .
(New Y o r k :
21A rth u r J . J o n e s , P r in c i p l e s o f G u id a n c e » R e v is e d
e d itio n .
(New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Com pany, 1 9 3 4 ) p . 3 9 6 .
11
Seven p r i n c i p l e s a re
th e p re s e n t stu d y .
g iv e n o f w h ich t h r e e a r e p e r t i n e n t t o
T hese a r e :
(1 )
th e g u id a n c e p rogram r e ­
q u i r e s an i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e rs ta n d in g on th e p a r t o f a l l f a c u l ­
t y m e m b e rs r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l i s t s e m p l o y e d . ,
( 2 ) p r o v i s i o n m u s t b e made f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n
to
t h o s e who c a n u s e
it
fo r th e
s h o u l d be a c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r
s h o u ld be u n i f i e d
if
good o f th e c h i l d . . t h e r e
in fo rm a tio n
and c o o r d in a te d
th a t is not p o ss ib le ,
so t h a t o n l y o n e p e r s o n , o r
o n l y a few a g e n c i e s o r o f f i c e r s ,
s h a l l d e a l d i r e c t l y w ith a p a r t i c u l a r
A sum m ary o f t h e
p ra c tic e s
is
(3 ) th e p ro g ra m
s t u d e n t . 22
im p o rtan c e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id a n c e
g i v e n b y A l l e n who w r i t e s t h a t :
The p u r p o s e o f o r g a n i z e d g u i d a n c e i s t o a s s u r e t o e v e r y
c h i l d th e a d v a n ta g e s o f i n d iv i d u a l tr e a tm e n t t h a t have a l ­
w ays b e en p r o v id e d b y th e b e s t t e a c h e r s f o r th e m ost f o r ­
t u n a t e c h i l d r e n u n d e r th e m ost f a v o r a b l e c ir c u m s ta n c e s ,
an d t o im p ro v e t h e s e s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f
a s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d a n d t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , im p r o v e d i n ­
s tr u m e n ts , b e t t e r u n d e rs to o d p r i n c i p l e s , and an o r g a n i­
z a t i o n w i t h in th e c u rr ic u lu m and p ro g ram o f th e s c h o o l
w h ic h w i l l p r o v id e t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e g r e a t ­
e s t p o s s i b l e s u c c e s s o f t h e w o r k .23
Sum m ary o f t h e
show n i n t h i s
im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b le m .
c h a p te r t h a t th e
I t h as been
im p o rta n c e o f th e p ro b lem l i e s
2 2 R u t h S t r a n g , The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l
Work (New Y o r k :
B ureau o f P u b lT c a tio n s , T e a c h e rs C o lle g e ,
C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1935} p . 3 5 .
23R ic h a r d D, A l l e n , O r g a n i z a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n o f
Q u i d a n c e i n P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n (New Y o r k :
I n o r P u b l i s h i n g Com­
p a n y , 1934T P* 1 1 5 ,
12
i n t h r e e p r i m a r y b e l i e f s h e l d b y many i n v e s t i g a t o r s a n d w r i t - ,
e rs
in th e
f i e l d o f g u id a n c e .
u n iv e r s a lly h e ld b e l i e f
fu lfill
i t s m is sio n
i s t h a t th e
concept th a t th e
ev ery
and p e rh a p s m ost
p r e s e n t day sch o o l w ill
i n th e m ost e f f i c i e n t m anner and w ith a
g r e a t e r d eg ree o f s u c c e ss i f
g u id a n c e v ie w p o in t.
The f i r s t
a ll
in stru c tio n
i s b a se d on th e
The s e c o n d b e l i e f r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e
g u id a n c e f u n c t i o n w i l l be m ost e f f e c t i v e
if
t e a c h e r i s m ade a p a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d p e r f o r m s
g u id a n c e
s e r v i c e s c o m m e a su ra te w i t h h i s t r a i n i n g
The t h i r d b e l i e f
i s t h a t g u id a n c e
and a b i l i t y .
s e r v i c e s can be b e s t and
re a c h a l l p u p ils c o n s i s t e n t l y o n ly i f
th e re
i s c o n sc io u s p la n ­
n in g in e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a in ta in in g th e program .
REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS AND LITERATURE
It
is th e o b je c t o f th is
s u l t s o f th e
d iv is io n to p r e s e n t th e r e ­
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h ic h r e l a t e
in
th e p r e s e n t p ro b lem and to r e v ie w b r i e f l y
l i t e r a t u r e w h ic h b e a r s
a s e le c te d body o f
in i t s m a jo r a s p e c t s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n
o f th e t e a c h e r ’ s f u n c tio n
sio n
some m e a s u r e t o
in th e g u id an c e p ro g ram .
The d i v i ­
i s t h e n su m m arize d by i n d i c a t i n g t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e n s u s
o f e d u c a tio n a l in v e s tig a to r s and w r i t e r s
Survey o f g u id a n c e p r a c t i c e s .
h e n siv e
in v e s tig a tio n s
in th e
to w ard th e p ro b le m .
One o f t h e m o s t c o m p r e ­
f i e l d o f g u id a n c e was r e p o r t e d
13
by L e o n a rd V. Koos an d G ra y so n N. K e f a u v e r i n t h e i r b o o k e n title d
G u id a n ce
in S eco n d ary S c h o o ls .
e a r ly d a te o f t h i s
stu d y ,
24
The C o m p a r a t i v e l y
1 9 3 2 , may r e n d e r i t
i n some o f i t s
d a ta o f d u b io u s v a lu e b u t i t m ust be re c o g n iz e d t h a t th e
stu d y
r e p r e s e n t s a m o n u m en tal e f f o r t t o p r e s e n t a c l e a r p i c t u r e
g u id a n c e p r a c t i c e s
S ta te s.
in
D u rin g th e
f r o m 3 36 h i g h
of
seco n d ary sc h o o ls th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n d a t a w e re s o u g h t a n d o b t a i n e d
s c h o o ls and f i f t y - t w o
ju n io r c o lle g e s .
These
i n s t i t u t i o n s ra n g e d i n s i z e fro m a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f f o r ­
ty -s e v e n to o v er fo u r th o u sa n d .
P a r t IV o f t h i s
in v e s tig a tio n
d e a ls s p e c i f i c a l l y w ith
t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id a n c e p ro g ra m s and p r e s e n t s d a t a c o n ­
c e rn in g th e p re v a le n c e o f te a c h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
ance fu n c tio n .
Of a l l t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
t h e h o m eroo m w i t h t e a c h e r - a d v i s e r s w a s t h e
was p a r t i c u l a r l y
tru e
A fu rth e r re v e a lin g
g u id a n c e a d v is e r s
in th e
g u id ­
i t w as fo u n d t h a t
m ost f r e q u e n t .
T h is
in th e m e d iu m -siz e d and l a r g e h ig h s c h o o l.
ite m i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s w ere u s e d a s
in o n ly about o n e - f i f t h o f th e
sc h o o ls w ith
e n ro lm e n ts o f l e s s
t h a n tw o h u n d r e d a n d i n o n l y o n e - t h i r t e e n t h
25
o f t h o s e w i t h m ore t h a n o n e t h o u s a n d .
^ L e o n a r d V. K o o s a n d G r a y s o n N. K e f a u v e r , G u i d a n c e i n
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s (New Y o r k :
The M a c M i l l a n C om p an y, 1 9 3 2 ) 640 p p .
25I b i d . . p . 516.
14
In s c h o o ls h a v in g th e c o u n se lo r-g u i& a n c e ty p e o f o rg a n ­
iz a tio n ,
th a t
is,
p a rtic ip a tio n ,
v isio n
a s k i l l e d , t e c h n i c a l w orker p lu s te a c h e r
i t w a s show n t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d
a d e fin ite
o f d u t i e s w h i c h c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a d j u s t i v e
d istrib u tiv e .
de­
and
The f o r m e r f u n c t i o n w as c a r r i e d o u t t o a
g r e a t e x t e n t b y t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f -w h ile t h e
m ost e x c lu s iv e ly
in to
la tte r
fe ll
a l­
th e re a lm o f th e c o u n s e l o r . ^
T e a c h e r s T g u id a n c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
W illia m s in a t h e s i s e n t i t l e d ,
D o n ald T u rn ey
Some V a l u e s a n d L i m i t a t i o n s o f
G u id a n ce P ro g ra m s in S even S e l e c t e d S e c o n d a ry P u b l i c S c h o o l
S y stem s i n S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
m a te r ia l c o n c e rn in g th e
re s p o n sib ility
c o m p le te d i n 1937, p r e s e n t s
a c tu a l e x te n t o f th e
in th e m a tte r o f g u id a n c e .
07
sub j e c t - t e a c h e r f s
H is i n v e s t i g a t i o n
s
r e v e a le d t h a t p u rp o s e s o f th e
g u id a n c e f u n c t i o n w ere o f th e
fo llo w in g n a tu r e .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.6 .
7.
To
To
To
To
To
To
To
a r o u s e i n t e r e s t and d e v e l o p r i g h t a t t i t u d e s .
s t r e s s o c c u p a tio n a l in fo rm a tio n o f th e s u b je c t.
a rra n g e t r y o u t p r o j e c t s in th e s u b j e c t.
e n co u rag e and d e v e lo p s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s .
g iv e r e m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n in s u b j e c t h a n d ic a p s .
le a d a c lu b o r a c t i v i t y .
c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e c o u n s e l o r a n d h o m ero o m t e a c h e r .
26l b i d ..
p . 563.
D o n a l d T u r n e y W i l l i a m s , "Some V a l u e s a n d L i m i t a t i o n s
o f G u id a n ce P ro g ra m s in S ev en S e l e c t e d P u b l i c S c h o o l S y ste m s
i n S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1937)
15
Of t h e s e ,
i t w as shown t h a t t h e
s tr e s s in g o f o c c u p a tio n a l
in ­
f o r m a t i o n w as c o n s i d e r e d by m o st t e a c h e r s a s t h e i r m a jo r r e ­
sp o n s ib ility .
The c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t i v e
ance have l i s t e d
to th e
p r e s e n t stu d y :
A n eed e x i s t s f o r g u id a n c e
c le a r e r co n cep t o f g u id a n c e .
G u id a n ce i s
do n o t f u l l y
fu n c tio n a rie s
g u id a n c e p rogram i s b a s e d .
l e s s e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e m any t e a c h e r s
r e a l i z e th e
l i m i t a t i o n s and v a lu e s o f tr u e g u id ­
ance f u n c tio n s w ith in t h e i r c la ss ro o m s ,
sy ste m fro m th e e le m e n ta r y th ro u g h th e
3.
to have a
T h is c o n c e p t i s n e c e s s a r y a s a
f o u n d a t i o n upon w h ich an y e f f e c t i v e
2.
l im i ta t io n s o f g u id ­
am ong t h e m t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s w h i c h b e a r
a c lo s e r e la ti o n s h ip
1.
to th e
and w i t h i n t h e
ju n io r c o lle g e .
A d e q u a te g u id a n c e , a c c o r d i n g to
one g u id a n c e - f u n c ti o n a r y , i s c u r t a i l e d
g ra m d e s i g n e d t o h e l p m a i n t a i n t h e
school
a f i e l d n o te by
by an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o ­
sta tu s
quo.
The p h i l o s o ­
phy o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l u n q u e s tio n a b ly c o n d it i o n th e
p h ilo s o p h y o f g u id a n c e f u n c tio n in g w ith in th e s c h o o l.
4.
The s t a t u s o f g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n a r i e s w a s o f t e n n o t
d e f i n i t e l y d e fin e d as to
C o n se q u e n tly t h e s e
th e g u id a n c e
scope o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y .
sc h o o ls f a i l e d
se rv ic e
in
o f h ig h e s t a c h ie v e m e n t, and
some i n s t a n c e s b e c a m e h a p h a z a r d a n d
u n sy s te m a tic .
In th e se
c o n n e c tio n s , W illia m s s e t s f o r t h
a re c o m m e n ­
d a t i o n i n v o l v i n g r e s e a r c h w h o se m a j o r p u r p o s e w i l l b e t o d i s c o v e r and p r o v i d e t h e
It
l i m i t a t i o n s and scope o f g u id a n c e .
seem s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s
rec o m m e n d atio n s a r e o f th e
c an be a c o n s i d e r a b l e
28
phase o f h is r e s u l t s and
g re a te s t s ig n ific a n c e .
U n til th e re
d eg ree of d e f i n i te n e s s a s t o w hat a c ­
t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s g u id a n c e , t h e r e w i l l be
in te r p o s e d on th e
s e r v ic e a l i m i t a t i o n t h a t w i l l u n d o u b te d ly r e t a r d g u id an c e
w ork th r o u g h o u t th e
concept w ill,
if
c o u n try .
The e s t a b l i s h i n g
of a re fin e d
c o u p le d w ith a d e te rm in e d , w e ll- o r g a n iz e d
and w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d p r o g r a m i n v o l v i n g t o
th e f u l l e s t e x te n t
th e c o o p e ra tio n o f th e
le a d to a ty p e o f
c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r ,
g u id a n c e t h a t w i l l r e n d e r th e
a n d g i r l s who a r e
so v i t a l l y
g r e a t e s t s e r v ic e to th e
in need of
A t e x tb o o k on g u i d a n c e .
v e stig a tiv e m a te ria l is
u la rly ,
tio n ,
it.
T he r e l a t i v e
p a u c ity o f in ­
i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t -to t h e
o f o th e r ty p e s o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e .
boys
abundance
In re c e n t y e a rs p a r t i c ­
i n d i c a t i n g th e m o u n tin g i n t e r e s t
in th is
phase o f ed u ca
th e r e have b een n u m b e rle ss c o n s i d e r a ti o n s o f a l l a r e a s
o f g u id a n c e
i n p e r i o d i c a l s and b o o k s .
a re co n cern ed w h o lly or
A l a r g e num ber o f t h e s e
in p a r t w ith th e
te a c h e r ’s p la c e
in
th e g u id a n c e p ro g ram and fro m t h e s e w ere c h o sen f o r re v ie w
h e r e t h o s e w h i c h se e m e d o f u n u s u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e
28j b id . ,
p . 122.
to th e p r e s e n t
s tu d y .
17
One o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t b o o k s i s t h a t o f S h i r l e y A, Ham-
r i n and C l i f f o r d I . I r i k s o n b e a r i n g t h e t i t l e , G uidance in
29
Secondary S c h o o ls.
T h is v o lu m e , p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 9 , empha­
sizes
stro n g ly ,
r e a l i z i n g the
a s do o t h e r s m e n t i o n e d h e r e ,
im portance o f th e c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r
v is i o n o f ad eq u ate g u id a n c e .
il­
te n e t th a t every tea ch er
sc h o o l system sh o u ld be a g u idan ce w o rk e r.
vious h e re ,
in th e p ro ­
C h a p t e r XIV m o s t s t r i k i n g l y
l u s t r a t e s t h i s by s e t t i n g f o r t h the
in the
the n e c e s s ity o f
It
is ob­
t h a t H a m r i n a n d E r i k s o n b a s e t h i s c o n v i c t i o n on
the b ro a d e s t co ncept o f the guidance f u n c tio n .
A nother s e c tio n
guidance.
ors,
i s d e v o te d to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r good
The s u c c e s s e s o f a n y g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m ,
d e p e n d s on t h e
th is as a b asis,
s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s *
p lu s c a re fu l.o b s e rv a tio n ,
in g o u t of a c o n s id e ra tio n o f the
to h is e n t i r e
say th e
a n c e p r o g r a m may b e d e v e l o p e d t h a t w i l l
W ith
w is e d i a g n o s i s grow­
in d iv id u a l
en v iro n m en t, and sy m p ath etic
au th ­
in r e l a t i o n s h i p
procedures, a guid­
p r o v i d e maximum r e ­
sults*
An a d d i t i o n a l i d e a w h i c h a p p e a r s t o
b e u n i q u e among i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r s and w r i t e r s o f g u id an c e m a t e r i a l ,
is th at
p e rs o n n e l s e r v ic e s f o r te a c h e r s a s w ell as s tu d e n ts .
29
suggest
The
S h i r l e y A. H a m r i n a n d C l i f f o r d E# E r i k s o n , G u i d a n c e
*-n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s (New Y o r k :
D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company,
1 9 3 9 ) 4 6 5 pp*
18
p o i n t seems to be w e l l
th e te a c h in g p ro fe ssio n
be a i d e d g r e a t l y
t a k e n f o r am ong t h e men a n d vromen i n
t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y many who m i g h t
in t h e i r
p e rs o n a l problem s th ro u g h a c o n s id e r ­
a t i o n o f them by means o f w e l l - i n f o r m e d g u i d a n c e .
A guidance te x tb o o k f o r
teach ers.
Cox a n d J o h n C a r r D u f f c o l l a b o r a t e d
in th e
I n 1938 P h i l i p L.
p rep aratio n of a
work w h ich b e a r s an e x tr e m e l y c l o s e and v i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o
the
present
T eacher,
30
study.
T h is volum e,
G u id an ce,b y t h e C lassroom
n o t o n ly p r e s e n ts v a lu a b le m a te r ia l as to the te a c h ­
e r s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e many f a c e t s o f g u i d a n c e b u t i s e v e n
o f g r e a t e r w orth
in the e s t a b l i s h i n g of th e n e c e s s a ry p h ilo s o ­
phy w hich w i l l adm it o f th e v i t a l
p la c e o f the te a c h e r in g u id ­
ance •
As a n a i d t o t h e p i c t u r i z a t i o n
program ,
o f the
t o t a l guidance
Cox a n d D u f f l i s t w h a t t h e y t e r m t h e t w e l v e p r i n c i ­
p le s of guidance.
The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e
phase of guidance co n cern ed
in th e p r e s e n t stu d y :
1.
G uidance c o n s i s t s i n h e l p i n g p u p i l s s e t up o b j e c ­
t i v e s t h a t a r e f o r them dynam ic, r e a s o n a b l e , and
w o r t h w h i l e , a n d i n h e l p i n g t h e m , so f a r a s p o s s i b l e ,
to a t t a i n these o b je c tiv e s .
2.
The n e e d f o r
because o f:
guidance
i s p a r t i c u l a r l y acute today
3 0 W. L . Cox a n d J o h n C a r r D u f f , G u i d a n c e b y t h e C l a s s ­
r o o m t e a c h e r (New Y o r k :
P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1938)
535 p p .
19
a.
In c re a s e d c o m p lex ity o f our s o c i a l o r g a n iz a t io n .
b.
R a p id it y o f change in o u r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .
c.
The c h a n g i n g c h a r a c t e r o f
m ined b y :
(1)
The h o m e .
(2 )
The Commun i t y .
(3)
The C h u r c h .
d.
The i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n .
e.
The e c o n o m i c
f.
The d e m a n d s o f l i f e
san ctio n s as d e te r­
situ atio n .
i n a modern
dem ocracy.
3.
T h i s new c o n c e p t o f g u id a n c e i s l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f
te n d e n c ie s in e d u c a tio n a l a d m in is tr a tio n .
4.
The i d e a o f g u i d a n c e
ed u cate.
5.
The m a j o r w o r k o f g u i d a n c e m u s t b e d o n e b y c l a s s r o o m
a n d hom ero o m t e a c h e r s .
6.
7.
The w o r k o f t h e
is
guidance
in h ere n t in a l l
sp e cia list
e f f o r t s to
is:
a.
To s t i m u l a t e , g u i d e , a n d c h e c k t h e g u i d a n c e
a c tiv itie s of teach ers.
b.
To g i v e
s p e c ia liz e d e x p e rt help
where n e c e s s a r y .
The p r o p e r a d a p t a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m a n d m e t h o d t o
t h e n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s i s b e s t prom oted
th ro u g h g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s of t e a c h e r s w o rk in g in
a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s y s t e m . 31
I t w i l l be s e e n f r o m t h e f o r e g c i n g t h a t Cox a n d D u f f
have a c c e p te d a s fu n d am e n ta l,
31I b id ..
p. 14.
the b e li e f t h a t
the classro o m
t e a c h e r s h o u l d be t h e b u l w a r k a g a i n s t w h i c h a n e f f e c t i v e
g u id a n c e program m ust be e r e c t e d .
th e
i n d i v i d u a l whose t o l e r a n t ,
tra in in g
He m u s t b e c o n c e i v e d a s
sy m p ath etic a t t i t u d e ,
whose
i n t h e m a t t e r o f g u i d a n c e , a n d whose k e e n o b s e r v a ­
t i o n m akes him i n d i s p e n a b l e
in th e g u id in g o f y o u th .
A y e a rb o o k on g u i d a n c e .
c o n trib u te d
In 1938, F r a n c is 0. R osecrance
a h ig h ly e n lig h te n in g a r t i c l e
as a p o rtio n o f a
sym posium b e a r i n g t h e t i t l e , G u id a n ce i n E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u 33
tio n s,
u n d e r t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f Guy M o n t r o s e ? f l i i p p l e .
In
m ost s c h o o ls ,
R osecrance w r i t e s ,
ance f u n c t i o n a r i e s w i l l
the
be f o u n d :
is a lik lih o o d guid­
(1) t e a c h e r s whose p a r t
g u i d a n c e p ro g ra m comes t h r o u g h t h e i r
room s;
(3)
c ip a l,
deans,
in
c o n d u c t i n g o f home­
g u id a n c e l e a d e r s such a s th e p r i n c i p a l ,
v ice -p rin ­
o r some o t h e r p e r s o n e s p e c i a l l y d e l e g a t e d t o
s u p e rin te n d and c o o rd in a te
(3)
th ere
th e t o t a l guidance
t h e g u i d a n c e e x p e r t who may b e r e f e r r e d
stru ctu re;
to a s the
and
coun­
s e l o r a n d who b r i n g s t o t h e t a s k o f g u i d a n c e a h i g h l y t r a i n e d ,
s k i l l . 33
32F r a n c i s C. R o s e c r a n c e , "G u id an c e i n E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , n T h i r t y - s e v e n th Y earbook o f th e N a t io n a l S o c ie ty
f o r t h e Study of E d u c a ti o n . P a r t I (B lo o m in g to n, I l l i n o i s :
P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C om p an y , 1 9 3 8 )
33I b i d .,
p . 268.
21
The r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r d i f f e r s w i d e l y ,
crance,
in d i f f e r e n t sc h o o ls.
e x tre m e , the
In the
t i c u l a r l y the
c ity
w i l l d e p en d on t h e
i l y the
in to guid in g the
i s a b l e b e c a u s e o f h e r c o n t i n u a l work
w i t h th e m t o become v e r y i n t i m a t e .
I f teach in g
one r o o m s c h o o l , a s o n e
te a c h e r e n te r s very d e c id e d ly
p u p i l s w i t h whom s h e
c o n tin u e s Rose­
sch o o l,
In la rg e r
sch o o ls, p a r­
the. p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r
p h i l o s o p h y of
the
s c h o o l's a d m in is tra tio n .
is co n sid ered as fo rm alized procedures,
necessar­
t e a c h e r ’ s f u n c tio n w ith re g a rd to guidance w i l l be a t
a m in im um w h i l e i f
a broader concept of ed u catio n
t e a c h e r w i l l be i n a s t r a t e g i c
p o sitio n
is h e ld ,
the
to f u r t h e r guidance
a c tiv itie s.
Throughout th e e n t i r e
stress
on t h e
a rticle ,
im portance o f th e
R osecrance la y s heavy
classro o m te a c h e r in th e g u id ­
ing of p u p ils .
To s u p p o r t t h i s , he r e f e r s t o a s u r v e y c o n 34
d u c te d by C l i f f o r d E. E r ik s o n
who f o u n d t h a t 2 , 6 9 8 s e c o n d ­
ary school p u p ils re p o rte d th e persons in t h e i r re s p e c tiv e
s c h o o l s who w e r e o f m o s t a s s i s t a n c e
t o them w i t h t h e i r p r o b ­
lem s were t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s .
I n a s e c t i o n devo t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d s i n w h i c h
3 4 C l i f f o r d E . E r i k s o n , "T he Homeroom i n S e c o n d a r y E d u ­
c a t i o n , " (u n p u b lish ed D o c to ra l d i s s e r t a t i o n , N o rth w estern
U n i v e r s i t y , E v a n s t o n , 1 9 3 7 ) , c i t e d b y F r a n c i s C. R o s e c r a n c e ,
I b i d , , p . 271.
22
a t e a c h e r may s e r v e
first
the
guidance f u n c tio n t h e r e
is
th e d i a g n o s t i c p hase o f th e t e a c h e r * s w ork.
Then, a f t e r
asce rtain in g
i n a t e n t a t i v e way w h e r e i n l i e s
he may:
change th e a t t i t u d e s of o t h e r t e a c h e r s c o n c e rn e d ;
(1)
(2) m a n i p u l a t e
ad ju stm en t;
the e x p e r i e n c e s o f th e
the
set fo rth
d iffic u lty
p u p i l t o o b t a i n maximum
(3)
a s s i s t th e p u p il in d e fin in g h i s n eed s, form 35
u l a t i n g h i s a im s , and a c h i e v i n g them .
G u id an ce by t h e
co n sid era b le
im portance
co lleg e te a c h e r.
A nother w r i t in g o f
i s The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r
n e l Work b y R u t h S t r a n g ^ ?
in P e rso n ­
W hile t h i s book i s aim ed s p e c i f i ­
c a l l y a t problem s o f g u idance
in c o lle g e s ,
n ev erth eless
m ay b e e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l o n t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f t h e
it
secondary
school.
In C hapter I I I t h e r e
tan c e of th e
a d e fin ite
teach er
a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the
in guidance w ork.
c o n trib u tio n to
sc h o o l from th e
is
stan d p o in t
of h is p e rs o n a lity ,
t e a c h e r a s a homeroom a d v i s e r o r a c l u b
p.
in h i s
th ro u g h h is
in in d iv id u a l c a p a c i t i e s '
A d d i t i o n a l c h a p t e r s on th e
35I b i d . ,
s h e s a y s , may make
the f u r th e r a n c e o f guidance
t e a c h i n g and in m aking a d ju s tm e n ts
and n e e d s .
He,
im por­
c o n trib u tio n o f the
sponsor in d ic a te
o th er
268.
3 ®Ruth S t r a n g , The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l
Work (New Y o r k :
B ureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , T ea ch e rs C o lleg e ,
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1935) 407 p p .
23
m eth o d s by w hich t h e
i n s t r u c t o r may s e r v e t h e
guidance fu n c ­
tio n .
Summary o f r e l a t e d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and l i t e r a t u r e A l­
though t h a t phase o f guid ance r e l a t i n g to
the
classroom te a c h ­
e r h a s r e c e i v e d em phasis* h e r e , i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t d e s p i t e
g e n e r a l agreem ent c o n c e rn in g th e
t e a c h e r ’ s im portance
in c a rry
i n g o u t g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n s , , many s c h o o l s h a v e p r o g r a m s i n
w hich t h e t e a c h e r p l a y s a r e l a t i v e l y m inor p a r t .
T his con ­
d i t i o n may be d u e i n p a r t t o a l a c k o f u n a n i m i t y a s t o w h a t
s h o u l d b e t h e t e a c h e r ’ s d u t i e s an d how s h a l l h e f i t
in to th e
t o t a l program o f g u id an c e.
I n few c a s e s such a s H am rin a n d E r i k s o n ,
Duff th e
i n s i s t e n c e on t h e
in the guidance fu n c tio n
c a n be no e f f e c t i v e ,
is
in c lu s io n o f the
so g r e a t t h a t ,
a n d Cox a n d
classro o m te a c h e r
th ey
say, th e re
o rg a n iz e d guidance program u n t i l the
p h ilo so p h y o f guidance h as pervaded th e c la ssro o m and e v ery
te a c h e r c o n c e iv e s o f h im s e lf a s a m ajo r in s tru m e n t and an i n ­
d is p e n s a b le cog in d i r e c t i n g th e g ro p in g s o f th e boys and
g irls
who i n t h i s a g e o f m u l t i p l e
c o m p lex ities are
so v i t a l l y
in need o f a s s is te n c e .
Yet th e f a c t s ,
as
shown i n t h e
show t h a t b y f a r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e
to the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s
in v estig atio n s c ite d ,
s c h o o l s have n o t awakened
o f a g u id an ce program h a v in g i t s
ro o ts
24
deep in th e
face,
classro o m and are
if at a ll,
co n tin u in g to
by a t t e m p t i n g to d i v o r c e
g u idance f u n c t i o n and s e t a p a r t th e l a t t e r
s c ra tc h the
sur­
t h e t e a c h i n g and
as i f
i t were a
c o l d l y m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o c e d u r e whose m a j o r p r e m i s e
i s th a t the
s u b j e c t u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n b y a d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o b l e m who r e ­
f u s e s t o c o n f o r m t o t h e r u l e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s l a i d down b y h i s
teach er.
ORGANIZATION OF THE PRESENT STUDY
Many h e a d s o f m o d e r n s c h o o l s a n d w r i t e r s o f e d u c a t i o n
lite ra tu re
nence
a r e a c c o r d i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a p l a c e o f em i­
in th e guidance program .
I n an e f f o r t
to d is c o v e r th e
e x t e n t and m anner i n w h ic h t h i s b e l i e f h a s a c t u a l l y b e e n f o l ­
low ed in o r g a n i z e d g u id a n c e p ro g ra m s ,
t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was
d i r e c t e d tow ard t h e o b t a i n i n g o f i n f o r m a ti o n a lo n g th e g e n e r a l
Ghannel o f ev id e n c e p o i n t i n g to
the p re v a le n c e o f guidance p ro ­
gram s w hich a r e o r g a n i z e d and a c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d ,
and th e
v a r i o u s m ethods by w hich t h e t e a c h e r becomes a p a r t i c i p a n t
th e o rg an iz ed program .
c o n s id e re d w ere:
and t r a i n i n g
ers
(1 )
More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,
(3 )
(2)
in -se rv ic e tr a in in g of teach ­
th e m aintenan ce and use o f guidance r e ­
c o r d s by t e a c h e r s ;
(4)
i n home r o o m s ;
guidance
(6)
t h e a r e a s t o be
th e h ir in g of te a c h e rs because o f a b i l i t y
in g u id an c e w ork;
in guidance;
in
the te a c h e r as a co u n selo r;
in classro o m s;
(7)
(5 )
guidance
th e co o rd in at-
25
-ing o f t h e
g u id a n c e work o f v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s ,
o f a guidance
and
(8) t h e u se
sp e c ia list.
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d fro m s e l e c t e d
s c h o o l s by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e
secondary
and fro m s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l s
in g e n e r a l through a c o n s id e r a tio n o f su rv e y s o f guidance
p r a c tic e s a s w ell as r e p o r ts o f p ra c tic e s
in i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o ls .
The p r e s e n t s t u d y h a s b e e n o r g a n i z e d
a s t o p r e s e n t an a p p ro a c h to th e
tio n
problem o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a ­
in o rg a n iz e d program s o f g u id an c e.
in d icate d
in C hapter I ,
in such a f a s h io n
At t h e o u t s e t ,
as is
t h e r e was p r e s e n t e d a s t a t e m e n t o f
th e problem to g e th e r w ith a u t h o r i t a t i v e
b e l i e f s w hich p ro v id e
e v id e n c e t h a t th e problem under c o n s i d e r a ti o n m e r its t h i s
perhaps a d d itio n a l in v e s tig a tio n s .
F ollow ing t h i s ,
and
certain
l i t e r a t i m e d e a lin g b o th w ith s im ila r i n v e s ti g a t i o n s and the
s u b j e c t i v e a p p ro a c h to
t h e p r o b l e m was sum m arized b r i e f l y .
C h a p te r I I was s e t a s i d e
t o sh o w t h e
s t a t u s of guidance
o rg a n iz a tio n s in secondary schools throughout th e U n ited S ta te s .
P a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o g r a m s , was l a i d on
the
in c l u s io n o f the
lib ra ry
teach er
in v estig atio n
in th e o r g a n iz a tio n .
th e guidance p la n s o f n e a r ly f o u r te e n -
h undred se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls w ere c o n s id e r e d .
number o f s c h o o l s f e l l w i t h i n t h e
how ever,
tw en ty -o n e
In a d d it i o n t o the
By m e a n s o f
several
schools re c e iv e d
sin gle sch o o ls,
By f a r t h e g r e a t e r
surveys in d ic a te d ,
in d iv id u a l c o n sid era tio n .
the o rg a n iz a tio n s fo r g u id ­
26
ance in seven l a r g e
c i t y sy stem s were i n v e s t i g a t e d .
W hile t h e a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e
v isio n for teach er p a rtic ip a tio n
sid e ratio n
in t h i s
c o n stitu tes
Thus,
chapter,
i n them r e c e i v e
au th o rita tiv e
id ea l o rg an izatio n s
prim ary con­
judgm ent o f what
i s lik e w ise
o f im portance.
s u g g e s t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and e le m e n ts o f o r g a n i z a ­
tio n s are
in clu d ed .
in th e
The c h a p t e r i s s u m m a r i z e d b y i n d i c a t i n g
th e
tren d s
the
i n c l u s i o n o f the
pant
o f g u id a n c e p l a n s and p r o ­
in t h a t
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f guidance p r a c t i c e s and in
c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i ­
o rg an izatio n .
A t h i r d m ain s e c t i o n ,
C h apter I I I ,
was d e v o te d to a
more c o m p l e t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s p a r t
w ork.
T here was p r e s e n t e d h e r e t h e g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
means by w hich th e
tu re.
in guidance
te a c h e r is in clu d ed
Such m eans em b ra ce d t h e
te a c h e r s , and the
guidance
stru c­
h i r in g o f te a c h e rs w ith the
th o u g h t o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g and a b i l i t y
t r a i n i n g of
in the
in guidance,
in -serv ice
k eep in g of p u p il guidance r e ­
c o rd s and t h e i r u se by t e a c h e r s .
A nother phase o f guidance o r g a n iz a tio n t h a t
s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d i s i n some u s e
is
has re c e iv e d
t h e home r o o m .
The
p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e home r o o m f o r g u i d a n c e a n d t h e m a n n e r i n
w hich su c h s e r v i c e
C h a p te r IV.
manner th e
i s c a r r i e d out p ro v id e s the m a t e r i a l f o r
T his p a r t i c u l a r d i v i s i o n c o n s id e r s in a g e n e ra l
e s t a b l i s h i n g o f home r o o m s ,
p o i n t s o u t th e v a lu e and
27
l i m i t a t i o n s o f g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h home r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d
fin a lly ,
i n d i c a t e s th e e x t e n t to w hich s c h o o ls a re u s i n g th e
home r o o m f o r g u i d a n c e *
C hapter V p a r a l l e l s
the
p reced in g c h a p te r in d e a lin g
w i t h t h e c l a s s r o o m a s a m e d iu m t h r o u g h w h i c h g u i d a n c e
may b e p r o v i d e d *
serv ices
The c o n c e n s u s o f e d u c a t i o n w r i t e r s c o n c e r n ­
in g c la ssro o m guidance
i s given*
T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e t u r n s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h show
th e e x t e n t to w h ich ,
room i s
in the
schools in v e s tig a te d ,
th e c la s s ­
t h o u g h t o f a s a means to f u r t h e r g u id a n c e a c t i v i t y .
The s t a t u s o f t h e g u i d a n c e s p e c i a l i s t a n d h i s r e l a t i o n ­
ship
to members o f t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f
e r a t i o n o f C hapter V I.
th ere
form ed th e c h i e f c o n s id ­
In t h i s d iv is io n ,
i t w a s sh ow n t h a t
e x i s t s m any c o n c e p t s o f t h e d u t i e s o f g u i d a n c e s p e c i a l ­
ists,
Such d u t i e s w i t h
th eir
a t t e n d a n t e f f e c t on a pro g ram
i n v o l v i n g w ide t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w ere g i v e n .
A f i n a l c h a p t e r was a l l o c a t e d
in g c e r t a i n
of th is
f o r th e p u rp ose o f draw ­
c o n c l u s i o n s and m ak in g r e c o m m e n d a tio n s .
A p o rtio n
c h a p t e r was d e v o t e d to a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e v a l u a ­
t i o n o f g u i d a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s now i n e f f e c t .
w a s b a s e d on o p i n i o n s o f
f a l l i n g under the
T his e v a lu a tio n
the a d m in is tr a to r s o f th e
q u e s tio n n a ire phase of th e
schools
in v estig atio n .
CHAPTER I I
THE ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
C hapter I I h a s a s i t s
purpose th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f v a r­
io u s ty p e s o f guidance o r g a n iz a tio n s in o p e r a tio n
ary sch o o ls throughout th e U nited S ta te s .
in second­
The s c h o o l s h a v e
s e l e c t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f ma­
t e r i a l d e s c rib in g t h e i r program s.
The m a t e r i a l o f t h e c h a p t e r h a s b e e n d i v i d e d
sectio n s:
schools;
survey o f g e n e ra l guidance p r a c t i c e s
guidance program s in s p e c i f i c
in to th ree
in secondary
sch o o ls;
and t h e p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n by v a rio u s w r i t e r s o f s u g g e s tio n s f o r o r g a n iz a tio n .
The c h a p t e r i s t h e n s u m m a r i z e d .
SURVEYS OF GUIDANCE ORGANIZATIONS
I t has been p o in te d out in th e p re c e d in g c h a p te r t h a t
g u id a n c e a c t i v i t i e s m u st be o r g a n i z e d i f
charge
its
f u ll o b lig atio n s
to
the
school is to d i s ­
i t s p u p i l s an d s o c i e t y . n Such
o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l depend on a h o s t o f c ir c u m s ta n c e s such a s
the p h ilo so p h y o f th e
ad m in istratio n ,
v i e w p o i n t am ong m e m b e r s o f
and th e
the
the f a c u l t y ,
in c u lc a tio n of the
th e
size
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f guidance s p e c i a l i s t s .
of th e
school,
I n an e f f o r t
to
p r e s e n t a n o v e r v i e w o f c e r t a i n g u i d a n c e p r a c t i c e s , m any s u r ­
v e y s h a v e b e e n made t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i g h s c h o o l s o f t h e U n i t e d
29
S tates.
are
Some o f t h o s e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t
to
the p re s e n t
study
given.
S u rv e y by Koos and K e f a u v e r .
hensive
s u rv e y s from th e
One o f t h e m o s t c o m p r e ­
s t a n d p o i n t o f number o f s c h o o l s i n ­
v e s t i g a t e d was t h a t c o n d u c t e d b y Koos and K e f a u v e r .
D ata
w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m 3 36 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s a n d c o n c e r n e d among o t h e r t h i n g s ,
ance o r g a n iz a tio n
in e f f e c t in th ese
the presence of c e r ta in
a u v e r showed t h a t
th e ty p es of guid­
scho o ls.
In co n sid erin g
guidance f u n c t i o n a r i e s ,
t h e m ost f r e q u e n t
Koos and K e f ­
i n d iv id u a l in v o lv ed in
g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f a s p e c i a l n a t u r e w a s t h e home r o o m
teach er.
The home r o o m t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e v a i l e d
e ig h ty -e ig h t per cent of th e
c e n t o f t h e medium s i z e d ,
one p e r c e n t o f t h e
note
the
size of the
sm all s c h o o ls .
sp ect;
in s i x t y - s i x p e r
A nother f a c t o r w o rth y o f
sm all sc h o o l p r i n c i p a l a s a
a p o s itio n t h a t d im in ish es in frequency as
school in c re a s e s .
n early six ty -fiv e
schools,
a n d i n s l i g h t l y m ore t h a n t w e n t y -
is th e prev alen ce o f th e
guidance a d v is e r ,
larg e
in
per cent u tiliz e d
Of a l l . t h e
sm all sc h o o ls,
the p r i n c i p a l
o f t h e medium, o v e r f i f t y - f o u r p e r c e n t ;
in t h is r e ­
o f the
larg e,
tw en ty -n in e p e r c e n t ,
-^-Leonard V. K o o s a n d G r a y s o n N. K e f a u v e r , G u i d a n c e I n
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , (New Y o r k :
The M a c M i l l a n Co m pan y, 1932T™
p . 516.
30
The m o s t p o p u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n ­
a r i e s w e r e t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d home r o o m a d v i s e r s ,
p e r c e n t ) ; the p r i n c i p a l ,
v isers,
(fo rty -n in e
a dean o f g i r l s ,
per cen t);
(seventy
a n d home r o o m a d ­
and th e p r i n c i p a l o n l y
(fo rty -
one p e r c e n t ) .
I t w as shown, f u r t h e r ,
th a t th e
sc h o o l w orker engaged
i n some p h a s e o f g u i d a n c e who o u t n u m b e r s a l l o t h e r s w a s t h e
classro o m te a c h e r .
A lth o u g h Koos and K e f a u v e r c l a s s i f i e d
c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n tw o g r o u p s m e r e l y f o r c o n v e n i e n c e
d iscu ssio n ,
resp ects.
s u c h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n -m ig h t b e o f v a l u e
in
in o t h e r
I t w as s u g g e s t e d t h a t two t y p e s o f t e a c h e r g u i d a n c e
w o rk e r be c o n s i d e r e d :
( 1 ) t h e t e a c h e r who i s a p a r t t i m e
guidance fu n c tio n a ry
such a s p a r t tim e c o u n s e lo r o r a d v i s e r ;
and
(2)
t h e t e a c h e r who i s n o t a p a r t t i m e g u i d a n c e w o r k e r b u t
who d e a l s w i t h t h o s e g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e c l o s e l y
a s s o c ia te d w ith h i s classro o m te a c h in g .
Of th e f i r s t
num erous.
group,
t h e home r o o m t e a c h e r p r o v e d m o s t
The p r o p o r t i o n o f a n y o n e
school f a c u l ty engaged
i n home r o o m g u i d a n c e d e p e n d e d l a r g e l y u p o n t h e n u m b e r o f
p u p i l s f o r whom e a c h home r o o m t e a c h e r w a s r e s p o n s i b l e .
ever,
th ey say,
2Ib id .,
it
is
p . 589.
How­
t y p i c a l f o r m o re t h a n h a l f t h e e n t i r e
31
teach in g s t a f f
in the
larg er
sch o o ls to re n d e r t h i s ty p e o f
serv ice.
I n some s c h o o l s , t e a c h i n g w a s d o n e b y d e a n s o f b o y s a n d
d e a n s o f g i r l s who,
er.
i n many c a s e s ,
I n a few i n s t a n c e s ,
was a p a r t - t i m e
retain ed
the
i t was fo u n d t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l a l s o
teach er.
I n 'c o n n e c tio n w ith the
second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,
d is c o v e r e d t h a t a l l c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s have
resp o n sib ility .
grees,
rank o f te a c h ­
A lthough t h i s
i t was
some g u i d a n c e
v a r i e d w i d e l y i n k i n d and d e ­
one o f t h e m o s t o f t e n f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d was t h e
erin g of
sig n ific an t
i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p u p i l s and th e d e t e c t i o n
o f e v id e n c e s o f m alad ju stm en ts and d i s o r d e r s .
p u p il c o n tacts
in th e
g ath ­
The t e a c h e r -
classro o m s " a f f o r d a b a s i s o f judg­
m ent o f s t u d e n t ' s p e r s o n a l makeup t h a t
i s one o f t h e m ost
3
i n f o r m a t i v e t h a t we c a n o b t a i n f r o m a n y s o u r c e " .
On t h e b a ­
sis of th is
to th e
sectio n of th e ir
s u r v e y , K o o s a n d K e f a u v e r come
c o n clu sio n t h a t th e classro o m te a c h e r
ab le f a c to r
in e f f e c t i v e
guidance program s.
W i t h r e s p e c t t o home r o o m g u i d a n c e ,
c e n t of a l l
tiv ity .
i s an in d is p e n s ­
schools re p o rte d t h i s
six ty -sev en per
type o f o r g a n iz a tio n a l a c ­
Some o f t h e v a r i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e home
room s w ere g iv e n a s f o l l o w s :
ot
^Koos a n d K e f a u v e r ,
d isc ip lin e,
lo o .
c it.
six ty -n in e per cen t;
33
o v e rs ig h t o f s o c ia l conduct,
over s ix ty -fiv e
per cen t;
t y o f p u p i l work, n e a r l y s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t ;
guidance,
over six ty -o n e
tw e n ty -n in e p er c e n t . 4
per cent;
q u ali­
cu rricu lu m
v o c a tio n a l guidance, over
I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e s e
did not r e p r e ­
s e n t a l l t h e d u t i e s o f t h e home r o o m t e a c h e r s .
Survey by B e a v i s .
th a t resu lted
5
I n 1938, p r o c e d i n g s were i n s t i t u t e d
in a su rv e y o f the g u id an c e p r a c t i c e s
se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls in the U n ite d S t a t e s .
i n 533
The s u r v e y w a s u n d e r ­
ta k e n a t th e b e h e s t and under the s u p e r v is io n o f th e
E d u c a tio n , D epartm ent o f I n t e r i o r .
s u r v e y was p u t i n the
The a c t u a l h a n d l i n g o f t h e
h a n d s o f L e o n a r d V. K o o s a n d w a s c o m p o s e d
of th ree general p a rts ,
a g e n e ra l su rv e y o f guidance p r a c t i c e s ,
the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u idance program s in c i t y
and th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f guidance
m a n u s c r ip t o f the
o ffice of
sch o o l system s,
in in d iv id u a l s c h o o ls .
The
i n v e s t i g a t i o n was p r e p a r e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c ­
t i o n o f W i l l i a m C. R e a v i s who i n a d d i t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d
in the
survey.
The f o l l o w i n g su m m ary i n d i c a t e s t h e
f u n c t i o n a r i e s found in t h e
fo u r th s of a l l
4Ib id .,
v a rio u s guidance
schools in v e s tig a te d .
In over th re e -
sch o o ls the person c h ie f ly re sp o n sib le
fo r g uid­
p . 546*
^ W i l l i a m C. R e a v i s , " P r o g r a m s o f G u i d a n c e , " N a t i o n a l
S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 1 7 , M onograph No.
1 4 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. CTI U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f ­
f i c e , 19 33} 1 4 4 p p .
ance a c t i v i t y
in the
over o n e-h alf,
c a s e o f b o y s was th e p r i n c i p a l ;
he was r e s p o n s i b l e
in w ell
f o r guidance o f g i r l s .
The
a s s i s t a n t p r i n c i p a l u n d e r t o o k t h e g u i d a n c e o f b o y s JLn t h i r t y tw o p e r c e n t o f a l l
cent of a ll
s c h o o ls and o f g i r l s
sch o o ls.
in tw e n ty - s ix p e r
C o u n s e lo rs o r d e a n s gave g u id a n c e f o r
g irls
in tw enty-one p e r c e n t o f th e
fifty
per cen t of the
schools.
s c h o o ls ’ and f o r boys in
As m i g h t b e s u s p e c t e d ,
the
p r i n c i p a l w a s f o u n d t o be t h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t g u i d a n c e f u n c ­
tio n ary
less.
in the
In the
latio n ,
s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l , w i t h two h u n d r e d p u p i l s o r
large
school,
o v e r two t h o u s a n d i n p u p i l p o p u ­
t h e home r o o m a d v i s e r a n d t h e d e a n s o f b o y s a n d o f
g i r l s w ere m ost o f t e n fo u n d .
A guidance
in tw e n ty - e ig h t p e r c e n t o f the l a r g e
and s e v e n - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th e
s p e c i a l i s t was fo u n d
s c h o o l s and i n b u t two
sm all.
T h a t t h e home r o o m w a s d i s t i n c t l y a p r a c t i c e o f t h e
large
s c h o o l w a s shown b y t h e f a c t s
these
s c h o o l s h a d a home r o om p r o g r a m w h i l e
sific a tio n ,
o n ly o n e - h a l f had t h i s
th at
sev en -eig h th s of
in th e
sm all c l a s ­
type of o r g a n iz a tio n .
W ith r e s p e c t t o t h e u se o f t e a c h e r s a s a d v i s e r s ,
d a ta in d ic a te d t h a t about o n e - f i f t h o f the
hundred in p u p il p o p u la tio n u t i l i z e d
b u t o n e - t h i r t e e n t h o f the la r g e
th e
s c h o o l s b e lo w two
th e t e a c h e r a s such w h ile
sc h o o ls did
so.
R eavis is of
o p i n i o n t h a t an a s s u m p tio n can be drawn fro m t h e s e
in d ic atin g
th at
there
is
the
facts
a l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id a n c e ac
34
tiv ity
am ong t h e
sm all
schools.
6
S u r v e y b y Chen a n d P r o c t o r .
7
In 1937,
T i n g H s u a n Chen
a n d W i l l i a m P r o c t o r c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y among t h e
secondary
sch o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia concerning s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c ts o f g u id ­
ance p r a c t i c e s .
Those p r a c t i c e s w h ich a r e p e r t i n e n t
p re s e n t study a re here re c o rd e d .
of f u ll
schools u t i l i z e d
f i f t y - s i x p er cen t o f the
be i n t h e h a n d s o f
six per c en t of the
in f o r t y - f i v e
tim e co u n -
sta te
hav in g
i t w a s show n t h e r e
T his re p re s e n te d
9
secondary sch o o ls in C a lif o r n ia .
T he a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e
en p e r c e n t o f th e
a f u ll or p art
or less*
w e r e no c o u n s e l o r s who w e r e n a m e d a s
sh ow n t o
showed t h a t f o r t y - f o u r
th e £78 h ig h s c h o o l s o f th e
p u p il p o p u latio n s of f o r ty -f iv e
the
A s tu d y o f t h e em ploym ent
tim e o r p a r t tim e c o u n s e l o r s
per cent of a l l the
8
s e lo r or both.
In
to
schools;
the
such.
g u id a n c e f u n c t i o n was
school p rin c ip a l in f i f t y - s e v ­
b y home r o o m t e a c h e r s
sch o o ls;
p e r cen t o f the
in f o r t y -
and by v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s and d e a n s
schools.
C he n a n d P r o c t o r d r a w
6I b i d . , p . 13.
7
T i n g H s u a n Chen a n d W i l l i a m M. P r o c t o r , "A S u r v e y o f
G u i d a n c e P r a c t i c e s i n C a l i f o r n i a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , ’1 H e p o r t o f
t h e C om m ittees on C o u n s e lin g P r a c t i c e s . W este rn A s s o c i a t i o n o f
C o lle g e s and S econ d ary S c h o o ls , 1 9 3 7 ).
8
.
I b i d ., p. 13.
9I b i d . , p . 1 4 .
35
th e w a ran ted assu m p tio n t h a t m ost o f th e g u id an ce g iv en in
s c h o o l s n o t e m p l o y i n g a c o u n s e l o r w as a d m i n i s t e r e d by p r i n c ip a ls,
v ice -p rin c ip a ls,
d e a n s , a n d home r o o m t e a c h e r s .
10
Survey by W i l l i a m s I n i n v e s t i g a t i n g g u id a n c e p r a c ­
tic e s
in se lec te d
secondary schools in C a lif o r n ia ,
d isc o v e re d in fo rm a tio n r e l a t i n g to
g an izatio n .
W illiam s
t h e t y p e and e x t e n t o f o r ­
I n f o u r t e e n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i t was fo u n d t h e r e
w e re no f u l l - t i m e
c o u n s e lo r s even though m ost o f
th ese
schools
had a p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n o f n e a r l y one th o u s a n d , w i t h one o v e r
f i f t e e n hundred.
v e stig a te d ,
dred p u p ils .
I n one o f t h e
seven sen io r high sch o o ls in ­
one f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l o r
served over n in e te e n hun­
I n a t h r e e y e a r h i g h s c h o o l h a v i n g n e a r l y two
th o u s a n d p u p i l s t h e r e w ere em ployed t h r e e f u l l - t i m e
ors.
th e
In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
sta tu s of teach er,
counsel­
in sta n c e , each counselor also
teach in g fiv e
had
classes
in o r ie n ta tio n .
12
Two p e r i o d s p e r d a y w e r e s e t a s i d e f o r c o u n s e l i n g .
Many d i f f e r e n t m a n n e r s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s
w ere i n d i c a t e d i n th e s u r v e y .
^ C h e n and P r o c t o r ,
In co n n ectio n w ith th e p a r t i c u ­
lo c. c i t .
- ^ D o n a l d T u r n e y W i l l i a m s , "Some V a l u e s a n d L i m i t a t i o n s
o f G uidance P ro g ram s i n Seven S e l e c t e d S e c o n d ary S c h o o l System s
i n S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s T h e s i s , The U n i ­
v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , 1937)
12I b i d . , p .
69.
36
la r re sp o n sib ilitie s,
i t was r e c o r d e d t h a t m ost o f t h e
ex p ected te a c h e rs to arouse
tu d es in t h e i r p u p ils ,
itie s,
ers*
jec ts,
schools
i n t e r e s t and d e v e lo p r i g h t a t t i ­
to e n c o u ra g e and d e v e lo p s p e c i a l
a b il­
a n d t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h c o u n s e l o r s a n d home r o o m t e a c h ­
O th er d u t i e s o f c la ss ro o m t e a c h e r s w ere t o a rr a n g e p r o ­
to
give rem e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n
13
to le a d a clu b o r a c t iv i t y *
in s u b j e c t h a n d ic a p s , and
Home r o o m a c t i v i t y w a s f o u n d i n m any s c h o o l s *
p h a ses of guidance a s o r i e n t a t i o n
c itizen sh ip ,
lead ersh ip ,
in school l i f e ,
and p e r s o n a l i ty ,
Such
develop
and c o o p e r a t e w i t h
c o u n s e l o r s a n d s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s w e r e g i v e n a s some o f t h e m o r e
i m p o r t a n t w o r k .'* ’4
A su rv ey by F o x .
v estig atio n
15
The s u r v e y b y F o x r e p r e s e n t s a n i n ­
i n w h i c h d a t a w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m 129 h i g h s c h o o l s
in C a lifo rn ia .
T hat d a ta m ost s i g n i f i c a n t to
the p re s e n t
s tu d y d e a l t w ith th e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s e i t h e r a s such
o r a s home r o o m a d v i s e r s o r c o u n s e l o r s *
f iv e p e r c e n t o f the
13I b i d . ,
p.
14I b l d . .
p . 71
schools u t il i z e d
Fox fo u n d t h a t f i f t y -
t h e home r o o m .
The c h i e f
70
^John
F o x , "A S t u d y o f C e r t a i n A s p e c t s o f t h e P u p i l
G uidance Program s i n C a l i f o r n i a H igh S c h o o l s , " (u n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 2 4 )
37
o b lig a tio n s o f the
t e a c h e r s i n t h e g u id a n c e a r e a were t o i n ­
fo rm s t u d e n t s a b o u t t h e c u r r i c u l a and s c h o o l ,
about counseling s e rv ic e s ,
g rad u atio n req u irem en ts,
quirem ents,
and t o
to
to
discu ss f a ilu r e s ,
in f o r m them
to d isc u ss
to
info rm s tu d e n ts about c o lle g e r e 16
inform s tu d e n ts co n cern in g o c c u p a tio n s .
A ll t e a c h e r s , Fox r e p o r t s , have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
n e c tio n w ith th e guidance program .
t e a c h e r s m ost o f t e n
tio n ,
to
in con­
The d u t i e s o f c l a s s r o o m
i n d i c a t e d was t o g iv e v o c a t i o n a l in f o r m a ­
give achievem ent t e s t s ,
sc h o o l and i t s
cu rric u la ,
to g iv e in fo rm a tio n abou t the
17
and t o d i s c u s s f a i l u r e s .
ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE IN CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS
T h is s e c tio n i s d ev o ted to a c o n s id e r a tio n o f the o r ­
g a n iz a tio n o f guidance p r a c t i c e s
se v e ra l secondary sc h o o ls.
is
in d icated ,
in c i t y
system s in v o lv in g
A lthough th e g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n
th e p a r t i c u l a r em phasis i s
concerned w ith the
p a r t p la y e d by th e t e a c h e r .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f guidance
G uidance in th e
s c h o o l s o f P r o v i d e n c e h a s been* made an i n t e ­
16X b id ., p . 8 2 .
^ Loc. C it .
18
i n P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d .
Op. c i t . .
pp. 59-71.
18
38
g r a l p a r t of the
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c u r r ic u lu m o f th e
The p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s i s o n t h e
s u p p ly in g o f the d e f ic ie n c y
o c c a sio n e d by th e g e n e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
fare.
The a s s i s t a n t
su p erin ten d en t
c o o r d in a to r o f the program .
system *
f o r the p u p il w el­
in each sc h o o l s e rv e s as
He a l s o
a s s i s t s p r i n c i p a l s and
c o u n s e lo rs in guidance a c t i v i t i e s .
E a c h s c h o o l h a s s i x c o u n s e l o r s t o whom i s g i v e n t h e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l i n g and g u i d i n g th e
in d iv id u al p u p il.
T h e s e c o u n s e l o r s a r e c h o s e n f r o m am on g t h e t e a c h e r s .
They
a s s u m e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g a n d h a v e
the r a tin g s of te a c h e r s .
are c la s s a d v ise rs,
who a s s i s t
In a d d itio n ,
o th e r guidance w orkers
home r o o m t e a c h e r s ,
in th e guidance
serv ice.
and s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s
C la s s a d v is e r s have the
fo llo w in g d u ty :
1.
P e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s and r e s e a r c h
f e r e n c e s and a d j u s t m e n t s .
in
in d iv id u a l d i f ­
2.
I n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l i n g and a d j u s t m e n t .
3.
O rien ta tio n in s tru c tio n —e d u ca tio n al,
and s o c i a l p ro b le m s.
4.
Follow -up o f a l l p u p i l s .
5.
U t i l i z a t i o n o f and c o o p e ra tio n w ith a l l
serv ices.
Home r o o m t e a c h e r s a r e h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e
v o catio n al
sp ecial
f o r the fo llo w ­
ing d u tie s :
1*
H elp fu l,
frien d ly ,
2.
O rien ta tio n
personal in te re s t
in school l i f e
in each p u p il.
and r o u t i n e .
39
3.
R ecords,
4.
D evelop sc h o o l c i t i z e n s h i p ,
a lity .
5.
C o o p e ra te w i t h a d v i s e r s and s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s .
D u ties o f th e
liste d
rep o rts,
and a t t e n d a n c e .
lead ersh ip ,
s u b je c t te a c h e r s re g a rd in g guidance a re
a s below :
1.
A rouse
i n t e r e s t and d e v e lo p r i g h t a t t i t u d e s .
2.
S tre s s o ccu p atio n al
3.
A rrange t r y o u t p r o j e c t s
4.
E ncourage and d e v elo p s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s .
5.
R em edial i n s t r u c t i o n
6.
C o o p e r a t e w i t h a d v i s e r s a n d home r o o m t e a c h e r s .
in fo rm atio n .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f guidance
gram s have been in e f f e c t
in th e
in th e
form ed.
in C hicago.
in the
20
G uidance p r o ­
s u c h a c t i v i t i e s was
s e e m s t o be t h e t h i r t y -
t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s and
o ffic e o f th e bureau.
These a d v i s e r s a re
sp e c ia lists
in v o c a t io n a l guidance and, w orking u n d er th e p r i n c i p a l ,
iz e th e p la n o f guidance f o r each s c h o o l.
19X b id .,
p. 70.
20I b i d . ,
p . 35-56.
19
s c h o o l s o f C hicago s i n c e
The c h i e f g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n a r y
ad v isers d is trib u te d
su b ject.
in su b je c t h an d ic ap s.
19 1 0 w h e n a b u r e a u f o r t h e f u r t h e r i n g o f
th ree
and p e r s o n ­
organ­
A lth o u g h th e work
40
o f th e a d v i s e r s d i f f e r from s c h o o l to
help to o r ie n t p u p ils ,
c la ssific a tio n
ad m in ister t e s t s ,
of p u p ils*
terv iew in g a ls o .
school,
in g e n e ra l th ey
and a s s i s t
in the
The a d v i s e r d o e s much p e r s o n a l i n ­
I n one i n s t a n c e ,
a d v i s e r gave group g u id an c e
The r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s
i t was p o i n t e d o u t ,
the
through th e E n g lish c l a s s e s .
in a l l
schools a s s is te d th e g u id ­
ance program in g iv in g o c c u p a tio n a l and v o c a t i o n a l - i n s t r u c ­
tio n .
A n o th er means b y .w h ic h th e t e a c h e r i s o f g r e a t h e lp i s
in p ro v id in g u s e f u l in fo rm a tio n co n cern in g each p u p il.
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f G uidance
th a t the
sc h o o ls o f B oston i n s t i t u t e d
gram s f o r p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e
in 1910,
i n B o s t o n . 21 i t
th e p la n a t the
is
one o f th e e a r l i e s t p r o ­
in the U n ited S t a t e s .
tim e was p r i m a r i l y
g iv in g v o c a tio n a l g uidance.
thou ght
The e n t i r e
s u p e rv isio n o f a d ir e c to r o f guidance.
for
O rganized
the p u rp o se o f
program i s under th e
F u n ctio n in g under h is
d i r e c t i o n a r e many i n s t r u c t o r s a n d a s s i s t a n t s who s e r v e
g iv in g in te rv ie w s,
in stru ctio n
teach ers carry in g a fu ll-tim e
in o c c u p a tio n s ,
in
a n d who a r e
t e a c h i n g l o a d b u t who a r e . r e ­
l e a s e d fro m tim e t o tim e f o r c o u n s e l i n g .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f guidance
in P i t t s b u r g .
22
Under th e
21I b i d . . pp. 27-31.
OP
^ L e s t e r K. Ade, " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r D e v e lo p in g G u id a n ce
P r a c t i c e s in Secondary S c h o o l s ,” D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c ­
tio n (H arrisb u rg :
1939) p . 94.
P i t t s b u r g p lan o f o rg a n iz a tio n fo r guidance,
i s a d m in iste re d and su p e rv ise d by th e
the e n t i r e
asso ciate
su p erin ten d en t.
A d i r e c t o r o f guidance c o o rd in a te s th e a c t i v i t y
sch o o ls.
W ith in the
p articu lar
school,
the
in v a rio u s
p rin c ip a l is r e ­
s p o n s ib le f o r th e o p e r a tio n o f th e guidance program .
v ice -p rin e ip a l
i s a c o u n s e l o r who d i r e c t s
plan
H is
th e p ro g ram and c o ­
o r d i n a t e s i t on a lo w e r l e v e l th a n t h a t o f t h e d i r e c t o r o f
guidance.
The s y s t e m e m p l o y s home r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d s u b j e c t
m atter teach ers
b u tio n s
in guidance a c t i v i t y .
s p e c i f i c a l l y f r o m h i s own f i e l d .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f guidance
un d er the
im m ediate
ant p rin cip al,
sonage
are
to
The l a t t e r make c o n t r i ­
in the
several
the
in M in n eap o lis.
23
W orking
s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l and a s s i s t ­
school co u n selo r
i s the c h i e f guidance p e r ­
sc h o o ls of M in n eap o lis.
I n a d d i t i o n t o him t h e r e
s p e c i a l t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n t s whose p r i m a r y d u t y
a d v is e and w ork w i t h a l l
is
c l a s s r o o m a n d home r o o m t e a c h e r s
in m a tte rs o f g u id an ce.
O rgan iz a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e i n Cine i n n a t i .
guidance
23
in the
C in cin n ati
Koos and K e fa u v e r*
24
<phe s t a f f
for
sc h o o ls c o n s i s t s o f a d i r e c t o r and
op. c i t . ,
p.
42
seven c o u n s e lo r s in a d d i t i o n t o c l e r i c a l kelp *
o r s spend o n e - h a l f o f t h e i r
ual p u p ils, o n e-fo u rteen th
one-seventh
in re se a rc h ,
t im e
The c o u n s e l ­
in c o n fe rrin g w ith
in d iv id ­
in te a c h in g c la s s e s in o c c u p a tio n s ,
and t h e ' re m a in in g tw o - s e v e n th s in
c o n fe rrin g w ith te a c h e rs,
the
p r i n c i p a l , and o th e r guidance
w orkers.
Of t h e s c h o o l s o f C i n c i n n a t i ,
fo r ex p erim en tatio n
areas:
in g u id an ce.
an u n d e rs ta n d in g o f the
s e v e r a l have been chosen
T his
i s t o b e b a s e d o n two
i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . , a n d a know­
led g e o f th e w o rld ’s o ccu p atio n s*
O r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id a n c e i n M ilwaukee .
fo rm atio n of
sp ecific
25
a L if e A d v isem en t B u re au m arked th e
guidance p r a c t i c e s
in M ilw aukee.
in 1928, the
b eg in n in g o f
The f i r s t
serv ices
w ere c o n f i n e d to t h e
senio r
e m p h a sis was s h i f t e d
t o f r e s h m e n i n o r d e r t h a t many p r o b l e m s
a p p a r e n t among t h e
c la s s e s in each school but th e
s e n i o r s m ig h t be p r e v e n t e d .
C h ie f a d v i s e r s assume d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
program in th e
in d iv id u a l sch o o l.
s i s t a n t a d v i s e r s who a r e t e a c h e r s .
He h a s f i v e o r s i x a s ­
These a s s i s t a n t s
are
chos­
e n f r o m among t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f b u t u n t i l t h e y h a v e p r o v e d
th eir a b ility
25
in g u id a n c e work,
I b i d . , pp. 84-89.
th e y a re n o t r e l e a s e d from any
te a c h in g du ty .
gu id an ce.
A ll te a c h e rs p a r tic ip a te
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y tr u e
o c c u p a tio n s c la s s e s and th e E n g lish
p o rtio n of the
th a t of R eavis,
te a c h e rs of the
SPE CIFIC SCHOOLS
The s c h o o l s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s
o rg an izatio n ,
o f the
some f o r m o f
c la sses.
ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE IN
size,
in
sectio n
vary g r e a tly
and g e o g ra p h ic a l l o c a ti o n .
h e r e to f o r e m entioned,
s c h o o l s com ing u n d e r th e P u b l i c
P ro ject
The m a j o r
i n f o r m a tio n h a s been ta k e n from fo u r r e p o r t s ,
th a t o f th e E d u catio n ­
a l R e c o rd s B u re au w hich r e c o r d s th e c o n d i t i o n s
a tin g
in
in the
cooper­
School D em o n stratio n
in E d u c a tio n a l G uidance, th e r e c o r d s o f th e c o o p e r a t­
ing sch o o ls in C a lif o r n ia ,
and a r e p o r t o f g u id an c e p r a c t i c e s
in c e r t a i n high sc h o o ls in the
ad d itio n ,
s ta te o f P en n sy lv an ia.
s e v e r a l’ r e p o r ts of in d iv id u a l schools are
For convenience,
the
guidance has been d iv id e d
a p p e a r s to be t h e
c o n sid e ra tio n o f the
in to fiv e
c h ie f fe a tu re s of
guidance o r g a n i z a t i o n ;
group th re e
w hich t e a c h e r s o f " b a s ic
and g r o u p f o u r ,
those
program s o f
the program .
Group one
p art as o f f i­
as the
fo cal p o in t
p r e s e n ts program s o f sc h o o ls
c o u rs e s ” c a r r y the
schools
what
g r o u p two c o n s i d e r s s c h o o l s
i n w h i c h t h e home r o o m h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d
o f the program ;
in clu d ed .
s e c tio n s acco rd in g to
i n c l u d e s s c h o o l s whose t e a c h e r s t a k e a d e f i n i t e
c e rs in th e
In
in
burden o f guidance
in w hich, b e ca u se o f l i m i t e d
44
fa c ilitie s,
ance;
th ere
group f i v e
has been i n s t i t u t e d
program s o f group g u id ­
c o n ta in s schools not c la s s if i e d .
It
is not
t o be assum ed t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e above g u id a n c e f u n c ­
t i o n a r i e s and t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e c l u d e th e e x i s t e n c e o f
o th ers,
Most o f t h e s c h o o l s e m p lo y e d two o r more a c t i v e
fu n c tio n a rie s ex clu siv e
o f th e a d m in is tra tiv e
s t a f f and o f te n
com bined s e v e r a l t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .
USE OF TEACHERS AS GUIDANCE OFFICIALS
I t w ill
be s e e n i n t h i s
because o f a b i l i t y
th is
d iv isio n th a t tea ch e rs, u su ally
i n h a n d l i n g p e r s o n n e l work and i n t e r e s t
in
phase o f e d u c a tio n , have been a p p o in te d a s c o u n s e lo r s ,
a d v i s e r s , members o f g u id a n c e c o m m i tt e e s , and p r i n c i p a l s o f
classes.
J o h n H . F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c H i g h S c h o o 1 . L o s A n g e la s .
The g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m a t
t h i s h ig h s c h o o l f u n c tio n s under the
s u p e r v is io n o f a guidance co m m ittee.
com m ittee
the
c o n sists of th e
fu ll-tim e
co u n selo r,
The p e r s o n n e l o f t h i s
r e g i s t r a r who s e r v e s a s c h a i r m a n ,
the b o y s ’ v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ,
v ic e - p r in c ip a l, six p a rt-tim e counselors,
PA
and the
the
g irls’
26
lib ra ria n .
*
R a l p h W. J e s s o n , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e G u i d a n c e P r o ­
gram in a L arg e C i t y S e n io r H igh S c h o o l ," ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ) p . 3 1 .
45
The c h a i r m a n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
the
"m ac h in e ry " o f the
lic ity ,
etc*
program , w ith p r o c e d u r e s , fo rm s,
The c o u n s e l o r s do m o s t o f t h e
p rogram m ing f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s .
p r im a r ily w ith th e
pub­
in te rv ie w in g and
The v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s d e a l
s o c i a l and m o ra l a d ju s tm e n t o f p u p i l s .
The c o u n s e l i n g
staff
s how n s u p e r i o r
sta tu s
i s c o m p o s e d l a r g e l y o f t e a c h e r s who h a v e
in a t t i t u d e s ,
p o ise,
and s c h o l a s t i c
a-
b i l i t y . 27
U n i v e r s i t y High Schoo1 and C lare m o n t J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l *
O akland* C a l i f o r n i a *
The e n t i r e
s c h o o l s h a s grown o u t o f f i v e
g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m o f t h e s e two
guidance areas*
a re concerned w ith th e p u p il a s an e n t i t y
P rim a rily they
b u t more p a r t i c u l a r ­
l y w i t h th e m anner i n w h ic h he c h o o s e s h i s o b j e c t i v e s ,
w h i c h he d e c i d e s o n t h e m e t h o d s o f r e a c h i n g t h o s e
achieves perso n al s t a b i l i t y
h ib its
a b ility
u n fo ld ,
n in g.
tie s,
28
in
o b jectiv es,
t h r o u g h hu m an r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,
ex­
in ~ e v a lu a tin g and r e e v a l u a t i n g as e x p e r ie n c e s
and i n w hich he d e v e lo p s m eth o d s f o r f u t u r e p l a n More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,
the p la n seeks to p re v e n t d i f f i c u l ­
rem edy e x i s t i n g m a l a d j u s t m e n t s ,
2 7 I b i d *, p .
a d ju s t to unchangeable
34.
^ M a r i o n Brown, "The G u id a n c e a n d H e a l t h P r o g r a m s a t
U n i v e r s i t y H igh S c h o o l and C larem o n t J u n i o r H i g h ," U n i v e r s i t y
H igh S c h o o l J o u r n a l * 1 9 :7 9 , F e b r u a r y , 1941
P r in
46
B oys’ V ic e P r in . S o c ia l,
Moral Guidance
Prob. o f Boys*
G ir ls ’ V ic e P r in . S o c ia l,
Moral Guidance
Prob. o f G ir ls
R e g is tr a r
A ttendance Problems
Guidance Chairman
Guidance Committee
Boy’ s
V ic e -P r in
G ir l* s
V ic e -P r in
P u ll Time
C ounselor
L ib ra ria n
S p e c ia l A gen cies
Student Body
O rg a n isa tio n s
A ssem b lies
R ecords
R esearch
Home Room
Guid* Proced.
A ll Classroom Teachers
Home Room Teachers
Each
Boy and G irl
An In d iv id u a l Case Problem
FIGURE 1
GUIDANCE PROGRAM OF
JOHN H. FRANCIS POLYTECHNIC HIGH SCHOOL
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
co n d itio n s,
a d a p t c o n d i t i o n s to m eet n e e d s and p u r p o s e s ,
provide f o r a d e s ira b le
grow th o f a b i l i t i e s
and
and i n t e r e s t s *
The p r o g r a m c e n t e r s a r o u n d a t e a c h e r - a d v i s e r *
29
E very
p u p i l i s a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n a r i e s who a r e g e n e r ­
a l c o u n s e l o r s r a t h e r th a n h aving s p e c i a l i z e d know ledge
one f i e l d .
In a d d itio n to th e se t e a c h e r - a d v i s e r s ,
e x p e r t s i n t h e more t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t o f g u i d a n c e
testin g
and p la c e m e n t.
s e rv e s to
The c o u n s e l o r ,
in any
th e re are
as h e a lth ,
or teach er-ad v iser,
co o rd in ate a l l m a tte rs a ffe c tin g
the w e lfa re o f any
p u p i l r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e r e t h o s e m a t t e r s may e x i s t w i t h i n t h e
sch o o l.
The g e n e r a l p r o g r a m i s u n d e r t h e
o f t h e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l who a l s o
g irls;
im m ediate s u p e r v i s i o n
assum es th e
p o s itio n o f dean o f
a n o th e r v i c e - p r in c ip a l se rv e s a s dean o f boys.
m a j o r p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l i n g c a r r i e d on i s
a g r o u p o f c o u n s e l o r s who a r e t e a c h e r s .
from o n e - t h i r d o f t h e i r
vide f o r
The
done b y
They, a r e r e l e a s e d
teach in g a c t i v i t i e s .
in tim ate p u p il-te a c h e r r e la tio n s h i p s ,
In o rd e r to p ro ­
the
same c o u n ­
s e l o r c o n tin u e s w ith h i s group from y e a r to y e a r .
C ounselors
do no e x t r a - c l a s s a c t i v i t y o t h e r t h a n
to g u id an c e.
M eetings f o r th e s e
th at re la te d
c o u n s e lo r s a re h e ld w eekly to
29I b i a . . p . 8 0.
c o o rd in ate
48
t h e r e s p e c t i v e work o f e a c h w i t h th e o t h e r .
chairm an o f th e t e a c h e r s
T h ey a l s o a c t a s
in t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r g ra d e s .
tiv e
r e c o r d s a re k e p t w hich a re a v a i l a b l e
30
w e ll a s guidance o f f i c i a l s .
to a l l
C u m u la ­
teach ers as
P I a i n f i e I d H i g h S c h o o l , P l a i n f i e l d , New J e r s e y . ■The
p rim a ry em p h asis in th e g u id an ce program o f t h i s
on th e t e a c h e r .
encouraged to
school r e s ts
Through s t a f f m e e tin g s h e l d m o n th ly ,
stu d y the
n iq u es o f guidance.
s c h o o l , a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h ­
O u t o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s h a v e come s e v e r a l
p r in c ip le s concerning th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the
w ith re fe re n c e to
the f i r s t
g uidance.
Among t h e s e
te a c h e rs in g u id an c e,
th e
ap p ro p riate
th e sch o o l,
th at
it
(2}
the
p rin c ip a l fun ction of
a id e d by s p e c i a l i z e d g u id a n c e
d i s t r ib u t i o n o f p u p ils to
needs of th e
(1)
"learn " h is p u p ils
serv ices,
a c tiv itie s of
and th e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e work o f t h e
f its 'th e
teach ers
p rin c ip le s are:
o b lig a tio n o f th e te a c h e r is to
so g u i d a n c e c a n b e i n t e l l i g e n t ;
is
he i s
in d iv id u al p u p il;
s c h o o l so
(3)
guidance
c o n s i s t s o f le a d in g th e p u p il to co n ceiv e o f w o rth w h ile ob­
j e c t i v e s and o f h e l p i n g him a c h i e v e
The s p e c i a l i z e d
fiv e
c o u n s e l o r s who a r e
30Ib ict.,
p. 37.
serv ices
th o se o b je c tiv e s .
in guidance offered- in c lu d e
teach ers.
T h e y t e a c h tw o c l a s s e s a n d
49
a r e r e l e a s e d t h e r e m a in d e r of t h e d ay f o r c o u n s e l i n g .
co u n selo r does fu ll-tim e
A six th
work w i t h m e a su re m e n t a n d t h e m a in ­
tenance o f p e rso n n el re c o r d s .
O ther s e r v ic e s o f th e
em brace a t e s t i n g p ro g ram ,
i n s t a l l a t i o n and m ain ten an ce
the
o f a cum ulative re c o rd o f each p u p il,
fu ll-tim e
school
a v is itin g teacher,
p la c e m e n t and f o llo w - u p f u n c t i o n a r y ,
a
and a p a r t tim e
dean o f b o y s . ^
M e c h a n i c A r t s H i g h Schoo_l, B o s t o n .
ture
of t h i s high sc h o o l,
v o c a tio n a l g uidance.
a l guidance
the
Because o f th e n a ­
g u i d a n c e e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on
The d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r v o c a t i o n ­
i s giv en to
a v o catio n al
i n s t r u c t o r who i s r e ­
le a s e d from c la ssro o m te a c h in g d u ty .
W orking on a f u l l - t i m e
b asis,
he p r o v i d e s m a t e r i a l and a i d t o a b o u t t w e n ty t e a c h e r s
in the
so c ia l stu d ie s courses.
two r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s
co u n selin g .
In th e
spend f i v e
seco n d and t h i r d
years
p e r i o d s p e r week in i n d i v i d u a l
T h e s e t e a c h e r s h a v e sh o w n a p t i t u d e
in c o u n se lin g
and have ta k e n c o u rs e s in v o c a tio n a l g u id a n c e .
La S a l l e - P e r u T ow nship H igh S c h o o l , 1 1 1 i n o i s .
t o t a l p u p il enrolm ent o f t h i s
w h ic h 1250 a r e
31
school
in the f o u r y e a r high
Op. c i t . ,
p.
52X b id . . p. 36.
20.
is f if te e n
The
hundred*of
s c h o o l a n d two h u n d r e d
50
fifty
in the
ju n io r c o lle g e .
g a n i z a t i o n and f u r t h e r a n c e
placed
th is
er.
or­
o f guidance a c t i v i t y h a s been
in a B ureau o f E d u c a tio n a l C ounsel.
The p e r s o n n e l o f
b u r e a u c o n s i s t s o f a d i r e c t o r and two a s s i s t a n t s a l l
whom a r e
aries
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
train ed p sy ch iatric
s o c ia l w orkers.
of
These f u n c t i o n ­
a re c la s s e d a s c o u n s e lo r s and a l l have the ra n k o f te a c h ­
The d i r e c t o r ,
tra tiv e
how ever,
is
a l s o a m em b e r o f t h e a d m i n i s ­
s t a f f o f the s c h o o l.
A lthough group guidan ce u s u a l l y ta k e s
th e form o f
t a l k s by t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m ,
c la sse s o ften
dev ote p e rio d s to d is c u s s io n o f s u b je c ts r e l a t e d
n e l w ork.
to p e r s o n -
33
USE OF HOME ROOM AS FOCAL POINT
A lth ou g h th e
cred ited
to
home r o o m p l a n o f g u i d a n c e h a s b e e n d i s ­
some d e g r e e
a n d m any s c h o o l s h a v e d i s c o n t i n u e d
t h i s type of o r g a n iz a tio n ,
n e v e r t h e l e s s the
c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s c h o o l s .
In most o f th e
t e r m home r o o m h a s b e e n a p p l i e d w h i l e
m eaning v i r t u a l l y
E llio t
th e
plan e x is ts
same t h i n g a r e
sch o o ls,
in o t h e r s ,
the
v a rio u s term s
in e v id e n ce .
J u n i o r High S c h o o l , P a s a d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a .
33Ib id . , p.
in a
34
A
127-134.
3 ^ T o l h u r s t , M i l d r e d G l e e , "An A n a l y s i s o f G u i d a n c e P r o b l e m s D i s c o v e r e d T h r o u g h a P e r s o n n e l S t u d y o f One H u n d r e d E i g h t y
tw o E i g h t h G r a d e P u p i l s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y of S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 4 5 .
51
g u id a n c e p ro g ra m w h ic h seem s to a f f o r d o p p o r t u n i t i e s
a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h e aim s o f g u id a n c e s e r v i c e
E l l i o t J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l i n P a s a d e n a ,
is th at
C a lifo rn ia .
for
the
of th e
The p r e ­
s e n t p l a n i s t h e r e s u l t o f many y e a r s o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d
r e p r e s e n t s t h e com bined e f f o r t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t e a c h ­
in g s t a f f
to e s t a b l i s h
The f i r s t
an ad eq u ate gu id an ce program .
attem p t a t o rg a n iz a tio n
l i s h m e n t o f home r o o m s .
However, t h e r e s u l t s
t h i s t y p e o f p l a n seemed q u e s t i o n a b l e .
due t o t h e
fact
t h a t the
in v o lv e d the
estab ­
o b ta in e d from
T h i s may h a v e b e e n
s c h o o l w a s new a n d t h a t
n o t e q u i p p e d h o c a r r y o n home r o o m a c t i v i t i e s .
t e a c h e r s were
In 1935, a
r e o r g a n iz a tio n o f guidance a c t i v i t y b ro u g h t about th e fo llo w ­
in g changes;
t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m "home r o o m " w a s d i s c o n t i n u e d
and " c o n f e r e n c e p e r i o d " was s u b s t i t u t e d
t e a c h e r became t h e c o n f e r e n c e
was l e n g t h e n e d a n d p l a c e d
teach er;
it;
the
home r o o m
the conference p e rio d
in the m iddle o f th e fo re n o o n ;
number o f t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g
d e c re a s e d from t h i r t y - t w o
for
the
i n t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m was
to 's ix te e n ;
conference te a c h e rs tau g h t th e p u p ils
and w henever p o s s i b l e ,
in t h e i r
conference p e r­
iods in o th e r c la s s e s .
The 1 9 3 5 p r o g r a m r e c o g n i z e d t h e
o f c lu b s in guidance a c t i v i t y .
ferences a lte rn a te d ,
th at
is,
In th is
im portance and p la c e
p lan ,
c lu b s and con­
c l u b s were h e l d d u r i n g t h e f o r e -
52
n o o n p e r i o d on Mondays and T h u r s d a y s w h i l e c o n f e r e n c e s w e re
h e l d on T u esd ay and F r i d a y ,
W ednesdays a r e d e v o te d to a s ­
sem b lies.
I n 1936 s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t
program .
D uring t h i s y e a r
c h a n g e s w e r e made i n t h e
the p o s i t i o n o f th e c o n fe r e n c e
t e a c h e r b e c a m e e v e n m o re i m p o r t a n t .
p u p ils f o r a perio d of fo u r y e a rs.
To h i m w e r e a s s i g n e d
Each grad e
l e v e l was d i ­
v id e d i n t o e i g h t c o n fe re n c e g ro u p s each o f w hich m eet tw ic e
w e e k l y f o r two f i f t y m in u t e p e r i o d s .
As b e f o r e ,
fere n ce p e rio d s a lte r n a te d w ith c lu b s .
However,
these con­
the
confer­
en c e and c lu b p e r i o d s were d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r f o u r p e r i o d s o f
the
s c h o o l d a y and were s c h e d u l e d a s any o t h e r c l a s s .
D u tie s of the co n feren ce te a c h e r a r e :
ro u tin e
school b u sin e ss,
lem s.
tea ch e r
and t o
T his l a s t
d a ta co ncerning p u p ils ,
take c a re o f
to g iv e group g u id an ce u n d e r th e
s u p e r v is io n o f the c o u n s e lo r ,
in d iv id u a l g uidance.
to
assist
in v o lv ed
the co u n selo r
the
c o llec tin g of
th e ta lk in g to p u p ils about t h e i r p ro b ­
I n f o r m a t i o n w h ic h m ig h t be o f a i d t o
th e classro o m
i s p a s s e d on t o him by t h e c o n f e r e n c e t e a c h e r .
In t h e E l l i o t J u n i o r H igh S chool p l a n o f g u id a n c e ,
classro o m te a c h e r
use o f the
the
i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e p l a n .
He h a s m any i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e c o n f e r e n c e
p u p ils.
in
in fo rm atio n the
t e a c h e r s and m akes
b e tte r to understan d
and g u i d e h i s
53
R ecords c o n ce rn in g the a c t i v i t y ,
a b ilitie s
achievem ent,
and c a p ­
o f e a c h p u p i l a re k e p t and a re e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e *
notew orthy f e a tu r e
o f th e program i s
p aren ts in th e g u id in g o f th e
conference
c h ild .
the e f f o r t
to
A
in clu d e
Whenever p o s s i b l e ,
the
t e a c h e r s m eet th e p a r e n t s t o d i s c u s s ways i n w h ich
th e c h i l d m ig h t be a id ed *
T h o rn to n Tow nship H igh S c h o o l » H a r v e y , I l l i n o i s .* ^
The
g u id a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s h i g h s c h o o l i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e
fo llo w in g fu n c tio n a rie s :
ance,
the p r i n c i p a l ,
four c la s s p r in c ip a ls ,
a n d m any home r o o m t e a c h e r s .
and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e lin g
a d irecto r
a dean o f boys,
o f guid­
a dean o f g i r l s ,
W h i l e much o f t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n
i s done by th e g u id a n c e o f f i c e r s ,
t h e b u l k o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p u p i l s c o m e s f r o m t h e home
room t e a c h e r s .
The d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y f o l l o w s a c l e a r c u t a n d
d e fin ite
p a ttern .
are resp o n sib le
The d i r e c t o r o f g u i d a n c e a n d t h e t w o d e a n s
to
the
are re sp o n sib le to th e
p rin cip al:
four c la ss p rin c ip a ls
d ir e c to r o f g u idance;
te a c h e rs are re s p o n sib le
p la n , how ever,
th e
to
t h e home r o o m
the v a rio u s c l a s s p r i n c i p a l s .
i s very f le x ib le and i f
the o c c a s io n a r i s e s ,
home r o o m t e a c h e r may t a k e h i s p r o b l e m d i r e c t l y t o
^ R eavis,
0£ .
c i t *. p p . 1 3 0 - 1 3 6 .
The
the p r i n -
a
c ip a l.
54
The d i r e c t o r o f g u i d a n c e
c ip a l.
serv es as the
The o b v i o u s r e a s o n f o r t h i s
. group w ith i t s
u n fa m ilia rity w ith
s e e m s t o be t h a t t h i s
sc h o o l custom and r o u t i n e
and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r g e t t i n g a good s t a r t
of th is
type of g u id an ce.
freshm an p r i n ­
a r e m o re i n n e e d
The d i r e c t o r o f g u i d a n c e
d o e s no
c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g a n d d o e s n o t c o n d u c t a home r o o m .
three
The
o t h e r c l a s s p r i n c i p a l s h a v e n o home r o o m d u t y b u t a l l
a re c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s and a re r e l e a s e d
iod p e r d ay .
The d e a n o f b o y s a n d t h e
h a v e no home room w o r k b u t h a v e p a r t
fro m t e a c h i n g one p e r ­
dean of g i r l s
lik ew ise
tim e c la s s ro o m t e a c h i n g
d u ties*
There
i s c o n s i d e r a b le group g u id an c e g iv e n a t T hornton
Township H ig h S c h o o l.
Much o f t h i s c o m e s t h r o u g h
a l c i v i c s c l a s s e s and t h e b o y s and g i r l s
lo n g to th e s e
ers
c lu b s.
Among t h e
clu b .
the v o c a t io n ­
A ll p u p ils b e­
im p ortant d u tie s o f a l l te a c h ­
in t h i s program i s th e c a r e f u l o b s e r v a tio n o f p u p i l s f o r
e v id e n c e s o f need fo r h e lp
in
the v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f g u id a n c e .-
M o n tp e lie r H igh S c h o o l . M o n t p e l i e r , V erm ont.
p e lier
36
Mont­
i s a h ig h sc h o o l w ith a p u p i l p o p u la tio n o f f o u r hundred
tw e n ty -fiv e.
In
th is
school th e
form al c o u n selin g
i s done by
3 6 D o r o t h y S m i t h , W. A. K i n c a i d , e t a l , " G u i d a n c e i n
M o n t p e l i e r , " 6 0 : 1 1& 13, The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , A p r i l , 1 9 4 1 .
55
the p r in c ip a l,
the
d i r e c t o r o f g u id a n c e , and th re e
The c e n t r a l i z i n g f e a t u r e
home ro om #
a ssista n ts.
o f th e guidance p la n
is the
H e r e m an y g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s a s w e l l a s a c e r t a i n
amount o f i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l i n g t a k e s p l a c e .
E a c h home r o o m
h a s a b o u t t h i r t y p u p i l s m o s t o f whom h a v e h a d a t l e a s t o n e
course w ith th e a d v is e r.
A cum ulative re c o rd o f each p u p il
is k ep t.
R o c h e s t e r J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , R o c h e s t e r , New
Y ork.
57
in t h is
p u p ils,
the
j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o f a b o u t two t h o u s a n d
c e n t r a l purpose o f th e guidance program h as been
the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s to c a r r y o u t p h ases o f th e guidance
work#
P a rtic u la rly ,
g ath erin g u se fu l
te a c h e r t r a i n i n g has been in the a re a o f
in fo rm atio n co n cern in g p u p ils ,
m o stly th ro u g h
th e use o f s ta n d a r d iz e d t e s t s #
T h e r e a r e no s p e c i a l g u i d a n c e o f f i c e r s .
how ever,
is
the c h ie f c o u n se lo r in a d d it i o n
t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g program #
The p r i n c i p a l ,
to heading th e
A c a r e f u l l y o rg a n iz e d system o f
home r o o m s p r o v i d e s t h e m a i n a t t a c k o n t h e
guidance problem .
rz
The A r s e n a l T e c h n i c a l H i g h S c h o o l , I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d i a n a .
^ A r t h u r E. T r a x l e r , Ed, G uidance i n P u b l i c S ec o n d ary
S c h o o l s , E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d s B u l l e t i n No. 28 , O c t o b e r , 1 93 9,
p . 117 f f ,
3®Milo H* S t u a r t , G u i d a n c e a t W o r k ,
G r a w - H i l l B o o k Com pany, 1 9 3 1 ) -
(New Y o r k :
Mc­
56
The e n t i r e
g u idance program o f
i n home r o o m s .
th is high school has i t s
As e a c h p u p i l e n t e r s t h e
h e i s a s s i g n e d t o a home r o o m s p o n s o r .
th is
sponsor fo r th ree
years.
school a s .a freshm an,
He c o n t i n u e s w i t h
At th e end o f t h a t tim e , he i s
r e a s s i g n e d t o a s e n i p r home r o o m w h e r e , b e c a u s e o f t h e
nence o f g ra d u a tio n ,
th is
b asis
a d i f f e r e n t approach i s ’u se d .
im i-
D uring
f i n a l y e a r such problem s a s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r g r a d u a tio n ,
and a f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e r e q u ir e m e n ts a p u p i l m ust
meet b e fo re
g rad u atio n are d e a lt w ith .
I n d ic a tin g the
t e a c h e r was th e f a c t
stra te g ic
p o s i t i o n o f t h e home r o o m
th a t a l l m atters r e la tin g
to
o f an i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l a r e h a n d le d th r o u g h h im .
the w e lfa re
Any c h a n g e s
made i n t h e p u p i l ’ s p l a n s a f t e r h i s m a t r i c u l a t i o n m u s t r e c e i v e
t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e home r o o m s p o n s o r *
S c a r s d a l e H i g h S c h o o l . S c a r s d a l e , New Y o r k . 5 ^ The g u i d ­
ance program o f
t h i s h ig h school of ele v en hundred p u p ils
headed by th e p r i n c i p a l and d e a n s .
not sp e cifica lly
p articip a te d
d efin ed ,
activ e ly
is
A lth o u g h t h e d u t i e s were
i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t
i n th e program *
the
teacher
The home r o o m p l a n
t h e c h i e f m eth o d w h e re b y g u i d a n c e was g i v e n .
is
T h ere was r e ­
p o r t e d no p l a n o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n o t h e r t h a n a n i n f o r m a l o n e .
^ 9T r a x l e r ,
o£. c i t .,
p.
120*
57
New T r i e r T o w n s h i p H i g h S c h o o l , W i n e t k a , I I l i n o i s . 4Q
T h is i s
a high
s c h o o l w i t h o v e r two t h o u s a n d p u p i l s *
guidance o r g a n iz a tio n c o n s i s t s o f a p r i n c i p a l ,
dean o f g i r l s ,
The
dean o f boys,
e i g h t a d v i s e r c h a i r m e n , f o u r o f whom a r e men
a n d f o u r women, r o o m a d v i s e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o home r o o m s p o n ­
sors,
and a d i r e c t o r o f r e s e a r c h *
The a d v i s e r c h a i r m e n h a v e g e n e r a l
room a d v i s e r s .
They h a n d le
su p e rv isio n of the
i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s w hich a r e
t o t h e m b y t h e roo m a d v i s e r s .
sent
T h e r e a r e tw o o f t h e s e a d v i s e r
chairm en f o r each c l a s s .
Each room a d v i s e r h a s a b o u t t h i r t y - f i v e
care.
In m ost c a s e s ,
th ese p u p ils
p u p ils
in h is
sta y d u rin g t h e i r high
school
c a r e e r w i t h t h e one a d v i s e r .
A lth o u g h t h e rooms a r e o r g a n i z e d
p rim arily fo r
o f guidance,
the fu rth e ra n c e
ad m in istrativ e
purposes,
a lso .
The r o o m a d v i s e r s r e p r e s e n t a
s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s who h a v e
t y p e o f work and a r e
ab le
th e y are used fo r
shown a n i n t e r e s t
in t h i s
to d e a l w i t h p r o b le m s t h a t a r i s e .
GUIDANCE THROUGH "BASIC COURSE" TEACHERS
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m b u i l t a r o u n d
th e b asic
c o u r s e a p p e a r s t o be r a t h e r p o p u l a r p a r t i c u l a r l y
C a lifo rn ia .
The t e r m , b a s i c
^ R ea v is,
o jd
.
course,
c i t . t pp.
found
112-119.
i n some s c h o o l s
in
58
under the
is
title
of "foundations course" or " s o c ia l liv in g ",
t h a t r e q u i r e d by a l l p u p i l s
the n a tu re
in.,.the s c h o o l s .
41
The a c t i v i t y o f
c o u rse s in t h i s high school c e n te r in th e E n g lish and
S o cial S tu d ies c la s s e s .
guidance.
p erio d
th is
a course
o f w hich l e n d s
E a g le Rock H igh S c h o o l , Los A n g e l e s .
is
is
i t s e l f t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ma\
and p r o b l e m s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e .
te ria l
b asic
It
The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e s e c l a s s e s
On e n t e r i n g t h e
sch o o l,
i n w hich th e e m p h a sis i s
tim e a l l
the p u p i l u n d e rg o e s a
tow ard h i s a d j u s t m e n t .
f a c i l i t i e s are d ire c te d to th e
D uring
" le a r n in g o f the
p u p i l ."
In th e n in th
eral
"areas".
and t e n t h y e a r ,
T h e s e may b e s c i e n t i f i c ,
a rts,
p rac tic al a rts ,
th ere
is a facu lty
m eets p u p ils
o r com m ercial.
d ire c to r.
l ib e r a l a rts,, fin e
For each o f
areas
He h a s t h e p o s i t i o n o f a d v i s e r ,
In a d d itio n to
these
fac u lty d ire c to rs,
i s a t r a i n e d c o u n s e l o r whose d u t y i s t o
g u id a n c e p r o c e d u r e s and to a d v i s e th e
The e n t i r e
these
i n d i v i d u a l l y , an d s u p p le m e n ts th e work o f t h e
b a sic course te a c h e r.
th ere
a p u p i l e l e c t s one o f s e v ­
program i s a c o o p e ra tiv e
basic
a d m in is te r the
course te a c h e r.
p ro c e s s in v o lv in g th e ad­
41H elen C o r l i s s B abson, " P r o g r e s s R e p o rt from E ag le
Rock H ig h ," C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n . 1 2 :2 8 4 2 8 9 , May, 1 9 3 7 ,
m in istra tio n
o f the
school,
teach ers,
a nd t h e home,
S e q u o i a U n i o n H i g h S c h o o l , R edwood C i t y , C a l i f o r n i a ,
The p r o g r a m o f g u i d a n c e a t
the
teach in g s ta f f
is
t a i n members o f t h e
t h i s high sch o o l i s
d ecid ed ly
s t a f f are
te a c h e r h a s the o b l i g a t i o n
im p o rtan t.
A2
one in w hich
W hile o n l y c e r ­
considered co u n selo rs,
every
t o c o u n s e l p u p i l s t o some d e g r e e .
The S o c i a l L i v i n g c o u r s e s p r o v i d e t h e m e d i u m f o r g u i d a n c e
d u rin g the f i r s t
e r s o f th ese
tw o y e a r s a p u p i l s p e n d i n t h e
Teach­
c o u r s e s h a v e two s e c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y m a i n t a i n
o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h e two y e a r s .
p h a s i s on g u id an c e
c o u rs e , w hile
comes th e
sch o o l.
In the
is tran sferred
in the
elev en th year
to th e
tw elfth year,
t h e em­
S o cial S tu d ies I I I
the E n g lish course be­
f o c a l p o in t o f guidance e f f o r t .
C a r p i n t e r i a U nion H igh S c h o o l , C a r p i n t e r i a , G a l i f o r n i a .
The f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t o f g u i d a n c e h e l d
guidance
is
Mi n h e r e n t
m ary e m p h a sis
in t h i s
school is th a t
in every tea ch in g s i t u a t i o n ” .
is receiv ed ,
how ever,
T h e s e may b e E n g l i s h - h i s t o r y ,
Its
p ri­
in "fo u n d atio n s” co u rses.
scien ce-m ath em atics,
et cetera.
T e a c h e r s o f t h e s e c o u r s e s s e r v e on a g u id a n c e c o m m itte e whose
4 2 t t p r 0 gr a m s Q f C o o p e r a t i n g S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i n C a l i f ­
o r n i a , ” C a l i f o r n i a S t a te D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , (S acram ento:
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939) p . 4 9 ,
45I b i d . . p.
15.
43
re sp o n sib ility
i s th e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f th e program and th e
co n d u ctin g o f r e s e a r c h .
th e guidance
An a d d i t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e w o r k s w i t h
com m ittee b u t c o n s i d e r s c u r r i c u l u m p r o b le m s .
A t h i r d com m ittee,
v id u a l problem s.
the
c i t i z e n s h i p com m ittee,
T h is c o m m ittee i s composed o f
t y members and t h r e e p u p i l s .
and d e te rm in e
tered
In an e f f o r t
to
three fa c u l­
"know" p u p i l s
t h e i r n eed s, b a t t e r i e s o f t e s t s are adm inis­
to e n t e r i n g p u p i l s .
guidance
h an d les i n d i ­
i s given
At e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y ,
v o catio n al
in a l l c la s s e s but i s p r im a r ily found in
th e v o c a tio n a l c o u rs e s .
B urbank S e n io r H igh S c h o o l , B u rbank ,
C a lifo rn ia . ^
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m a t t h i s h i g h s c h o o l
gro w s o u t o f two c o n v i c t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t h e
istratio n .
ciated
The f i r s t
from th e
of th ese
classro o m
is th a t
is larg e ly
s c h o o l adm in­
co u n selin g d is a s s o ­
in effe ctiv e ;
th e second,
t h a t a d e q u a t e c o u n s e l i n g m u s t b e b a s e d o n a t h o r o u g h know­
ledge o f th e p u p il.
C onseq uently,
e rs of th e b asic co u rses.
sib le
Each o f th e s e
i s d o n e by t e a c h
tea c h e rs is respon­
f o r two d o u b l e p e r i o d c l a s s e s p e r d a y a n d f o r c o u n s e l i n g
two p e r i o d s p e r d a y .
er
counseling
i s from s i x t y to
44I b i d ..
p.
The maximum p u p i l l o a d o f a n y o n e t e a c h ­
six ty -fiv e
11.
p u p ils.
Each b a s i c
course
te a c h e r has charge o f the
same p u p i l s o v e r a p e r i o d o f o n e y e a r .
A ll re c o rd s o f each p u p il connected w ith the
serv ice
basic
are k e p t by the b a s ic
course
O ften a b a sic
A lthough th e
the g u id a n c e ,
teachers p a rtic ip a te
a ma­
in the program .
course te a c h e r w i l l a s sig n a p u p il to a s p e c ia l
su b je ct teach er fo r co u n sel.
course
teach er.
tea ch e r b e ars th e b ru n t o f
j o r i t y o f the o th e r
b asic
course
guidance
Over h a l f o f a l l
te a c h e rs are
teach ers.
ORGANIZATION FOR GROUP GUIDANCE
A l t h o u g h many s c h o o l s g i v e g r o u p g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h o u t
th e ir cla sses,
the
i n s t i t u t i o n o f group g u id a n c e
i n d iv id u a l guidance i s n o t o f te n
sib le,
if fa c ilitie s
in d icated .
in l i e u o f
That i t
is pos­
f o r in d iv id u a l guidance a re n o t a v a i l a b l e ,
to o r g a n iz e an a d e q u a te group p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e
is
sh ow n b y
th e e x p erien ce o f th e fo llo w in g sch o o l.
Group g u i d a n c e
guidance
in a sm a ll h igh s c h o o l .
4-5
i s g iv en th ro u g h the E n g lis h c l a s s e s .
Most o f t h e
D uring th e s e
c la s s e s a s e r ie s o f u n its concerning s u b je c t v i t a l
s e n t and f u t u r e
*of
developm ent o f p u p i l s a re g iv e n .
such a u n i t i s one c o n c e rn in g v o c a t i o n s .
to th e p re ­
An e x a m p l e
T h r o u g h many a v e -
^ ^ G ra c e E. H a r r i s , "Group G u id a n ce i n a S m all H igh S c h o o l ,
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S eco n d ary E d u c a tio n , 12:159-163* M arch,
T237-------------------------------------------------------------
62
nues as d isc u ssio n s,
rep o rts,
about v a rio u s o ccu p atio n s
is given.
p e r s o n a l i ty and the n e c e s s i ty
man r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
In
such a p ro g ram ,
and th em es, h e l p f u l in f o r m a tio n
A nother u n i t c o n c e rn s
f o r p r o p e r developm ent in hu­
A fu rth e r u n it
d e a ls w ith h e a lth problem s.
i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a r e t h e
p r i m a r y a n d i n m an y c a s e s t h e o n l y g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n a r i e s .
UNCLASSIFIED ORGANIZATION OF GUIDANCE I N SPECIFIC SCHOOLS
The p r o g r a m s o f g u i d a n c e o f s c h o o l s d e s c r i b e d
d iv is io n are
s u c h t h a t t h e y do n o t f a l l
above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
in t h i s
im m ed iately in to
the
For t h a t re a so n th e y are c o n sid e re d
in
a general c la s s if ic a tio n .
B i l l i n g s H i g h S c h o o l , B i l l i n g s , M o n t a n a . ^ 6 The g u i d a n c e
p la n in t h i s high
a fu ll-tim e
school i s under the
guidance o f f i c e r .
m ajor r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
effort
t e s t i n g program .
ed u catio n is
in e f f e c t p rim a rily
in g u id a n c e w hich c a r r i e s
i s made t o p l a c e
m ain ly th ro u g h t e s t s
^ T ra x le r,
The
p ro g ra m seem s to be on t e a c h e r p a r t i c i ­
A p lan of te a c h e r
th rough a c la s s
A p a rt-tim e o f f ic e r has a s h is
the h an d lin g o f th e
em phasis o f th e e n t i r e
p a tio n .
im m ediate s u p e r v i s i o n o f
c o lleg e c r e d i t.
An
in fo rm atio n co n cern in g p u p ils re c e iv e d
in the hands o f v a rio u s
op. c i t .,
p.
125.
subject te a c h e rs.
63
T h is m ethod,
it
is
said ,
fu rn ish e s the
te a c h e r w ith an " i n ­
v e n to r y " o f h i s work.
Jo liet
Tow nship H igh S c h o o l , J o l i e t , I l l i n o i s .
r e s p o n s ib ility f o r the
is vested
D irect
guidance program a t t h i s h ig h sc h o o l
in th e P erso n n el D ire c to r.
g u id a n c e work, how ever,
b e rs of these
4-7
falls
com m ittees a re
to
A ma#or p a r t o f th e
a d v iso ry co m m ittees.
t e a c h e r s who f o r t h e i r
a c t i v i t y re c e iv e a d d itio n a l rem u n eratio n in s a l a r y .
n o t r e le a s e d from any te a c h in g d u ty .
co u n selin g o f in d iv id u a l p u p ils ,
T heir d u tie s
and a d v is e
Mem­
guidance
They a r e
include
s u b j e c t a n d home
room t e a c h e r s .
V ocatio n al in fo rm atio n
c u p atio n s.
is
given through c la s s e s
O ther c o u rs e s a s s i s t i n g th e
s p e c if ic a lly are g en eral scien ce, a r t ,
o f an e x p lo ra to ry n a tu r e .
is
A featu re of
in oc­
guidance f u n c tio n
and m u s ic .
the e n t i r e
These a re
program
th e r e q u i r i n g o f a r e p o r t from c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s e v e ry
s i x weeks c o n c e rn in g
in a d d itio n to
in d iv id u al p u p ils .
t h a t concerning s c h o la s tic
T his
in fo rm atio n is
achievem ent.
R o b e r t E* F i t c h H i g h S c h o o l , G r o t o n , C o n n e c t i c u t . ^ 8 The
em phasis in t h e
guidance o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e h ig h sc h o o l h e re
i s on th e g a t h e r i n g and u se o f
48R e a v is ,
49
T rax ler,
op.
0£ .
c i t .,
c i t .,
pp.
p.
in fo rm atio n concerning p u p ils .
104-111.
115.
64
For s e v e ra l y e a rs a p lan o f te a c h e r e d u c a tio n
in th e use o f
c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d s and th e t e c h n iq u e s o f g u id an c e has been in
effect*
T h is p ro g ram i s c a r r i e d on th ro u g h t e a c h e r s 1 m e e tin g s
a t th e b eg in n in g o f th e y e a r,
new. t e a c h e r s ,
ers
the
th e use o f o u ts id e
in stru ctio n
speakers,
each q u a rte r o f
and v i s i t s by t e a c h -
to o th e r sc h o o ls h a v in g guidance program s in e f f e c t *
Yuba C i t y U n io n H ig h S c h o o l , Yuba C i t y , C a l i f o r n i a , 49
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
H igh S c h o o l l i e s
co u n selo r,
work*
i n th e h a n d s o f th e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l and th e
Each o f f i c e r sp en d s th re e h o u rs d a i l y
I n d iv id u a l guidance
th e v i c e - p r in c ip a l ,
be i n v o l v e d .
g u id a n c e p r o g r a m i n Yuba C i t y U n io n
in guidance
is given th ro u g h c o n fe re n c e s w ith
the c o u n se lo r,
a n d s u c h t e a c h e r s a s may
S u bject te a c h e rs coo perate
i n t h e p r o g r a m among
o t h e r ways in r e p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e s o f m a la d ju s tm e n t i n any fo rm .
Pasadena Ju n io r C o lle g e . P a sa d en a , C a lif o r n ia *
P a sa d e n a J u n io r C o lle g e th e w ork o f g u id a n c e
is
50
in the
done by a
c o u n s e l i n g s t a f f o f e i g h t who w o r k u n d e r a d e a n o f g u i d a n c e .
They a r e members o f t h e
tatio n ,
in stru ctio n al
sta ff,
and c o u n s e l i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f
teach in g o rie n ­
th eir
tim e*
Be-
4 9 t ip r 0 g r a m s o f C o o p e r a t i n g S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i n C a l i f ­
o r n i a , ” C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n (S acrem en to :
C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939) p . 5 3 .
50
I b i d ., pp. 44-45.
65
cause of
the arran g em en t o f c l a s s e s ,
d e n t s o f a common i n t e r e s t
guidance*
of th e ir
certain
S tu d en ts a re
in te re sts*
it
is p o ssib le
for
stu ­
to m eet in a group f o r v o c a t i o n a l
a s s i g n e d t o a c o u n s e l o r on t h e
b asis
The c o u n s e l o r i n t u r n a s s i g n s t h e m t o
s e c tio n s o f the h u m a n itie s c o u rs e .
m akes o f th e h u m a n itie s c o u rs e
.T his c o n d i t i o n
a t y p e o f home r o o m .
SUGGESTIONS FOR GUIDANCE ORGANIZATIONS
It
is
the
in ten tio n of th is d iv isio n
to p re s e n t sug­
g e s t i o n s by v a r io u s w r i t e r s . c o n c e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id ­
ance w ork.
These
s u g g e s t i o n s a r e b a s e d on w ide o b s e r v a t i o n
and, w ith ,a d a p ta tio n s
to f i t
th e
lo cal s itu a tio n ,
m ight se rv e
as ad eq u ate guidance plans*
Purpose of o r g a n i z a t i o n .
It
is
im p o rtan t a t th e o u ts e t,
to
d e c id e on th e p u r p o s e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e .
is
t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y c o m p r e h e n s iv e p l a n n i n g o f t h i s f u n c ­
t i o n ? Van B u r g h a s i n d i c a t e d
a ll
t h r e e p rim a ry aim s:
the f o r c e s o f th e s c h o o l to b e a r
in a u n ifie d
s i s t e n t m anner on th e p ro b le m s o f e a c h c h i l d ;
c ertain
n ite
(2 )
What
(1) t o b r i n g
and c o n ­
to d e s ig n a te
i n d i v i d u a l s a s g u i d a n c e o f f i c i a l s who w i l l h a v e d e f i ­
and p rim a ry r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
u n ify the
assistan ce
a ch ild
th e program ;
receiv es
and
(3 )
to
so t h a t h e may n o t b e
66
c o n f u s e d by a d i f f u s i o n o f c o u n s e l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
Im p o rta n c e o f " know ing" p u p i l s .
by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s
m ust r e s t
th at
51
I t h a s been s t a t e d
the b a s is of any p e rso n n e l s e rv ic e
i n th e a c q u i s i t i o n and u se o f know ledge c o n c e r n i n g
the
in d iv id u a l p u p il.
It
i s o n l y when a c o u n s e l o r h a s a t
h is
d i s p o s a l s u c h k n o w l e d g e c a n he e x p e c t t o
a d v i s e w i t h some
a ssu ra n c e o f h av in g been o f r e a l s e r v ic e to the p u p i l .
Trax52
ler
i s o f th e o p in io n t h a t a guidance o r g a n i z a t i o n can n o t
hope
to a c h ie v e
success u n less
some p r o v i s i o n h a s b e e n made
f o r r e s e a r c h w o r k am ong p u p i l s a n d p u t t i n g t h e
r e c e i v e d t o w ork.
Q uite o f t e n ,
he s a y s ,
g iv en to the type o f o r g a n iz a tio n .
in fo rm atio n
m uch a t t e n t i o n
is
W h i l e much m o r e i m p o r t a n t ,
t h e p a r t o f th e p ro g ra m f o r a c q u i r i n g know ledge o f p u p i l s
is
/
n e g l e c t e d e n t i r e l y o r comes l a s t .
The f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d y n a m i c
g u id an c e p rogram in th e s c h o o ls o f t h i s c o u n tr y i s to
b r i n g a b o u t a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t we m u s t f i r s t m a r s h a l l t h e
f a c t s a b o u t o u r s t u d e n t s , t h a t we m u s t f i r s t o f a l l make
g u id a n c e a k in d o f s e r v i c e and th e n add th o s e o v e r t o n e s
o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h o s e i n s p i r a t i o n a l q u a l i ­
t i e s w h i c h c a n c o n t r i b u t e so m a t e r i a l l y t o t h e e f f e c t i v e ­
n e s s o f a c o u n s e lin g s e r v ic e p ro v id e d th e y a re founded
J u n i t a Mae Van B u r g , "A P r o g r a m o f E d u c a t i o n a l G u i d ­
a n c e f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , 1936) p . 8 0 .
52
T ra x le r, og. c i t ., p. x i i i .
on u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ^
N ecessary elem en ts
in o r g a n i z a t i o n .
Ade i s o f t h e o -
p in io n t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f th e ty p e o f o r g a n iz a tio n and l o c a l
f a c t o r s p r e s e n t t h e r e must be p r o v i s i o n f o r
any o r g a n i z a t i o n .
t i o n o f some
in d iv id u al or
charge o f th e
he s a y s ,
first,
a d esig n a­
i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l h a v e g e n e r a l
guidance a c t i v i t i e s
b e some p l a n t o
gram ,
There m ust b e ,
th re e elem en ts of
in the
inform te a c h e r s r e l a t i v e
to guidance p ro c e d u re s ,
school;
t h e r e m ust
to th e guidance p ro ­
and te c h n iq u e s ;
and th e r e m ust
be c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d s p r o v i d i n g a c c u r a t e and r e l i a b l e
t i o n c o n c e rn in g in d iv i d u a l grow th,
A suggested program .
th e
inform a54
t r e n d s and d e v e lo p m e n t.
A g u id a n c e p ro g ram s u g g e s te d by
C o m m i t t e e on G u i d a n c e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S e c o n d a r y
School P rin c ip a ls has as
its
su ggested th a t
g u id an ce com m ittee f u n c t i o n i n g u n d e r
a fac u lty
a d i r e c t o r of guidance
f o u n d a t i o n t h e home r o o m .
The p l a n
i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by th e
em ploym ent o f f o u r c l a s s e s o f a d v i s e r s ,
d itio n
it
is
have im m ediate c o n n e c ti o n w ith g u id a n c e
w o rk e rs on a lo w er l e v e l .
c la s s ad v isers,
It
clu b a d v is e r s ,
cu rricu lu m a d v is e r s ,
and p la c e m e n t a d v i s e r s .
i s ex p ected th e l i b r a r i a n w i l l
serve
In ad­
i n an a d v i s o r y
Prin,
68
Dean o f Boys
Dir* o f Guid
Dean o f G ir ls
F a cu lty Guidance Committee
S p e c ia l A s s is t a n t s in Guidance Program
C la ss
A d v ise rs
Club
A d v ise r s
Placem ent
A l l Classroom te a c h e r s
Home Room fe a c h e r s
Each
Boy and G irl
An I n d iv id u a l Case Problem
FIGURE 2
A PROPOSED ORGANIZATION FOR GUIDANCE,
BY. COMMITTEE OF GUIDANCE, DEPARTMENT OF
SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS
L ib ra ria n
69
cap a city re la te d to h is fie ld *
ing th e
tie s
"life
A ll classro o m te a c h e rs ap p ly ­
c a r e e r m otive" a re g iv en d e f i n i t e
fo r th e f u r t h e r i n g of guidance a c t i v i t y .
co m p reh en siv e,
v id es fo r
re sp o n sib ili­
F in a lly ,
a
a n d c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d home r o o m p r o g r a m p r o -
in tim ate te a c h e r-p u p il r e la tio n s h ip s .
55
SUM5ARY OF THE CHAPTER
A lthough th e
schools re p re se n te d
b e r n e a r l y one t h o u s a n d ,
U nited S ta te s ,
it
d istrib u te d
in t h i s
c h a p t e r num­
g eo g rap h ically over th e
w i l l be s e e n t h a t h i g h l y a c c u r a t e c o n c l u ­
s i o n s b a s e d on t h e
in fo rm atio n con cern in g t h e i r
guidance p r o ­
g r a m s c a n n o t be made*
The l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c
clu d es t h i s .
i f h ig h ly accu rate co n clu sio n s cannot
How ever,
sam pling p r e ­
be d raw n , o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n s o f s u f f i c i e n t v a l u e t o m e r i t c o n ­
s i d e r a t i o n can be made.
n ific an c e,
the
sta n d p o in t of s ig ­
s u r v e y s i n c l u d e d may b e a c c e p t e d a s o f t h e
g re a te s t v alu e.
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r c o v e r i n g a much l a r g e r
number o f s c h o o l s ,
was su c h t h a t
P e rh a p s from th e
th e m anner o f o b t a i n i n g th e
lack o f o rg an iz atio n ,
m a l-p ra c tic e s are
in fo rm atio n
h a lf-o rg a n iz a tio n ,
i n c l u d e d w i t h more n o t e w o r t h y p l a n s *
p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a guidance o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a s in g le
55
o r even
The
school,
L e o n a r d V. K o o s a n d G r a y s o n N. K e f a u v e r , o p . p i t . ,
p* 5 2 6 .
C itin g N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f Secondary School P r i n ­
c i p a l s , C om m ittee on G u i d a n c e , B u l l e t i n No. 1 9 , ( C i c e r o ,
I l l i n o i s , J a n u a r y , 1928) p . 8 .
70
how ever, e s p e c i a l l y
sta ff,
if
d o n e s o b y a m em ber o f t h a t
a rg u e s th a t the
o f w hich i t
s c h o o l p o s s e s s e s a g u idance program
is proud.
O t h e r w i s e , n o m em ber o f t h e f a c u l t y o r
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w ould f e e l c o n s t r a i n e d
o f p lan n ed guidance p r a c t i c e s .
to p u b l ic i z e
For t h i s reaso n ,
u n d o u b ted ly thousands o f sc h o o ls th ro u g h o u t
staffs
have done l i t t l e
sch o o l’s o b lig atio n
to p ro v id e guidance
d e fin ite
rated .
is th a t,
fee lin g
at least
for
th ere
are
its
among t h e
even in the
p u p ils*
D espite
P e r h a p s th e m ost
sch o o ls c o n sid e re d ,
t h a t some p l a n o f g u i d a n c e
T h is was t r u e
lack
o r n o th in g in d is c h a r g in g t h e i r
s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s can be o b s e r v e d .
sig n ific an t
the
th e c o u n t r y whose
T rend tow ard b e t t e r p la n n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n .
th is,
sch o o l’s
s h o u l d be i n a u g u ­
s m a ll s c h o o l w here g u id a n c e
o f f i c i a l s o t h e r t h a n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w ere n o t em ployed*
H ere group g u id a n c e ,
o r g a n i z e d , was given*
P u p il as e n t i t y .
A nother v e ry im p o rta n t t r e n d
t o be t h e t e n d e n c y t o a c c e p t t h e p u p i l a s a n e n t i t y
make some p r o v i s i o n t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e l a r g e
of d iffu sed re sp o n sib ility
sch o o ls the r e s u l t s
for h is w elfare.
a p p ea r to
c u ltu ral,
seemed
and t o
school c o n d itio n
Even i n s m a l l e r
show t h a t t h e p u p i l e x i s t s
a u n i t and t h a t c lo s e c o o rd in a tio n o f a l l
be t h e y v o c a t i o n a l ,
a
h ealth ,
as
ty p es o f guidance
o r c u rricu lu m .
71
C lassroom t e a c h e r in t h e p l a n f o r g u id a n c e *
t r e n d w hich
is of p a r tic u la r
sig n ifican ce
A nother
to th e p re s e n t study
is
the d i s p o s i t i o n o f m ost o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r g u idance to
to
the classro o m te a c h e r a d e f i n i te
plan*
and
im portant p lac e
O f t e n he s e r v e d a s a g u id a n c e o f f i c i a l e i t h e r
home r o o m p l a n o r a s a n a d v i s e r o r c o u n s e l o r *
ter
c ases,, a f e e l i n g t h a t c la ssro o m t e a c h e r s
for a part of th e ir
day t o
v i s e r s and c o u n s e lo rs *
n ite ly
In one
in a
two l a t ­
s t i l l asso ciated
c l a s s r o o m , made t h e
in stan ce,
in the
best ad­
i t was s t a t e d d e f i ­
t h a t c o u n s e l i n g d i s a s s o c i a t e d f r o m t e a c h i n g was i n e f ­
fec tiv e .
er,
the
In the
give
If
no s p e c i f i c
g u i d a n c e w ork was g i v e n t o t h e
he w as h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r g a in in g and im p a rtin g
teach ­
inform ­
a tio n co n cern in g p u p ils*
G uidance
in b a s ic
tio n th a t p a rtic u la rly
ance c e n te re d
courses.
It
i s w orthy o f c o n s id e r a ­
in th e h ig h sc h o o ls o f C a li f o r n ia g u id ­
in what a re
c a lle d basic
s p e c t s t h e s e a p p r o x i m a t e d home r o o m s .
courses.
T his a p p ro x im a tio n
came t h r o u g h a b r i n g i n g a b o u t o f p u p i l - t e a c h e r
feren tatio n ,
how ever,
I n some r e ­
i s seen in t h a t th e b asic
intim acy*
D if-
c o u rses are
s e t up a s c l a s s e s w i t h a d e f i n i t e n e s s and o r d e r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g
them .
P revalence of v o c a tio n a l g u id an ce*
U nless th e
inform a-
t i o n a v a i l a b l e was in c o m p le te ,
it
appears th a t
th ere
are
still
s c h o o l men who c o n c e i v e o f g u i d a n c e a s b e i n g o n l y v o c a t i o n a l .
S e v e ra l sc h o o ls a p p a re n tly are g iv in g em phasis to t h i s ty p e
o f guidance to th e e x c lu s io n o f o t h e r s .
was m a n i f e s t e d t h a t
ad­
a r e a s n e c e s s a r i l y m u st be p r e s e n t .
i t w a s show n i n o n e c a s e t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n o f
h e a l t h and p e r s o n a l i t y m ust accompany th e
tio n s.
how ever,
in c o n sid e rin g v o c a tio n a l guidance,
j u n c t s em bracing o th e r
For in stan c e,
A fee lin g ,
stu d y of occupa­
CHAPTER I I I
TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN GUIDANCE WORK
It
is
the purpose o f t h i s c h a p te r to
in d icate
io u s means by w hich s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a tt e m p t t o
teach ers
in the o rg a n iz e d guidance
serv ice.
the v a r ­
include
These means e x ­
c l u d e g u i d a n c e g r o w i n g o u t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d home r o o m a n d
d e a l more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h :
ly because of a b i l i t y
(1 )
the h ir in g of te a c h e rs p a r t ­
in h a n d lin g p e rs o n n e l problem s;
in -serv ice
train in g of
to m easure
t e a c h e r grow th in g u id a n c e a b i l i t y ;
lish in g of lib ra rie s
(5)
teach ers;
(3)
(2) t h e
the p revalence o f a tte m p ts
(4) t h e e s t a b ­
f o r p u b lic a tio n s co ncerning guidance;
t h e u s e o f p u p i l g u i d a n c e r e c o r d s b y members o f th e
stru c tio n
sta ff.
q u estio n n aire
F ollow ing each d iv is io n ,
rela tin g
to
s e e m t o be o n e
the
the r e s u l t s o f
the
The i d e a l g u i d a n c e
in w hich c e r t a i n
w ere a l l o c a t e d members o f t h e
vary to f i t
in ­
t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d i v i s i o n a r e given*
The t e a c h e r i n o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m s .
p ro g ram w ould
and
teach in g
sta ff.
i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r and th e
d e fin ite
d u ties
Such d u t y m ust
situ atio n ,
how ever,
i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f a n a d e q u a t e g u i d a n c e
p la n assum es th e
use o f th e
ap p ears o bvious,
teach er as a d e fin ite
p lan .
It
o f the
c o u n s e l in g o f a p a r t i c u l a r p u p i l by a g u id a n c e o f f i ­
c i a l w e r e n o t made known t o
for
the
in stan ce,
th at
if
p a rt of the
the r e s u l t s
v ario u s te a c h e rs of th e p u p il,
a u n ite d fro n t
It
is
i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d w i l l n o t be e f f e c t e d .
f u r t h e r obvious t h a t
th e .te a c h e r,
by com ing i n t o
d aily
c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p u p i l an d o b s e r v i n g him u n d e r v a r y i n g c o n ­
d i t i o n s , may be o f i n e s t i m a b l e
h elp to
a p lan of in d iv id u a l
g u id a n c e f o r him .
That a d m in is tra to rs are u t i l i z i n g
fash io n
is
the
te a c h e r in such a
sh ow n b y t h e r e t u r n s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
schools re p re se n te d ,
eig h ty -sev en per cent of th e respondents
s a i d s u c h a p r o g r a m wa s m a i n t a i n e d .
S c h o o l s u n d e r two h u n d r e d
i n p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n had few er p ro g ram s u s i n g t h e
H irin g o f te a c h e r s f o r guidance a b i l i t y .
c o ro lla ry to
is
th a t as
the e s t a b l i s h i n g
e r s who n o t o n l y know t h e i r
in g u id an c e and have
T eachers,
teach er.
An o b v i o u s
of a p la n n e d m ethod o f g u id a n c e
the te a c h in g p e rso n n e l o f a sch o o l changes,
a d m i n i s t r a t o r makkes an e f f o r t
liev e
a s everyone e l s e ,
in te re sts.
Because o f t h i s
less
to p a r ti c i p a te
su ited
Of a l l
to f i l l
the
open p o s i t i o n s w ith t e a c h ­
su b ject m atter f ie ld
b u t who b e ­
some k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g i t .
d i f f e r w id e ly in p e r s o n a l i t y and
it w ill
be f o u n d t h a t
in m a tte r s r e l a t i n g
some a r e
to p u p il g u id ­
ance.
The i d e a l w o u l d s e e m t o b e t h e
e n tire
f a c u l t y whose sym pathy w i t h y o u th and u n d e r s t a n d i n g
of th e ir
g r a d u a l s e l e c t i o n o f an
p ro b le m s c o u p le d w i t h a d e q u a te know ledge m akes e a c h
cap ab le o f a d v is in g p u p ils .
R y a n s i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h m uch l i p - s e r v i c e
75
TABLE I
TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN GUIDANCE PROGRAMS
s
S iz e o f
S ch o o ls
j
S ch o o ls Having Program o f Guidance in Which
Teachers P lay a D e f in it e Part
No. o f a ffir m ­
| Per cen t o f a f f ir m
a t iv e answers
No* o f c a s e s
i a t iv e answ ers
i
Under 200
13
10
77
200-399
15
13
87
400-599
9
8
89
600-1000
14
13
93
1000-2000
29
24
83
Over 2000
27
25
93
93
87
T o ta l
i
107
,
NOTES T h is t a h le should he read a s fo llo w s s te n s c h o o ls rep re­
s e n tin g s e v e n ty -se v e n p er cen t o f th o se under two hundred in p u p il popu­
l a t i o n in d ic a te d programs o f guidance in which th e tea ch er p la y s a d e f i ­
n i t e part*
76
has been le n t to th e
th e
s t a n d t h a t t e a c h e r s m u st be i n c l u d e d
guidance f u n c t i o n ,
th e f a c ts
t o r s o fte n overlook t h i s p o in t
t
in d ic ate
in
th a t ad m in istra- '
in s e le c tin g
teach ers.
. . . a l l to o o f t e n , s c h o o l s and s c h o o l b o a r d s r e q u i r e
t h a t r i g i d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s be m e t b y t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t ­
t e r t e a c h e r s , a n d , a t t h e same t i m e n e g l e c t t o p r o v i d e
in any manner w h a tso e v e r f o r t h e s u p e r in te n d e n c e o f
t h e r e l a t i v e l y more i m p o r t a n t s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s w h ic h
has i t s b a s i s in g u id a n c e .1
R eg ard less of th e
ing of
g e n eral concensus concerning th e h i r ­
te a c h e r s b ecau se o f guidance a b i l i t y ,
the p re s e n t stu d y
i n d i c a t e s t h a t m any s c h o o l b o a r d s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d o n o t
take t h i s
q u a lific a tio n
dred s ix a d m in istra tiv e
in to
c o n sid era tio n .
o f f i c e r s r e p l y i n g to th e
"Are t e a c h e r s h i r e d p a r t l y
in to
co n sid eratio n .
b ein g ap p ro x im ately h a lf o f th e
in d ic a te d th e y did
six
o r no d i f f e r e n c e
size
th ere
d iv isio n s rep ly in g
n e g ativ e .
In - serv ice
the
in han d ­
The s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l r e ­
p r e s e n t e d a p p a r e n t l y made b u t l i t t l e
in the
q u estio n ,
because of t h e i r a b i l i t y
l i n g g u idance,.problem s?" f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t
n o t take t h i s
Of t h e o n e h u n ­
train in g
of te a c h e rs.
te a c h e r r e p r e s e n t s an in d is p e n s a b le
gram i s a c c e p t e d ,
im m ed iately ,
then,
If
the assu m p tio n
p a rt of th e
th at
guidance pro
a t t e n t i o n m u s t be d i r e c t e d
^ D a v i d G. R y a n s , "T h e R o l e o f G u i d a n c e
S c h o o l and S o c i e t y .
5 0 :3 4 7 , O ctober 1939.
in E d u catio n ,"
77
TABLE I I
TEACHERS HIRED PARTLY FOR ABILITY IN GUIDANCE
jL .
S iz e o f S c h o o ls
No. o f a ffirm a ­ Per cen t o f a ffirm a ­
t i v e answ ers
t i v e answ ers
No# o f Oases
TJfcder 200
13
6
46
200-399
15
7
47
400-599
9
5
56
13
8
62
17
57
14
54
57
54
600-1000
1000-2000
Over 2000
T otal
-
30
26
106
.
.
■
NOTE* T his t a b le i s based on a t o t a l o f one hundred s i x c a s e s
and should be read a s f o llo w s : s i x or f o r t y - s i x pei' cen t o f the sc h o o ls
under two hundred in p u p il p o p u la tio n in d ic a te d th a t te a c h e r s were hired- ,
p a r t ly b ecau se o f t h e ir a b i l i t y in guidance work.
78
tow ard th e c a p a b i l i t i e s
signm ents.
of
te a c h e r s to h a n d le
Such a t t e n t i o n
lead s
in e v ita b ly to
train in g
in stitu tio n s
adequate
in stru ctio n
in g u id an c e.
supplying t h i s need?
Do t e a c h e r s
p r e p a r a tio n adequate
to p a r t i c i p a t e
In an sw ering th e s e
th ere
and t h e i r
dred E liz a b e th M ille r
tio n ,
lack
course
a u th o rita tiv e ly ,
co n sid er th e ir
guidance
program ?
tw o i n v e s t i g a t o r s f e e l
in te a c h e r
train in g .
M il­
covering t h i s
(fifty -fiv e
per cent)
ques­
o f the
t h a t th e y had had n o t a s i n g l e
K efauver w r ite s
t h a t he has c o n f e r r e d w ith
teachers r e la tiv e
e s ta b lis h in g of
to p ro b lem s grow­
guidance p ro g ram s.
" w h i l e m an y o f t h e m r e c o g n i z e
lem s c o n s i d e r e d ,
supplying
in stitu tio n s
field
in the
teach ers
I n a m o r e i n f o r m a l m a n n e r b u t no l e s s
"a c o n s i d e r a b l e num ber" o f
in g o u t o f the
in the
in an i n v e s t i g a t i o n
in terv iew ed re p o rte d
in g u id a n c e .
Are t h e s e
least
showed t h a t more t h a n h a l f
teachers
th at
p ro v isio n s fo r
q u estio n s a t
has been a d e f in ite
guidance a s ­
the
th ey r e a d i ly ad m itte d
im portance
th eir
He s a y s
of th e prob­
lim ita tio n s
in
3
h a n d lin g them ."
These
in v estig atio n s
seem to p o i n t t o a d e f i n i t e
need
^ M ild re d E l i z a b e t h M i l l e r , "G uidance A c t i v i t i e s o f C l a s s ­
r o o m T e a c h e r s i n H i g h S c h o o l , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1938) p . 3 3 .
3
G r a y s o n N. K e f a u v e r , " T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f G u i d a n c e i n
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , " The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , £ 3 : £ £ 0 , May, 1 9 4 0 .
f o r some s o r t o f t r a i n i n g o f t h e
of service#
R u th S t r a n g w r i t e s on t h e
te a c h e rs need
in fo rm atio n ,
in t h e i r w crk w it h
fu rth er
th at
su b ject th a t
d e m o n stratio n ,
in -serv ice
it
and l i s t s
e x t e n s i o n a n d sum mer
teach ers*
study groups,
More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,
e stab lish ed
rie d o u t,
o fficer,
train in g
to
in th e sc h o o ls
c lin ic s,
su-
determ in e th e
in v estig ated *
i t w a s t o b e f o u n d how m any s c h o o l s .h a d
a program o f
and w h eth er,
in -serv ice
train in g ,
how w a s i t
car­
in the o p in io n o f th e a d m in is tr a tiv e
t h a t p ro g ra m was e f f e c t i v e .
Of o n e h u n d r e d f o u r r e p l i e s t o t h e
the
m eetin g s,
and e n l i g h t e n e d
The p r e s e n t s t u d y h a s made a n e f f o r t
in -serv ice
She i n d i c a t e s
sev en m ethods w hereby
These a r e :
p u b l i c a t i o n s on g u i d a n c e ,
p ro fe ssio n a l conferences,
5
p erv isio n * ■
of
aid s
t r a i n i n g may b e h a d b y a n y t e a c h e r who
t h i s t r a i n i n g may b e g i v e n #
sta tu s
"*•*.
and c o n c r e te
in d iv id u a ls and groups"*^
i s determ ined to r e c e iv e
courses,
teach er d uring th e p erio d
sc h o o l a tte m p te d a program o f
one o r f i f t y - n i n e
per cent
sta te d
query a s to w h eth er
in -serv ice
th at
train in g ,
six ty -
t h e r e was an a t t e m p t
4 R u t h S t r a n g , "Why G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s F a i l
c e e d , " E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , 1 9 : 3 2 3 , M a r c h , 1940*
and Suc­
®Ruth S t r a n g , The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l W o r k *
(New Y o r k :
B u re a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Colum bia
U n i v e r s i t y , 1935<5 p* 1 0 3 .
TABLE I I I
IN-SERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS IN GUIDANCE
<
i
I n -s e r v ic e Training in
Guidance
S iz e o f
Schools
Ho. o f
cases
No. of! Mo. o f affirm a­
cases | t iv e answers
14
5
36
5
1
4
60
200-399
15
9
60
3
:
1
400-599
10
5
50
3
600-1000
14
11
78
1000-2000
25
13
Over 2000
26
18
104
61
-
Measure Growth o f
jftb ility in Guidance
Per | No. o f
cent | cases
Under 200
T otal
ti
j
j
Teachers Required to
P a r tic ip a te
Per
cen t
Ho. o f affirm a­
t iv e answers
i
*
!
No. o f affirm a­
t iv e answers
Per
cent
6
0
0
33
3
0
0
0
0
2
1
50
3
2
67
5
:
o
0
52
4
1
; 25
4
i
l
25
69
15
6
! 40
10
1
2
20
59
33
14
1 42
30
1
4
13
NOTE: This ta b le should be read as fo llo w s: f iv e sch o o ls, rep resen tin g t h ir t y - s ix per cent o f the
sch o o ls under two hundred in p u p il p opu lation , in d icated there was no in -s e r v ic e tr a in in g o f teach ers in
handling guidance work*
CD
o
81
made.
It
is p erh ap s s i g n i f ic a n t t o n ote here t h a t as th e
size o f th e
crease
s c h o o l i n c r e a s e d t h e r e was i n g e n e r a l an i n ­
in th e number p r o f e s s i n g an i n - s e r v i c e
program .
For
e x a m p l e , - a m ong s c h o o l s w h o s e p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n w a s u n d e r t w o hundred, o ver s ix ty - f o u r p er cent
no i n - s e r v i c e
and o v e r,
train in g ,
in d ic a te d th ey attem p ted
w h i l e am o n g s c h o o l s o f tw o t h o u s a n d
o n l y t h i r t y p e r c e n t m ad e n o a t t e m p t .
The m a n n e r i n w h i c h i n - s e r v i c e
ied c o n sid e ra b ly .
The f o l l o w i n g w e r e
te n s io n o r correspondence,
conferences,
m ittee,
v isita tio n ,
to p a r t i c i p a t e
in the
in d ic ated :
t e a c h e r ’ s m eetin g s,
some t e a c h e r s t o
q u estio n ,
in -serv ice
b eco m e
th at req u ires
w ould be r a t h e r
of th o se
b u lle tin s,
”I s every te a c h e r re q u ire d
t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m ? ” m any r e ­
or
in ab ility
imbued w i t h t h e g u i d a n c e v i e w p o i n t .
O bviously a te a c h e r f o rc e d to p a r t i c i p a t e
a serv ice
ex­
g r e a t e r and v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e s .
s p o n d e n ts a p p a r e n t l y were aware o f t h e f a i l u r e
of
co lleg e
p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s b y g u i d a n c e com­
and scheduling fo r
In an sw ering th e
t r a i n i n g was g i v e n v a r ­
ag ain st h is w ill
s o much s y m p a t h y a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,
in effe ctiv e .
D esp ite
th is,
fo rty -tw o per cent
a n s w e r i n g r e q u i r e d e v e r y t e a c h e r t o become a p a r t y
in -serv ice
in
in
train in g .
/
It
serv ice
is
s i g n i f i c a n t to note h e re t h a t th e v a lu e o f in -
tra in in g as p racticed
g a t e d was v e r y h i g h
in th e
in
the v a rio u s sc h o o ls
o p in io n s o f the
in v e sti­
resp o n d en ts.
V ir-
82
t u a l l y one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t o f them f e l t
th a t th e tra in in g
was p r o d u c i n g a p p r e c i a b l e
and w o rth w h ile
re su lts.
view o f th e
train in g d iffered
fact
th a t th e
g reatly
T h is,
in ,
in kind
as w ell as d eg ree.
M e a s u r i n g o f g r o w t h o f ab i l i t y
in g u id an ce.
t e n e t o f good e d u c a tio n t h a t ,
in o rd e r
cacy o f any s o r t o f t r a i n i n g ,
some p r o v i s i o n
p r o f i c i e n c y o r g r o w t h s h o u l d be m ad e .
m e a s u r e m e n t m ay sh ow t h e
is a
to d e te rm in e th e e f f i ­
fo r m easuring
The r e s u l t s o f s u c h
inadequacy o r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e
m ethod em ployed o r i t m ig h t i n d i c a t e
a c t i v i t i e s on th e p a r t o f th o s e
w hether the
It
in v o lv ed .
p ro v id in g o f in -s e rv ic e
lowed by a l o g i c a l and n e c e s s a r y
a n y o f many a t t i t u d e s
To d e t e r m i n e ,
and
th en ,
t r a i n i n g was b e i n g f o l ­
s t e p o f m easurem ent,
the
q u e s tio n ," H a v e you any p r o v i s i o n f o r m e a su rin g t e a c h e r grow th
i n g u id a n c e a b i l i t y ? ” was a s k e d .
f a r the
g r e a t e r group
Of t h e n u m b e r r e s p o n d i n g ,
(e ig h ty -s ix per cent)
p r o v i s i o n w a s made f o r t h i s
purpose.
rep lied
by
t h a t no
A m u ch s m a l l e r g r o u p
r e p r e s e n t i n g t e n p e r c e n t and e x c l u s i v e o f t h o s e p r o f e s s i n g
some m e a n s o f m e a s u r e m e n t ,
e n tire ly
su b je ctiv e
rep lied
t h a t an y m easu rem en t was
in n a t u r e .
M aintenance o f a l i b r a r y
h e lp fu l a d ju n c t to th e
f o r guidance p u b l i c a t i o n s .
A
e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n in g o f a g u id ­
ance program in v o lv in g th e te a c h in g
s t a f f w ould a p p e a r t h e p r o -
83
v id in g o f p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n c e rn in g guidance f o r t e a c h e r u s e .
Such p u b l i c a t i o n s ,
w h e th e r in p e r i o d i c a l o r book form sh o u ld
make a v a i l a b l e h e l p f u l
s u g g e s t i o n s a s w e l l as m a t e r i a l o f an
in sp ira tio n a l n a tu re .
T h at r e s p o n d e n t s w ere s u p p l y i n g p u b l i ­
c a tio n s to
in d icated
tio n ,
teach ers
is
in
the r e t u r n from the
ques­
"Do y o u h a v e a l i b r a r y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g
g uid an ce?"
Of t h o s e r e p l y i n g , e i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t made g u i d ­
ance p u b lic a tio n s a v a i la b l e .
G uidance r e c o r d s f o r t e a c h e r u s e .
c alcu lated
cords
records,
is
to e s t a b l i s h th e n e c e s s i t y o f keeping ad eq u ate r e ­
if effectiv e
number o f
T h is d iv is io n
guidance
i s to
s c h o o l s among t h o s e
be g i v e n ,
to d e te rm in e th e
in v e s tig a te d t h a t keep such
and t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h o s e r e c o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e
to te a c h e r s .
I t has lo n g been e s ta b lis h e d
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f any sc h o o l i s
t h a t a v i t a l phase
the k e ep in g o f a d eq u a te
Those r e c o r d s c o n c e r n i n g s c h o l a s t i c - a c h ie v e m e n t a r e ,
v i t a l to the m echanical fu n c tio n in g o f th e
a n o th e r n a tu r e , b u t e q u a lly as im portant
t o be g i v e n ,
t h a t the
should a ls o
guidance f u n c tio n
of records a v a ila b le .
be k e p t .
records.
o f course,
sc h o o l and t h e i r
keep in g i s u n iv e r s a lly reco g n ized as im p o rtan t.
is
in th e
R ecords of
if effectiv e
Ruch i s o f th e
guidance
o p in io n
i s d e f i n i t e l y bound by th e adequacy
He s a y s :
84
TABLE IV
LIBRARY OF GUIDANCE PUBLICATIONS FOR TEACHER USE
Ho* o f a ffirm a ­
t i v e answ ers
.
S iz e, o f S ch o o ls
. Ho* o f .cases,
...................— . . . . . .
- . .
Per cen t o f a ffirm a ­
t i v e answers
Under. 200
7
6
200-399
4
3
400-500
3
3
100
600-1000
3.
3
100
1000-2000
4
3
75
Over 2000
10
a
82
T o ta l
31
26
84
.
86
75 '
NOTEs T his t a b le should be read a s f o llo w s : s i x sc h o o ls rep re­
s e n tin g e i g h t y - s ix p er cen t o f th e sc h o o ls under two hundred in p u p il
p o p u la tio n m aintained a lib r a r y o f guidance p u b lic a tio n s f o r te a c h e r use*
85
G u i d a n c e * . . t e n d s t o be e f f e c t i v e t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t
we c a n d r a w u p a b a l a n c e s h e e t f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , u p o n
w h i c h we c a n r e c o r d i n o b j e c t i v e t e r m s t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d
w e a k n e s s e s , t h e p e a k s and v a l l e y s , o f h i s p h y s i c a l , men­
t a l , and s o c i a l c a p a c i t i e s , w h e th e r t h e s e be m a t t e r s o f
h i s i n h e r ita n c e o r m a tte r s of h i s e x p e r ie n c e s , know ledges,
and s k i l l s •
An n a L* D a v i s a n d M a r g a r e t E . B e n n e t t c o n c u r w i t h R u c h
and o f f e r the o b s e r v a tio n t h a t
"com prehensive c u m u la tiv e r e ­
c o rd s o v er a p e rio d o f y e a r s a re e s s e n t i a l to any r e a l u n d e rs ta n d in g of f l e s h - a n d blood
in d iv id u a ls” .
7
Nor i s t h e m ere k e e p i n g o f s u c h r e c o r d s t h e
sib ility
o f th o se
t h e y may b e o f t h e
t o whom t h i s
charge
g r e a te s t v alu e,
the
is
given.
so le respon
In o rd e r t h a t
r e c o r d s s h o u l d be t h e
o u t g r o w t h o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f many p e r s o n s o v e r a l o n g p e r ­
io d o f tim e an d i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s .
C. S . B o u c h e r s
e x p r e s s e s t h e s e e s s e n t i a l s o f r e c o r d k e e p i n g f o r g u i d a n c e when
he
sta te s th at:
In th e c ase o f any i n d iv i d u a l p u p il o r s tu d e n t the d a ta
n e c e s s a r y f o r i n t e l l i g e n t rec o m m e n d atio n s c a n be .assem b led
o n l y o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f y e a r s b y m an y p e r s o n s who h a v e
had th e o p p o r tu n ity to o b se rv e the b e h a v io r o f th e s tu d e n t
u n d e r m an y c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d c o n d i t i o n s ; t o b eco m e i n t i ­
m ately acq u ain ted w ith h is lik e s , d i s l i k e s , am b itio n s,
*G. M. R u c h , " I n d i v i d u a l A n a l y s e s i n G u i d a n c e , ” The
H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 1 9 7 , May,- 1 9 4 0 .
7 A n na L . D a v i s a n d M a r g a r e t E . B e n n e t t , " T h e C o u n s e l o r
i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l , ” The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 2 0 3 , May, 1 9 4 0 .
86
t a l e n t s , a p t i t u d e s , tem peram ent, and c h a r a c t e r ; and to
t e s t h i s p o w e r s o f a c h i e v e m e n t a l o n g many d i v e r s e l i n e s
o f m en tal and p h y s ic a l a c t iv i t y *
And t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s
o f a l l t h e s e p e r s o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f com­
p arab le o b je c tiv e s t e s t s ad m in istered p e rio d ic a lly w ith
some r e g u l a r i t y , m u s t be r e c o r d e d i n a c u m u l a t i v e c a s e
h i s t o r y t h a t w i l l show t h e d i r e c t i o n s , t r e n d s , and a m o u n ts
o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( o r l a c k o f i t ) a l o n g many l i n e s *
O nly
th e n can e d u c a ti o n a l g u idance be g iv en w ith any d e g ree
of assurance .
A rth ur J .
Jones r e i t e r a t e s
i s n o t enough m erely to
recorded
in
th is
record fa c ts
b e l i e f and adds t h a t
b u t t h a t th e y sh o u ld be
s u c h a m a n n e r t h a t t h e y may b e e f f i c i e n t l y
T his phase of th e g u id an ce,
9
m ost i m p o r t a n t " *
D espite
the
he s a y s
im p ressiv e
it
is
used*
i n "many r e s p e c t s t h e
array of a u th o rita tiv e
o p in io n
t h a t may b e a s s e m b l e d p o i n t i n g t o w a r d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e c o r d s
in a guidance program ,
a co n sid era b le
no a tt e m p t to k e ep r e c o r d s .
w hether a re c o rd
resp o n d en ts
In answ er to the
o f each p u p il is k e p t,
q u e stio n as to
tw enty p e r c e n t o f
the
i n d i c a t e d no r e c o r d s were k e p t .
The k e e p i n g o f r e c o r d s ,
such r e c o r d s a re a v a i l a b l e
Q
n u m b e r o f s c h o o l s make
how ever,
is
o f no v a l u e u n l e s s
t o t h o s e who m u s t u s e t h e m .
C* S* B o u c h e r s , "Some E d u c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s a n d Some
P o s s i b l e R e a d j u s t m e n t s , " The N o r t h C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u a r ­
t e r l y , 14:366, A p r i l , 1940.
9
/
A r t h u r J . J o n e s , P r i n c i p l e s o f G u i d a n c e (New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k Com pany, 1 9 3 4 ) p ; 2 1 8 .
87
TABLE V
THE KEEPING OF PUPIL GUIDANCE RECORDS
AND THEIR AVAILABILITY FOR TEACHERS
Guidance R ecords Kept
S iz e o f
S ch o o ls
Under 200
No. o f
No* o f a ffir m ­
a t iv e answ ers ;Per cen t j c a se s
No. o f
c a se s
2
4
200-399
.8
400-599
.8
600-1000
. 7.
1000-2000
11
Over. 2000
12
T o ta l
50
Teacher A ccess to Records
9
..
9
100
? .
!
87 .
8
8
100
s
i
80
5
5
100
5
71
6
6
100
11
100
8
8
100
92
12
12
100
80
48
48
100
.
.
50
No. o f a ffir m ­
a t iv e answers Per cen t
_.JL1________1
42
!
NOTE* T his t a b le should be read a s f o llo w s : two s c h o o ls rep re­
s e n tin g f i f t y p er cen t o f th o s e under two hundred i n p u p il p o p u la tio n in ­
d ic a te d guidance reco rd s were k ep t.
88
M i l l e r " ^ h a s show n i n t h e
schools in v e s tig a te d
te a c h e rs c o n su lted o ffic e
present
to rs,
study,
from th e
records a t
some t i m e o r o t h e r .
sta n d p o in t of the
shows t h a t o f t h o s e
th a t n early a ll
The
school a d in in istra-
sc h o o ls k eep in g guidance re c o rd s
a l l w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n made t h o s e r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e
to the
teach in g s ta f f .
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER
E m phasis on g u id a n c e d u r i n g
t o a b e l i e f amon g w r i t e r s o n t h e
fu n ctio n
is v ita lly
the e n t i r e
rect,
it
teach in g
the r e c e n t y e a rs has le a d
s u b je c t t h a t th e guidance
i m p o r t a n t and s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d by
staff.
A ssum ing t h a t t h i s
is cor­
s e e m s t o f o l l o w t h a t t h o s e who h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i ­
t y o f h i r i n g t e a c h e r s w o u ld be a l e r t
in h a n d lin g guidance pro b lem s.
ever,
b e lief
th at
to a t e a c h e r ’s adequacy
The p r e s e n t
in f o r t y - s i x p er c e n t o f the
s t u d y s h o w , how­
schools
in v estig ate d ,
th e p e rso n o r p e rs o n s h i r i n g t e a c h e r s d id n o t c o n s id e r the
te a c h e r’s q u a lific a tio n s
in
the
f i e l d o f g u idance.
Many p r o g r a m s o f g u i d a n c e a r e n o t w o r k i n g t o a m a x i ­
mum o f t h e i r
teach ers
effic ie n cy
to a p p re c ia te
la r g e ly because of th e
in a b ility
and h a n d le g u id an c e p ro b le m s.
of
More
• ^ M i l d r e d E l i z a b e t h M i l l e r , ’’G u i d a n c e A c t i v i t i e s o f
C la ssro o m T e a c h e rs i n H igh S c h o o l , ”, ( u n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ) p . 6 5 .
89
th a n h a l f o f the
d uring th e ir
effectiv e
t e a c h e r s have n e v e r had a c o u rs e
train in g .
guidance.
Many a d m i t t h e i r i n a d e q u a c y i n g i v i n g
A lthough th e se
f a c t s a p p e a r t o m ak e o b ­
v i o u s ; t h e n e e d f o r some s o r t o f i n - s e r v i c e
fifty -n in e
train in g .
is
th e d e v ic e s one
given la r g e ly th ro u g h
ings,
train in g ,
per cent o f th e respondents, s ta te d
a tt e m p t e d any i n - s e r v i c e
co lleg e
t h e i r schools
m ight
suppose,
i.e .,
t e a c h e r ’ s m eet­
and c o n f e r e n c e s ;
As t o t h e w o r t h w h i l e n e s s o f a n y i n - s e r v i c e
attem p ted ,
only
Such t r a i n i n g a s e x i s t s
e x te n sio n o r correspondence c o u rs e s ,
b u lle tin s,
in guidance
train in g
th e r e s p o n d e n t s w ere n e a r l y unanim ous i n s t a t i n g
t h a t t h e p ro g ra m i n t h e i r s c h o o l s was s u c c e s s f u l *
I t m ust be
understood
in te rp reta ­
th at
c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r w i d e l y a s do t h e
tio n s o f the term ,
su ccessfu l.
E ig h ty - s ix p er cent o f the re sp o n d e n ts
t h e r e was n o p r o v i s i o n
in th e ir
grow th in g u id an ce a b i l i t y .
are a v a ila b le
tra tio n
of
resp o n d in g .
to te a c h e rs
the
in d icated
th at
sc h o o ls f o r m easuring te a c h e r
P u b li c a t io n s c o n c e rn in g guidance
in th e
field
th ro u g h the a d m in is­
sch o o l in e ig h t y - f o u r p er c e n t of th e sc h o o ls
R ecords g iv in g in fo rm a tio n u s e fu l
p u p i l a r e k e p t by e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e
T each ers have a c c e ss to th e s e re c o rd s
com ing u n d e r th e p r e s e n t
in g u id in g a
schools
in v estig ate d .
in a l l o f th e
in v estig atio n .
schools
CHAPTER 1 7
GUIDANCE IN HOME ROOMS
The p u r p o s e o f t h i s
chapter
is
to p r e s e n t a c o n s id e r ­
a t i o n o f t h e home r o o m p l a n o f g u i d a n c e *
S p e c ific d iv is io n s
of t h i s c h a p te r include a g en eral d is c u s s io n o f
o n home r o o m s , t h e
advantages of t h i s
h a n d lin g guidance p ro b lem s,
c o n c lu d e s w ith the r e s u l t s
u n less
g r e a t e r em phasis d u rin g th e
it
The c h a p t e r
P e r h a p s no o t h e r p h a se o f
be g u id a n c e
itse lf,
h a s had
p a s t f e w y e a r s t h a n t h e home r o o m .
In la r g e r sch o o ls p a r tic u la r ly ,
some t i m e
in
survey*
E s t a b l i s h i n g o f home r o o m s *
ed u ca tio n p ro ced u res,
type o f o r g a n iz a tio n
and d is a d v a n ta g e s *
o f the
the em phasis
a d m in is tr a to r s have f e l t f o r
th a t th e v ery siz e o f the
s c h o o l and t h e p l a n o f
s h u f f l i n g p u p i ls around to
a h a l f d o z en o r more t e a c h e r s d u r ­
i n g t h e d a y made i t
im possible f o r
alm o st
te a c h e r r e la tio n s h ip s to d evelop.
p ro b le m was n o t so a c u t e
In the
in tim ate p u p ilsm all s c h o o ls ,
th is
inasm uch a s t h e l i m i t e d e n ro lm e n t
made i t p o s s i b l e f o r e v e r y t e a c h e r t o b e c o m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h
each p u p il*
In a d d itio n to th e
ance
q u e s tio n of p ro v id in g ad eq u ate g u id ­
in a s c h o o l w here p u p i l - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d a l ­
m o st e n t i r e l y on t h e more f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e ,
adm inis-
91
t r a t o r s were c o n s c i o u s o f t h e n e e d f o r
some d e v i c e w h e r e i n t h e
p u p i l s o f a sc h o o l m ig h t be re a c h e d i n s m a l l ,
Such p ro b lem s such a s c h e c k in g a t t e n d a n c e ,
m ents,
in tim ate
groups.
m aking a n n o u n c e ­
and d i s c u s s i n g q u e s t io n s grow ing o u t o f s c h o o l a f f a i r s
c o u l d b e s t be h a n d l e d by a t e a c h e r w o r k i n g w i t h b u t t h i r t y
th irty -fiv e
p u p ils*
T h u s , when t h e
vanced,
th eir
it
p ro p o sa l to
found v e ry r e c e p ti v e
a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e
th ree ty p es:
e s t a b l i s h home r o o m w a s a d ­
ears.
A d m in istrato rs,
home r o o m a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n m ig h t be f u r t h e r e d ;
t h o s e who e n v i s i o n e d a n e w e r a
in e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a in ta in in g
a g u i d a n c e p ro g ra m w h ic h w ould be e f f e c t i v e
reach in g a l l
and c o n tin u a lly
the p u p i ls a l l th e tim e ;
t h o s e who sa w i n t h e home r o o m a n o p p o r t u n i t y
both th ese
fu n ctio n s
In s o fa r as the
and p u p i l s .
and f i n a l l y
to a cco m p lish
sim u ltan eo u sly .
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n was c o n c e r n e d
t h e home r o o m s e e m e d d e s t i n e d f o r
d e fin ite .
in
t h o s e who s a w i n t h e home r o o m a much n e e d e d d e ­
v ic e w herein th e
o p erativ e,
or
success.
The p r o c e d u r e w a s
The p u r p o s e w a s c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d b y b o t h t e a c h e r s
T h ere was a " f e l t n e e d " f o r t h i s
s o rt of th in g .
Such p r o c e d u r e s a s b a l l o t i n g d u r i n g p u p i l e l e c t i o n s fo u n d a
place
i n t h e home r o o m .
t h e home r o o m p e r i o d
fu l.
O bviously,
w ith p u p il
in te r e s t keen,
s p e n t on s u c h w ork was d e f i n i t e l y
success­
92
But a d i f f e r e n t
room d e d i c a t e d
itse lf
sto ry presented
o r a share
i t s e l f w h e n t h e home
of i t s e l f
how b o t h t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s c o n c e i v e d t h e
room was t h e p l a c e
the
id ea th a t
Some­
t h e home
be g i v e n *
d u rin g the
s c h o o l day was c h a r a c t e r
P e r h a p s one o f t h e
c h ie f w eaknesses of
home r o o m w a s t h e l a c k o f p r e p a r e d n e s s o n t h e p a r t o f
teach ers.
the
I n m an y c a s e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h s c a r c e l y a n y
th o u g h t a s to
th is
guidance*
and tim e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f c h a r a c t e r and
h e re and p e rh a p s o n ly h e re
tr a in in g to
to
the c a p a b i l i t i e s
ty p e o f w ork,
in stitu te d
and t r a i n i n g o f h i s
staff
for
a home r o o m g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m *
I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , H a r r y C* McKown,^ a n a u t h o r i t y a n d a n a d ­
v o c a t e o f home r o o m s ,
sta te s
t h a t t h e r e was d u r i n g t h i s
a g r e a t r u s h t o e s t a b l i s h home r o o m s *
s a y s , w ere n o t p r e p a r e d
T eachers,
t o h a n d l e t h e home room*
l a c k of m a t e r i a l and o f c o u r s e s o f
stu d y .
c h a o s a n d t h e home r o o m p e r i o d came t o b e
t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s .
how ever, he
T h e re was a
T he r e s u l t w a s n e a r
d i s l i k e d b o t h by
As a r e s u l t m a n y s c h o o l s d i s c o n t i n u e d
t h e home r o o m f o r g u i d a n c e a n d i f m a i n t a i n e d a t a l l
used m erely a s an a d m i n i s t r a t iv e
V a l u e o f t h e home r o o m *
i t was
d ev ice.
Many w r i t e r s ,
e r u n h a p p y e n d o f m an y home r o o m p r o g r a m s ,
a n ce ,"
perio d
d e sp ite th e r a th ­
still
feel
th at ba-
^ H a r r y 0 . McKown, " E n c o u r a g i n g T r e n d s i n Home Room G u i d ­
The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 2 1 6 , May 1 9 4 0 .
93
s i o a l l y t h e home r o o m p l a n o f g u i d a n c e
m ethodology h a s th e
S tran g , f o r
is
is
sound and o n ly in
plan f a i l e d .
in stan ce,
f e e l s t h a t t h e home r o o m t e a c h e r
i n a p o s i t i o n w h e r e i n h e may b e o f g r e a t s e r v i c e
guidance of p u p i ls .
She s a y s t h a t
d e n t s a r e more i n f o r m a l ,
m o re n a t u r a l ,
h a p s more p o t e n t t h a n t h a t o f t h e
ten tio n
"since
in th e
c o n ta c ts w ith s t u ­
h is
in flu en ce
is
per­
c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r whose a t ­
is
to o o f t e n f o c u s e d on th e s u b j e c t m a t t e r r a t h e r
o
th an th e c h i l d ” .
John C o rb a lly i s o f a l i k e o p in io n , a t l e a s t
in so fa r as th e
ju n io r h ig h school is concerned.
" T h e home r o o m , a s m a l l u n i t o f t h i r t y
to
He w r i t e s :
th irty -fiv e
p u p ils,
u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a t e a c h e r whose
im m ediate r e s p o n s i ­
b ility
of th is
fo r the
sem ester
seem s b e s t f i t t e d
in the
is th e
d irec tio n
f o r d e v e lo p in g an i n t e n s i v e
sm all group,
guidance program
3
ju n io r high sc h o o l” . .
McKown f e e l s
t h a t home r o o m s a r e no w r e c e i v i n g c o n ­
s c i e n t i o u s s t u d y and b e c a u s e o f t h i s
f a c t th e y are proving
m o r e e f f i c i e n t * ^ He i n d i c a t e s a b e l i e f
in t h i s
co n n ectio n t h a t
2 R u t h S t r a n g , T h e R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l Work
B u re a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y ,
1935) p . 1 1 6 .
^ J o h n E . C o r b a l l y , ” The C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n t h e G u i d ­
a n c e P r o g r a m , ” The H i g h S c h o o 1 T e a c h e r , 9 : 3 6 9 .
D ecem ber, 1933.
^McKown, £ £ .
c i t . t p . 217.
94
the
a v e r a g e home r o o m t e a c h e r i s
doing a b e t t e r
job o f g u id ­
ance th a n he s u s p e c t s .
R e tu rn s from th e
q u e stio n n a ire .
Since th e p re s e n c e o f
a home r o o m g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m i n d i c a t e s a s y s t e m o r p l a n f a l ­
lin g under th e g en eral
in v e s ti g a t i o n o f the
p re se n t stu d y ,
t h i s phase o f guidance r e c e iv e d c o n s i d e r a ti o n .
S p ecific
in ­
f o r m a t i o n w a s s o u g h t c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f home r o o m s
in th e
schools in v e s tig a te d ,
f o r guidance p u rp o se s,
m in istra to r,
w h e t h e r t h e home r o o m w a s u s e d
and w h e t h e r ,
in th e o p in io n o f
t h e home r o o m w a s g e n e r a l l y
su c ce ssfu l.
N um ber o f s c h o o l s h a v i n g home r o o m s .
f r o m t h e home r o o m i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r
in the
to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e r e t u r n s from t h e
one h u n d red se v en r e s p o n d e n t s ,
th eir
The t r e n d away
c h ap ter appears
q u estio n n aire.
Of
fo rty -o n e per cent sta te d th a t
s c h o o l s h a d no home r o o m s .
c e p te d as evidence t h a t th e s e
the a d ­
T his
is n e ith er
t o be a c ­
s c h o o l s h a d no fo rm o f g u i d a n c e
n o r t h a t t h o s e h a v i n g home r o o m s u s e d t h e m f o r g u i d a n c e p u r ­
poses.
A ccordingly f u r t h e r
th e use o f the
q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d c o n c e r n i n g
home r o o m .
The home r o o m a n d t h e g u i d a n c e f u n c t i o n .
g r e a t e r number
in d ic a te d th e ir
(eig h ty -th ree
per cen t)
of
By f a r t h e
t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who
s c h o o l s h a d home r o o m s s a i d t h a t a p a r t o f t h e
95
home r o o m p r o g r a m w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m s ,
a sk e d , how ever,
if
t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e home r o o m w a s t o
f u r t h e r guidance a c t i v i t y ,
a ffirm ativ e.
M ille r
her
T h is
is
only f i f t y
in c o n tra s t to
p e r c e n t answ ered in th e
th e f in d in g s r e p o r te d by
who s t a t e d t h a t o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e
.
schools w ith in
i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a d home r o o m g u i d a n c e .
I n q u e s t i o n i n g f u r t h e r c o n c e r n in g th e tim e
g u id an c e and th e
home r o o m s ,
prevalence of a d e f i n i te
d evoted to
course of
study f o r
i t was fo u n d t h a t f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e
spondents s t a te d
tim e to g u id a n c e ,
tim e t o . g u i d a n c e .
re­
t h e i r home r o o m s g a v e b u t o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e
fifty
per cent s ta te d o n e-h alf th e
used w h ile o n ly e ig h t p er c e n t d ev o ted th r e e
tim e was
f o u r th s o f the
Of t h o s e who i n d i c a t e d t h e u s e o f home r o o m s
f o r guidance p u rp o s e s ,
n ite
When
tw en ty -eig h t per cen t said th a t
a d e fi­
c o u rse o f stu d y had been ad opted w ith sev en ty -tw o p e r c e n t
rep ly in g
in th e n e g a tiv e
to
th is
q u estio n .
The s u c c e s s o f home r o o m g u i d a n c e ,
w h e t h e r a p r o g r a m o f home r o o m g u i d a n c e
t o com m ent.
At th e o u t s e t ,
is
The q u e s t i o n a s t o
successful
a statem en t a s to
u r e c a n n o t be m ade, e n t i r e l y on th e
im m ediate
i s open
success or f a i l ­
situ atio n .
O ften
^ M ild re d E l i z a b e t h M i l l e r , "G uidance A c t i v i t i e s o f C l a s s ­
room T e a c h e r s i n H ig h S c h o o l s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 8 ) p . 4 4 .
TABLE VI
USE OF HOME ROOMS FOR GUIDANCE
Schools Having
Home Rooms
S iz e o f
Schools
Ho. o f,
cases
Yes
Part o f Program Con- I
cerned w ith Guidance?
Per
cent
No. of
ca ses
Primary Purpose
Guidance
Per ' No. of
c e n t ; cases
Yes
Yes
D e fin ite Course
o f Study
No. o f
cases
Per
cent
Home Room Guidance
G enerally S u c c e ssfu l
Per j No. o f
| cent cases
Yes
Yes
Per
cent
I
2
100
7
e
! 86
2
1
50
5
2
40
5
1
i
20
5
2
40
3
0
0
3
2
67
2
0
0
2
0
0
Under 200
14
7
50 -
8
;
8
100
2
200-399
15
13
87 ,
8
;
5
1 62
j
\
400-599
9
8
89 !
;
f
8
8
100
3
2
67
4
1
25
2
0
0
'
J
600-1000
14
3
21 I
*
1000-2000
29
14
Over 2000
26
! 18
48 '
13
11
84
3
2
67
3
0
0
3
1
33
69
19
17
84
3
2
67
9
1
11
7
6
86
59
60
50
83
18
■ 10
56
29
8
28
22
12
55
i
T otal
107
63
NOTE: This ta b le should be read as fo llo w s: seven sch o o ls, rep resen tin g f i f t y per cent o f those under two hun­
dred in p u p il p opulation, in d ica ted th at home rooms were m aintained.
<o
o>
97
t h e m o s t w o r t h w h i l e o f r e s u l t s do n o t m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s u n ­
til
long a f t e r
sid ered a lso
the
p u p il has fin is h e d sch o o l.
th a t those responding to
the
I t m u st be c o n ­
q u e s t i o n was l a r g e l y
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o r t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d i n some m a n n e r w i t h t h e
ad m in istrativ e
fu n ctio n in g o f
m ay b e ' c o l o r e d b y t h e
degree,
if
it
fits
school*
adm in istrato rs*
any program i s
view p o in t
the
Thus any r e s p o n s e
a ttitu d e .
To a l a r g e
s u c c e s s f u l from th e a d m i n i s t r a t o r ’ s
in to
the
ro u tin e
of the
s c h o o l sm oo th ly
a n d i f a m in im u m a m o u n t o f a t t e n t i o n m u s t b e g i v e n i t .
I t was f e l t ,
success or f a ilu r e
s i g n i f i c a n t to
how ever,
of th is
th at
some i n d i c a t i o n a s
ty p e o f g u i d a n c e p r o g ra m m ig h t be
the p re s e n t stu d y .
A ccordingly th e
"Do y o u f e e l y o u r home r o o m g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m i s
cessfu l?"
cent of
illic ite d
to th e
th e fo llo w in g
the r e s p o n d e n ts s t a t e d
response:
th at
g en erally
fifty -fiv e
suc­
per
t h e i r home r o o m g u i d a n c e
was i n g e n e r a l s u c c e s s f u l *
T h is,
to a se rio u s q u estio n in g o f
t h e home r o o m p l a n o f g u i d a n c e .
N early h a lf of
th o se re s p o n s ib le
room guidano© f e l t
su ccessfu l*
t h a t work i n
How ever,
as
m u st,b e u n d e rsto o d b e fo re
if
q u estio n
accep ted co m p letely ,
fo r the
th is
lead s
s c h o o l s h a v i n g home
a r e a was g e n e r a l l y u n ­
in d ic a te d above,
c ertain
c o n d itio n s
t h e home r o o m p l a n o f g u i d a n c e c a n
b e c o ndem m ed a s i n e f f e c t i v e .
98
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
It
seem s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by w r i t e r s
co ncerning th e
s u b j e c t t h a t w h i l e m any p e r s o n s h a v e m i s g i v i n g s c o n c e r n i n g
t h e v a l u e o f home r o o m s ,
ite d .
It
is f e lt,
room p l a n and i t s
sh ow p o s i t i v e
th e y have n o t been e n t i r e l y
fu rth er,
proper
th at
d iscred ­
c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e home
in stitu tio n
and m a in te n a n c e w ould
and v a lu a b le r e s u l t s .
The t o t a l n u m b e r o f
s c h o o l s u s i n g home r o o m s f o r a n y
p u rp o se w h atso ev er a p p e a rs to
sh o w t h a t
q u e stio n
o r g a n i z a t i o n even a s an a d m in is ­
tra tiv e
stated
the e f f ic a c y o f th is
d ev ice.
th at th e ir
O nly f i f t y - n i n e
school a d m in istra to rs
p er c e n t o f the re s p o n d e n ts
s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n e d home r o o m s .
The q u e s t i o n i n g a s t o t h e u s e o f t h e
guidance r e v e a le d t h a t guidance
m a j o r i t y o f home r o o m s .
e n t s w ere o f th e
s a id t h a t the
i n some d e g r e e
E ig h ty -th ree
en ters
in to
a
per c e n t o f the re sp o n d ­
o p in io n t h a t a p a r t o f the
was c o n c e rn e d w i t h g u i d a n c e .
home r o o m f o r
O nly f i f t y
home r o o m p e r i o d
per cen t,
how ever,
p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r home r o o m s w a s t o
fur­
t h e r guidance a c t i v i t y .
T h a t t h e home r o o m w a s p r o v i n g u s e f u l f o r o t h e r p u r ­
p o se s th a n guidance
the
is
show n i n r e s p o n s e
to the
tim e consum ed i n c a r r y i n g o u t g u id a n c e
q u e s tio n a s to
serv ices.
F o rty -
two p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a n s w e r i n g s a i d o n l y o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e
99
tim e was u s e d , f i f t y
p er cen t said
per cent
said o n e -h a lf,
t h r e e - f o u r t h s o r more*
The s u c c e s s o f home r o o m g u i d a n c e
if
the
and o n ly e ig h t
i s open to
au estio n
o p i n i o n s o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m ay b e a c c e p t e d .
F o rty -fiv e
per cent
in d ic ated
th ey 'f e l t t h e i r
home r o o m p l a n
o f g u id a n c e was g e n e r a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l .
In g e n e ra l,
C h ap ter I I I
i n d i c a t e s a t r e n d away f r o m
home r o o m s a n d f r o m home r o o m g u i d a n c e
may b e d u e t o t h e c h a o t i c
co n d itio n s e x is tin g
fo llo w in g t h e i r w ide-spread accep tan ce.
ever, fe e ls th a t
in p a r tic u la r .
i n home r o o m s
One a u t h o r i t y ,
t h e home r o o m f o r g u i d a n c e w i l l f i n d
b a c k i n t o more s c h o o l s y s t e m s on a m ore e f f e c t i v e
b a s is th an b e fo re .
T h is
ho w­
its
way
and s t a b l e
CHAPTER V
GUIDANCE IN THE CLASSROOM
T his c h a p te r h a s a s i t s p u rp o se
th e
classro o m as a u n i t
S ev eral sta te m en ts are
census concerning th e
the c o n s id e r a tio n o f
in an o r g a n iz e d program o f g u id a n c e .
p resen ted
in d ic atin g
v a lu e o f the
classro o m as a p lace o f
g u id an ce and th e p o s i t i o n o f th e t e a c h e r
serv ice.
W hether a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f e e l t h e
sch o o ls provide
and th e e x t e n t
a p lace
fo r th e
to w hich t h i s
t io n o f t h i s phase o f
the
it
guidance,
q u e stio n n a ire .
came i n t o
em bodies had fou n d a p la c e
th ere
t h a t guidance
cla ssro o m s in t h e i r
c o n d u c t i n g o f g u id a n c e work
fo r g u id an ce.
c h a p t e r a d i s c u s s i o n was u n d e r t a k e n t o
term ,
in r e n d e r in g guidance
i s done w as t h e c h i e f c o n s i d e r a ­
The c l a s s r o o m a s a. p l a c e
the
the g e n e ra l con­
show t h a t
g e n e ra l use
long b e fo re
th e c o n c e p t w hich
in good t e a c h i n g .
i s no c a p s u l e
s ta lle d w ith in a school lik e
I n an e a r l i e r
I t was s e e n
o r f o r m u l a w h ic h c a n be
some p i e c e o f a p p a r a t u s .
It
in ­
is
no s p e c i a l d e v i c e w h ic h i f b r o u g h t w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a u t o ­
m a t i c a l l y accom plished a m ira c u lo u s cu re f o r
be b e s e t t i n g
.in a l l
it.
It
ills
t h a t may
i s no one m ethod w h ic h can be i m p l a n te d
s c h o o ls and in a l l
The p r i n c i p l e
the
situ atio n s.
o f guidance e x i s t s f i r s t
i n t h e m inds and
101
h earts of teach ers.
I t m u st be an o u tg r o w th o f r i g h t
liv in g
and r i g h t t h i n k i n g to w hich h a s been added k in d n e s s ,
h e lp fu l­
ness,
to
and t o l e r a n c e .
T his i s th e
b a s is of guidance;
it
m u s t be a d d e d k n o w le d g e o f
te c h n iq u e s and d e v ic e s to p u t th e s e
to p r a c t i c a l and e f f i c i e n t
use.
e r a l have t h i s
If
classro o m te a c h e rs
in gen­
sy m p a th e tic u n d e rs ta n d in g of t h e i r p u p ils and
a c o n s c io u s n e s s o f t h e i r p ro b lem s beyond th e n a rro w s u b j e c t
m atter co n fin es,
it
is
im possible
to keep guidance o u t of th e
classro o m .
U m stattd ,
an a u t h o r i t y
secondary school l e v e l,
in th e f i e l d
o f t e a c h i n g on th e
i s a s tro n g exponent o f the v alu e o f
the c la ssro o m te a c h e r in g u id in g h i s p u p i ls .
o p in io n t h a t every te a c h e r
th e
He i s o f t h e
sh o u ld develop a c o n sc io u sn e ss o f
im portance o f th e g u id an ce v ie w p o in t and seek to be o f th e
g reatest
serv ice
in th is r e s p e c t.
T h is o p i n io n r e s t s on t h e
b e lief
th a t th e classro om te a c h e r
facto r
in any p la n f o r th e guidance o f p u p i l s " . 1
fu rth er,
is
the
,fo n e i n d i s p e n s a b l e
t h a t h ig h ly o rg a n iz e d p la n s o f guidance
He s a y s ,
in v o lv in g the
use o f s p e c i a l i s t s and e x p e r t s h a s o f t e n p ro v ed i n e f f e c t i v e
because the
te a c h e r 's
w e a k n e ss ," he w r i t e s ,
tru e
f u n c t i o n was o v e r l o o k e d .
"of the e la b o ra te
"A c h i e f
p la n s found in
1 J . G. U m s t a t t d , S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h i n g .
G i n n a n d C o m pany, 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 5 3 .
some
(New Y o r k :
102
s c h o o l s f o r w h at i s c a l l e d p e r s o n n e l work i s
th e classro o m te a c h e r to u n d erstan d
the
p u p i l s ’ p r o b l e m s by o t h e r s o u t s i d e
feels
v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t when t h e
or sp e cia list
cause of lack of tr a in in g
in v o lv e d .”
th e classro o m .
to h an d le
2
U m stattd
teach er tu rn s to
If
o f the
in v o lv es th e h a n d lin g o f
some p r o b l e m s o f h i s p u p i l s ,
elem ent v i t a l to h is te a c h in g .
in a b ility of
sig n ific an c e
guidance v iew p o in t o r to use th e te c h n iq u e s
A nother s i g n i f i c a n t v ie w p o in t
th e
he r e l i n q u i s h e s a n
the te a c h e r
i s unable
such p ro b lem s,
s h o u ld be t a k e n to r e n d e r him c a p a b l e .
a co u n selo r
th en
be­
steps
I n t h i s r e s p e c t he
w rites:
The t e a c h e r ’ s w o r k i s d e v i t a l i z e d t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t
h i s p u p i l ’ s problem s a re h a n d le d by o t h e r s .
To t h a t same
d e g r e e d o e s he b e c o m e a n a u t o m a t o n , m e c h a n i c a l l y d r i l l i n g
m e a n i n g l e s s f a c t s and d e a d m a t e r i a l i n t o p u p i l ’ s m inds*
Any p r a c t i c e w h i c h a c c e n t u a t e s t h i s t r e n d i s t o b e d e ­
p l o r e d a n d s h o u l d be c h e c k e d and r e m e d i e d .
T h is c a n be
a c h i e v e d o n l y w h en t h e t e a c h e r s b e c o m e a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d
t h e i r p u p i l ’ s p ro b le m s and t o u se w h a te v e r t h e r e i s o f
v a l u e i n t h e r a c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , h a n d e d down a s s u b j e c t s
o f stu d y , to a id h i s p u p i l s in s o lv in g th o se problem s
w ise ly .3
A s i m ila r v iew p o in t
ing the
i s e x p re s s e d by E e l l s
r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een i n s t r u c t i o n
in c o n s id e r­
and g u i d a n c e .
The
amount o f g u id a n c e w h ich can be f o u n d i n a c l a s s r o o m d e p en d s
2I b i d ., p. 48.
3X b id ., p . 53.
105
l a r g e l y on th e
type o f i n s t r u c t i o n .
He s a y s t h a t :
The m e t h o d a n d t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o u n d i n t h e s c h o o l
have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on th e g u id a n c e p ro g ram .
I f the
i n s t r u c t i o n i s o n a n a r r o w s u b j e c t m a t t e r b a s i s , w i t h ma­
j o r e m p h a sis on s l a v i s h f o l l o w i n g o f a t e x tb o o k and upon
m e m o r iz in g an a r r a y o f f a c t s , l i t t l e g u i d a n c e i s accom p­
lish ed .
B ut i f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i s b r o a d e r , show ing t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een s u b j e c t m a t t e r f i e l d s , r e q u i r i n g
t h e p u p i l t o o r g a n i z e much o f h i s own m a t e r i a l w i t h o u t
th e t e x tb o o k c r u t c h , and w i th e m p h a sis on th e d e v elo p m en t
o f m eth o d s o f a t t a c k and o f a t t i t u d e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n s ,
m uch o f w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e d e v o l v e u p o n t h e c o u n s e l ­
o r i s ta k e n c a r e o f in th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p ro g ram .^
I t w i l l be s e e n , th en ,- from th e f o r e g o i n g
p o ssib le
and ev en n e c e s s a r y t o
gram o f g u i d a n c e .
in clu d e
a lread y e x is ts b u t,
t o g a i n a maximum o f g o o d
t h e r e m ust be a c o n tin u o u s a t t a c k on th e p ro b le m .
c a s e s o f c la ss ro o m guidance a re
g reatest
undergone
serv ice.
Iso la te d
in ad eq u ate to re n d e r th e
Thus in an y pro g ram o f g u id a n c e w hich h a s
some o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h
in g m ore, b e t t e r ,
is
the c la s s ro o m in a p r o ­
Much c l a s s r o o m g u i d a n c e
as has been p o in ted out h e re to f o re ,
th at it
th e end i n view o f p ro d u c ­
and c o n s i s t e n t g u id a n c e ,
t e a c h e r m u st be t a k e n
the classro o m
in to c o n sid era tio n .
In an a tte m p t to d is c o v e r th e e x t e n t t o w hich th e c l a s s ­
room t e a c h e r s a r e a s s u m in g t h e i r p a r t
gu id an ce,
q u estio n s r e l a t i n g
in o rg a n iz e d program s o f
t h i s p h a se were a s k e d .
a r e a s were b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d :
T hree
c la s s e s o rganized c h ie f ly fo r
^ K e n n e t h W. E e l l s , " A p p r a i s i n g G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s , " N a ­
t i o n s S c h o o l s , 2 3 : 5 7 , A p r i l 1 9 39 *
104
th e p u rp o se o f a id in g th e p u p i l to a d ju s t h im s e lf
s c h o o l a n d t o make b e t t e r
u tiliz a tio n
judgm ent a f t e r
o f c la ssro o m te a c h in g in th e
an ce , and th e e x te n t o f t h i s
R e s u i ts from th e
have r e a l i z e d
leav in g
en ts
to
said
q u e stio n n a ire .
T h a t m an y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d e v o t i n g one o r more c l a s s ­
th is
th eir
q u e stio n .
N early f i f t y
is
shown i n
per cent of
the r e ­
the re sp o n d ­
s c h o o l s had a t l e a s t one c l a s s whose m a jo r
in th e y e a r o f f e r e d and t i t l e ,
th e m ost o f t e n u sed t i t l e
S o c ia l L iv in g ,
th e
la st.
f u n c t i o n was o f a g u i d a n c e n a t u r e .
ly
sch o o l,
i n t e r e s t s of guid­
e s to a c a rr y in g o u t o f guidance f u n c tio n s
sponse
to t h e
These c l a s s e s
a s w ell as c o n te n t.
w ere O r i e n t a t i o n ,
and V o c a tio n s .
v aried g re a t­
Among
S e n io r P roblem s,
Among t h o s e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t
w ere S o c i a l and P e r s o n a l a d ju s tm e n t and B u s in e s s o f l i f e *
A lth o u g h th e a s c e r t a i n m e n t o f such w ould be d i f f i c u l t ,
t h e know ledge t h a t t e a c h e r s w ere u s i n g c la s s r o o m t e a c h i n g f o r
p u r p o s e s o f g u id a n c e w ould i n d i c a t e
tio n .
If
th is p ractice
advancem ent in t h i s d i r e c ­
were c o n s c i o u s l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y done*
t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o r g a n i z e d p ro g ram o f g u i d a n c e w i t h
p a r t i c i p a t i n g w ould seem i n d i c a t e d .
a b le guidance e n te r in g
That th e re
the classro o m i s
teach ers
is co n sid er­
shown b y s i x t y - n i n e
p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p l y i n g t h a t c l a s s work o f t e n r e ­
su lted
i n g u id a n c e . . A l e s s e r num ber,
th irty -o n e
per cent said
105
g u id a n c e e n t e r e d b u t seldom w h ile none f e l t
t h a t g u i d a n c e was
e x clu d ed e n t i r e l y from t h e i r classro o m s*
A te n d e n c y w h ich w ould r e s u l t
co n sid erab le
amount o f g u id a n c e
is
in th e perform ance o f a
in d ic a te d by e ig h ty - th r e e
p e r c e n t o f the re s p o n d e n ts f e e l i n g t h a t th e use o f g u id an ce
in c la s s ro o m s was a c o n s c io u s ,
m a in d e r were o f t h e
co n tin u o u s p r a c t i c e .
o p in io n t h a t guidance
given as the need a ro se b u t t h a t t h i s
n atu re
and c o u ld n o t be c a l l e d
The r e ­
s e r v i c e s m ig h t be
s e r v i c e was s p o r a d i c
a d e fin ite ,
in
p lan n e d program o f
c la ss ro o m guidance*
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e
am ined i n th e
q u estio n s,
how ever,
lig h t of several p o s s ib ilitie s .
m u s t be e x ­
N e ce ssarily ,
u n l e s s c o n d itio n s beyond th e r e a c h o f th e p r e s e n t stu d y c o u ld
be e s t a b l i s h e d ,
tio n s.
t h e r e w i l l be g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s
Even t h e w o rd ,
guidance,
in
in te rp re ta ­
c a r r ie s v ario u s co n n o ta tio n s.
T o o , w h a t m ay s e e m " c o n s c i o u s a n d c o n t i n u o u s " t o o n e p e r s o n
may a p p e a r h a p h a z a r d a n d d e s u l t o r y t o o t h e r s .
t h o u g h some r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t
th eir
teach in g
even
t e a c h e r s a s a w hole u s e d
c la ss ro o m s f o r c a r r y i n g o u t guidance p ro b lem s,
th a t throughout t h e i r
F u rth er,
it
is
obvious
s ta ffs g reat d ifferen ces
in
am ounts o f c la s s r o o m g u id a n c e w i l l be fo u n d .
R eg ard less of th ese
p o ssib ilitie s,
the
q u e stio n n a ire r e -
1 06
TABLE V I I
STATUS OB CLASSROOM GUIDANCE
. . , . . .
Use o f G la ssi *oom Teaching fo'r Guidance
Of-ten
Seldom
Never
C la s s e s P r im a r ily
For Guidance
S iz e o f
S ch o o ls
.. . .
No. of;
Per | No* o f
c a s e s :Yes cent! c a s e s
P er
cen t
No. o f
c a se s
Per
No. o f
cen t l c a s e s
i.
Per
cen t
0
o
:
0
0
62
3
38
;
0
0
4 ..
80
1
20
;
0
0
46
5
71
2
29
?
0
0
43
3
38
5
62
0
0
0
0
0
0
tinder 200
14
4
29
9
100
200-399
14
i 6
43
5
400-599.
9
i 6
67
600-1000
13
j 6
1000-2000
30
;13
f
Over 2000
T o ta l
26
17
65
8
106
52
i 49
34
i
67
4
69
15
33
!
31
i
NOTES P a rt one o f t h i s t a b le should be read a s f o llo w s : fo u r
s c h o o ls r e p r e s e n tin g tw en ty -n in e p er ce n t o f th o se under two hundred in
p u p il p o p u la tio n in d ic a te d one or more c la s s e s d evoted p r im a r ily to th e
fu n c tio n o f guidance* P art two i s b ased on a t o t a l o f f o r ty - n in e t o t a l
ca se s* Of th o se under two hundred i n p u p il p o p u la tio n , n in e showed th e
u se o f cla ssro o m te a c h in g f o r guidance o f te n ; none in d ic a te d th a t guid­
ance en tered seldom or n e v er., - Thus th e rea d in g o f p a rt two would be a s
f o llo w s : n in e s c h o o ls r e p r e s e n tin g a l l o r one hundred per ce n t o f th o se
i n th e s i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n below two hundred used classroom te a c h in g f o r
guidance o f t e n .
107
su its
sh ow r a t h e r p o s i t i v e l y
th at
th e classro o m te a c h e rs o f t h e i r
school a d m in istra to rs f e e l
sch o o ls a re p a r t i c i p a t i n g
in
th e guidance f u n c tio n .
More s p e c i f i c a l l y e v e r y r e s p o n d e n t s a i d
in h is
school ad m itted in to
fu n c tio n s o f guidance.
guidance e n te r e d o f t e n .
th re e p er cent)
th at
c l a s s r o o m s a t some t i m e
Of t h e s e ,
By f a r
teach ers
or o th e r
n early tw o -th ird s said
th e g r e a t e r number
th at
(eig h ty -
w ere o f th e o p i n i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s c o n s c i o u s l y
and d e l i b e r a t e l y u s e d c la s s r o o m s f o r g u id a n c e *
CHAPTER V I
THE GUIDANCE S P E CIA LIS T; COORDINATING GUIDANCE ACTIVITY;
AND SUCCESS OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMS
It
is
the p u rp o se of
t h i s c h a p t e r t o exam ine s e v e r a l
p h a se s of program s o f o rg a n iz e d g u id a n c e .
p re se n c e o f a guidance
to the
These in c lu d e
s p e c i a l i s t and th e r e l a t i o n s h i p
g u idance program s and the te a c h in g s t a f f ,
and ty p e o f c o o rd in a tin g
he b e a r s
amount
a c t i v i t y betw een t e a c h e r s d o in g g u id ­
an ce work and betw een t h e
s t a f f and s p e c i a l i s t ,
tu d e o f r e s p o n d e n ts tow ard th e
program s in t h e i r
th e
the
and th e a t t i ­
e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e guidance
sch o o ls.
THE GUIDANCE SPECIALIST
In the
r u s h o f m an y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o
g u id an ce program w ith in
th eir
schools,
in stitu te
a
m any o f t h e m s e i z e d
upon and th o u g h t e n t i r e l y a d e q u a te
a program superim posed
upon th e
sp e c ia list.
sch o o l th ro u g h a guidance
shown e l s e w h e r e
fec tiv e
th at
such a program i s
l a r g e ly because the
c o n sid era tio n .
for
I t has been
the m ost p a r t
in ef­
classroom te a c h e r has n o t re c e iv e d
T hree c o n c e p ts c o n c e rn in g th e e f f i c a c y o f the
t e a c h e r and s p e c i a l i s t
a r e m e n t i o n e d b y R o s e c r a n c e ( 1)
The
^ F . C. R o s e c r a n c e , " T h e P l a c e a n d A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e
C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r i n G u i d a n c e , " The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l .
23:
2 0 9 , May, 1 9 4 0 .
109
teach er is
se lf-su ffic ien t
unnecessary;
(2)
the
in g u id an ce and a s p e c i a l i s t
teach er
is not q u a lifie d
to h an d le g u id ­
ance p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e he knows n o t h i n g a b o u t g u i d a n c e ;
(3)
is
and
th e t e a c h e r and s p e c i a l i s t c a n work t o g e t h e r .
The c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e l a s t h a r d l y n e e d s c o m m e n t ,
It
h a s b e e n sh o w n t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r g u i d a n c e p r o d u c e s r e s u l t s .
It
fo llo w s,
ance,
th en th a t
co o rd in a tio n ,
such an o r g a n i z a t i o n
and s t i m u l a t i o n t o keep i t
p ro p erly .
Wren s a y s t h a t
b e r o f the
s t a f f be t r a i n e d
M orrison adds t h a t
th e
i t s e l f needs guid­
"it
is
e s s e n t i a l t h a t some o n e mem­
to d i r e c t th e g u id an ce program "*^
re g a rd le s s o f the
s t a f f m ust p a r t i c i p a t e
fu n ctio n in g
on th e
f a c t t h a t e v e r y mem ber o f
g u id an ce program , t h e r e m ust
b y n e c e s s i t y b e t h o s e who s p e c i a l i z e
in c e r t a i n a s p e c ts o f the
guidance p ro g ram .3
The d u t y a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e
end, how ever, w ith th e m ech an ical s e t t i n g
work i s
im p o rta n t b u t once accom plished i t
v a s t l y more i m p o r t a n t o n e ,
a ll
concerned,
guidance does n o t
up o f a p ro g ra m . Such
is
th at of e n listin g
and i n j e c t i n g new l i f e
su p e rc e d e d by a
the c o o p e ra tio n o f
i n t o th e p ro g ram fro m tim e
^ G i l b e r t W r e n n , "Some P o i n t s o f V i e w o n G u i d a n c e , " The
H igh S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 :1 7 6 , A p r i l , 1940.
3H e n r y C . M o r r i s o n , The P r a c t i c e o f T e a c h i n g i n t h e
S econdary S c h o o l, (C hicago:
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s ,
R e v is e d e d i t i o n , 1931) p . 5 8 5 .
110
to
tim e*
Cox a n d D u f f go s o f a r a s t o
a sp e c ia list
a ttain s
is
say t h a t any su c c e ss
th e r e s u l t o f h is a b i l i t y
in stim u ­
l a t i n g and d i r e c t i n g t h e g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t y o f t h e members o f
th e
teach in g
sta ff,4
In so far a s.th e
im p o rtan ce to
guidance
present
study
is
concerned,
le a r n o f the p rev a len c e o f
sp e c ia lists.
it
is of
s c h o o l s who e m p l o y
T h e i r u s e w he n c o u p l e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n
c o n c e r n in g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith t e a c h e r s w ould i n d i c a t e r a t h ­
e r c l e a r l y th e d e g re e t o w hich th e g u id a n c e program i s o r g a n ­
ized ,
R e tu rn s from th e
q u e stio n n a ire .
asked c o n c e rn in g th e guidance
have a guidance
sp e cia list?
g u id a n c e program ?
Three
sp e c ia list.
q u e s t i o n s were
These w ere:
Do y o u
Does he s e r v e a s d i r e c t o r o f
Does he w ork w i t h t e a c h e r s
the
in c a rry in g out
the g uid ance f u n c tio n ?
The r e t u r n s f r o m t h e f i r s t
in g e n e ra l w ith o th e r
in c o n s id e r in g the
of th ese
in v estig atio n s
r e s u l t s over
q u estio n s agree
in th is
field .
M iller,
a g r e a t e r number o f
sch o o ls,
showed t h a t f o r t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f th em h a d w h a t s h e c a l l e d
4 W* L , Cox a n d J o h n C a r r D u f f , G u i d a n c e b y t h e C l a s s ­
r o o m T e a c h e r , (New Y o r k :
P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c , , 1938) p , 8 5 ,
Ill
TABLE V I I I
STATUS OF GUIDANCE SPECIALIST
------- r
S ch o o ls Having a
Guidance S p e c i a l i s t
i
No • o f
Per
S iz e o f
cen t
S ch o o ls
Yes
cases
Under 200
9
200-399
8
400-599
•
600-1000
No. o f
cases
Yes
Per No. o f
Cent c a s e s
MM*
Yes
Per
cen t
ammm
mmmm
25
2
;
.2
100
. 2
2
100
3
60
3
?
3
100
3
.3
100
7
4
57
4
j
4 .
100
4
3
75
8
7
87*5
7
1
7
100
7
5
71
12
12
100
12
11
91
28
28
100
28
24
86
.
Over 2000
12
T otal
... I... . ...T —
0
1000-2000
.4 9
!
— .......... ■'1
.. ... ...... .1
S p e c i a l i s t ?/orks
D ir e c to r o f
With Teachers
Guidance Program
0
2
.
i
•
i
12
100
28
57
;
wmwm-
NOTEs T h is t a b le should be read a s f o llo w s : o f the n in e s c h o o ls
\inder two hundred in p u p il p o p u la tio n , none in d ic a te d a guidance s p e c ia l­
is t*
112
c o u n selo rs.5
C he n a n d P r o c t o r h a v e p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e
fo rty -fo u r per cent of a ll
tig a tio n
em ployed g u id a n c e
s c h o o l s com ing u n d e r t h e i r i n v e s g
sp e c ia lists.
The p r e s e n t s t u d y
found t h a t f i f t y - s e v e n p er c e n t o f the
had a guidance s p e c i a l i s t .
m ight l i e
th at
sch oo ls in v e s tig a te d
A llo w in g f o r any d i f f e r e n c e
in th e m eanings o f th e
term s,
counselor
th at
and s p e c i a l ­
ist,
th e d i s c r e p a n c y m ig h t be p a r t l y a c c o u n te d f o r by t h e
fact
th a t a m a jo rity o f the
schools s e le c te d
in th e p re se n t
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ere above s i x h u n d re d i n number o f p u p i l s a t ­
ten d in g .
The o f t r e p e a t e d a s s u m p t i o n t h a t
sm all
s c h o o l s do n o t
m a i n t a i n a g u i d a n c e s p e c i a l i s t ' i s b o r n e o u t by t h e f i n d i n g s
th at a ll
schools
s i z e had no
th e
i n v e s t i g a t e d w hich w ere below tw o -h u n d re d in
sp e c ia list.
T h is s i t u a t i o n a l t e r e d a s the
s c h o o l i n c r e a s e d u n t i l o f t h o s e o v e r two t h o u s a n d
latio n
a ll
in d icated
th e
em ploym ent o f a g u i d a n c e
size
in popu­
sp e c ia list.
In e i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the sc h o o ls in d ic a t in g
p re se n c e of a guidance
sp e c ia list,
th e
In a l l
guidance program .
of
he s e r v e d a s d i r e c t o r
the
of
schools r e p o r tin g a s p e c i a l i s t ,
5M i l d r e d E l i z a b e t h M i l l e r , " G u i d a n c e A c t i v i t i e s o f
C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s i n H i g h S c h o o l , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r Ts t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ) p . 4 4 .
5T in g Chen and W i l l i a m P r o c t o r , " G u id a n c e i n C a l i f o r ­
n i a S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s , " C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry Edu­
c atio n .
1 2 : 2 6 8 , Ma y, 1 9 3 7 .
113
he w orked c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h th e t e a c h i n g
staff.
COORDINATING GUIDANCE ACTIVITY
A n o th e r p h a s e o f o r g a n i z e d g u id a n c e w h ich seem s o f
su fficien t
d iv isio n ,
im portance
to w arrant i t s
c o n c e rn s the
c o o rd in a tin g of
v ario u s w orkers.
It
v is io n t h a t w hile
iso lated
a re undo u b ted ly o f
tain ed
in clu sio n in a sep arate
guidance a c t i v i t y o f
has been p o in te d o u t in the p re v io u s d i ­
i n s ta n c e s and i n c i d e n t a l g u id an ce
im portance,
i f a u n ite d f ro n t
g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y c a n be ob ­
is brought to
b e a r on t h e problem #
The i m p o r t a n c e o f c o o r d i n a t i n g g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t y
sh ow n b y J a r v i e .
facin g
He w r i t e s t h a t
#the f i r s t
the p ro b lem s o f g u id an ce)
is
esse n tia l
(in
i s t h a t each school have the
le a d e rs h ip of a d m in is tra to rs c ap a b le o f c o o rd in a tin g th e a c ­
t i v i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s in a program w hich assum es r e s p o n s i b i l i ty fo r p ro v id in g every c h i l d . * . .w ith th e o p p o rtu n ity fo r optimum d e v e l o p m e n t . "
E m b re e
i n d i c a t e s a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n when
he sa y s "b ro ad developm ent o f th e
v o l v e . . . w o r k by t e a c h e r s b u t i t
c ie ty ,
g u id an c e f u n c t i o n must i n - *
s h o u ld be c o o r d i n a t e d . . . " ®
7L . L . J a r v i e , " R e a l i s m i n G u i d a n c e , " S c h o o l a n d S o ­
5 0 : 7 2 9 , D ecem ber 2 , 1939#
® R o y a l B# E m b r e e , J r . , " T h e G u i d a n c e F u n c t i o n i n
S c h o o ls and C o l l e g e s , " E d u c a tio n a l M eth o d , 1 9 :3 3 6 , M arch,
1940.
114
I t w ould a p p e a r
th a t th e p ro ce ss of c o o rd in a tin g g uid ­
a n c e a c t i v i t y w o u ld i n v o l v e no more t h a n t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f
c e r t a i n m echanics f o r
form s f o r
its
fu n ctio n .
i n f o r m a ti o n o r p r o v i d i n g tim e and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r
m eetin g s and c o n fe re n c e s .
to
T hese m ig h t be t h e u se o f
Such d e v i c e s a r e n e c e s s a r y and add
the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o o r d i n a ti n g , how ever,
e le m e n ts w hich m ust r e c e i v e
co n sid era tio n .
th ere
are o th e r
At th e o u t s e t a l l
t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s m u s t a r r i v e a t a common b a s i s
o f u n d erstan d in g .
m ediate
The p o s s i b l e
and f u t u r e m ust r e c e i v e
outcom es o f
the w o rk , b o th
c o n sid eratio n .
A lertn ess
o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h k n o w le d g e o f sym ptoms o f c e r t a i n
im ­
in
d iso rd ers
o r m a l a d j u s t m e n t s s h o u l d b e made a p a r t o f e a c h t e a c h e r ’ s w o r k .
F i n a l l y the
tech n iq u es o f
b y a l l who e n g a g e
been c o n sid e re d
i n t e r v i e w i n g o u g h t t o b e w e l l known
in t h i s f u n c t i o n .
in the
When s u c h e l e m e n t s h a v e
l i g h t of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n ,
th en
m ethods o f c o o r d i n a t i n g sh o u ld f o l lo w .
R e tu rn s from th e
q u e stio n n a ire .
I t w ould a p p e a r t h a t
t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n y o r g a n i z e d g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t y w o u l d m ake im­
p e ra tiv e
some s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t i o n .
m in i s t r a to r s a p p a re n tly are o f th e
th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from the
spondents re p re s e n tin g
a c tiv ity
T h at m ost s c h o o l ad­
sa m e o p i n i o n
q u estio n n aire.
is
sh o w n b y
E ig h ty -fiv e r e ­
sc h o o ls p r o f e s s in g o rg a n iz e d guidance
s a i d t h e y u s e d a means o f c o o r d i n a t i n g su c h w o rk .
How-
1 15
TABLE IX
COORDINATING OF GUIDANCE ACTIVITY
S ch o o ls Having Some Means o f C oord in atin g
Gul dance A c t iv i t y
i
S iz e o f
sc h o o ls
No. o f c a s e s
Ho. o f affirm a ­
t iv e answ ers
P er cen t o f a ffir m a ­
t i v e answ ers
Under 200
9
7
78
200-399
7
3
43
400-500
5
5
100
600-1000
6
6
100
1000-2000.
7
&
85
Over 2000
12
12
100
T o ta l
46
39 .
.
85
NOTE: (Phis t a b le should be read a s f o llo w s : o f a t o t a l o f n in e
s c h o o ls under two hundred i n p u p il p o p u la tio n , sev en , r e p r e s e n tin g seven ­
t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t , in d ic a te d some means o f c o o r d in a tin g guidance a c t i v i t y .
116
ever,
of a ll
sc h o o ls in t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
c e n t h a d no d e f i n i t e m eans o f c o o r d i n a t i n g .
u larly
over f ifte e n
per
T h is was p a r t i c ­
am ong s c h o o l s o f s i x h u n d r e d o r l e s s .
Among t h e s e ,
t w e n t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d no c o o r d i n a t i o n .
The t y p e s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n ' c a r r i e d o n i n c l u d e d g e n e r ­
a l t e a c h e r s ’ m eetin g s,
b u lle tin s,
far
(fifty
in v o lv ed ,
and i n f o r m a l p a s s i n g o f word a r o u n d .
th e g r e a t e r number
a ctiv itie s
m eetin g s o f te a c h e r s
(sev en ty -fiv e per cen t)
by m e e tin g s o f t e a c h e r s
per cen t)
in v o lv ed .
c lin ic s,
Of t h e s e ,
by
co o rd in ated
A l e s s e r group
used g e n e ra l te a c h e r s ’ m eetin g s,
SUCCESS OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMS
Any r e c o r d i n g o f t h e
p rogram s m ust r e c e i v e
success or f a ilu r e
o f guidance
s c r u t in y from s e v e r a l a n g le s .
I t was
p o i n te d o u t b e f o r e t h a t o p in io n s r e c o r d e d w ere o f a d m i n i s t r a ­
t o r s w h o s e p o i n t s - o f - v i e w n e c e s s a r i l y w e r e b a s e d o n m any a n d
v aried reaso n s.
have c o n sid e re d
A ssum ing, h o w ev er,
to
th at
th e re s p o n d e n t m ust
some e x t e n t t h e v a l u e o f t h e
gram i n th e d e v elo p m e n t o f p u p i l s ,
guidance p ro ­
th e r e t u r n s give
some
in d i­
c a tio n o f the w o rth w h ilen e ss o f s o - c a l l e d o rg a n iz e d guidance
a c tiv ity .
F u rth er,
e s t to
fu l.
it
is
d i f f i c u l t even f o r
a gu idance program to
Some q u a l i f i c a t i o n
say t h a t
it
t h o s e who a r e
is
or
is not
clo s­
success­
o f th e m o n o s y l l a b l e s , y e s and n o ,
is
1 17
TABLE X
SUCCESS OF ORGANIZED GUIDANCE ACTIVITY
1-------------------------------------------- ------ -----------------------------------------------------------
..
S ch o o ls C ontem plating Major
Changes i n Guidance Program
S iz e o f
s c h o o ls
No. o f
c a se s
No. o f a ffirm a ­ Per
t i v e answ ers
cen t
Guidance Program
Producing R e s u lts
No. o f
cases
No. o f a ffir m a ­ Per
t i v e answ ers
cen t
Under £00
9
4
A A
■U* A
8
6
75
200-599
6
4
67
6
1
17
400-599
4
2
50
5
5
60
600-1000
7
4
57
6 .
6
100
1000-2000
8
1
12*5
7
6
86
Over 2000
12
3
25
10
8
80 .
T o ta l
46
18
32
42
30
71
NOTE: T his t a b le should be read a s f o llo w s : o f a t o t a l o f n in e
s c h o o ls under two hundred i n p u p il p o p u la tio n , fo u r , r e p r e s e n tin g f o r t y fo u r p er c e n t, in d ic a te d th a t major changes in th e guidance s tr u c tu r e o f
th e sch o o l were con tem p lated.
118
necessary.
These q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w ere beyond th e
p re s e n t study y e t
reach o f the
in draw ing any c o n c l u s i o n from t h e s e d a t a ,
t h e y m u s t be t a k e n
in to
c o n sid eratio n .
R e tu rn s from th e
q u e stio n n a ire .
was s i g n i f i c a n t t o
D espite
l e a r n t h a t among t h e
ized p e rso n n e l s e rv ic e ,
a ll
th is,
it
sc h o o ls h a v in g an o rg an
tw e n ty - n i n e p e r c e n t w ere s a i d t o have
u n s u c c e s s f u l program s o f g u id a n c e .
A gain,
a preponderance o f
n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s were g iv e n fro m s c h o o l s o f s i x h u n d re d o r
less
in
school p o p u latio n .
N early f i f t y
felt
t h e i r w ork was g e n e r a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l w h i l e among s c h o o l s
above s i x hundred in p o p u la tio n ,
per cent
in th is
group
o n ly tw e lv e p e r c e n t w ere o f
t h i s o p in io n .
Changes t o
b e made i n p r o g r a m s .
A fu rth er
o f w h e th e r g u id an ce program s a re f u n c t i o n in g w ith
is
in d icated
in d ic atio n
some s u c c e s s
i n t h e n u m b e r o f r e s p o n d e n t s who c o n t e m p l a t e ma­
j o r changes in t h e i r program s in th e n e a r f u t u r e .
W h i l e so m e
o f t h i s c h a n g e may b e m e r e l y t h e r e s u l t o f e f f o r t s t o
t e r m ethods, n e v e r t h e l e s s
gram h a v in g th e
p a rticip a tio n
is
i t may b e
seen t h a t
the p r e s e n t p r o ­
two n e c e s s i t i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n
fa ilin g
a nd t e a c h e r
i n .some r e s p e c t s .
Of a l l r e s p o n d e n t s ,
th irty -tw o
p e r c e n t co n tem p lated
m ajor changes in g u idance program s in th e n e a r f u t u r e .
in d icatin g th a t la rg e r
use b e t ­
A gain,
s c h o o ls w ere d e v e lo p in g a d e q u a te p e r -
119
sonnel s e rv ic e s,
w ere
a m ajo rity of
those co n tem p latin g changes
in th e group below s i x h u n d red in p u p i l p o p u la tio n *
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
From t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ,
m ent o f a g uidan ce
th e em ploy­
s p e c i a l i s t whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
o p e ra te w ith te a c h e rs
is
in the perform ance o f p e rs o n n e l s e r v ic e s
i n d i c a t e s a type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v in g g r e a t v a lu e .
le s s o f d iffe re n c e s alo n g o th e r l i n e s , w r ite r s
b e s t guidance s e r v ic e
o f te a c h e r s p lu s the
g u id a n c e w orker*
c ia list*
ist*
feel th at
the
c o o r d in a tio n and d i r e c t i o n o f a s k i l l e d
More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,
Most o f t h i s
R egard­
can be form ed th ro u g h th e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
Many s c h o o l s ,
s c h o o l s com ing u n d e r
to co­
how ever,
la c k a guidance
fo rty -th ree
p e r c e n t o f the
spe­
th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n had no s p e c i a l ­
gro u p had a p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n below s i x hun­
dred*
That th e
d i r e c t i o n o f g uidance program s i s b e in g
p la c e d in th e hands o f the
from th e
q u estio n n aire*
s k i l l e d w orker
ers
in th e
In a l l
cases,
shown b y r e t u r n s
E ig h ty -six per cent of
h av in g a s p e c i a l i s t u t i l i z e d
program *
is
him a s d i r e c t o r o f
the sc h o o ls
the
en tire
he w ork ed c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h t h e
teach­
f u r t h e r i n g o f p e r s o n n e l work*
C o o rd in a tin g o f guidance a c t i v i t y
Most s c h o o l s
(eig h ty -fiv e
per cen t)
i s very n e c e s s a r y .
h aving o rg a n iz e d guidance
w ork a t t e m p t e d
some m e a n s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n .
m ethod was by m e e t i n g s o f t e a c h e r s
p o p u lar,
in v o lv ed ;
The m o s t p o p u l a r
th e n e x t m ost
g e n e r a l t e a c h e r s ’ m eetin g s*
The s u c c e s s o f g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m s w a s i n d i c a t e d b y
d irect
q u e s tio n in g and s e c u rin g in f o rm a tio n a s to p roposed
changes in th e program .
felt
S ev en ty -o n e p e r c e n t o f re s p o n d e n ts
th e guidance a c t i v i t y
su c ce ssfu l.
s c h o o ls c o u ld be term ed
The r e m a i n d e r f e l t t h a t ,
was n o t p r o d u c in g t h e
schools
in t h e i r
d esired r e s u lts .
in g e n e ra l,
the program
The m a j o r i t y
in t h i s g ro u p w ere o f s m a ll p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n .
of the
T h irty -
two p e r c e n t o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d m a j o r c h a n g e s w e re t o be
made i n t h e i r
t h e s e were
guidance
in th e
program s in th e n e a r f u t u r e .
s m a ll s c h o o l group*
Most o f
CHAPTER V I I
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The p u r p o s e o f C h a p t e r V I I i s t h r e e f o l d :
a r e c a p itu la tio n o f th e
th e
fin d in g s of
problem ;
the p r e s e n t
in d ic ate
in v estig atio n ;
p o ss ib le avenues o f procedure
sired
to
to p re s e n t
in su m m arizatio n
and to
suggest
in b rin g in g about c e r ta in de­
c h a n g e s i n g u id a n c e p ro g ram s b a s e d on th e
in g s o f th o se program s in d ic a t e d
shortcom ­
in th e p r e s e n t study*
RECAPITULATION OF THE PROBLEM
The p r e s e n t e r a
sitated
m eet th e
th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f new c o n c e p t s an d new m e th o d s t o
ev er-ch an g in g req u irem en ts o f our s o c ie ty .
su fficien t
tern
in th e h is to r y of ed u catio n has n e ce s­
in th e
in th e
past for a ll
treatm en t o f a l l
p u p ils.
p r o c e d u r e s p e r h a p s was due l e s s
type o f p u p il s e rv e d ,
ratio n .
tio n
for
schools
It
seemed
to fo llo w a b a s ic p a t ­
The s u c c e s s o f s u c h
to m ethodology th a n to
the
t h i s was t h e age o f c o l l e g e p r e p a ­
I t was a l s o a n ag e
in w hich s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l e d u ca ­
f o r a l l o u r y o u t h was n o t a c c e p t e d u n i v e r s a l l y a s a b a s i c
p rin cip le .
Thus,
the
p a s t com prised f i r s t
secondary school p u p il o f t h i s
era
ju st
o f a l l b u t a sm a ll p e rc e n ta g e o f the po­
t e n t i a l number and s e c o n d ly r e p r e s e n t e d th e m ost a b l e o f t h a t
group.
122
G re at t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancem ent and a t t e n d a n t
tria liz a tio n ,
how ever,
tu s of our s o c ie ty .
ed u catio n ,
y outh.
c o n sp ire d to e f f e c t changes in the
Such c h a n g e s ,
sw ept i n to
in d u s­
th e
tra n sm itte d u ltim a te ly to
se c o n d a ry s c h o o l g r e a t num bers o f
T h e y came p a r t l y b e c a u s e
r e c e i v e d them t o l e r a n t l y ,
i n d u s t r y w hich had fo r m e r ly
no w s h u n n e d t h e i r p l e a s f o r w o r k ;
t h e y came p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f a n i d e a w h i c h ,
our p o p u latio n , re s u lte d
sta­
filte rin g
thro u g h
in the c o n v ic tio n t h a t a h ig h sch o o l
d ip lo m a was a n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r
in b u sin e ss o r
so cial success.
R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e a s o n why t h e i r p u p i l s w e r e t h e r e ,
s c h o o l men a w o k e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n
th a t a g reat,
p o p u l a t i o n was c ro w d in g t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s .
lem o f p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s
th is
i n c r e a s e d num ber,
m ore i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m .
ing in
was th e
its
u ltim ate
t h e r e was a l s o
A side from t h e p ro b ­
and te a c h in g s t a f f f o r
p re s e n te d a n o th e r and
I t was a p ro b le m a l i t t l e
a sp e c ts fo r u n d erly in g i t ,
demand f o r c h a n g e — c h a n g e
new s c h o o l
in c o n c e p t,
frig h te n ­
c l e a r and s tr o n g ,
change in m eth­
od.
The r e s p o n s e w a s v a r i e d .
t h i s new p u p i l f o r
n ied
to
c o n sid era tio n
in o th e r s by r e j e c t i o n
the
e x istin g
but rejectio n
A cceptance o f
demand by
i n some a r e a s w a s a c c o m p a ­
and an a t t e m p t t o m old t h e p u p i l
school s tr u c tu r e .
A cceptance
in f a c t o c cu rred often*
b u t a c tu a l adherence to
the
in p rin c ip le
L ip -serv ice
t h e o l d was f o u n d .
to
t h e new
123
But from i t
b asic
to a l l
g rea tly
a ll
e d u catio n :
in i n t e r e s t s ,
p lic a tio n of
came t h e r e e m p h a s i s o f a p r i n c i p l e
the p r i n c i p le
a b ility ,
th a t p u p ils d if f e r
and d e s i r e
to le a rn *
The a p ­
t h i s p r in c ip le brought w ith i t n o t only changes
in m ethods o f t e a c h i n g b u t p e rh a p s w hat i s
th e m ost im p o rta n t
sin g le fe a tu re
guidance.
o f m odern f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ,
C o n cep ts o f g u id a n c e d i f f e r w idely*
D e f in itio n s range
from one e x tre m e o f c o n s i d e r i n g g u id a n c e and e d u c a tio n
ymous t o
the. o t h e r o f lo o k in g upon g u id a n c e m e re ly a s v o c a ­
tio n a l cou n seling o n ly .
th e re h as been a lik e
w ith in
schools*
In a d d itio n
range
to
t h i s range o f co n cep ts
in d is p o s itio n
to
in c lu d e program s
S chools u n d o u b ted ly e x i s t w h erein guidance
i s n e i t h e r m entioned n or p r a c t i c e d .
sch o o ls
synon­
J u s t as su re ly are
th ere
i n w h ic h h a v e b e e n s e t up a c o m p l e t e , we11 - o r g a n i z e d
and th o ro u g h ly a d e q u a te
D espite
p rac tic ed
serv ice.
the p re se n t
s t a t u s o f guidance f u n c tio n s as
in secondary sch o o ls o f t h i s n a tio n ,
s c h o o l men i n g e n e r a l r e c o g n i z e
the
it
appears th a t
guidance v ie w p o in t a s b e ­
in g a f u n d a m e n ta l upon w h ich p r e s e n t day e d u c a t i o n m u st be
founded.
The t e a c h e r Ts p l a c e
p o rtan c e o f the te a c h e r
in the
guidance p i c t u r e .
The im­
in e d u c a tio n has long been re c o g n iz e d .
The s u c c e s s o f a s c h o o l d e p e n d s m o r e o n t h e a b i l i t y
and s i n ­
124
c e rity of its
teach ers
presence o f a fin e
th a n any o t h e r
sin g le
facto r.
b u i l d i n g and a d e q u a te f a c i l i t i e s
The
and a
s y m p a th e tic and a b le a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
l a r g e l y come t o n a u g h t i f
th e
C onversely,
teach in g s t a f f
in
in co m p eten t.
a w e ll-train ed ,
s y m p a t h e t i c t e a c h e r may c o m p e n s a t e f o r a h o s t o f d e f i c i e n c i e s *
I t m ay b e r e c a l l e d
A thens;
the
th at A risto tle
ta u g h t ben eath th e
J e s u s drew t h e t h o u s a n d s t o him a l o n g t h e
Sea o f G a l i l e e ,
in rude
a rough s ta b le w ith in
in n s,
and crow ded m a rk e t p l a c e s ;
T h e s e t e a c h e r s f am on g t h e g r e a t e s t
t h e w o r ld h a s e v e r known, n e e d e d no f i n e
to b rin g t r u th
te a c h e r ’s place
in the
t e c h n i c a l gu id an ce w ork,
though h is
for
t h e i r p u p ils*
scope o f fo rm a l e d u c a tio n does
seem m ore s t r a t e g i c
ance o f guidance s e r v i c e s .
o f th e s te p s
su rroundings in t h e i r
and u n d e rs ta n d in g to
P e r h a p s no p l a c e
th e
th an
in th e perform ­
A l t h o u g h h e may b e u n q u a l i f i e d f o r
t h o u g h h e may b e e n t i r e l y
in c o u n s e lin g p ro p o se d by g u id a n c e
t e a c h i n g lo a d be su c h t h a t he f i n d s b u t l i t t l e
i n d i v i d u a l g u id a n c e w ork, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,
of proof fo r
su ch a s t a t e m e n t w ould i n c l u d e
the te a c h e r
dence o f a p u p i l;
the p u p il;
ig n o ran t
sp e c ia lists,
th e
is
in a p o s itio n
to g a i n t h e
in a p o s itio n
C itatio n
such s ta te m e n ts
t r u s t and c o n f i ­
t h e t e a c h e r may b e c o m e r a t h e r
teach er is
tim e
he re m a in s s o l i d l y
p la c e d a s th e m ost im p o rta n t g u id a n c e f u n c t i o n a r y .
as:
shores o f
s i g h t o f t h e N o t r e Dame C a t h e d r a l , was.
th e classro o m o f A b e lard .
e ffo rts
trees of
in tim a te w ith
to g a in h e l p f u l
in ­
185
fo rm atio n co n cern in g a p u p il;
th e
serve ev id en ces o f m aladjustm ent;
t e a c h e r may b e a l e r t
the
to ob­
t e a c h e r comes i n c o n ­
t a c t w i t h f a r more p u p i l s d u r i n g t h e d a y and week t h a n a n y
o th er
in d iv id u a l.
A guidance program ,
n e c e ssity of
in c lu d in g the
th en ,
t h a t does n o t re c o g n iz e the
tea ch e r in
its
processes
b u i l t upon an i n s e c u r e b a s i s and c a n n o t f u n c t i o n
seem s
in an a d e ­
q u ate m anner.
Im p o rtan ce o f o r g a n i z a t i o n
c o ro lla ry to
to th e
the
im p o rtan ce o f g u id an ce
t e a c h e r f s im portance
po rtan ce of
A
i n m odern s c h o o l s and
in th e guidance p i c t u r e
is
the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u id an ce p r o c e d u r e s .
t h e r e may b e g u i d a n c e
ture
in guidance p r a c t i c e s .
th e
im­
A lthough
s e rv ic e s o f co m p letely s a t is f a c t o r y na­
perform ed w ith in a sc h o o l,
th ere
c a n be no d o u b t b u t
t h a t m uch m o r e s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s may b e o b t a i n e d b y p l a n f u l
o rg an izatio n .
The i m p o r t a n c e o f g u i d a n c e
h a p h a z a rd c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h i s w ork.
sp o n sib ility of
a ttitu d e s
is
too
great fo r
th e d u ty and r e ­
t h e p r e s e n t d a y s c h o o l t o m ak e a v a i l a b l e
th e r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s
p u p il w ith th e
It
is
w ith in
its
to o ls of so cial liv in g .
power to p ro v id e
Such t o o l s
and a p p r e c i a t i o n s and grow o u t o f a b i l i t y
a ll
the
include
to d e te r ­
m ine p u r p o s e s a n d s e l e c t r o u t e s t o w a r d t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t *
S u c h r e s o u r c e s n u m b e r am o ng t h e m a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d g u i d a n c e
126
stru c tu re .
R estatem en t o f the problem #
e a rlie r
in t h i s
ch ap ter,
th e
The t e n e t s
co n sid ered
im portance o f g u id a n c e ,
p o r ta n c e o f th e t e a c h e r in g u id a n c e , and th e
the
im­
im portance o f
o rg a n iz in g guidance
a c t i v i t y form th e b a s i s o f th e problem o f
th e p re s e n t stu d y .
C h i e f am o ng t h e s e
place
in gu id an ce w ork.
is
the
P r o c e d i n g on t h e
te a c h e r and h i s
a s s u m p tio n t h a t he
o c cu p ies a p o s itio n o f im portance, th e p re s e n t
to o k to determ in e
p a rticip a te d
th e manner and e x t e n t
in w hich he a c t u a l l y
in g uidance program s in seco n d ary s c h o o ls .
Though th e l i m i t a t i o n s
ex h au stiv e,
study under­
the p r e s e n t
a r e many a n d t h e r e s u l t s
in v e stig a tio n p o in ts
d u r e s and d e v ic e s w hich p r o v id e
to p a r tic ip a te
fo r th e
by no m eans
tow ard p ro c e ­
t e a c h e r an o p p o r t u n it y
in th e p e rfo rm an c e of p e r s o n n e l w ork.
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS
It
itu la tio n ,
is
the p u rp o se o f t h i s
the fin d in g s rec o rd ed
sectio n to
present
in g r e a t e r d e t a i l
in re c a p ­
in p r e ­
v io u s chapters*
/
The p r e v a l e n c e o f o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m s o f g u i d a n c e .
th o u g h i t was n o t t h e m a jo r p u rp o s e o f
the p r e s e n t
study to
d i s c o v e r th e e x t e n t and ty p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a s su ch ,
ondary f e a tu r e
did c o n sid er
th is
A l­
a sp e c t o f gu id an ce.
a sec­
The t e r m ,
127
o rg an izatio n ,
tatio n s,
n ece ssa rily
th u s,
is
c a p a b l e o f m any a n d v a r i e d c o n n o ­
a d i r e c t q u e s tio n in g o f w hether a p a r t i c u l a r
s c h o o l m a i n t a i n e d 'a n o r g a n i z e d g u id a n c e s t r u c t u r e was p u r p o s e ­
ly av o id ed .
In
its
stead c e r ta in
q u estio n s r e l a ti n g
to o th e r p h a ses o f guidance b u t in d ic a t i v e
e x t e n t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n were ask ed *
of course,
in a d d itio n
of
the
d irec tly
ty p e and
Such q u e s t i o n i n g s w e re,
to a survey o f p r a c tic e s rec o rd ed
in
books, p e r i o d i c a l s , , and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s .
W hile r e s u l t s w ere s u c h t h a t d e f i n i t e n u m b ers and p e r ­
c e n t a g e s c o u ld n o t be q u o te d ,
in d ic a te s th ere
about guidance.
n ev erth eless,
is a w e ll-d e fin ed
the p re s e n t
tendency to
study
do s o m e t h i n g
T h i s s o m e t h i n g m ay b e a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d a n d
w e ll-d e v e lo p e d program o f i n d iv i d u a l c o u n s e lin g o r a l e s s
ten siv e
program o f group g u id an ce y e t
f o r t to provide
it
no o r g a n i z a t i o n .
c e n t o f the
a p p e a rs to be an e f ­
some s u c h w o r k f o r n e e d f u l p u p i l s .
t r a t o r s o f some s c h o o l s c o m i n g w i t h i n t h e
study p ro fe s se d
In a d d itio n
to
t h i s num ber,
h a p s t h e r e w e r e o t h e r s who e i t h e r w e r e l o a t h t o
o f a p r o g r a m o r who s i n c e r e l y f e l t
to
the p r e s e n t
t h a t amon g t h o s e
tendency to o rg an ize
per
per­
adm it a l a c k
th e y had a program b u t
w hich u n d e r s c r u t i n y m ig h t pro v e o t h e r w i s e .
c lu siv e ly
A dm inis­
Such a g ro u p am ounted t o r o u g h l y f i f t e e n
t o t a l num ber.
th e fin d in g s of
in ­
in v estig atio n
D espite a l l
in d ic a te r a th e r con­
schools c o n sid e re d ,
guidance p ro c e d u re s .
th is,
there
is
a
128
In clu sio n of te a c h e rs
fin d in g s of th e
ad m in istrato rs
er
present
in guidance
study appear to
in g e n e ra l r e a l i z e
the
in any p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e w ork.
centage
fla tly
th eir
teacher p a rtic ip a te d ,
p o site
co n d itio n
In d icate
tio n s.
th at
school
A lthough a sm a ll p e r ­
of a ll
respondents
s c h o o l s h a d no p r o g r a m i n w h i c h t h e
hy f a r
in th e i r
th e l a r g e r number s t a t e d an op­
schools.
In c o n n e c tio n w ith guidance program s,
teach ers
The
im portance o f th e t e a c h ­
( s ix and seven t e n t h s p e r c e n t)
in d icated
a c tiv itie s.
i t w as found t h a t
i n g e n e r a l o c c u p i e d e i t h e r o n e o r b o t h o f tw o p o s i ­
They were f u l l o r p a r t tim e g u i d a n c e o f f i c e r s an d
fu n ctio n ed as such.
Some s e r v e d a s c o u n s e l o r s ,
d ire c to rs of
guidance,
a n d , m uch m o r e n u m e r o u s , home r o o m o r b a s i c c o u r s e
tea ch e rs.
I n some c a s e s t e a c h e r s w e r e r e l i e v e d o f a p a r t o f
th eir
teach in g d u ty to
d e v o te t h a t tim e to
serv in g in
the p e r ­
so n n e l program .
The o t h e r m a n n e r i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d w a s
through t h e i r
classro o m s.
Many r e s p o n d e n t s
classro o m te a c h e rs of t h e i r
sc h o o ls took p a r t
p l a n b y o b t a i n i n g -in fo rm a tio n from p u p i l s .
tran sm itte d
of
those
to
a cen tral
guidance o f f i c e r s
d ata,
the
in th e guidance
Such i n f o r m a t i o n ,
s o u r c e , was p l a c e d a t t h e
co u nselin g in d iv id u a l p u p ils .
su p p ly in g of usab le
in d icated
In a d d itio n
d isp o sal
to
th is
te a c h e rs c o o p erate d c lo s e ly w ith
in o b se rv in g p u p ils
and r e p o r t i n g r e a c t i o n s
129
to
counseling.
A lthough m ost a d m i n i s t r a t o r s
ta in e d a guidance p la n
them
in clud in g
( f o r ty - s ix p er cent)
them .
to
th eir
o f a good t e a c h e r ,
tow ard y o u th ,
a ttitu d e ”.
in terv iew ,
in
A d m in istra to rs are
Two
a le rt
p o s s e s s .the c h a r a c ­
a m o ng t h e m k i n d n e s s ,
are the
guidance,
a sy m p ath etic
in te rest
b a sis of th e
in
"guidance
the m a t t e r o f su p e rim p o s in g th e
te c h n iq u e s o f guidance p r a c t i c e
th e
and a b i l i t y
h irin g of te a c h e rs.
b u t who a l s o
W ith such a b a s i s ,
term ,
n early h a lf of
and a d e e p and g e n u in e
Such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
w hile th e
in th e
sc h o o ls m ain­
s t a f f s who n o t o n l y h a v e a k n o w l e d g e
su b je c t m atter f i e l d
te ristic s
attitu d e
train in g
r e a s o n s may a c c o u n t f o r t h i s .
t o add t e a c h e r s
of th e ir
the t e a c h e r ,
said th a t
g u i d a n c e w o r k was n o t c o n s i d e r e d
p o ssib le
sta te d th e ir
is
re la tiv e ly
sim p le.
Thus,
may n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y b e u s e d d u r i n g
n ev erth eless,
the
tea ch e r -q u a litie s u nd erly in g
good g u id a n c e m ig h t r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ^
A nother p o s s i b l e
in g guidance a b i l i t y
r e a s o n f o r su c h a l a r g e number s t a t ­
did n o t e n te r
t h e h i r i n g o f t e a c h e r s may
be due to t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y
m ost schools*
fa c u ltie s
p a rticip a te
s m a ll number o f
a s guidance o f f i c e r s .
E v e n am ong t h o s e who d o n o t s e r v e a s o f f i c e r s ,
b u t a sm all
number a r e a c t i v e l y en g ag ed i n f u r t h e r i n g g u id a n c e a c t i v i t y .
A p p a r e n t l y many a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e
of th e ir
teach in g s t a f f
is
sa tisfie d
q u a lifie d
i f but a p o rtio n
and h a s th e
d isp o sitio n
1 30
to p a r tic ip a te
i n g u i d a n c e w ork*
A nother a s p e c t o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
a c t i v i t y was i n d i c a t e d
assum ing g u idance
th an h a lf
ance
th eir
of th e ir
tech n iq u e,
in th e la c k of t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e rs
resp o n sib ility .
D espite
the f a c t
t e a c h e r s had had a f o rm a l c o u r s e
n e a rly f o r t y per c e n t o f the
s c h o o l s a t t e m p t e d no i n - s e r v i c e
no f o r m a l
in -se rv ic e
tr a in in g p lan
is m ain tain ed ,
e n ts,
in th e f i e l d
of guid an ce.
e ig h ty -fo u r per cent sta te d
in
th at less
in g u id -
respondents
train in g *
t o r s w e r e t a k i n g some s t e p s t o make a v a i l a b l e
cent p u b lic atio n s
in guidance
said
H ow ever,
if
ad m in istra­
to t e a c h e r s r e ­
Of t h e r e s p o n d ­
su c h p u b l i c a t i o n s were
a v aila b le .
Home r o o m g u i d a n c e .
E d u catio n ,
w ith c o n c e p ts and t h e o r i e s
advanced to
e x is ti n g problem s.
the p ro b lem s c o n f r o n t i n g e d u c a t o r s
One o f
as o th e r f i e l d s ,
abounds
p ro v id e a s o lu tio n to
d u r i n g th e p a s t y e a r s was t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r c o u n t e r a c t i n g
d iffu s e d r e s p o n s i b i li t y f o r each c h ild .
acute
T his d if f u s io n *
in sch o o ls o f l a r g e r p u p il p o p u la tio n s ,
apparent
im personal d e a lin g w ith each c h i l d .
c o u ld be m e t,
o f some p l a n
th o u g h t school a d m in is tr a to r s ,
resu lte d
the
more
in an
T his c o n d itio n
by th e a d o p t i o n
in w hich a t e a c h e r assum es th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
f o r g u id in g a group o f p u p i l s
m erely s u b je c t m a tt e r .
in a re a s of g r e a te r
scope th a n
S u c h a p l a n w a s t h e home r o o m .
The
1 31
t h e o r y a n d l o g i c o f t h e home r o o m s e e m s u n a s s a i l a b l e
a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , m an y d e f i c i e n c i e s
f i c i e n c i e s w ere t h e r e s u l t
are m an ifested .
to a la rg e
w ere
in
ent
the p lan *
tran sla te d
its
in to
in clu d ed
These de­
th an a fun d am en tal
th ey e x is te d
an a b o lis h in g of
b asic pu rp o ses.
in v estig atio n
sch o o ls
N ev erth eless
and f i n a l l y
t h e home r o o m o r c h a n g e
T h is change was i n d i c a t e d
in th e p re s ­
show ing t h a t f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f a l l
in
the
in
degree of u n f a m i li a r ­
i t y w ith m ethodology and te c h n iq u e r a t h e r
w eakness of
but
q u e s tio n n a ire phase o f
the
the
stu dy had
n o home r o o m s o f a n y s o r t *
A fu rth er
was a p p a r e n t
i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d a w a y f r o m home r o o m s
in d a t a p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t o f t h e number o f
s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n i n g home r o o m s o n l y f i f t y
t h e m p r i m a r i l y f o r g u i d a n c e w ork *
A still
per cent u tiliz e d
more s i g n i f i c a n t
f a c t a p p e a r s w hen i t w a s show n t h a t o f t h e r a t h e r s m a l l g r o u p
u sin g the
ty fiv e
e ra lly
home r o o m f o r
guidance p u rp o se s p r i m a r il y ,
p e r c e n t co u ld s t a t e
th at
s u c h w ork was gen
su ccessfu l.
C lassroom g u id a n c e .
fu n c tio n w ith in
the
to approach th e
id e a l.
its
d e fin ite ly
only f i f ­
d e ta ils,
cannot
A guidance program d e sig n ed to
classro o m as w ell as o th e r p la c e s
A w ell-ro u n d ed p la n ,
ignore
the
classro o m .
ad eq u ate
seem s
in a l l
U t i l i z a t i o n o f the
c l a s s r o o m may b e d i r e c t a s i n t h e c a s e o f c o u r s e s d e f i n i t e l y
132
o f guidance n a tu r e
such a s o r i e n t a t i o n
in g w ith h e a lth o r v o c a tio n s .
c o u rse s o r those d e a l­
Or t h e c l a s s r o o m may b e u s e d
i n d i r e c t l y w ith o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g u id a n c e grow ing o u t o f th e
m a te r ia l p re s e n te d o r th e o b s e rv a tio n o f the te a c h e r .
That a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a re
a place
c o n ceiv in g of th e classro o m as
f o r guidance and a re c a r r y in g t h a t
p r a c t i c e w a s sh o w n b y n e a r l y f i f t y
sta tin g
w ork.
th at th e ir
in to
actu al
per cen t of the resp o n d en ts
s c h o o ls had form ed c l a s s e s f o r g u id a n c e
Even th o u g h g u id a n c e a c t i v i t y was n o t t h e m a jo r p u r ­
poses of th e ir
en ts
b e lie f
cla sses,
s ix ty -s e v e n per c e n t of th e resp o n d ­
s a id t h a t guidance e n te r e d t h e i r
c l a s s r o o m s a s a. c o n ­
s c i o u s and c o n tin u o u s p r a c t i c e .
T h irty -o n e per cen t in d ic a te d
it
f e lt th at
e n t e r e d o c c a s i o n a l l y and none
found a p la c e
in t h e i r
T h is d a ta ,
classro o m s,
h o w e v e r , m u st be s u p p l e m e n te d w i t h p e r s o n a l
v isits
to a l l
cu rate
in fo rm atio n .
sc h o o ls concerned
school d i f f e r w id ely .
to
determ ine
O bviously c l a s s e s ,
guidance
th is,
it
was s e e n t h a t
is fin d in g a p lace
c o u rs e found
th o ro u g h ly a c ­
as tea ch e rs,
w ith in a
J u s t a s o b v io u s ly th e amount o f g u id an c e
ta k in g p lac e w ith in a classro o m w i l l
D espite
guidance n e v er
in k in d and d e g re e .
the c la s s ro o m a s a p la c e f o r
the m odern s c h o o l s .
The b a s i c
i n some s c h o o l s r e p r e s e n t s a d e f i n i t e
and a p p a r­
e n tl y w o rthw hile s te p
in
d iffer
in t h i s
d irec tio n .
133
Use o f a g u i d a n c e
ance
sp e c ia list*
s p e c ia lis t w ith in a school
The p r e s e n c e o f a g u i d ­
is of but l i t t l e
im portance
to th e p re se n t
study u n le s s
d u tie s th e re .
Such i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o w h e th e r he a ssu m e s e n ­
tire
re sp o n sib ility
f o r th e program to
t e a c h e r s and w h e th e r he
e n lists
q u a lifie d w ith d e ta ils
of h is
the e x c lu s io n o f
serves as d ire c to r
o f th e p ro g ram and
th e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s m ust be a v a i l a b l e
th at h is tru e
r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h members o f
the
the
in order
teach in g
staff
may b e k n o w n .
What w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e a n i n a d e q u a t e p r o g r a m i s
d icated
i n t h e r e s p o n s e o f a s m a ll number o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .
S lig h tly over ten per cent
th e ir
in ­
sta te d
t h a t g u id a n c e work w i t h i n
s c h o o ls was h a n d le d e n t i r e l y by one p e r s o n ,
a train ed or
s e m i - t r a i n e d g u id an c e worker*
f i f t y - s e v e n p er c e n t m a in ta in e d guidance
ap p aren tly
Of a l l
sch o o ls,
sp e c ia lists.
No
s c h o o l s below tw o - h u n d r e d i n p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n em p lo y ed a s p e ­
c ia list*
In m ost o f t h e
(e ig h ty -s ix per cent)
i n w h ic h he was e m p lo y ed
he s e r v e d a s th e
ance program and in a l l
th e te a c h in g s t a f f
sch o o ls
d ir e c to r o f the
g u id ­
s c h o o l s , he w orked c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h
in th e f u r th e r a n c e o f guidance a c t i v i t y .
C o o rd in a tio n o f guidance
to be a v i t a l f e a t u r e
a ctiv ity .
W h at w o u l d a p p e a r
o f an y g u id a n c e p ro g ra m i s a m ethod o f
c o o r d i n a t i n g th e work o f t h e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n a r i e s .
T hat such
134
c o o r d i n a t i n g a p p e a r s n o t t o e x i s t w i t h i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e num­
ber of
schools
is
sh o w n i n t h e d a t a
p e r c e n t o f the re sp o n d e n ts
in d ic a tin g th at f if te e n
s a i d no m eans w as a t t e m p t e d *
Of
t h e much l a r g e r n u m b e r, v a r i o u s m e th o d s o f c o o r d i n a t i n g w ere
em ployed.
ers
The m o s t p o p u l a r d e v i c e w a s m e e t i n g s o f t h e
in v o lv ed
in the
p a rticu lar
problem *
m ethod was g e n e r a l t e a c h e r s f m e e t i n g s .
use o f b u l l e t i n s ,
c lin ics,
and
teach ­
A le s s o fte n used
O th er m ethods w ere
i n f o r m a l p a s s i n g o f word a r o u n d .
S uccess o f , g uidance p ro g ram s.
Comple t e a n d a c c u r a t e
d a ta co n cern in g the
success or f a ilu r e
o f g u id a n c e program s
w ould be i n v a l u a b l e
in the
o f new p l a n s .
such d a ta
is
the
success or f a ilu r e
may b e o b t a i n e d .
n a ire
of
in stitu tio n
im p ossible o f b e in g o b ta in e d i s
in d ic a tio n o f the a tt i t u d e
phase o f
of
obvious y e t
in v estig atio n ,
th e ir ad m in istrato rs f e l t
some
sc h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s tow ard
sch o o ls f a l l i n g w ith in
the p r e s e n t
g e n erally u n su ccessfu l.
That
o f g u id a n c e work w i t h i n t h e i r
Of a l l
the
th at
the
schools
q u e stio n ­
tw en ty -n in e
per cent
t h e i r g u id a n c e p ro g ram s w ere
Most o f t h i s
g ro u p was in t h e
school c la s s if i c a t io n w ith n e a rly f i f t y
p e r c e n t o f the
sm all
schools
b e l o w tw o h u n d r e d i n p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n m a i n t a i n i n g p r o g r a m s
w hich t h e i r
ad m in istrato rs
Of t h e g r o u p a b o v e
s a i d w ere g e n e r a l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l .
s ix hundred,
tw elve p e r c e n t s a id
the
a d m in is tra to r s o f only
th e p ro g ram s w ere n o t
in g e n eral produc-
135
ing s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s .
A fu rth er
in d ic a tio n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith p re s e n t
p r o g r a m s w a s sh o w n i n d a t a r e v e a l i n g t h a t m a j o r c h a n g e s
gram s were b e in g c o n te m p l a te d i n t h i r t y - t w o
sch o o ls.
A m a jo rity o f th ese f a l l
low s i x h u n d re d
in
in p r o ­
per cent of a ll
the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
be­
in p u p il p o p u la tio n .
CONCLUSIONS AND RE COMMENDATIONS
An o v e r v i e w o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t
tio n rev eal
alm o st
d itio n s
several
ten d e n cies. ■ A c o n sid e ra tio n of th ese
i n e v i t a b l y to c e r t a i n recom m endations f o r
sectio n
to p r e s e n t th e s e
lead
im proved con ­
i n p e r s o n n e l work i n a s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l s .
purpose of t h i s
in v estig a ­
It
is
the
ten d en cies to g e th e r
w ith recom m endations.
G uidance
throughout
ing to
in the
th e d a ta o f
th e p r e s e n t s t u d y was i n f o r m a t i o n p o i n t ­
s iz e o f the
e r-p u p il re la tio n sh ip ,
th at
sch o o ls
n ev erth eless,
in t h i s
the d a ta
sm all s c h o o ls .
a c lo ser
teach-
seem ed t o i n d i ­
p o p u la tio n group a re n o t in g e n e ra l
th eir re sp o n sib ilitie s
a c tiv ity .
Reasons f o r
o v erloads,
in
s c h o o ls makes p o s s i b l e
fu lfillin g
sta ffs,
R ecurring in c e s s a n tly
a la c k o f ad eq u ate guidance f a c i l i t i e s
A lthough th e
cate
sm all s c h o o l.
in the m a tte r
t h is appear o b vious.
the p r in c ip a l h im se lf,
o f guidance
L im ited
teach in g
assum ing t e a c h in g
136
d u ty m ig h t be c i t e d
a s some o f t h e c a u s e s f o r t h i s s e e m i n g
la c k o f guidance*
R e g ard less o f any c o n d itio n s o f t h i s n a tu r e ,
seem t h a t t h e
i t w ould
guidance f u n c ti o n o f any sc h o o l assum es a p o s i ­
t i o n o f su c h im p o rta n c e t h a t ways and means m ust be fo u n d t o
in stitu te
a p e rs o n n e l plan*
in d iv id u a l cou n selin g
h e lp to
is
A program o f group g u id a n c e ,
im p o s s ib le , m ight be o f
in g u id a n c e .
p la n o f p ro v id in g guidance f a c i l i t i e s
tim e n e c e s s a r i l y c a l l s
for
The d a t a o f t h e p r e s e n t
A co m prehensive
fo r a l l p u p ils a ll
stu d y in d ic a te ,h o w e v e r, th a t
th e m ost p a r t la c k t r a i n i n g
i n g u i d a n c e work*
t e c h n i q u e s and d e v i c e s b u t a l s o
th e e s ta b lis h in g of
T his v ie w p o in t,
sy m p ath etic
the
a c ertain
g raduates*
T his l a c k
know ledge o f
the p o s s i b i l i t y
of
v i e w p o i n t " am ong t e a c h e r s .
is basic
in stitu tio n s
amount o f
to t h e ' ren d e rin g o f
s h o u l d make p o s s i b l e
train in g
and
i n g u id a n c e work o f
In sc h o o ls h av in g a p lan o f g u id a n c e ,s u f f ic ie n t
t r a i n i n g m u s t b e made a v a i l a b l e
fu n ctio n
teach ers
serv ice*
Teacher tra in in g
even re q u ire
lessen s
TTg u i d a n c e
or p h ilo so p h y ,
guidance
the
the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s *
o f t r a i n in g n o t only p re c lu d e s t h e i r d e ta il e d
its
in estim ab le
secondary school y o u th .
T eachers need t r a i n i n g
for
if
i n th e program *
to
te a c h e rs to
carry out th e ir
More a n d b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e w c r k n e e d e d .
A l t h o u g h many s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n w e l l - o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m s o f
gu idance,
the
converse
is o ften tru e .
s c h o o ls p r o f e s s i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n
e f f i c i e n t w o rk m i g h t be d o n e .
in g o f th e p la n m ust c e n t e r
m itte e w orking as a u n i t .
te r
it
E v e n among t h o s e
is apparent
t h a t more
R esp o n sib ility fo r
th e w ork­
in a s in g le
i n d i v i d u a l o r a com­
Ways a n d m e a n s o f p r o v i d i n g a b e t ­
p l a n i n l i g h t o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s m u st be
a i d and c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l m em bers o f
studied*
school s t a f f s
The
as w ell
a s c e r t a i n com m unity a g e n c i e s m u st b e e n l i s t e d .
A m ethod o f c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l w ork o f a l l p e r s o n s m ust
be e s t a b l i s h e d
to
catio n of e f f o r t.
g a in g r e a t e s t e f f i c i e n c y and to a v o id d u p l i
A c o n t i n u o u s a t t a c k m u s t b e made o n t h e
problem o f g uidance o r g a n i z a t i o n .
Home r o o m p l a n n e c e s s a r y .
present
D e s p ite th e d a ta o f the
s t u d y w h ic h showed t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e
n o t m a i n t a i n home r o o m s f o r
guidance p u rp o se s,
th at
home r o o m i d e a
some p l a n b a s e d o n t h e
s c h o o l s do
i t w o u ld seem
is e s s e n t i a l to
an
■ adequate g u i d a n c e program ..
S u c h home r o o m s m i g h t n o t f o l l o w
th e
They m ig h t i n s t e a d be o f t h e b a s i
tr a d itio n a l procedure.
course
type o r
sin g le
te a c h e r assum es r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
iod o f tim e .
some s i m i l a r
I f the
cla ssro o m arrangem ent w herein a
home r o o m t y p e
f o r a group over a p e r ­
is used,
it
is necessary
138
th a t c ertain
n ite
co n d itio n s
for
its
su ccess be presen t*
u n d erstan d in g of o b je c tiv e s
m in istra tiv e
day i s
and p r o c e d u r e s
is v ita l.
a r r a n g i n g o f t h e home r o o m s d u r i n g t h e
im portant*
A d efi­
tim e o f
The m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s p e r i o d o f t h e
s h o u l d b e s e t a s i d e f o r home r o o m s .
a lte r n a te d w ith o th e r a c t i v i t y
such a s c lu b s .
the c la ss ro o m *
show ing t h a t
many p l a n s o f p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e
T e a c h e r s m u st be a l e r t
s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d f o r
is
the classro o m *
the c a s e
in
secondary sc h o o ls.
to p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r
c e r n in g p u p i l s t h a t m ig h t a i d
lim ite d *
such i s
th ro u g h o u t
v i s i o n m u s t b e made f o r g a i n i n g p e r t i n e n t
The s i z e o f t h e
The f u n d a m e n t a l o n
w hich a g u id a n c e program m ust u l t i m a t e l y r e s t
E vidence h a s been p r e s e n t e d
day.
Such a p e r i o d m ig h t be
g r o u p i n a n y o n e home r o o m m u s t b e d r a s t i c a l l y
G uidance m ust e n t e r
Ad­
gu id an ce.
P ro­
in fo rm a tio n con­
i n c o u n s e l i n g them .
in d iv id u a l cou n selin g or
C lassroom s
if
th is
is
im p o s s ib le o t h e r p e r i o d s o f th e day s h o u ld be s e t a s i d e f o r
th is
purpose.
The e s t a b l i s h i n g
p u p i l s who a r e a l s o
id eal fo r
o f a home r o o m i n w h i c h a r e
i n c l a s s e s o f t h e home r o o m t e a c h e r
the c o u n se lin g o f a t l e a s t t h i s
The p l a c e o f t h e
seems
group.
guidance s p e c i a l i s t ^
A lthough
it
b e e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o s t s c h o o l s do n o t e m p lo y a g u i d a n c e
c ia list,
p ictu re
i t w ould a p p e a r t h a t
m i g h t do much t o
such a p ersonage
fu rth er
the program .
has
spe­
in th e guidance
Such a p o s i t i o n
1 39
m i g h t be g i v e n to a t e a c h e r who, r e l i e v e d o f a p a r t o f h i s
teach in g
duty,
fu n ctio n in g o f
to
in clu d e
c o u ld d e v o te tim e
the p la n .
to
th e o r g a n iz a tio n and
An i d e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d a p p e a r
such a s p e c i a l i s t p lu s o th e r guidance p e rso n ag e s
w o rk in g i n c l o s e harm ony w i t h h im .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Ade, L e s t e r K ., S u g g e s t i o n s f o r D e v e lo p in g G u id an ce P r a c t i c e s
in Secondary S c h o o ls . . H a r r is b u r g :
D epartm ent of P u b lic
I n s tr u c tio n , 1939.
1 57 p p .
A handbook w r i t t e n p r im a r il y f o r g uidance t e a c h e r s and
co u n selo rs.
W orthw hile s u g g e s t i o n s f o r th e o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f guidance p ro c e d u re s a re p r e s e n te d .
A l l e n , R i c h a r d D*, O r g a n i z a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n o f G uidance
i n P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k :
I n o r P u b l i s h i n g C om pany,
1934.
4 SO p p .
A book f o r b o th t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r c o n s i d e r i n g
such p h ases of g u id an ce a s group g u id a n c e , in te r v ie w in g ,
s u p e r v is io n , and k eep in g o f r e c o r d s .
C o x , W. L . , a n d J o h n C a r r D u f f , G u i d a n c e b y t h e C l a s s r o o m
T e a c h e r . New Y o r k :
P r e n tic e - H a ll, I n c ., 1938.
535 p p .
An e x c e l l e n t b o o k d e v o t e d t o g u i d a n c e a c t i v i t i e s b y t h e
classroom te a c h e r .
Twelve p r i n c i p l e s o f g u i d a n c e w h ic h
m ig h t s e rv e a s a b a s i s f o r p h ilo s o p h y and a c t i v i t y a re
g iv en .
Cox a n d D u f f p l a c e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
f a i l u r e o f c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l on t h e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f
th e guidance program .
D e w e y , J o h n , D e m o c r a c y a n d E duc a t i o n .
l a n C om p an y , 1 9 1 6 .
434 pp.
New Y o r k :
The M a c M i l ­
A v e ry w ell-know n book i n th e f i e l d o f th e p h ilo s o p h y o f
e d u catio n .
I t s t r e s s e s th e n e c e s s ity o f c o n s id e rin g the
p u p il as th e p o in t of d ep artu re of a l l ed u catio n .
The
im p o rta n c e o f a p p ly in g the g u id a n c e a t t i t u d e to e d u c a tio n
i s also in d ic a te d .
G ro v e s , E r n e s t R . , and P h y l l i s B l a n c h a r d , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o
M e n t a l H y g i e n e . New Y o r k :
H e n r y H o l t and Company, 1 9 3 0 .
467 p p .
The o r i g i n a n d b a s i s o f m e n t a l h y g i e n e a r e
discu ssed .
141
The b o o k s u g g e s t s m e a n s b y w h i c h v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s may b e
u s e d t o f u r t h e r th e work o f m e n ta l h y g ie n e *
H am rin , S h i r l e y A ., and C l i f f o r d S . E r ik s o n , G uidance in th e
S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l * New Y o r k :
D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C om p ah y ,
I n c ., 1939.
465 p p .
H am rin an d E r i k s o n s e t f o r t h th e im p o r ta n c e and n e c e s s i t y
o f the te a c h e r a s th e c h i e f gu id an ce f u n c t i o n a r y in th e
secondary sch o o l.
They c o n s i d e r t h e m anner in w h ich a
t e a c h e r may r e c e i v e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g u i d a n c e w o r k .
C h a p t e r XIV i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f
th e te a c h e r a s a guidance w o rk er.
Jo n e s, A rth u r, J . , P r i n c i p l e s o f G uidance.
Second e d i t i o n ;
New Y o r k :
M c G r a w - H i l l C om pan y , I n c . , 1 9 3 4 .
456 p p .
G u id an ce on t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l r e c e i v e s c o n s i d e r ­
a tio n .
V a r io u s d i v i s i o n s d e a l w i t h th e m eaning and p u r ­
pose o f g u id a n c e , m ethods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , m ethods o f
g u id in g p u p i ls , and th e r e s u l t s o f g u id a n c e .
K o o s , L e o n a r d V . , a n d G r a y s o n N. K e f a u v e r , G u i d a n c e i n S e c ­
ondary s c h o o ls .
New Y o r k :
The M a c M i l l a n C o m pany, 1 9 3 2 .
6 40 p p .
A com prehensive stu d y o f g u id an ce p r a c t i c e s in n e a r l y
fo u r hundred secondary sc h o o ls th ro u g h o u t th e U n ited
S ta te s.
I t c o v e rs such t o p i c s as the need and scope o f
g u id an c e, p ro c e d u re s fo r in fo rm in g p u p ils o f o p p o rtu n i­
t i e s , p ro ced u res fo r secu rin g in fo rm a tio n concerning
p u p i l s , g uidance o f i n d iv i d u a l p u p i l s , and o r g a n iz a tio n
o f guidance program s.
M o r r i s o n , H e n r y C . , The P r a c t i c e o f T e a c h i n g i n S e c o n d a r y
S c h o o ls . R e v ised e d i t i o n ; C hicago:
The U n i v e r s i t y o f
C hicago P r e s s , 1931.
688 p p .
A s t a n d a r d work i n th e a r e a o f s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l t e a c h i n g .
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g u i d a n c e e f f o r t t o p r o d u c e w o r t h w h i l e
r e s u l t s is su g g ested .
Program s o f c o o p e ra tin g Secondary S cho ols in C a l i f o r n i a » C al­
i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n .
Sacram ento:
C al­
if o r n ia S ta te P r in tin g O ffic e , 1939.
82 p p.
A rep o rt of
the o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f c u rric u lu n is in th e v a r -
142
i o u s s c h o o l s com ing u n d e r th e p r o j e c t ,
A statem en t con­
c e r n i n g t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e
c u r r i c u l u m i s made f o r n e a r l y e v e r y s c h o o l ,
R o s e c r a n c e , F r a n c i s C ., G uidance in E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ,
T h ir t y - s e v e n t h Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e
S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , Guy M o n t r o s e W h i p p l e , e d i t o r .
P art I.
B loom ington, I l l i n o i s :
P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C o m pany,
1938,
363 p p .
An a r t i c l e p r e s e n t e d a s a p o r t i o n o f a s y m p o s i u m c o n c e r n ­
ing g u id a n c e.
I t c o n s i d e r s th e em ploym ent and d u t i e s o f
v a rio u s guidance f u n c t i o n a r i e s .
R e a v is , W illiam C ., Program s o f G u id an ce. N a tio n a l Survey
o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 1 7 , M onograph No, 1 4 .
Y / a s h i n g t o n D. C . ; U n i t e d S t a t e s P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 .
144 p p .
A r e p o r t o f the r e s u l t s o f a su rv e y c o n c e rn in g th e s t a t u s
o f g u id an ce program s in c e r t a i n a r e a s th ro u g h o u t th e
U n ited S t a te s .
A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the n e e d , m eaning, and
s t a t u s o f g u i d a n c e , c a s e r e p o r t s on v a r i o u s c i t y s y s te m s
and i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s a r e g i v e n .
F i n a l l y , an o v e rv ie w
o f g uidance program s is p r e s e n te d .
S t r a n g , R u t h , The R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r i n P e r s o n n e l W o r k .
New
Y ork:
B u re a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs C o l l e g e , Colum bia
U n iv e rs ity , 1935.
417 p p .
The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e b o o k i s t o a i d t e a c h e r s a n d
a d m i n i s t r a to r s in th e guidance o f in d iv id u a l p u p i l s .
It
c o n s id e r s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n in e d u c a tio n , s tu d e n t a d j u s t ­
m e n t, and t e c h n i q u e s i n p e r s o n n e l w c rk .
S t u a r t , M ilo H . , G u id a n ce a t W ork.
Book Company, 1 9 3 1 .
New Y o r k :
M cG raw -H ill
A r e v i e w o f th e g u i d a n c e p ro g ra m a t A r s e n a l T e c h n i c a l High
S chool.
The home r o o m t e a c h e r a s t h e b a s i c a g e n c y i n t h e
p lan is in d ic a te d .
T r a x l e r , A rth u r E . , e d . , G uidance in P u b lic S e c o n d ary S c h o o ls .
L a n c a ste r, P en n sy lv an ia:
L an caster P r e s s , I n c . , 1939,
E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d s B u l l e t i n , No. 2 8 , O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 9 . 316 p p .
A r e p o r t of th e r e s u l t s
o f th e P u b lic
School D em o n stratio n
143
P ro je ct.
The p r o j e c t w a s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e d e m o n s t r a ­
t i o n program s in e d u c a tio n a l guidance in r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
sch o o ls.
H igh s c h o o l s in e a s t e r n , m id d le w e s t e r n , w e s t­
e r n , a n d s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n s came u n d e r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n .
U m s t a t t d , J . G*, S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l T e a c h in g .
a n d C o m p an y, 1 9 3 7 .
449 p p .
New Y o r k :
G inn
A w e ll-k n o w n work i n t h e f i e l d o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h ­
in g .
I t s t r e s s e s the im p o rtan ce o f t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m s and o f p u p i l p r o b l e m s b e i n g c o n s i d ­
e re d by th e t e a c h e r o f th e p u p i l .
¥ F i l k i n s , E . H . , The O r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e C o l l e g e S t u d e n t , P r o b ­
lem s o f C o lle g e E d u c a t i o n . M in n e a p o lis :
U n iv e rsity of
M innesota P r e s s , 1928.
D eals p r im a r ily w ith th e c o lle g e s tu d e n t b u t
in s u g g e s tin g g e n e r a l g u idance m ethods.
is h e lp fu l
B.
PERIODICALS
Bab s o n , H e l e n C o r l i s s , ”P r o g r e s s R e p o r t f r o m E a g l e Rock H i g h , ”
C a li f o r n ia J o u r n a l o f Secondary Educat ion , 12:28 4-28 9,
May, 1 9 3 7 .
A r e p o r t o f th e guidance a c t i v i t y
S c h o o l, Los A n g e le s, C a l i f o r n i a .
o p e ra te s through b a sic co u rse s.-
a t E a g l e Rock H ig h
The g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m
B o u c h e r s , C. S . , ” Some E d u c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s a n d Some P o s s i b l e
R e a d j u s t m e n t s , ” The N o r t h C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y ,
1 4 : 3 6 2 - 3 8 4 , A p r i l , 1940*
A d i s c u s s i o n o f p o s s ib l e p ro c e d u re s in the c o n d u c tin g o f
guidance s e rv ic e s *
S t r e s s e s the im portance o f b a s in g
g u id a n c e p r o c e d u r e on a d e q u a te r e c o r d s #
B r o w n , M a r i o n , ” The G u i d a n c e a n d H e a l t h P r o g r a m s a t U n i v e r ­
s i t y H igh S c h o o l and C lare m o n t J u n i o r H i g h , ” U n i v e r s i t y
H igh S chool J o u r n a l # 1 9 :7 9 -1 1 1 , F e b r u a r y , 1941.
A r e p o r t o f we1 1 - i n t e g r a t e d
schools in d ic ate d *
guidance program s a t th e
two
C h e n , T i n g H s u a n a n d W i l l i a m M. P r o c t o r , ” A S u r v e y o f G u i d a n c e
P r a c t i c e s in C a lif o r n ia Secondary S c h o o ls ,” R eport o f th e
C om m ittees on C o u n s e lin g P r a c t i c e s , W este rn A s s o c la tT o n
o f C o lle g e s and S econdary S c h o o ls, J u ly , 1937.
The r e s u l t s o f a s u r v e y o f g u i d a n c e p r a c t i c e s i n a l l t h e
secondary sc h o o ls in C a l i f o r n i a .
An e f f o r t w a s made t o
d e te rm in e th e k in d s o f num bers o f g u id a n c e f u n c t i o n a r i e s .
The c o n c l u s i o n i s d r a w n t h a t m o s t o f t h e g u i d a n c e r e ­
c e iv e d by p u p i l s in C a l i f o r n i a se c o n d a ry s c h o o ls i s g iv e n
b y p r i n c i p a l s , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s , d e a n s , a n d home r o o m
teachers*
_______ , " G u i d a n c e i n C a l i f o r n i a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , ” C a l i f o r n i a
J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , 1 2 : 2 6 8 - 2 7 3 , May, 1 9 3 7 .
A p relim in ary re p o rt of
the
survey c i t e d
above*
C o r b a l l y , J o h n E . , ” The C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r i n t h e G u i d a n c e P r o ­
g r a m , ” The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 9 : 3 6 8 - 3 6 9 , D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 3 .
145
A g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f th e grow th o f g u id an c e
a ctiv ity .
D a v i s , Anna L . , a n d M a r g a r e t E . B e n n e t t , "The C o u n s e l o r i n t h e
H i g h S c h o o l , " The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 2 0 2 - 2 0 8 , May,
1940.
An a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d u t i e s o f c o u n s e l o r s i n g u i d ­
ance.
The c o u n s e l o r m u s t w o r k w i t h e n t i r e s c h o o l s t a f f ;
m ust c o n t r i b u t e to u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n b etw een
s c h o o l and com m unity; m ust a i d i n s e t t i n g up g u id a n c e p r o ­
gram ; and c o o p e r a t e w i t h s t a f f i n e v a l u a t i n g p ro g ra m .
E e l l s , K e n n e th W ., " A p p r a i s i n g G u id a n ce P r o g r a m s ," N a t i o n s
S c h o o ls , 2 3 :5 6 -5 8 , A p r il, 1939.
A c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e n e c e s s ity o f e v a lu a tin g guidance
in term s o f p h ilo s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e s o f th e s c h o o l and
o f th e n e e d s o f th e p u p i l s and t h e com m unity.
E m b ree, R o y a l , B. J r . , "The G u id a n ce F u n c t i o n i n S c h o o l s a n d
C o l le g e s , E d u c a ti o n a l M eth o d , 1 9 :3 3 6 -3 4 2 , M arch, 1940.
A p r e s e n ta tio n o f a d e f i n i t i o n and th e fu n c tio n o f g u id ­
ance.
The a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s p r o c e d u r e s b y w h i c h a g u i d a n c e
p r o g r a m may b e i n s t i t u t e d .
I t d e s c r ib e s the guidance p ro ­
g r a m a t G e n e r a l C o l l e g e , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , a n d em­
p h a s iz e s th e n e c e s s i t y of te a c h e r t r a i n i n g in guidance
areas.
H a r r i s , G race E . , "G roup G uid an ce i n a S m a ll H igh S c h o o l , "
C a li f o r n ia J o u r n a l o f Secondary E d u c a tio n . 1 2 :1 5 9 -1 6 2 ,
M arch, 1937.
A r e p o r t o f group g u id an ce p r a c t i c e s in a sm all h ig h
sch o o l.
G uidance i s c o n d u c te d p r i m a r i l y th ro u g h E n g l i s h
c la sses.
J a r v i e , L* L . , " R e a l i s m i n G u i d a n c e , "
7 2 8 -7 3 1 , D ecem ber, 1939.
School and S o c i e t y , 50:
J a r v i e s u g g e s ts c e r t a i n fu n d a m e n ta ls o f an a c t i v e and ade­
q u ate guidance program .
These in c lu d e a b le l e a d e r s h i p ,
i n te g r a t i o n o f f a c u l t y th in k in g , and r e o r g a n iz a tio n o f
home r o o m s .
Jones,
A rthu r J . ,
"T endencies
in G u id an ce,"
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146
J o u r n a l, 23:165-169,
A p ril,
1940,
An i n d i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n t r e n d s i n g u i d a n c e ,
A u n ifie d ,
o r g a n i s m i c a p p r o a c h and a t e n d e n c y away f r o m s u b j e c t m a t t e r c e n t e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n t o p u p i l c e n t e r e d i s show n,
K e f a u v e r , G r a y s o n N . , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f G u i d a n c e i n S e c ­
o n d a r y S c h o o l s , " The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 2 1 8 - 2 2 3 ,
M ay, 1 9 4 0 ,
The i m p o r t a n c e o f g u i d a n c e i s s t r e s s e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e .
K efauver su g g e sts o r g a n iz a tio n o f guidance program s
through co re c o u rs e s .
McKown, H a r r y C . , " E n c o u r a g i n g T r e n d s i n Home Room G u i d a n c e , "
The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 2 1 3 - 2 1 7 , M ay, 1 9 4 0 *
C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n s u c h p h a s e s o f home r o o m
a c t i v i t y a s g u id a n c e m a t e r i a l s , l i b r a r i e s , m em bership,
o r g a n iz a tio n and sp o n s o rsh ip .
McKown d r a w s t h e c o n c l u ­
s i o n t h a t t h e a v e r a g e home r o o m t e a c h e r i s d o i n g b e t t e r
w ork t h a n he s u s p e c t s .
R o s e c r a n c e , F r a n c i s C . , "The P l a c e and A c t i v i t i e s o f th e C l a s s ­
r o o m T e a c h e r i n G u i d a n c e , " The H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 :
2 0 8 - 2 1 2 , May, 1 9 4 0 .
An a r t i c l e b a s e d o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h ­
e r in g u id an ce.
S e c tio n s o f the a r t i c l e d e a l w ith a c ­
quain tan ce w ith s tu d e n ts , stu d y in g s i t u a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g
y o u th , and w o rk in g w ith s t u d e n t s .
R u c h , G, M*, " I n d i v i d u a l A n a l y s e s i n G u i d a n c e , " The H i g h
S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 3 : 1 9 7 - 2 0 2 , Ma y, 1 9 4 0 .
Any c o n c e p t o f g u i d a n c e m u s t e m b r a c e a c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d
sy stem .
Ruch i n d i c a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m i g h t be h e l p ­
f u l i n a t e a c h e r f s c o m i n g t o k n ow a p u p i l .
R y a n s , D a v id G , , "The R o le o f G u id a n c e i n E d u c a t i o n , "
and S o c i e t y , 5 0 :3 4 5 - 3 4 8 , O c to b e r , 19 3 9 .
School
A recom m endation o f s y s te m a tic p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s f o r
a l l p u p ils.
R y a n s h o l d t h a t s c h o o l s m u s t m ak e p r o v i s i o n
f o r guidance w ork.
The s t a t u s a n d n e e d s o f g u i d a n c e a r e
co nsidered,
147
S m i t h , D o r o t h y a n d W. A. K i n c a i d , e t a l , " G u i d a n c e i n M o n t ­
p e l i e r , " The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , 6 0 : 1 1 - 1 3 , A p r i l , 1 9 4 1 .
A r e p o r t o f p r a c t i c e s i n g u id a n c e a t M o n t p e l i e r H igh
S c h o o l, M o n t p e l i e r , V erm ont,
S t r a n g , R u t h , "Why G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s F a i l — a n d S u c c e e d , "
E d u c a tio n a l M ethod, 1 9 :3 2 1 -3 3 6 , M arch, 1940.
An a n a l y s i s o f f a c t o r s i n g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m s w h i c h make
for th e ir success or f a ilu r e .
The n e c e s s i t y o f t h e c o o p ­
e r a t i v e e f f o r t o f e v e r y o n e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p u p i l 1s e n ­
vironm en t i s em phasized.
Wood, B e n j a m i n D . , " F a c t o r s M a k i n g a n E f f e c t i v e G u i d a n c e P r o ­
g r a m ," E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d s B u l l e t i n , No. 2 8 , O c t o b e r ,
1939.
The t e a c h e r a s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r
g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m s i s sho w n h e r e .
in
the
success of
W r e n n , G i l b e r t , "Some P o i n t s o f V i e w o n G u i d a n c e , "
School J o u r n a l , 23:17 5 -1 7 7 , A p r il , 1940.
A b r ie f a r t i c l e co n sid erin g th ree
tiv ity :
th e concept of gu id an ce,
and the g u id an c e w o rk e r6.
C.
Fox,
The H i g h
p h a se s o f guidance a c ­
th e guidance f u n c t i o n ,
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
J o h n G . , "A S t u d y o f C e r t a i n A s p e c t s o f t h e P u p i l G u i d ­
an ce P ro g ram s in C a l i f o r n i a H igh S c h o o ls ." . U n p u b lis h e d
M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a ,
Los A n g e le s, 1924.
I l l pp.
A r e p o r t o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n conducted in the h ig h sc h o o ls
o f C a l i f o r n i a to determ ine th e s t a t u s o f g u id an c e p ro g ram s.
J e s s o n , R a l p h W . , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e G u i d a n c e P r o g r a m s i n
a L a rg e C i t y S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l ."
U np ub lish ed M a s te r’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L os A n g e l e s ,
1938.
116 p p .
A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f th e g u id a n c e p r o ­
g r a m a t t h e J o h n H. F r a n c i s P o l y t e c h n i c H i g h S c h o o l , L o s
A ngeles, C a lif o r n ia . ■
148
M i l l e r , M ild re d E l i z a b e t h , "G uidance A c t i v i t i e s o f C lassroom
T e a c h e rs i n H igh S c h o o l s . "
U npublished M a s te r’ s t h e s i s ,
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 8 ,
148 p p .
A co m prehensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e a c t i v i t y o f t e a c h e r s
i n g u id a n c e work i n h i g h s c h o o l s .
C o n sists of fiv e chan­
n els of in v estig atio n :
p re p a ra tio n o f te a c h e rs fo r gu id ­
a n c e t h e p a r t t e a c h e r s p l a y i n t h e g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m ; how
te a c h e rs o b ta in in fo rm a tio n n e c e ssa ry fo r guidance; con­
t r i b u t i o n s t e a c h e r s make t o p u p i l d e v e l o p m e n t ; a n d how
t e a c h e r s prom ote p u p i l a d j u s t m e n t .
T o l h u r s t , M i l d r e d C l e e , "An A n a l y s i s o f G u i d a n c e P r o b l e m s
D i s c o v e r e d T h r o u g h a P e r s o n n e l S t u d y o f One H u n d r e d
E ig h t y - t w o E i g h t h G rade P u p i l s . "
U npublished M a s te r’ s
t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s
A ngeles, 1937.
156 p p .
The s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s m o s t p e r t i n e n t t o t h e p r e s e n t
stu d y c o n ce rn s the o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r guidance a t E l l i o t
J u n i o r H igh S c h o o l, P a s a d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a *
V a n B u r g , J u n i t a M a e , "A P r o g r a m o f E d u c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e f o r
Secondary S c h o o ls."
U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1936.
17 7 p p .
A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the o r g a n iz in g o f g u id a n c e program s
f o r secondary sc h o o ls.
W i l l i a m s , D o n a l d T u r n e y , "Some V a l u e s a n d L i m i t a t i o n s o f G u i d ­
an ce P ro g ram s i n Seven S e l e c t e d P u b l i c S c h o o l System s in
S outhern C a l i f o r n i a ."
U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s , 1937*
130 p p .
A r e p o r t o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d i n g th e o r g a n i z a t i o n
and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f g u id an c e program s in c e r t a i n seco n d ­
a r y sc h o o l system s in S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a .
APPENDIX
POST CARD QUESTIONNAIRE
SENT TO SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
A p p r o x i m a t e s i z e o f s t u d e n t b o d y ___________
Does one p e r s o n o n l y h a n d le g u id a n c e p r o b le m s ? Yes
No_____
Do y o u h a v e a p r o g r a m o f g u i d a n c e i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r p l a y s
a d e fin ite p art?
Yes
No
Do y o u h a v e home r o o m s ? Y e s _____ No_____ .
I f so, is p a rt of
t h e i r program c o n c e rn e d v/ith g u id a n c e ?
Yes
No_____
Are y o u r t e a c h e r s h i r e d p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f a b i l i t y in
h a n d lin g guidance q u e s tio n s ?
Yes
No_____
I s th e r e any p r o v i s i o n f o r the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f your
t e a c h e r s in th e m a t t e r o f g u id an c e? Yes
No_____
Do y o u h a v e a n y c l a s s e s d e v o t e d p r i m a r i l y t o g u i d a n c e ? Y e s
No
May I s e n d y o u a m o r e c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n i n g g u i d ­
ance in your school?
Y e s _____ No_____
LETTER SENT TO SCHOOL
ADMINISTRATORS AND GUIDANCE DIRECTORS
D e a r M r . _________ _____________
May I t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r c o u r t e s y
in t a k i n g th e tim e t o ch ec k th e c a r d o f
s e v e r a l weeks a g o .
At t h a t tim e you i n d i c a t e d I m ig h t
s e n d a more c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n c e r n i n g
guidance in your s c h o o l.
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e
i s i n c l o s e d on a s e p a r a t e sh e e t*
W ill you
p l e a s e c h ec k i t in a manner m ost c o n v e n ie n t
t o y o u a n d s e n d t o me i n t h e i n c l o s e d e n v e l o p e
S in c ere ly yours,
M arion D onaldson
1#
2*
3.
5*
6,
Do you have a guidance s p e c i a l i s t ? Yes
No
Does he work w i t h your t e a c h e r s con ce rn in g guidance problems? Yes
Does he s e r v e a s t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e guidance program? Yes
No
151
No ^
Do t e a c h e r s have a c c e s s t o guidance d a t a c o ncern ing p u p i l s ? Yes
No
Do you have a method o f c o o r d i n a t i n g guidance a c t i v i t y by v a r i o u s
t e a c h e r s ? Yes
Mb
I f no, d i s r e g a r d 5a*
5a* I s t h i s by: m ee tin gs o f t e a c h e r s in vo lve d
; general teacher
meetings .; in fo rin a l p a s s i n g o f word around
; other
Do you keep a r e c o r d o f guidance work w i t h each p u p i l ( i n t e r v i e w s , t e s t ,
e t c * ) who has r e c e i v e d h e lp ? Yes
No
!
DISREGARD 7-11 IF YOU HAVE NO IN-SERVICE TRAINING- OF TEACHERS IN GUIDANCE.
7*
How i s i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g giv en ? C o lle g e e x t e n s i o n or correspondence
___________
c o u rs e s
; tea ch e r* s m e e ti n g s , ; b u l l e t i n s
; other
8 * I 3 every t e a c h e r r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? Ye3
No
9* I s t h e r e p r o v i s i o n f o r m easuring t e a c h e r growth 'i n guidance a b i ! i t y ? Y e s
No
10* Do you have a l i b r a r y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s con ce rnin g guidance? Yes
No
11* Does t h i s i n - s e r v i c e t r a i l i n g appear t o be p ro d u c in g r e s u l t s ? Yes
No ,■
DISREGARD 12-15 I F YOU HAVE NO HOME ROOMS*
12*
13.
14*
15*
16*
I s t h e pri mary pu rpose o f your home: rooms guidance? Yes
No
I f n o t , how much time i s devoted to guidance? \
% jDoguidance home rooms have a d e f i n i t e course o f study? Ye3
No
Doyou f e e l your home room guidance i s g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l ? Yes
No
17 .
Do t e a c h e r s u t i l i z e cla ss ro o m t e a c h i n g f o r guidan ce? Oft en__
s e 1 dom
never
•
I f o f t e n , i s t h i s a c o n s c i o u s , c on tin uo u s p r a c t i c e ? Yes
No
18*
W il l you p l e a s e l i s t t h e c l a s s e s , i f any, devoted p r i m a r i l y t p guidance?
19.
Do you f e e l your p r e s e n t guidance program i s pro d u cin g s a t i s f a c t o r y
r e s u l t s ? Yes
No
Are you c o n te m p la tin g any major changes i n your guidance program i n
t h e n e a r f u t u r e ? Yes
No
20*
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