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The supervision of art in elementary schools of California counties

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THE SUPERVISION OP ART IN
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS OP CALIFORNIA COUNTIES
A T h e s is
P re se n te d to
th e F a c u lty o f th e S ch o o l o f E d u c a tio n
The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r tia l F u lfillm e n t
o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D egree
M a ste r o f S c ie n c e
in E d u c a tio n
hy
Evadna K rau s P e r r y
N ovem ber 1942
*
UMI Number: EP54398
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54398
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789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
Th is thesis, writ ten under the direction of the
Cha irm an of the candidate’s Gui dan ce C o m m i t t e e
an d a p p r o v e d by all memb ers of the C o m m i t t e e ,
has been p r ese nte d to and a c c e p te d by the F acu lty
of the S c h o o l of E duc atio n of T h e U ni ve rsi ty of
Southern California in p a r ti a l fu lfillme nt of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
.......................
Dean
Guidance Committee
Irving B. Melbo
Chairman
Louis P. Thorpe
Wm. C. Campbell
TABLE OP CONTENTS
CHAPTER
X*
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
The p r o b l e m
* .
•
1
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b lem
• • . . • • • • •
1
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e
• • • • • • » • •
1
stu d y
D e f i n i t i o n s o f term s u s e d
S u p e rv isio n
Ar t
5
• • • • • • . . . .
• • • « .
• • • • • • • • • • • » • • • • • * «
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls
in C a lifo rn ia c o u n tie s .
O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e re m a in d e r o f th e
The e n s u i n g c h a p t e r s
II.
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
•
v isio n
L ite ra tu re
6
6
7
• • • • • • • • • •
7
♦ . .
o f a r t in r u r a l
5
th e s is .
. .........................
L ite ra tu re p e rta in in g d ir e c tly
to th e
sc h o o ls •
9
su p er­
• * • • •
9
p u b lis h e d b y th e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n
III.
1
• • • . • • • • .
13
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE . . . .
15
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e
G en eral q u e s tio n s
• * . • • • • • • • • • .
15
. . • • • • • • . • • •
15
G e n e ra l a r t t e a c h i n g p ro b lem s
• • • • • «
15
S p e c i f i c a r t te a c h i n g p ro b le m s
• • • • • •
16
• • « • • • • • • «
16
S u p e rv iso ry te c h n iq u e s
ill
CHAPTER
PAGE
A l l o c a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d t e a c h e r s *'
re p lie s
• • • * • • . • • • • • • • • • •
S e le c tio n of te a c h e rs
R e p lie s to th e
+ . * » • « . * • •
q u e stio n n a ire
17
• • • • • • •
I V . GENERAL QUESTIONS RELATIVE TO ART TEACHING
P r e p a r a tio n o f th e
IV
18
. .
21
te a c h e r in a r t , h e r l i k i n g
f o r i t and h e r o u t s t a n d i n g o b s t a c l e s i n
te a c h in g i t
•
21
T y pe o f roo m a n d n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d
21
Who t e a c h e s t h e a r t
22
T each ersr tra in in g
in g a r t
• » • • • • • • • • • •
in p r e p a r a tio n
fo r te a c h ­
• * • • • • • • • » » • • • • • •
T e a c h e r s 1 and s u p e r v is o r s *
a r t and a r t te a c h in g
a ttitu d e s
22
to w ard
• • • • • • • • • • •
The u s e o f r e a d y - m a d e p a t t e r n s
24
• • • • • ' • •
24
U se o f b o o k s , m a g a z in e s and i l l u s t r a t i v e
m a te ria ls
•
25
H in d e ra n c e s in te a c h in g a r t
• • • • • • « • •
S u p e rv isio n as a so u rc e o f h e lp
29
• » • • • •
S o u rces h e lp f u l in te a c h in g a r t
32
• • • • •
32
S u p e r v is o r y h e lp n e e d e d and s u p e r v i s o r y
h e lp g iv e n
• • « • • • . • • • • • • • •
33
R e a s o n s why t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s
have n o t g iv en s u f f i c i e n t h e lp
• • • .
•
33
iv
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
V.
• . . • • • • • • •
37
SUPERVISORY HELP GIVEN TEACHERS ON GENERAL ART
PROBLEMS . .
. . .........................
T each ers1 needs
39
• • • • • • • • • • . . .
39
G en eral a r t needs as e x p re s s e d by te a c h e r s
39
I n s p i r a t i o n and b a s ic u n d e r s ta n d in g s
41
P la n n in g a r t te a c h in g
in a r t
• • • • * • • • •
41
S e c u rin g , s e l e c t i n g and c a r in g f o r m a t e r i a l s
42
E v a lu a tio n o f a r t te a c h in g • • • . • • «
42
In te rp re ta tio n
43
S u p e rv iso ry h e lp
o f a r t e d u c a tio n
to th e p u b lic
. • • • . . • • • • • . .
43
H e lp g iv e n b y s u p e r v i s o r s on g e n e r a l a r t
p ro b lem s
43
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
V I.
• • • • • • • • • •
44
SUPERVISORY HELP GIVEN TEACHERS ON SPEC IFIC
ART TEACHING ACTIVITIES
T ea ch e rs1 needs
F in e a r t s
.........................
.
45
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
45
• . . • • « • • « * • •
45
• • • • • • • « • • • • • •
46
needs
C ra ft needs
.
N eeds i n s e l e c t e d
c o rre la te d a c tiv itie s
A rt a p p re c ia tio n needs
. . . I . . . . .
48
48
N e e d s i n b u i l d i n g goo d s o c i a l h a b i t s
th ro u g h a r t
S u p e rv iso ry h e lp
• • • • • « • • • • • • •
50
50
V
CHAPTER
p AGE
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r • • • • • • • • » • «
V II.
52
TECHNIQUES USED BY SUPERVISORS IN HELPING
TEACHERS WITH ART TEACHING .
T eachers*
v iso ry
..............................
54
o p in io n s r e g a r d in g th e u se o f s u p e r­
te c h n iq u e s
• • • • • • • • • • • «
54
G e n e r a l c o m m en ts . • « • • • • • • • • • «
54
A n a ly sis o f th e u se o f s p e c i f i c
te c h n iq u e s
su p e rv iso ry
. • • • » • • • • • • • • • • «
T each ers* m e e tin g s
. • • • • • • • • • • •
S u p e rv iso ry v i s i t s
59
59
60
In d iv id u a l co n feren ces
• • • • • • • • • •
60
• • • • • • • • .
61
« • • • • • * • « • » • .
61
B u lle tin s
. . • • • • « • • • • • • • • •
61
L ib ra rie s
• « • • » • • • • • • « • • » *
61
Teacher in te r v is ita tio n
M o v in g p i c t u r e s
E x h i b i t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n * s w o rk a n d o t h e r
m a te ria ls
T each ers*
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
e x c u rsio n s
e x p e rie n c e s
f o r s e c u rin g f i r s t hand
• • • » • • • • • • • • « • •
Summer s e s s i o n s ,
62
e x te n sio n
a s s o c i a t io n m e e tin g s
62
c o u rs e s and a r t
• • • • • • • • » • •
62
C u rric u lu m c o m m itte e s and c o u r s e s o f s t u d y
in a r t
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
62
63
CHAPTER
V III.
PAGE
TEACHERS* GENERAL COMMENTS RELATIVE TO ART SUPER*
VISION . . . . . . . . . . . .
.............................
64
T h i n g s t e a c h e r s w i s h e d s u p e r v i s o r s w o u ld d o
64
S u p e rv is o ry a c t i v i t i e s m ost h e lp f u l
69
In a d e q u a c ie s o f a r t s u p e rv is io n
to te a c h e rs
in th e
c o u n tie s
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r • • • • » • • • • • •
IX .
CONCLUSIONS
........................
70
73
74
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e te a c h in g and s u p e r v is io n
of a rt
• • • • • • • * • • • » • » • • • .
S u p e r v is io n and th e
t r a i n i n g o f th e te a c h e r f o r
a r t te a c h in g • • • • • • • • • • • « • » •
S u p e r v is io n and te a c h e r s *
and a r t
te a c h in g
a ttitu d e s
in
77
to w a rd a r t
• • • • • » • » * • » • •
S u p e rv iso ry m o tiv a tio n o f a r t te a c h in g
S u p e rv iso ry h e lp
74
. . .
th e p la n n in g o f a r t t e a c h i n g
32
85
89
S u p e r v i s i o n a n d t h e t e a c h e r ,fs u s e o f b o o k s ,
m a g a z in e s and i l l u s t r a t 3 . v e m a t e r i a l s
. . .
94
S u p e r v i s i o n and th e s e c u r i n g , s e l e c t i n g and
c a r e o f s u p p l i e s and e q u ip m e n t b y th e
S u p e r v i s i o n and t h e a c t i v i t i e s
te a c h e rs
o f a r t te a c h in g
99
103
S u p e r v is io n and th e e v a l u a t i o n o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s
and a r t t e a c h i n g
In te rp re tin g a rt
. • • • . • • • • • • • •
te a c h in g to th e p u b lic
Summary o f c o n c l u s i o n s
• •
• • • • • • • • • • •
110
112
115
vii
CHAPTER
X*
PAGE
121
RECOMMENDATIONS........................................
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s t o a l l
c o u n ty s u p e r v is o r s
.
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s t o c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s
of
sc h o o ls
•• • • • • • • •
.......................................
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s t o c o u n t y t e a c h e r s
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s t o c o u n t y p r i n c i p a l s
» » »
, « .
»
121
123
124
125
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s t o t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f
E d u c a tio n
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • * «
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s t o t e a c h e r s *
tu tio n s
125
tra in in g i n s ti­
* • • • • • » • • • • • • • • « •
126
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s t o a l l a r t t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r ­
v iso rs
in C a lif o r n ia
• • • • • • • • • • •
R e c o m m e n d a ti o n s t o r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
.
.................................................................................
......................................................
. .
127
•
127
• •
129
135
L IST OF TABLES
TABLE
Ii
PAGE
Num ber o f T e a c h e r s E m p l o y e d , N um ber Q u e s t i o n e d ,
N um ber R e p l y i n g a n d P e r G e n t o f T o t a l N um ber
R e p ly in g to
II.
th e Q u e s tio n n a ire
• • • • • • .
S e m e s t e r U n i t s o f A r t T a k e n b y 95 T e a c h e r s I n
P r e p a r a tio n f o r T ea c h in g • • • • • • • • • •
III.
V I.
26
M a g az in es Found V a lu a b le b y C lassro o m T e a c h e rs
in T e a c h in g A rt
V.
• • • . • • • •
H in d e ra n c e s in T ea ch in g A rt
• • • • • »
28
• • • • • • • . •
30
S o u rc e s Found H e l p f u l by C lassro o m T e a c h e r s in
T e a c h in g A rt • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
V II.
..23
Books Found H e l p f u l b y C la ssro o m T e a c h e r s in
T e a c h in g A rt •
IV .
19
34
T e a c h e r s 1 R easons f o r I n s u f f i c i e n t S u p e rv is o ry
H e lp
. . . . .
....................................
. . . . . . .
36
V I I I . S u p e r v i s o r y H e lp N eeded and R e c e iv e d on G e n e ra l
A r t P r o b l e m s b y 10 6 C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s
IX .
40
S u p e r v i s o r y H e l p N e e d e d a n d R e c e i v e d on F i n e
A r t s P r o b l e m s b y 1 06 C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s
X.
. . .
• •
.4 7
S u p e r v i s o r y H e lp N eeded and R e c e iv e d on C r a f t
P ro b le m s by 106 C lassro o m T e a c h e r s
• • • • •
49
ix
X I.
S u p e r v i s o r y H e l p H e e d e d a n d R e c e i v e d on S e l e c t e d
C o r r e l a t e d A c t i v i t i e s b y 106 C la s sro o m T e a c h e r s
X II.
49A
S u p e r v i s o r y H e l p H e e d e d a n d R e c e i v e d on A r t
A p p r e c i a t i o n and C h i l d r e n fs S o c i a l H a b its by
106 C la ssro o m T e a c h e r s
• • • * • • • • • • •
51
X I I I . T e c h n iq u e s U sed in S u p e r v i s i n g A r t and T h e ir
H e lp t o
X IV .
106 C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s
• • • • • • • •
65
S u p e r v i s o r y A c t i v i t i e s M ost H e l p f u l t o T e a c h e rs
In T e a c h in g A rt
X V I.
55
T h i n g s T e a c h e r s W ish S u p e r v i s o r s W ould Do t o
H e l p Them w i t h A r t T e a c h i n g
XV.
. . • • • • •
. . • • • • * • • • • • • «
G re a te s t In a d e q u a c ie s
as Seen by T each ers
69A
i n C o u n ty A r t S u p e r v i s i o n
• • • • • • • • • • • •
731
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AHD DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
T he i n c r e a s e d
S ta te s
is re fle c te d
r ic h th e liv e s
sid e ra b le
i n te r e s t in c u ltu r a l a r t s
in th e e f f o r t s
o f som e e d u c a t o r s t o e n ­
o f c h ild r e n th ro u g h a rt*
T here h a s b een con­
i n t e r e s t in p ro v id in g a r t e x p e rie n c e s fo r c h ild re n
i n t h e m o re r e m o t e s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y a s
th o se
in th e u n ite d
in th e m e tro p o lita n a re a s*
w e ll as fo r
B u t, even in C a lif o r n ia ,
w here c a p a b le p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e
fo r te a c h e rs is n o t­
a b ly w id e sp re a d t h e r e h a s been l i t t l e
o b je c tiv e e v id e n c e
g iv e n a s t o a c t u a l p r a c t i c e
I.
in th e f i e l d
of a rt*
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f th e p ro b le m *
T h i s s t u d y w as m ade ( 1 ) t o
d e te rm in e j u s t w hat h e lp e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s
sc h o o ls need in th e
te a c h in g o f a r t and
t h e y w e re r e c e i v i n g h e l p
w a s t h e n m ad e ( 3 ) t o
in c o u n ty
(2) to w hat e x te n t
from c o u n ty s u p e r v i s o r s *
com pare t h e s e
An a t t e m p t
f in d in g s w ith th e s u p e r­
v iso ry p ra c tic e s
su g g e ste d in th e l i t e r a t u r e
in th e f i e l d
( 4 ) t o d raw c o n c l u s i o n s w h ic h m ig h t s e r v e
as a b a sis
and
(43) f o r som e d e f i n i t e
Im p o rta n c e o f th e s t u d y *
f o r im p o rta n c e s p r i n g s
f ro m t h e
by a u t h o r i t i e s
reco m m e n d atio n s*
(1 ) T h is s tu d y fs f i r s t b id
in trin s ic
v a lu e o f a r t
its e lf
2
and th e s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i t p la y s
T h is r e c o g n i ti o n
in c h ild e x p e rie n c e s*
o f a r t a s one o f t h e g r e a t e s s e n t i a l s o f
m an k in d and e d u c a t i o n i s v o i c e d i n t h e s e w o rd s b y Jo h n Dewey,
who i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e a r t s
says:
,fT h e y a r e n o t l u x u r i e s
of
e d u c a t i o n , b u t e m p h a tic e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h a t w h ic h m akes a n y
e d u c a t i o n w o r t h w h i l e *” •*•
C h a r l o t t e R* M a j o r h a s s u c c i n c t l y e x p r e s s e d t h e p l a c e
of a rt
in l i f e ,
she s a y s :
A rt i s n o t m e re ly th e c r e a t i o n o f b e a u t i f u l t h in g s ;
i t h a s a d e e p e r , m o re s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e *
I t is a
p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e *
I t i s th e b u ild in g o f f in e r l i f e
p a tte rn s*
To u n d e r s t a n d a r t i n i t s b r o a d e s t s e n s e is;
t o come t o a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t i s , o r s h o u l d b e , i n ­
h e r e n t i n a l l t h e t h i n g s we d o a n d a r e : o u r a t t i t u d e s
t o w a r d e a c h o t h e r , t h e way we s p e a k , o u r s c h o o l s , o u r
h o m e s , o u r c o m m u n ity r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
W ith in each one
o f u s l i e s t h e p o w e r t o b e co m e a n a r t i s t * ^
I t m ig h t be added t h a t i t
is
o n ly th ro u g h tim e , o p p o r tu n ity
and fre e d o m to e x e r c i s e t h i s pow er t h a t a f i n e r l i f e
can be
b u ilt*
( 2 ) The s t u d y i s
tio n
to th e
—
—
. ..
c a lls a tte n ­
te a c h in g o f a r t in e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls , e s p e c i a l l y
in C a lifo rn ia *
su b je c ts
im p o rta n t b eca u se i t
A lth o u g h a r t i s
one o f th e s t a t u t o r y s c h o o l
i t h a s n o t g e n e r a lly b een g iv en a la r g e p la c e in
II
J o h n D ew ey, D em ocracy an d E d u c a t i o n *
M a c m i l l a n C o m p an y , 1 9 1 6 ) , p . 279*
(New Y o r k : T he
^ C h a r l o t t e R* M a j o r , T e a c h i n g A r t i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o l* P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n S e rv ic e C e n te r
P a m p h l e t 3 , (New Y o r k : P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
1 9 4 1 ) , p* 1*
3
s t u d i e s on e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r a c t i c e ,
fe ssio n a l lite r a tu r e
o r in
in m ost o f th e p ro ­
th e c la ss ro o m i t s e l f *
( 3 } The t i m e l i n e s s o f t h e s t u d y g i v e i t
b e c a u s e now , e v e n m ore t h a n i n n o rm a l t i m e s ,
im p o rta n c e
th e re
is
a
te n d e n c y t o m in im iz e th e
im p o rta n c e o f a r t and g iv e l e s s
a tte n tio n
t h e t i m e w hen t h e v a l u e s o f a n d
to it*
How i s
n eed s f o r a r t e d u c a tio n
sh o u ld he p o in te d up and s t r e s s e d
m ore t h a n e v e r b e f o r e *
Some h a v e i n d i c a t e d
th a t*
A rt i s an e s s e n t i a l com ponent o f f r e e s o c ie ty * * *
L e t u s be c e r t a i n a b o u t t h i s , t h a t in w ar and in
p e a c e , a r t b e lo n g s t o t h e p e o p le *
I t i s t h e i r s to
u s e a s a w eapon i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r freed o m *
It
i s t h e i r s to g iv e c o m fo rt in tim e s o f s t r e s s and t o
p o i n t t o t h e d e e p m e a n in g o f t h e i r s t r i v i n g s in
tim e s o f w e a rin e s s and c o n fu s io n * 3
O th e rs h a v e em p h a size d
th e i n d i s p e n s a b i l i t y o f a r t a s a
f a c t o r in a w ar to p re s e rv e
t h e fre e d o m w h ic h i s t h e e s s e n c e
o f d e m o c ra c ie s* ^
( 4 } Any a d e q u a t e h e l p t o
b a s e d on t h e n e e d s o f t h o s e
te a c h e r s m ust o b v io u s ly be
te a c h e rs*
In g r e a t e r and l e s s e r
d e g re e s i n d i v i d u a l s u p e r v is o r s h ave re c o g n iz e d t h i s and have
a tte m p te d , t o d e te rm in e and m eet th e a r t n eed s o f i n d iv i d u a l
te a c h e rs*
As a r e s u l t s u p e r v i s o r y h e l p
in a r t h a s v a rie d
in
3 S t a f f and S tu d e n ts o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f F in e and
I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y ; ttA r t
E d u c a t i o n , D e m o c r a c y a n d t h e W ar” ; A r t E d u c a t i o n T o d a y , (Hew
Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 4 2 )r, p* 1*
4A r t E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , P r a t t I n s t i t u t e ; A r t E d u ­
c a t i o n A l e r t ; (Hew Y o r k : T he R e l a t e d A r t S e r v i c e , 1 9 4 2 ) , p* 7*
q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y th ro u g h o u t th e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f C a l i ­
fo rn ia #
I t w o u l d se em t h a t t h e r e a r e
c e r t a i n n e e d s common
t o m any t e a c h e r s , w h i c h i f d i s c o v e r e d , m i g h t b e s t u d i e d b y
a l l s u p e r v i s o r s a n d w h i c h m i g h t e v i n c e a m o re w i d e s p r e a d a n d
e f f i c ie n t p ra c tic e #
S u p e rv is o rs have u sed v a rio u s
in g te a c h e r s .
te c h n iq u e s f o r a s s i s t ­
A ll o f th e s e a re n o t e q u a lly v a lu a b le in h e lp -
in te a c h e rs in a r t .
U n d o u b te d ly an e v a l u a t i o n o f th e s e
p r a c t i c e s , b y t h o s e who a r e s e r v e d , w o u l d b e o f a s s i s t a n c e
to s u p e r v is o r s
I n f r a m i n g m o re a d e q u a t e p r a c t i c e s .
T h is s tu d y i s
im p o rta n t b ecau se i t h as se c u re d th e
e x p re s s io n o f te a c h e r s th e m se lv e s.
They h a v e e x p r e s s e d
t h e i r n e e d s , t h e k i n d s and a m o u n ts o f s u p e r v i s o r y h e l p t h e y
h a v e b e e n r e c e i v i n g a n d th e t e c h n i q u e s b y w h ic h su c h s e r v i c e s
w ere r e n d e r e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s #
(5 )
P a c ts th ro w in g in to r e l i e f th e a c tu a l s i t u a t i o n
in a r t e d u c a tio n a re
s c a r c e , M unro i n d i c a t e s
t h a t m ost
c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on a r t and a r t e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n R e l a t i v e ­
ly u n sc ie n tific
d a ta ,
and u n o b j e c t i v e , l a c k in g in e x p e rim e n ta l
f u l l o f u n s u p p o r t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s # tf 5
T h is i s
tru e
o f C a l i f o r n i a a s e lse w h e re #
^T hom as M u n r o , lfI n t r o d u e t i o n , ,, T he F o r t i e t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e
n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n , A r t In A m e ric an
t » l f e ancT E d u c a t i o n , ( B i o o m i n g t o n , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l
^ P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 8#
5
A lth o u g h n o t f r e e
from su ch c r i t i c i s m
th is
s t u d y was
a t l e a s t an a t t e m p t t o e n l a r g e t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a on t h e
su b je c t,
e sp e c ia lly
in so f a r a s th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls o f
C a lif o r n ia c o u n tie s a re co n cern ed .
(6 )
L a s t l y , from t h e d a t a a c c u m u la te d in t h e
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e m ade w h i c h p o i n t some w a y s i n w h i c h
th e q u a li t y and q u a n tity o f a r t
m o re c o m p a r a b l e t o i t s
i n t h e s c h o o l s m ay b e m ad e
im p o rta n c e in l i f e
g e n e ra lly .
I I . DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
S u p e rv isio n .
T h e r e a r e m an y a n d v a r i e d c o n c e p t i o n s
o f su p e rv isio n .
T h is s t u d y a d o p t s t h e m e a n in g a s s t a t e d b y
a re p re s e n ta tiv e
g r o u p o f C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l S u p e r v i s o r s who
d e fin e d
it
as fo llo w s:
S u p e r v i s i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e im p ro v e m e n t o f
th e te a c h in g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .
I t sh o u ld be a
d e m o c r a t i c and c o - o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i n w h ic h t h e
s u p e rv is o r s tim u la te s th e te a c h e r to p e rs o n a l and
p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th a n d t o t h e u s e o f b e t t e r t e a c h i n g
m eth o d s
O n ly t h o s e a s p e c t s
fie ld
o f s u p e r v is io n co n cern ed w ith th e
o f a r t a re h e re c o n s id e r e d and o n ly th o s e
se rv ic e s
r e n d e r e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s e m p lo y ed b y t h e c o u n ty s u p e r i n t e n d ­
e n t o f sc h o o ls a re in c lu d e d .
6 " M a j o r E d u c a t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e s . " R e p o r t o f C o m m itte e
o f C a lifo rn ia School S u p e rv iso rs1 A sso c ia tio n . C a lifo rn ia
J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry E d u c a tio n , 8 :1 5 , A u g u s t, 1 9 3 9 .
stu d y
6
A rt*
I n i t s m ors ex p an d e d s e n s e a r t i n c l u d e s m u s i c ,
d ram a, l i t e r a t u r e ,
p a i n t i n g an d m any o t h e r m a t e r i a l e x p r e s ­
s i o n s o f hum an f e e l i n g .
common i m p l i c a t i o n i s
For p u rp o ses o f th is
re ta in e d .
stu d y th e
A rt h ere
. . .im p lie s e s p e c i a l l y th e v i s u a l a r t s , (a p p e a lin g
t o t h e s e n s e o f v i s i o n ) and e s p e c i a l l y th o s e p r o d u c t s and
a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g some c l a i m t o b e a u t y ; t o p o w e r o f
p l e a s i n g th e o b s e r v e r th ro u g h s e n s o ry q u a l i t i e s and
form s.
B u t i t i s com m only t a k e n t o i n c l u d e a t l e a s t
c e r t a i n f i n e r e x a m p le s o f i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e rc ia l, and
o t h e r p r a c t i c a l a r t s , w h e t h e r m ade b y h a n d o r b y
m a c h in e r y .™
F u rth e rm o re ,
su p e rv isio n
in th is
stu d y , a r t as a s u b je c t f o r
in e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls
i s u n d e r s t o o d t o m ean
t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h a im t o d e v e l o p
and a p p r e c i a ti v e
a b ilitie s
In c h ild r e n
c re a tiv e
th ro u g h th e u se o f m a t e r i a ls
common t o v i s u a l a r t #
E le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls in C a l i f o r n i a c o u n t i e s .
sc h o o ls s tu d ie d
in t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ere th o s e
The
com m only
c a lle d r u r a l s c h o o ls , h a v in g l e s s th a n th r e e h undred a v e r ­
age d a i l y a tte n d a n c e and b e in g s u p e r v is e d by p e rs o n s
e m p lo y e d d i r e c t l y b y t h e c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s
a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e L a w .^
'M u n r o ,
0£
.
In c lu d e d a re a l l
c i t #, p . 1 0 .
^ S c h o o l Code o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . 1 9 3 9 ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h E x t r a c t s fr o m t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n — E x t r a c t s
f ro m o t h e r c o d e s a n d e x t r a c t s fro m t h e G e n e r a l L a w s , p . 2 5 6 ,
D i v i s i o n IV , C h a p te r I I , # 4 .7 8 8 .
such s c h o o ls
III.
in f i f t y
seven c o u n tie s in C a lifo rn ia # ^
ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
T he e n s u i n g c h a p t e r s #
s tu d y th e d a t a d e r iv e d
p a st in v e s tig a tio n s
C h a p te r I I .
In th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f t h i s
from e x p l o r a t i o n a n d c o n c e r n e d w ith
of a re la tiv e
The p r o c e d u r e u s e d
p re s e n t stu d y is d e lin e a te d
n a tu re a re p re se n te d
in o b ta in in g d a ta f o r th e
in C h a p te r I I I .
The r e s u l t s
t a b u l a t e d fro m th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere d i v i d e d i n t o
s e c t i o n s and a r e t r e a t e d
G en eral f a c ts r e l a t i v e
a r t In
in
fiv e
in th e e n su in g c h a p te r s , a s fo llo w s :
to
th e te a c h in g and s u p e r v is io n o f
t h e s c h o o l s s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d I n C h a p t e r IV*
S u m m aries o f t h e f i n d i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h g e n e r a l p r o b le m s i n
a r t te a c h in g and th o s e c o n c e rn e d w ith s p e c i f i c p ro b lem s
c o n stitu te
C h a p te rs V and V I r e s p e c t i v e l y .
th e te c h n iq u e s o f s u p e r v is io n u se d
ta in e d
In C h a p te r V I I .
su p e rv isio n are
D a ta c o v e r in g
in th e sc h o o ls a re con­
Some g e n e r a l c o m m en ts m ade o n a r t
g iv e n in C h a p te r V I I I #
T he c o n c l u s i o n s
c o m p rise a th o ro u g h e v a l u a t i o n o f th e d a t a s e c u re d from t h e
q u e s t io n n a ir e s b o th
in
term s o f th e b e s t th o u g h t o f w r i t e r s
on s u p e r v i s i o n and in t h e c o m p a ris o n o f t h e
T hese a re p r e s e n te d
i n C h a p t e r IX#
ite m s th e m se lv e s#
The s i g n i f i c a n c e
o f th e
^ T h e C i t y a n d C o u n t y o f S a n F r a n c i s c o v /ere n o t i n c l u d e d
in t h i s s tu d y s in c e th e s u p e rv is o ry r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e
s u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls o f San F r a n c is c o a re th o s e o f a c i t y
s u p e r in te n d e n t o f sc h o o ls#
e n tire
stu d y r e s t e d upon th e p o s s i b l e
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h ic h
m ig b t b e f o r m u la te d from th e t o t a l e v id e n c e *
m e n d a t i o n s a p p e a r i n C h a p t e r X*
T he r e c o m ­
CHAPTER XI
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
M eager in d e e d i s
v is io n o f a r t in
th e l i t e r a t u r e
w r i t t e n on t h e s u p e r ­
th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C a li f o r n ia c o u n tie s #
T h a t w h ich d o e s e x i s t i s p r e s e n t e d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f
”r u r a l s c h o o l s . ”
T h is f a c t n e e d s e x p l a n a t i o n .
I n th e y e a r 1921 th e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e
v o te d th e f i r s t
funds f o r s u p e rv is io n
i n c o u n ty sc h o o ls.* ^
U n d e r t h i s l a w c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s w e r e em­
p o w e red t o e m p lo y s u p e r v i s o r s t o d i r e c t and h e l p t e a c h e r s
in sc h o o ls h a v in g l e s s
a tte n d a n c e
th a n th r e e h u n d red a v e ra g e d a i l y
f o r th e p re c e d in g y e a r .
In th e y e a rs fo llo w in g th e
o r i g i n a l e n a c tm e n t o f t h e law t h e s c h o o l s s u p e r v i s e d by th e
p e rs o n n e l o f th e c o u n ty s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o l s 1 o f f i c e
came b o b e know n a s r u r a l s c h o o l s *
T he a v a i l a b l e w r i t t e n a c c o u n t s o n a r t s u p e r v i s i o n i n
r u r a l sc h o o ls a re h e re re v ie w e d .
L ite ra tu re p e rta in in g d ir e c tly
o f a r t in r u r a l sc h o o ls.
e x p e rie n c e s In 1927,
to th e
su p e rv isio n
K a th e rin e M o rriso n w ro te o f h e r
She I n d i c a t e s
th e p ro b le m s o f th e
^ J . H . D e e r i n g , E d i t o r , P o l i t i a l Code o f t h e S t a t e
o f C a l i f o r n i a , S u b . 1 8 , Sec* 1 5 4 3 . (San F r a n c i s c o : B a n c r o f t ,
T§2TT.----------
ru ral a rt
s u p e r v i s o r a n d some o f t h e w a y s f o u n d f o r s o l v i n g
th em i n S an D ie g o C o u n t y .2
T he P a c i f i c A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , o r g a n i z e d i n 1 9 2 5 , ^
reco rd s
its
first
i n t e r e s t in a r t in a r u r a l h ig h sc h o o l in
C a l i f o r n i a i n 1 9 3 0 .4
H o t u n t i l 1 9 31 was a r t
in r u r a l
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls in C a li f o r n ia g iv e n a h e a r in g a t th e
a sso c ia tio n ^
an n u al c o n v e n tio n .
A t t h a t m e e ti n g a gro u p
o f r u r a l a r t s u p e r v i s o r s m et and d i s c u s s e d t h e i r p ro b le m s
and r e p o r t e d t o
th e a s s o c ia tio n .^
I n 1 9 3 2 a n o t h e r r e p o r t w as m ad e t o t h e P a c i f i c A r t s
A s s o c ia tio n .^
A t t h a t tim e t h e r e w ere s i x p e rs o n s d e v o ti n g
f u l l tim e t o a r t s u p e r v i s i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a r u r a l s c h o o l s .
^ K a t h e r i n e M o r r i s o n , ’’F o r t y T h o u s a n d M i l e s o f D r a w i n g ,
The S c h o o l A r t s M a g a z in e , 2 6 * 5 7 9 -8 2 , J u n e , 1 9 2 7 .
^ A r t h u r B . C l a r k , ’’T h e P a c i f i c A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , ’1
T he S c h o o l A r t s M a g a z i n e , 2 5 : 3 8 8 - 9 1 , M a r c h , 1 9 2 6 .
^ H a r r y G r e e n , ffA r t E d u c a t i o n i n a R u r a l C o m m u n i t y ,”
P ro c e e d in g s o f th e P a c if i c A rts A s s o c ia tio n , (S ta n fo rd
U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1930) p p . 1 6 -1 9 .
^ E v a d n a K r a u s P e r r y , ’’R u r a l S c h o o l A r t , ” P r o c e e d i n g s
th e P a c i f i c A rts A s s o c ia tio n , (S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s I ty P r e s s ,
T5i£LJ p p . ' 3 6 - 3 2 .
^ E v a d n a K r a u s P e r r y , ’’R u r a l A r t E d u c a t i o n , ” P r o ­
c e e d in g s o f th e P a c i f i c A rts A s s o c ia tio n , ( n . p . )
p p • 2 5 -3 0 .
11
These s u p e r v is o r s
c o n trib u te d w r itte n sta te m e n ts o f t h e i r
a c t i v i t i e s , p r o b le m s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s w h ic h w e re i n c o r p o r a t e d
in th e r e p o r t to th e a s s o c ia tio n .
th a n fo rm er r e p o r t s
it
is
A lth o u g h m ore c o m p le te
s e l f e v id e n t t h a t t h i s r e p o r t to o k
no a c c o u n t o f th e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a r t in t h e
fifty
one c o u n tie s
n o t em p lo y in g a r t s u p e r v i s o r s .
O u tlin in g th e s i g n i f i c a n t tre n d s
in C a l i f o r n i a ’s p ro ­
g ra m o f r u r a l s u p e r v i s i o n , G l a d y s P o t t e r i n 1 9 3 2 s u m m a r i z e d
t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d from r u r a l s u p e r v i s o r s by th e
S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n . 1^
She p o i n t e d o u t t h a t o v e r
a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s t h e r e h a d b e e n m any g r e a t c h a n g e s i n
o b j e c t i v e s am ong w h i c h w a s i n c l u d e d ^ p r o v i s i o n f o r f u l l e r
c u l t u r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n s a n d f o r c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . ft 8
In
m e e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s h e r r e p o r t sho w ed t h e r e c o g n i ­
tio n o f sp e c ia l a b i l i t i e s
in c h ild re n ..
in c lu d e d s p e c ia l a r t a b i l i t i e s .
Among t h e s e w e r e
R e g a rd in g a r t o b j e c ti v e s
s h e q u o t e s f r o m o n e a r t s u p e r v i s o r *8 r e p o r t b u t t h e r e
i s no
s t a t e m e n t f r o m g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r s who i n c l u d e a r t am ong
m any d u t i e s .
The r e p o r t l e a d s one t o a s s u m e , h o w e v e r, t h a t
a l l su p e rv iso rs
i n C a l i f o r n i a w ere b e c o m in g m o re a w a re o f
th e ir o b lig a tio n s
in th e
fie ld
of a rt.
^ G l a d y s L . P o t t e r , ,!S i g n i f i c a n t T r e n d s i n C a l i f o r n i a ’ s
P ro g ram o f R u r a l S u p e r v i s i o n , ” P r o c e e d in g s o f t h e 1952 A nnual
C o n v e n tio n o f C o u n ty . C ity and D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f
S c h o o ls and A n n u al C o n fe re n c e o f R u r a l S u p e r v i s o r s .
sTEaffe
o f C a l i f o r n i a D e p artm en t o f E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n , Ho. 2 2 ,
(S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p artm en t o f E d u c a t i o n , )
N ovem ber 1 9 , 1 9 3 2 ) p p . 2 3 2 - 3 6 .
8 Ib id . p . 233.
I n 1 9 4 1 , H a r o ld G regg w r o te
As
in a l l
th e fo rm er l i t e r a t u r e he
on r u r a l a r t s u p e r v i s i o n *
te lls
o f h is e x p e rie n c e s
a s a n a r t s u p e r v i s o r ; how t h e n e e d s o f t h e t e a c h e r s
Sonom a C o u n t y w e r e d i s c o v e r e d a n d m e t .
p e r tin e n t su g g e stio n s a re v a lu a b le
A n o th e r g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n
in
H is e x p e r i e n c e s an d
to a l l
su p e rv iso rs*
o f a r t in th e r u r a l
s c h o o l s a p p e a r s i n T he S c h o o l A r t s
M a g az in e f o r J a n u a r y ,
1 9 4 1 .10
In s p ite
o f th e
fa c t th a t a ll
th ese c o n tr ib u tio n s
t e l l w hat i s b e in g done in c o u n ty s c h o o ls
m uch o f t h e d a t a i s
in
te rm s o f one o r a few c o u n t i e s
u s u a l l y th o s e c o u n t i e s w here a r t
is
and
s u p e r v i s o r s a r e e m p lo y ed .
T hese in d iv i d u a l e x p e rie n c e s a re v a l i d
th ere
in C a li f o r n ia
and v a l u a b l e b u t
g r e a t n e e d f o r a m o re w i d e s p r e a d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
a r t su p e rv isio n fo r a l l
c o u n ty s c h o o ls in C a lif o r n ia *
H a r o l d G r e g g , " R u r a l A r t S u p e r v i s i o n a n d T e a c h e r s 1'
E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s , " The F o r t i e t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l
S o c i e t y f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n , A r t In A m e ric an L i f e
and E d u c a t i o n , (B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l Pub­
l i s h i n g C om pany, 1 9 4 1 )p p* 7 9 3 - 8 0 0 *
^ ^ v a d n a K raus Ife rry , " A c tiv e A r t in R u ra l S c h o o l s ,"
The S c h o o l A r t s M a g a z i n e , 4 0 : 1 4 7 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 1 *
13
L i t e r a t u r e p u b lis h e d by th e C a l i f o r n i a D e p artm en t o f
E d u c a tio n .
I n 1 9 2 8 , T he D i v i s i o n o f R u r a l E d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d
A S u g g e s tiv e C ourse o f S tu d y in I n d u s t r i a l A r t f o r R u r a l
S c h o o l s .•*•**•
art
T h is b u l l e t i n
s u p e r v i s o r s and i t
te a c h e rs
w as p r e p a r e d b y a g r o u p o f r u r a l
o ffered
s u g g e s t i v e l e s s o n s f r o m w h ic h
in r u r a l s c h o o ls m ig h t s e l e c t p r o b le m s .
£
* G u id e t o C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , M a n u a l f o r
K i n d e r g a r t e n and P rim a ry T e a c h e rs
c o o p e ra tiv e
e ffo rts
d e v e lo p e d th ro u g h th e
o f many e d u c a t o r s ,
in c lu d in g r u r a l
s u p e r v i s o r s , was p u b l i s h e d b y t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t ­
m ent in 1930.
on a r t i t
A lth o u g h t h i s
c o n t a i n e d no s p e c i f i c
i s p e rm e a te d w ith h e lp s
c h a p te r
fo r te a c h e rs.
T he T e a c h e r s 1 G u id e i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e
In te r­
m e d i a t e G r a d e s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 6 w as a ' c o m p a n i o n v o lu m e
to th e e a r l i e r
g u id e and s i m i l a r in
and m a t e r i a l .
T h is
o f a r t by th o se
we 1 1 - p l a n n e d ,
so u rces,
c o n trib u to rs
g u i d e sh o w e d a g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n
co n cern ed w ith e le m e n ta ry e d u c a tio n .
in c lu siv e
A
c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o a r t . * 1*4
13- A S u g g e s t i v e C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t f o r
R u r a l S c h o o ls 7 C a l i f o r n i a S ta T e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n
B u l l e t i n B - l , (S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f
E d u c a tio n , 1 9 2 8 ).
^ T e a c h e r s 1 G u id e t o C h ild D e v e lo p m e n t, A M an u al f o r
K i n d e r g a r -ben a n d P r i m a r y T e a c h e r s , ( S a c r a m e n t o : C a l i f o r n i a ' ”
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 0 ).
1 5 T e a o h e r s G u id e t o C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e I n t e r ­
m e d i a t e G r a d e s , T S a c ra m e n to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f
E d u c a tio n , 1936) •
14I b i d . ,
C h a p t e r X X I, p p . 4 4 0 - 5 0 0 .
14
S in c e a l l
p la c e d
in
o f t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s w ere p la n n e d f o r an d
th e hands o f e v e ry C a lif o r n ia e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r
t h e y w ere one o f t h e c h i e f a i d s
in g th e te a c h e rs *
of p ra c tic e
in th e
f o r th e s u p e rv is o r in h e lp ­
In so f a r a s o b j e c t i v e s
th e s e w orks,
in d ic a te
th e
tre n d
to t h a t e x t e n t , r e v e a l th e tr e n d s
su p e rv isio n o f a r t .
B u t,
f o r a c t u a l t a n g i b l e and
s p e c i f i c e v id e n c e o f w h a t i s b e i n g d o n e o v e r a w id e a r e a ,
t h e s e v o lu m e s o f f e r l i t t l e
d a ta .
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u ld
fin d
no s t u d i e s , o r e v e n
g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s , d e a l in g c o m p re h e n s iv e ly w ith a r t s u p e r ­
v i s i o n a s a s t a t e w id e a c t i v i t y
so i t
w as t h o u g h t a b r o a d e r p i c t u r e m i g h t b e e v o l v e d t h r o u g h
an o r i g i n a l
stu d y .
q u e stio n n a ire s
An e f f o r t w as m ade t o d o t h i s b y s e n d i n g
t o a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d num ber o f t e a c h e r s
in C a l i f o r n i a c o u n ty s c h o o ls .
o f th e
in c o u n ty e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls ,
stu d y i s p re s e n te d
a re re p o rte d
A d i s c u s s i o n o f th e p ro c e d u re
in C h a p te r I I I .
in su b seq u en t c h a p te r s .
T he f i n d i n g s
CHAPTER I I I
SOURCES OF DATA AND METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The d a t a
fo r th is
se n t to a s e le c te d
g roup o f t e a c h e r s
o f C a lifo rn ia c o u n tie s .
th e s e le c tio n
s t u d y w e r e s e c u r e d on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls
The n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,
o f th e t e a c h e r s , and th e num ber r e p l y i n g t o
th e q u e s tio n n a ire a re d is c u s s e d h e r e ,
I,
THE QUESTIONNAIRE
T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ^ w as d i v i d e d
in c lu d in g ;
in to fo u r s e c tio n s ,
g en eral q u e s tio n s , g en eral a r t
te a c h in g p ro b le m s,
s p e c i f i c a r t t e a c h i n g p ro b lem s and s u p e r v i s o r y t e c h n iq u e s ,
i*
G eneral q u e s tio n s .
The f i r s t
s e c tio n p re se n te d
g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s t o w h ic h t e a c h e r s w ere a s k e d t o r e s p o n d .
T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a im e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n u m b e r o f t e a c h e r s
in th e s c h o o l;
th e g ra d e s ta u g h t by th e re s p o n d in g te a c h e r ;
h e r p re p a ra tio n
f o r a r t t e a c h i n g ; h e r u s e o f b o o k s , m a g a z in e s
and o th e r m a t e r i a l s and th e s o u rc e s f o r t h e s e .
re la tin g
to g e n e ra l h e lp s
in c lu d e d in t h i s
2.
fr o m t h e
Q u e stio n s
s t i p e r v i s o r s w ere a l s o
se c tio n ,
G en eral a r t te a c h in g p ro b le m s.
T h i s s e c t i o n w as
d e v o te d to su ch g e n e r a l a r t p ro b lem s a s th e p h i lo s o p h y ,
1 See t h e a p p e n d i x , p a g e 1 3 5 , f o r th e c o m p le te form
o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e a s s e n t t o t e a c h e r s .
16
p la n n in g and © v a lu a tio n o f a r t t e a c h in g and th e s e c u r in g o f
e q u ip m e n t, m a t e r i a l and hooks f o r su c h w ork.
asked to
ch eck each ite m
in th e l i s t
n e e d e d r m u c h , some o r l i t t l e
m u c h , som e o r l i t t l e
h e lp
T e a c h e rs w ere
t o show w h e t h e r t h e y
h e lp and w h e th e r th e y r e c e iv e d
from th e s u p e r v i s o r s .
3 .; S p e c if ic a r t te a c h in g p ro b le m s.
S p e c ific a r t
e x p e rie n c e s c o n s id e re d n e c e s s a r y in a w e ll b a la n c e d a r t
p ro g ram f o r c h i l d r e n
in s e c tio n
O h io ,
2
th re e .
in t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l w ere p r e s e n t e d
A rt E d u c a tio n f o r E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls o f
a t e a c h e r f s h a n d b o o k , was e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n
fo rm u la tin g t h i s
i n c l u s i v e l i s t w h ich was r o u g h l y d i v i d e d
in to :
c ra fts,
fin e a r t s ,
e x p e rie n c e s*
c o rre la te d ,
As i n p a r t t w o , t h e
s o c i a l and a p p r e c i a t i o n
t e a c h e r s w ere a s k e d t o
c h e c k e a c h ite m sh o w in g t h e am ount o f h e l p n e e d e d an d t h e
am ount g iv e n by th e s u p e r v is o r *
4 . Supe rv is o ry , te c h n iq u e s .
lis te d
I n t h i s s e c t i o n w ere
th e m eth o d s u s e d by s u p e r v i s o r s i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s
w ith a r t p ro b le m s.
Ho c o m p r e h e n s i v e
b y a r t s u p e r v i s o r s w as f o u n d b u t i n
lis t
o f te c h n iq u e s u se d
th e T w e lfth Y earbook o f
th e D e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v is o r s and D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , ^
2A r t E d u c a t i o n f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s o f O h i o ,
T e a c h e r ffs H a n d b o o k , ( C o lu m b u s , O h i o : S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f
Educ a t i o n , 1 9 4 0 ) .
^M a y cie S o u t h a l l , ^ S u p e r v i s o r y T e c h n iq u e s A d a p te d t o
H ew er T e a c h i n g P r a c t i c e s , n H e w e r I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s o f
P ro m is e , T w e lfth Y earbook o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v is o r s
and D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , ( n a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia ­
t i o n , 1 9 3 9 ), p p . 328 -3 5 0 .
17
M ay cie S o u t h a l l su m m a riz e a tw e n ty s u p e r v i s o r y 't e c h n i q u e s
a d a p te d
to new er te a c h in g p r a c t i c e s .
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w as f o r m u l a t e d f r o m t h i s
a tio n s
fro m o t h e r s o u r c e s .
The l i s t
f o r th e
o u tlin e w ith e la b o r ­
T e a c h e rs w ere a sk e d t o
check
e a c h ite m s h o w in g w h e t h e r t h e s u p e r v i s o r u s e d t h e m e th o d
fre q u e n tly ,
o c c a s i o n a l l y o r r a r e l y and w h e th e r, f o r th e
te a c h e r re p ly in g ,
little
s u c h a m eth o d h a d b e e n o f m u ch ,
some o r
h e lp .
C o p ie s o f t h e c o m p le te q u e s t i o n n a i r e
w h ic h a c c o m p a n ie d i t
to th e te a c h e rs a re
and th e l e t t e r
i n c l u d e d on p a g e s
135 to 1 3 9 .
X I . ALLOCATION OP QUESTIONNAIRES AND TEACHERS* REPLIES
S e le c tio n o f te a c h e rs .
a p p ro x im a te ly 4 ,8 8 3 te a c h e r s in
T h ere a r e
in C a lifo rn ia
th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls h a v in g
l § s s th a n th r e e h u n d red a v e ra g e d a i l y a tte n d a n c e .^
a sa m p lin g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
of th is
g ro u p , te a c h e rs
To s e c u r e
in o n e-
t e a c h e r th r o u g h n i n e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l s w ere q u e s t i o n e d .
T e a c h e rs in e v e r y c o u n ty w ere c o n t a c t e d .
to
send q u e s t io n n a ir e s
C are was t a k e n
t o e a c h c o u n t y on a p e r c e n t a g e b a s i s ,
^ F i g u r e s c o m p u ted fro m t h e num ber o f s c h o o l s l i s t e d
*n A p p o r t i o n m e n t o f S t a t e S c h o o l F u n d s f o r t h e F i s c a l Y e a r
E n d in g Ju n e 3 0 , 19 4 T /( S a c r a m e n to : O f f i c e o f t h e S u p e r i n te n d e n t
o f’ R i b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E duca­
tio n . )
18
i.
e . a llo c a tin g
t h e g r e a t e r macaber t o t h e t y p e s o f s c h o o l s
m o st p r e v a l e n t and a l e s s o r num ber to s c h o o ls l e s s p r e v a l e n t
i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n ty *
A l l t e a c h e r s w ere q u e s t i o n e d i n
e v e ry sc h o o l c o n ta c te d *
R e p lie s to th e q u e s tio n n a ir e *
fro m 106 o f t h e t e a c h e r s ,
R e p l i e s w ere r e c e i v e d
th u s p r o v i d i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
o f o v e r t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n u n d e r 'c o n s id ­
e ra tio n .
T he n u m b e r o f t e a c h e r s
in sc h o o ls o f d i f f e r e n t
s i z e s , t h e n u m b e r q u e s t i o n e d a n d t h e n u m b e r who r e p l i e d a r e
sh ow n i n T a b l e I .
The a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l
num ber r e p l y i n g a r e a l s o
A c lo s e a n a ly s is
in c lu d e d
in
th is
ta b le .
o f th e } p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p l i e s
fo r
e a c h t y p e o f s c h o o l sh o w s t h a t tw o p e r c e n t o r m o re r e p l i e s
? /e re r e c e i v e d f r o m e a c h t y p e o f s c h o o l e x c e p t t h e t h r e e - ,
fiv e r#
and s e v e n - t e a c h e r s c h o o ls *
T h i s w o u ld i n d i c a t e
th e r e p l i e s r e c e iv e d g iv e a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l
th a t
th e
g r o u p s i n t h e a p p r o x im a te p r o p o r t i o n w h ich t h e y a r e fo u n d
in th e
g roup a s a w h o le .
S in c e t e a c h e r s w ere s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d t o n o t s i g n
t h e i r n a m e s t h e r e c o u l d b e no a c c u r a t e
ta b u la tio n o f th e
num ber r e p l y i n g fro m e a c h c o u n ty b u t a c h e c k o f t h e p o st*
m a r k s on r e p l i e s
sh o w e d t h a t r e s p o n s e s w e r e r e c e i v e d
ev ery s e c tio n o f th e
s ta te .
from
19
TABLE I
HUMBER OP TEACHERS EMPLOYED? HUMBER QUESTIONED,
NUMBER REPLYING AND PER CENT OF TOTAL NUMBER
REPLYING TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Num ber o f
te a c h e rs
in sch o o l
Num ber o f
te a c h e rs
em p lo y ed
Num ber o f
te a c h e rs
q u e stio n e d
N um ber o f
te a c h e rs
re p ly in g
Per cent
of to ta l
re p ly in g
1
1513
93
38
*02
2
1020
62
26
.0 2
3
696
42
m
4
472
28
14
.0 2 5
5
330)
20
2
.0 0 5
6
264
18
6
.0 2
7
308
21
3
.0 1
280
16
9
.0 3
4883
300
106
8
and 9
I T o ta ls
.0 1
. 0 2 Av<
I t w o u ld se em t h a t t h e
d a ta s u f f ic ie n tly
fig u re s
c o m p le te and v a l i d
in th e fin d in g s o f f e r
to fo rm a b a s i s
fo r
f a i r a ssu m p tio n s .
The c o m p le te f i n d i n g s fro m t h e r e p l i e s
q u e stio n n a ire a re ta b u la te d
fo llo w in g .
im m e d ia te ly
A c h a p t e r i s d e v o te d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n and
a n a ly s is o f d a ta c o n ta in e d
n a ire .
in th e c h a p te rs
to th e
in each s e c tio n o f th e q u e s tio n ­
CHAPTER XV
GENERAL QUESTIONS RELATIVE TO ART TEACHING
T h e f i r s t n i n e t e e n i t e m s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a im e d
t o s e c u r e a b ro a d v ie w o f th e r e s p o n d in g t e a c h e r and h e r
jo b , as i t r e l a te s
to a rt*
T he su m m ary to : t e a c h e r s *
re s p o n se s to th e s e q u e s tio n s s fo llo w :
I.
PREPARATION OP THE TEACHER IN ART, HER LIKING
FOR I T AND HER OUTSTANDING OBSTACLES IN TEACH­
ING I T
T y p e o f ro o m a n d n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d *
th e 106 t e a c h e r s r e p l y i n g t h i r t y - e i g h t te a c h
sc h o o ls.
each,
Of
in o n e -te a c h e r
I n t h e r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l s w i t h tw o o r m o r e t e a c h e r s
t e a c h e r s r e p l y i n g w ere e v e n ly d i s t r i b u t e d
am ong u p p e r
and lo w e r g ra d e s*
The a v e r a g e nu m b er o f c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d
in c la ss ro o m s
was t h i r t y , w i t h t h e l e a s t num ber b e i n g f o u r , r e p o r t e d
o n e - te a c h e r sc h o o l*
T he g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f p u p i l s e n r o l l e d
i n a n y c l a s s r o o m w as f i f t y ,
te a c h e r sc h o o l.
under th irty
over th ir ty
in a
r e p o r t e d by a p e rs o n from a s i x -
The t e n d e n c y s e e m s t o b e t o w a r d t o t a l s
in o n e - to f o u r - t e a c h e r s c h o o ls i n c l u s i v e and
in f i v e -
to n in e - te a c h e r s c h o o ls .
num ber o f c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t e d
The t o t a l
i n t h e s t u d y w as 2 , 4 1 9 .
Who t e a c h e s t h e a r t *
O n ly one p e r s o n o f th e 106
r e p l y i n g r e p o r t e d t h a t s h e d i d n o t t e a c h a r t i n h e r own
room .
In her case,
t h a t o f an u p p e r g ra d e t e a c h e r , a lo w e r
grad e te a c h e r ta k e s th e a r t f o r h e r c l a s s .
N in e r e p o r t e d
t h a t t h e y t a u g h t a r t i n o t h e r ro o m s t h a n t h e i r ow n.
n i n e w ere e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d
T hese
o v er d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f sc h o o ls
w h ic h w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h i n g a r t
c o n f in e d to a n y one ty p e o f s c h o o l .
i n o t h e r ro o m s i s n o t
T h o s e who t e a c h i n o t h e r
ro o m s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u c h t e a c h i n g i s d o n e i n u p p e r g r a d e s .
t
-
-
T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t a l l e x c h a n g e s sh o w n i n t h e f i n d ­
in g s
it
seem s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o te t h a t a lm o s t n i n e t y p e r
c e n t o f a r t te a c h in g in
ro o m t e a c h e r h e r s e l f ,
th e se sc h o o ls
i s done by th e c l a s s ­
i n h e r own r o o m .
T each ers1 tra in in g
in p r e p a r a tio n
O f t h e n i n e t y - t h r e e t e a c h e r s who s t a t e d
fo r te a c h in g a r t .
th e num ber o f
s e m e s t e r u n i t s o f a r t w ork t a k e n i n c o l l e g e
f o r te a c h in g : seven sa id
in p re p a ra tio n
th e y had tak e n none, s l i g h t l y o v er
tw e n ty p e r c e n t h a d l e s s th a n
th re e u n i ts
o f w ork w h i l e
s l i g h t l y m ore t h a n t w e n t y p e r c e n t h ad t a k e n t e n o r m ore
u n its
o f a r t w o rk .
T hree s t a t e d
th e y had m a jo re d in a r t .
T h e m e d i a n f o r t h e g r o u p w as a b o u t f i v e u n i t s .
g iv e s th e ta b u la tio n
T a b l e IX
o f th e c o m p lete f i g u r e s r e l a t i v e
a r t t r a i n i n g had by th e t e a c h e r s .
to th e
23
TABLE IX
SEMESTER UNITS OP ART TAKEN BY 93 TEACHERS IN
PREPARATION FOR TEACHING
U n i t s of*
w ork
ta k e n
0
1
2
3
3
1
T y pe o f s c h o o l b y n u m b e r o f t e a c h e r s
3
8 and 9
4
5 . 6 i 7
1
1
2
5
3
1
3
3
5
1
2
2
4
3
2
2
2
5
1
1
6
4
5
2
7
1
8
3
2
2
2
5
1
1
1
9
10
3
3
M ore
th a n
ten
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
24
T e a c h e r s f; a n d s u p e r v i s o r s 1 a t t i t u d e s
a rt
te a c h in g *
In r e p l y i n g to th e q u e s t i o n ,
a r t? ” n in e ty -fiv e
to w a rd a r t and
},Bo y o u l i k e
te a c h e rs r e p lie d t h a t th e y d id ,
fiv e sa id
th e y d id n o t , w h ile one q u a l i f i e d h e r s ta te m e n t by s a y in g
she lik e d
” some k i n d s . ”
R e p lie s
to
O n ly t h r e e
gave no a n s w e r .
th e q u e s tio n w h e th er th e t e a c h e r l ik e d
h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h a r t w o rk show n i n e t y - s i x r e p l y i n g ,
yes;
s ix , no;
tw o s t a t e d
” c e r t a i n k i n d s ; ” w h i l e tw o d i d n o t
an sw er.
S ta te m e n ts c o n ce rn e d w ith w h e th e r o r n o t th e s u p e r ­
v i s o r had s t r e s s e d
re v e a ls
a rt.
th e
im p o rta n c e o f a r t t o
t o some e x t e n t t h e
a ttitu d e s
th e
te a c h e r
o f s u p e r v i s o r s to w a rd
T he i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t e x p e r i e n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n h a d
been s tr e s s e d by s u p e rv is o rs to ab o u t th irty « -e ig h t p e r c e n t
o f th e re sp o n d in g te a c h e r s .
response,
th re e sa id
A few l e s s
gave a n e g a tiv e
i t had n o t been e s p e c ia lly s t r e s s e d ,
t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t c l a i m e d no s u p e r v i s i o n o r m ade no r e p l y .
The u s e o f r e a d y - m a d e p a t t e r n s .
ten d e n cy t h a t i s d e f i n i t e l y
p a tte rn s .
T he f i n d i n g s show a
aw ay f r o m t h e u s e o f r e a d y - m a d e
O n ly n i n e t e a c h e r s u s e su c h p a t t e r n s
fre q u e n tly ,
a b o u t t w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t u s e th e m o c c a s i o n a l l y w h i l e f i f t y s e v e n p e r c e n t u s e th e m b u t r a r e l y .
never use p a tte rn s .
F iv e s t a t e d
th a t th e y
25
T w e n ty s o u r c e s f o r o b t a i n i n g p a t t e r n s weie l i s t e d
th e te a c h e r s .
I n o r d e r o f tim e s m e n tio n e d th e s o u rc e s w e re:
t e a c h e r s 1 m a g a z in e s,
fifte e n ;
books,
so u rces,
te n ;
fo u r;
by
t h i r t y - o n e 5 t e a c h e r f s own c o l l e c t i o n ,
t w e l v e ; The I n s t r u c t o r , e l e v e n ; v a r i o u s
s t u d e n t s m ake th e m f i v e ;
S c h o o l A rts M a g a z in e ,
t e a c h e r p u r c h a s e s th e m p i c t u r e s , d i t t o
books, p ic tu r e
b o o k s a n d sum m er s c h o o l s , e a c h t w i c e ; a r t c o u r s e s , e n l a r g e ­
m e n ts from t e x t b o o k s , e x c h a n g e w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s , h e c t o g r a p h e d , G e l - S t e n C om pany , A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n P r e s s a n d t h e
art
s u p e r v i s o r , e a c h once#
U se o f b o o k s , m a g a z in e s and I l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s #
A s k e d t o name t h e b o o k m o s t h e l p f u l
in a r t te a c h in g f i f t y -
t w o , o r n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s , m ade no r e p l y #
sa id
t h e r e w as n o o n e p a r t i c u l a r b o o k , o n e s a i d
s h e kn ew o n e , o n e l i s t e d
a n o th e r s ta te d
as g iv e n .
t h a t s h e d i d n o t m ak e u s e o f b o o k s #
T a b le I I I
lis ts
T he t a b l e a l s o
w as m e n t i o n e d .
It
Is
o r a u t h o r s w ere d e f i n i t e l y
th e a u th o r s and book t i t l e s ,
sh o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s e a c h
to be n o ted h e re
sta n d w e ll above a l l a u th o r s .
tim e s in a l l ,
sh e w ish e d
books o b ta in e d a t d im e -s to re s and
N in e te e n book t i t l e s
m e n tio n e d .
S ix
te n
t h a t P e d r o J # Lem os
H i s name w as m e n t i o n e d t w e n t y
t im e s w i t h no s p e c i f i c b o o k t i t l e ,
e ig h t
26
TABLE I I I
BOOKS FOUND HELPFUL BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS IN TEACHING ART *
A u t h o r ’ s name
a s g iv e n
B ook
as
title
g iv e n
T im e s
m e n tio n e d
L em os
Lem os
10
A p p lie d A rt
8
C o u n ty C o u rs e o f S tu d y
5
3
M a th ia s
S t a f f o r d and R ucker
M o sh ie r
The A r t T e a c h e r
2
A r t A p p r e c i a t i o n T e x t Books
2
T h e ir F i r s t Y ears
1
A B C o f A rt
1
A r t in th e E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l
1
C lassro o m T e a c h e r
1
T e a c h e rs * * G u i d e , I n t e r m e d i a t e
1
A d v e n tu re s w ith D isc a rd e d
M a te ria ls
1
B oas
1
I n s t r u c t o r A r t B o oks
1
T e ssin
C r e a tiv e A rt f o r th e G rades
1
Snow a n d F r o a l i e h
I n d u s t r i a l A r t T e x t Books
1
S m ith
Made i n M e x ic o
1
B o n s e r a n d M ossm an
1
A ug sb u rg ’s
^ C o m p le te I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t b o o k s i s t o be fo u n d i n
t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y on p a g e 129 *
1
27
t i m e s w i t h A p p l i e d A r t- *- a n d t w i c e w i t h T he A r t T e a c h e r
M a g a z i n e s se e m t o b e o f v a l u e t o m o r e p e o p l e
a re books.
lis t
O n ly t h i r t y - f i v e m ade n o a n s w e r w hen a s k e d t o
th e m ag a zin e m o st v a lu a b le
t o th em .
s a i d no s p e c i a l o n e w as m o s t v a l u a b l e
are l i s t e d
th an
i n T a b l e IV w h i c h a l s o
T hree te a c h e r s
t o th em .
T he m a g a z i n e s
sh o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s
e a c h m a g a z i n e w as m e n t i o n e d #
B ooks an d m a g a z in e s w e re o b t a i n e d fro m t h e c o u n ty
f r e e l i b r a r y by f if ty ^ s e v e n p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s ,
tw e n ty -s ix p e r c e n t s a id th e y p u rch ased
t h e i r own a n d
t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t m e n tio n e d th e s c h o o l l i b r a r y .
tio n e d th e c i t y
and one each th e
lib ra ry ,
sta te
th re e
P o u r m en­
th e s u p e r i n te n d e n t s o f f ic e
l i b r a r y , d o n a tio n s and r u r a l book
exchange.
The f i n d i n g s show t h a t w hen p i c t u r e s ,
te x tile s
o r o t h e r f i n e p i e c e s o f a r t w ork w e re a v a i l a b l e
f o r w o rk w i t h c h i l d r e n
in se v e n ty p e r c e n t o f th e
th e te a c h e r had to f u r n is h
c e n t o f th e
.... .
p o tte ry ,
te a c h e rs
sta te d
th e m h e r s e l f .
cases
F o u rte e n p e r
t h a t o n ly p i c t u r e s w ere
. . . . ,
•‘'P e d r o J . L e m o s , A p p l i e d A r t , ( M o u n t a i n V i e w , C a l i ­
f o r n ia : P a c if ic P re ss P u b lish in g A s s o c ia tio n , 1 9 20).
^ P e d r o J . L e m o s , The A r t T e a c h e r ,
D a v is P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 ).
( W o r c e s te r , M ass:
28
table
IV
MAGAZINES FOUND VALUABLE BY CLASSROOM
TEACHERS IN TEACHING ART
Nam© o f M a g a z i n e
T im e s M e n t i o n e d
T he I n s t r u c t o r 1
33
S c h o o l A r t s M ag azin e
22
T he G r a d e T e a c h e r
13
J u n io r A rts and A c t i v i t i e s
7
A m e ric an C h ild h o o d
3
L e isu re c ra ft
1
D e sig n
1
i2 9
fu rn ish e d *
As w i t h h o o k s a n d m a g a z i n e s t h e c h i e f s o u r c e
f o r t h e s e w as t h e c o u n t y f r e e
by n e a r ly h a l f o f th e
l i b r a r y w h i c h w as m e n t i o n e d
te a c h e rs.
As o t h e r s o u r c e s o f s u p p l y
t h e s u p e r v i s o r w as m e n t i o n e d e l e v e n t i m e s ;
tim e s;
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ’s o f f i c e ,
th e s c h o o l, n in e
th r e e ; v is u a l e d u c a tio n
d e p a r tm e n t, tw o ; p u b l ic l i b r a r y and a r t c o m m itte e s , one
tim e e a c h .
H in d e ra n c e s i n t e a c h i n g a r t * T e a c h e rs w ere m o st
g en ero u s in re s p o n d in g to th e q u e s tio n ,
,!W hat h a s b e e n t h e
g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e t o y o u i n t e a c h i n g a r t ? 11 O n l y n i n e
gave no a n s w e r .
Two f e l t n o h i n d e r a n c e s , o n e o f t h e s e
says;
c h ild r e n w ith m a t e r i a ls ,
MI f u r n i s h
le t
th e m d r e a m
a b i t a n d aw ay t h e y , g o . £
L a c k o f m a t e r i a l s w as m e n t i o n e d a s a h i n d e r a n c e m o r e
tim e s th a n any o t h e r one t h i n g .
A lth o u g h i t was m e n tio n e d
m o re t i m e s t h e f e e l i n g o f l a c k w i t h i n t h e t e a c h e r h e r s e l f
is
e v e n m o re w i d e s p r e a d .
T he f i r s t e i g h t i t e m s i n T a b l e
V sho w l a c k s f e l t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e y
to ta l
fo rty -tw o *
Lack o f t r a i n i n g
la c k s;
sto o d a t
th e head o f th e te a c h e r s *
over fo u rte e n p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e rs r e p o r tin g
f e l t t h a t i t w as t h e i r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
in te a c h in g a rt*
L a c k o f a b i l i t y w as f e l t b y n i n e
fiv e
te a c h e rs;
sta te d
it
30
TABLE V
HINDERANCES IN TEACHING ART
T e a c h e r’s la c k
of tra in in g
15
T e a c h e r ,!s l a c k
of a b ility
9
T e a c h e r*3 la c k
of o rig in a lity
3
T each er’s la c k
o f k n o w le d g e a n d s k i l l
T e a c h e r.* s l a c k
of sk ill
T e a c h e r |Ts l a c k
o f e x p e rie n c e
1
T e a c h e r’s la c k
o f id e a s
3
in th e
i n m eth o d
su b je c t
4
7
Back o f
m a te ria ls
31
B ack o f
tim e
19
B ack o f
fu n d s
2
B ack o f
su p e rv isio n
5
Back o f p la n o r c o u rs e o f s tu d y
4
C h ild re n ’s la c k o f e x p e rie n c e o r a b i l i t y
4
S iz e o f c l a s s and sp a ce a v a i l a b l e
3
f o r w o rk
D iv e rs ity o f age le v e ls
4
B ack o f
s a m p l e s t o show c h i l d r e n
2
L ack o f
c o n ta c ts
1
31
as a r tis tic
d e fic ie n c ie s
in
a b ility ,
th re e as a b il i ty
in th e a b i l i t y
th e c la ss ro o m .
to d raw .
to a c tu a lly
Seven f e l t
c a r r y on t h e w o rk
T he t h i n g s m e n t i o n e d w e r e : n o t k n o w i n g
w hat to t e a c h , w hat p ro b lem s to s e l e c t t o f i t
a group o f
d i f f e r e n t a g e l e v e l s , how t o d e m o n s t r a t e t e c h n i q u e s a n d
how t o i n s p i r e
w ork.
and g u id e c h i l d r e n
i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r own
L ack o f o r i g i n a l i t y an d i d e a s w ere e a c h m e n tio n e d
by th re e
te a c h e rs.
L a c k o f t i m e w as m e n t i o n e d b y n i n e t e e n
te a c h e rs.
S e v e ra l o f th e s e m e n tio n e d th e m u ltitu d e o f th in g s t o be
d o n e i n a s m a l l s c h o o l a n d som e f e l t t i m e w as n e e d e d f o r
o th e r s tu d ie s .
lesso n s,
One m e n t i o n e d l a c k o f t i m e t o p l a n a r t
a n o th e r t h e l a c k o f tim e t o
o n e i n d i c a t e d how s h e h a d p a r t i a l l y
g iv e i n d iv id u a l h e lp ,
s o lv e d th e p ro b le m by
c o r r e l a t i n g a r t w ith th e u n i t o f w ork.
C lo se ly r e l a t e d
l e v e l s w h ic h i n f l u e n c e
to
t h i s w as t h e d i f f e r e n c e
o f age
t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f w o rk and th e
s e c u r i n g o f u n i t y and i n t e r e s t i n a s m a ll s c h o o l .
w as f e l t b y f o u r t e a c h e r s
S ix te a c h e rs
to be t h e i r g r e a te s t h in d e ra n c e .
s ta te d la c k o f su p e rv isio n to be th e ir
g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e in te a c h in g a r t .
some o n e d e f i n i t e l y
a n o th e r s t a t e s
T h is
tra in e d
th a t th e re
One f e l t t h e n e e d o f
in t h a t lin e
o f w o rk ,”
sh o u ld be ns p e c i f i c
t e c h n i q u e s a n d how a n d w hen t o t e a c h t h e m .
11
g u id a n c e in
Pour c o n sid e re d
32
t h e i r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e t o b e t h e l a c k o f an o u t l i n e d
a r t co u rse o r p la n .
F our b e lie v e d th e g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e
in te a c h in g a r t
l a y i n t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e lv e s ; one m e n tio n e d c h i l d r e n ' s
a b ility ,
a n o th e r t h e i r back gro un ds w h ile th r e e u p p e r g rad e
t e a c h e r s found " s e l l i n g
T hey d e c r i e d
*1
c re a tiv e
a r t t h e i r b i g g e s t p ro b le m .
t h e h a b i t s o f c o p y i n g b y c h i l d r e n who w a n t t o
u s e p a t t e r n s and one b lam ed t h i s
on t h e u s e o f s u c h p a t t e r n s
in th e lo w e r g r a d e s .
T h ree m e n tio n e d th e
f a c t t h a t th e
s p a c e f o r w o r k in g w ere n o t c o m p a r a b l e .
e x p re s s e d by th e
w as:
" siz e
T h i s w as t e r s e l y
l a c k o f sp a c e to h a v e g ro u p s w o rk in g
o n o n e p r o j e c t a n d d e s k s w h ic h a r e
Two t e a c h e r s
n a ile d
to th e f l o o r . "
f e l t t h e n e e d o f s a m p l e s o f w o r k t o show
one f e l t h e r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
la c k o f c o n ta c ts b ecau se th e
A c o m p le te
school is
ta b u la tio n of a ll
te a c h e rs are l i s t e d
II.
o f c l a s s and
t e a c h e r who s a i d h e r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
of c la s s ,
to th e p u p i l s ;
siz e
to be th e
iso la te d .
h in d e r a n c e s m e n tio n e d b y
i n T a b le V, p ag e 3 0 .
SUPERVISION AS A SOURCE OF HELP
S o u rces h e lp f u l
in te a c h in g a r t .
so u rces l is te d
a s b e in g h e lp f u l
ra n k in g f i r s t ;
sum m er s c h o o l s ,
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e
i n t e a c h i n g a r t sh o w s m a g a z i n e s
second;
and b o o k s , t h i r d .
33
H e lp from o t h e r t e a c h e r s and fro m t h e s u p e r v i s o r s r a n k c o n s i d ­
e r a b ly lo w e r th a n th e f i r s t t h r e e
so u rces b u t a re
c lo s e t o g e t h e r , r a n k in g f o u r th and f i f t h
The c o m p l e t e l i s t
th e te a c h e r s a re g iv e n ,
in T a b le V I.
It
th e m se lv e s
re s p e c tiv e ly .
o f h e l p f u l s o u rc e s a s m e n tio n e d by
to g e th e r w ith th e r a t i n g s
f o r each
i s t o b e n o t e d t h a t summer s c h o o l s a s a
s o u r c e o f h e l p w e r e m e n t i o n e d m o re t i m e s i n f i r s t p l a c e
th an
any o th e r so u rce#
S u p e rv is o ry h e lp needed and s u p e rv is o ry h e lp g iv e n .
T h e s u p e r v i s o r s se e m t o h a v e h e l p e d a b o u t s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t
o f t h e r e p o r t i n g t e a c h e r s a s m uch a s t h e y f e l t
it.
F o rty p e r c e n t b e lie v e d
fo r th e ir needs.
th e need fo r
th e y h a d h a d in s tif f ic ie n t h e lp
A p p ro x im a te ly f o u r te e n p e r c e n t r e p o r te d
n o s u p e r v i s i o n a n d t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t m ade no r e p l y .
p e rso n sa id
she d id n o t f e e l th e n e e d o f any h e l p .
T he i n s t a n c e s
as n e g a tiv e an sw ers,
d e fin ite ly
One
o f no s u p e r v i s i o n m u s t b e i n t e r p r e t e d
t h u s m ak in g t h e f i g u r e s
in d ic a te
t h a t th e m a jo r ity o f te a c h e r s have n o t h a d ,
in
t h e i r o p in io n s , th e h e lp n e ed e d .
R e a s o n s why t e a c h e r s
g iv e n s u f f i c i e n t h e l p .
te a c h e rs
fe e l th a t
su p e rv iso rs have n o t
O n ly s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e
a ck n o w le d g e d s u f f i c i e n t s t i p e r v i s o r y h e l p b u t o f th e
re m a in d e r o n ly o n e - h a l f gave r e a s o n s f o r th e i n s u f f i c i e n c y .
34
TABLE V I
SOURCES FOUND HELPFUL BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS IK TEACHING ART
R a te s in o r d e r o f h e lp g iv en
S o u rces
2
3
M a g az in es
29
40
15
4
Summer S c h o o l
34
13
7
4
5
Books
7
24
24
23
3
O th e r te a c h e r s
6
12
10
15
9
1
11
3
12
7
4
1
S u p p ly com pany
re p re se n ta tiv e
6
4
6
3
7
2
C o lle g e te a c h e r s
4
1
P rin c ip a l
3
S u p e rv iso rs
I n s t i t u t e m e e tin g s 1
1
5
7
6
3
4
I.
s<5
<D oi
>
182
1
135
2
93
3
52
4
1
51
5
1
32
6
13
7
10
8
9
9
9
2
3
AJ
*H i—1
8
1
2
1
:§>!§
1
5
o
1'
© tgc
•P 03
3
T e a c h e r ’ s own
id e a s
3
9)
U n iv e rs ity e x te n ­
sio n c o u rse s
I
1
10
P ic tu re s
1
1
10
A r t c o m m itte e s
1
1
10
School v i s i t a t i o n
1
1
10
E x h ib its
1
0^
11
S ta te F a ir
1
0
11
•&On t h e b a s i s o f f i r s t
tw o , and t h i r d c h o i c e , o n e .
c h o ic e ,
th re e ;
second c h o ic e ,
35
A condensed l i s t
o f t e a c h e r s 1 re a so n s f o r i n s u f f i c i e n t h e lp
from t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i s
g iv e n in T a b le V II*
L a c k o f i n t e r e s t , t r a i n i n g a n d p r e p a r a t i o n on t h e
p a r t o f th e s u p e r v is o r sto o d a t th e h ead o f th e l i s t
re a so n s f o r i n s u f f i c i e n t h e lp
sp e c ific a lly
th a t th e
to th e
c ite d la c k o f i n t e r e s t,
te a c h e r*
of
S ix te a c h e r s
one o f t h e s e re m a rk e d
s u p e r v i s o r w a s " n o t h e r s e l f 11 a r t m in d e d o r ,,p r e p a r e d tt
a n o th e r s a id
,fI
guess th e y d on*t th in k i t
is
F our b e lie v e d th e s u p e r v is o r s n o t s k i l l e d
i m p o r t a n t * 11
in a r t
te a c h in g *
In th is
c o n n e c tio n one t e a c h e r rem ark ed t h a t " o u r a r t i s
c a rrie d
on i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o u r u n i t *
su p e rv iso r,
w ith th e
We h a v e n o a r t
o u r g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r i s n o t a lw a y s a c q u a in te d
sp e c ific
b e i n g u s e d * 11
e x p e rie n c e s w ith in th e s o c ia l s c ie n c e u n i t
One e a c h s t a t e d
n o t t r a i n e d and t a l e n t e d
th a t th e
s u p e r v i s o r s w ere
in a rt*
E le v e n t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t th e y had o n ly g e n e r a l
su p e rv isio n ,
no a r t s u p e r v i s o r ;
im p ly in g th e r e b y t h a t
g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r h a d g i v e n no h e l p i n a r t *
th e
No a r t s u p e r ­
v i s o r a n d t h e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r s w o r k i n g on o t h e r p r o b l e m s
was l i s t e d
by seven te a c h e rs *
One o f f e r e d
th e s u g g e s t i o n
t h a t " p e rh a p s th e y f e e l th e fu n d a m e n ta ls sh o u ld r e c e i v e
m ore tim e an d a t t e n t i o n
th a n a r t* "
A n o th e r f e l t t h a t " t h e r e
h a v e b e e n t o o m an y a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s t o b e m e t , " w h i l e a
t h i r d m ade t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " o u r s u p e r v i s o r s a r e
g en eral
s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h s u c h a g r e a t am ount o f w ork I m a r v e l a t t h e i r
sp le n d id e ffic ie n c y * "
36
TABLE V I I
TEACHERS1 REASONS FOR INSUFFICIENT SUPERVISORY HELP
R eason
T im e s m e n t i o n e d
L ack o f i n t e r e s t , p r e p a r a t i o n , t a l e n t and
s k i l l on th e p a r t o f th e s u p e r v i s o r
14
No a r t s u p e r v i s o r , o n l y g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n
11
L a c k o f tim e on p a r t o f s u p e r v i s o r
9
T each er d id n o t a sk f o r h e lp
9
S u p e r v i s o r s w o r k i n g on o t h e r p r o b l e m s
7
No s u p e r v i s i o n
4
S c h o o l to o f a r from th e s u p e r v i s o r
2
Lack o f a c o u rse o f s tu d y in a r t
2
D o e s n o t know
1
L a c k o f h e a l t h on p a r t o f s u p e r v i s o r
1
37
$ i n e 'b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r d i d n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t
tim e *
F o u r o f t h e s e t h o u g h t t h i s w a s;-b ec a^ ^ se t h e c o u n t y w as
u n d e r s t a f f e d a n d t h e s u p e r v i s o r h a d t o o m any s c h o o l s t o c o n ­
t a c t any one f r e q u e n t l y .
Four o th e rs s ta te d
th a t
th e y had
no s u p e r v is io n *
T he r e a s o n n i n e o t h e r s f e l t
m ore h e l p
th is
th ey had n o t re c e iv e d L
i n a r t w as b e c a u s e t h e y h a d n o t a s k e d f o r i t *
c o n n e c t i o n one s t a t e d
In
t h a t s h e h a d b e e n f,t i m i d a b o u t
a s k i n g * ff
L a c k o f a c o u r s e o f s t u d y i n a r t w as t h e r e a s o n s t a t e d
b y tw o t e a c h e r s w h i l e tw o o t h e r s f e l t t h e
f a r a w ay t o
s u p e r v i s o r was to o
c o n t a c t th e m enough t o g i v e s u f f i c i e n t h e l p .
One
g u e sse d th e s u p e r v is o r c o u ld n o t g iv e s u f f i c i e n t h e lp b e ca u se
of her i l l
h e a lth ,
a n o t h e r a d m i t t e d t h a t s h e d i d n o t know
why s h e h a d n o t r e c e i v e d m o re h e l p .
Sum m ary o f t h e o h a p t e r . -
T he d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n
th is
c h a p t e r sh o w s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s t e a c h t h e a r t
t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m s a n d h a v e h a d b u t l i t t l e
f o r t h i s w ork.
p re p a rtio n
A rt i s a s u b je c t g e n e r a lly lik e d by th e
te a c h e rs b u t is not e sp e c ia lly
s tr e s s e d by s u p e r v is o r s .
T he u s e b y t e a c h e r s o f r e a d y - m a d e p a t t e r n s
p re v a le n t b u t th e re
h e lp
in
is not
i s w id e u s e o f b o o k s and m a g a z in e s t o
in th e te a c h in g o f a r t .
A g r e a t m an y h i n d e r a n c e s t o t e a c h i n g a r t w e r e f e l t b y
38
te a c h e rs.
T he g r e a t e s t o f t h e s e
o f la c k w ith in
seem s t o b e t h e f e e l i n g
th e te a c h e r h e r s e l f .
Lack o f m a t e r i a l s ,
tim e and s u p e r v i s i o n w ere n e x t i n o r d e r o f tim e s m e n tio n e d .
S o u rces ran k ed as h e lp f u l in
z in e s,
t e a c h i n g a r t sh o w e d m a g a ­
sum m er s e s s i o n s , a n d b o o k s i n h i g h e s t p l a c e s .
S u p er­
v is o r s a re h e lp f u l b u t th e m a jo r ity o f te a c h e rs
f e lt th a t
th e y had n o t r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t h e lp fro m t h i s
so u rce.
Some o f t h i s m a j o r i t y g a v e r e a s o n s why t h e y b e l i e v e
h e l p w as i n s u f f i c i e n t .
th e
The s a l i e n t r e a s o n s w e r e : n o s u p e r ­
v i s i o n , l a c k s w i t h i n th e s u p e r v i s o r s th e m s e lv e s and i n s u f ­
f i c i e n t t i m e on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s .
The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e
g en eral a r t
p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g t e a c h e r s a n d a n a l y s e s th e m i n t e r m s o f
s u p e r v i s o r y h e lp n e e d e d and r e c e i v e d b y th e r e p o r t i n g t e a c h e r s .
CHAPTER V
SUPERVISORY HELP GIVEN TEACHERS ON
GENERAL ART PROBLEMS
S u p e r v is o r s a r e o f t e n a b le t o h e lp te a c h e r s w ith such
p ro b lem s a s f o r m u la tin g a p h ilo s o p h y o f a r t e d u c a ti o n , p la n £
n i n g f o r c h i l d r e n fs e x p e r i e n c e s , d e v e lo p in g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ,
s e le c tin g m a te ria ls ,
s e t t i n g up a im s, e v a lu a tin g r e s u l t s
i n t e r p r e t i n g th e p ro g ram to
to check a l i s t
th e p u b l i c .
and
T e a c h e rs w ere a s k e d
o f su c h ite m s sh o w in g w h e th e r t h e y n e e d e d
m u c h , som e o r l i t t l e
h e lp and to w hat e x te n t th e s u p e r v is o r s
had m et th e s e n e e d s .
q u e stio n n a ire a re
The r e t u r n s
from t h i s
t a b u l a t e d and p r e s e n te d
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s
s e c tio n o f th e
in T a b le V I I I ,
fo llo w s,
I . TEACHERSf NEEDS
G eneral a r t need s as e x p re sse d by te a c h e r s .
m a te ly s ix ty - th r e e p e r c e n t o f th e
A p p ro x i­
t e a c h e r s who r e p o r t e d
ch eck ed th e v a r io u s ite m s in
term s o f t h e i r needs*
m i g h t b e som e q u e s t i o n a s t o
t h e r e a s o n s why s o l a r g e a
n u m b e r m ade n o a n s w e r .
One
T here
te a c h e r e x p la in e d by s a y in g :
I d o n 1t w i s h t o i n f e r , b y my l a c k o f c h e c k s on
th e s e p a g e s , t h a t U m by any m eans s u p e r i o r ,
I have
a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m o s t o f t h e t h i n g s on p a g e s
tw o a n d t h r e e .
I c a n d o m o s t o f t h e t h i n g s . I d o n 1t
a l w a y s d o th e m t h o u g h , I t r y .
~~
i
C f . p p • 13VCand
158,
TABLE VIII
SUPERVISORY HELP HEEDED AM) RECEIVED OH GENERAL ART PROBLEMS
BY 106 CLASSROOM TEACHERS
Problems
Formulating a philosophy of
education showing the place
of art
Help needed
Muck Some Little
No
answer
Help given
Much Some Little None
!o "
answer
23
28
29
26
5
13
36
12
40
Understanding the stages of devel­
opment through which children
pass in creating and appreciating
art
42
23
20
21
0
10
40
12
44
Understanding art principles and
knowing how and when to use
them with children
44
24
18
20
2
6
39
13
46
Securing new ideas and inspiration
54
25
9
18
4
12
33
13
44
General long-time planning of
art experiences for children
49
30
3
24
0
10
43
13
40
Planning for specific day to
day art experiences
36
30
18
22
2
5
44
13
40
Establishing an environment
conducive to creative work
32
29
21
24
6
17
29
13
41
Setting up aims of art for your
group
30
38
16
22
4
12
36
12
42
Arranging the daily program and
organizing room activities to
include necessary work with .
art materials
25
30
28
23
1
16
34
13
42
Making art an integral part of
all school experiences
23
30
30
23
2
20
30
13
41
Selecting those areas of experience
which are rich in art possibilities 22
36
25
23
2
17
33
12
42
16
37
36
0
9
30
14
53
42
29
16
19
2
9
38
14
43
Finding books and magazine articles
to help with art teaching
23
28
35
20
4
14
34
12
42
Selecting pictures and other mate­
rials for illustration and
appreciation
22
22
42
20
5
11
36
11
43
Taking advantage of the art re­
sources in the school and
community environment
13
28
40
25
1
12
36
12
45
Selecting and ordering supplies
and equipment suitable for
art experiences
16
37
29
24
2
16
33
12
43
8
12
62
24
4
7
36
12
47
Evaluating your own art teaching
47
30
9
20
1
13
36
12
44
Interpreting the children's art
work to the public through
school exhibits
18
35
27
26
5
10
30
13
48
Interpreting the children* s. art
work to the public through
other ways, such as P.T.A. talks
23
22
30
31
1
12
33
12
48
Planning for art experiences through
excursions to museums, art gal­
leries or other places
17
Discovering, conserving and
guiding talented pupils
Keeping materials and tools in an
orderly fashion in the classroom
,
41
A l t h o u g h t h i s may a c c o u n t f o r o t h e r s n o t a n s w e r i n g i t m u s t n o t
he in f e r r e d
th a t a ll
In sp ira tio n
th o s e n o t r e p l y i n g f e l t a s t h i s p erso n *
and b a s i c u n d e r s ta n d in g s
in a r t *
tw o -th ird s of th e te a c h e rs re p ly in g ex p ressed
m uch h e l p
in t h r e e o f th e p ro b le m s
in t h is
About
th e need f o r
gro u p *
"S e c u rin g
new i d e a s a n d i n s p i r a t i o n 11 r e c e i v e d m o re m e n t i o n s t h a n a n y
ite m in
th e e n t i r e
lis t
f o r m uch h e l p n e e d e d *
"u n d er­
s t a n d i n g a r t p r i n c i p l e s a n d k n o w i n g w hen a n d how t o u s e
w ith c h i l d r e n ” and " u n d e r s ta n d i n g th e
th r o u g h w h ic h c h i l d r e n p a s s
w ere l i s t e d
sta g e s
th e m
o f d e v e lo p m e n t
i n c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t ”
in n e x t o r d e r , w h ile
o f e d u c a t i o n sh o w in g th e p l a c e
" fo rm u la tin g a p h ilo s o p h y
of a rt"
sto o d c o n s id e r a b ly
lo w e r*
P la n n in g a r t te a c h in g *
p ro b le m s
th e need f o r h e lp in
a r t e x p e rie n c e s
fo r c h ild re n "
f o r new i d e a s a n d
such a s s p e c i f i c
m ent co n d u civ e t o
in sp ira tio n .
In
of g en eral
sto o d second o n ly to th e need
In o th e r p h ases o f p la n n in g
day to day p la n n in g ,
e s t a b l i s h i n g an e n v ir o n ­
c r e a t i v e w ork, a r r a n g i n g th e d a i l y p ro g ra m ,
to
I n c l u d e n e c e s s a r y w ork
and s e t t i n g u p a im s o f a r t f o r t h e g ro u p
t h e s t u d y sh o w s t h a t m o s t t e a c h e r s
o r m uch h e l p *
lis t
" g e n e r a l lo n g 4 ? tim e p l a n n i n g o f
a n d o r g a n i z i n g t h e roo m a c t i v i t i e s
in a r t m a te r ia ls
th e e n t i r e
e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r som e
42
T h e re seem ed a l s o
to be a f e e l in g ,
f o r t h e n e e d o f som e o r m uch h e l p
and g u id in g t a l e n t e d
h e lp
p u p ils .
on t h e p a r t o f m a n y ,
in d is c o v e rin g ,
c o n se rv in g
S l i g h t ly l e s s need i s
f e lt fo r
in s e l e c t i n g and p la n n in g e x p e r ie n c e s o f s p e c i a l ty p e s
and m ak in g a r t a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l l
In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r ite m ,
w ith o th e r a c t i v i t i e s ,
sch o o l e x p e rie n c e s.
th e c o r r e l a t i o n
o r fu sio n o f a r t
a s l i g h t l y l o w e r num ber seem ed t o
need h e lp .
S e c u rin g , s e l e c t i n g and c a r i n g f o r m a t e r i a l s .
In
t h r e e o f t h e p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s m o re t h a n
one t h i r d
o f th e
te a c h e rs f e l t th e y needed l i t t l e
h e lp .
In
o r d e r o f l e s s e r t o m o re n e e d f e l t t h e s e p r o b l e m s w e r e :
k e e p in g m a t e r i a l s and t o o l s
in an o r d e r l y f a s h io n
c la s s ro o m , s e l e c t i n g p i c t u r e s and o th e r m a t e r i a l s
illu stra tio n
a r t reso u rces
th e
fo r
and a p p r e c i a t i o n , and ta k i n g a d v a n ta g e o f th e
in th e
s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n ity e n v i r o n m e n t .
E v a lu a tio n o f a r t te a c h in g .
te a c h in g over o n e -th ird
h e lp
t h e i r need f o r h e lp
In e v a lu a tin
o f th e te a c h e r s f e l t
m uch h e l p f r o m t h e s u p e r v i s o r .
needed l i t t l e
in
in t h i s
ite m
e n t i r e ^ i i a t o f g e n e ra l p ro b le m s.
th e need o f
O h ly a few f e l t
in t h i s p ro b le m .
t h e i r own
th a t th e y
M ore t e a c h e r s c h e c k e d
th an in any o th e r o f th e
43
In te rp re ta tio n
o f a r t e d u c a tio n to th e p u b lic *
te a c h e rs ex p ressed l i t t l e
In te rp re tin g
o r o n l y some n e e d f o r h e l p
M ost
in
t h e a r t w ork t o t h e p u b l i c *
II.
SUPERVISORY HELP
H e lp g iv e n b y s u p e r v i s o r s
In c h e c k in g th e
am ount o f h e lp
on g e n e r a l a r t p r o b l e m s *
g iv e n on g e n e r a l a r t t e a c h i n g
p ro b le m s a b o u t f i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r s r e p l i e d *
A c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r n u m b e r m ade n o a n s w e r , on t h e p r o b l e m :
" p la n n in g f o r a r t e x p e rie n c e s
a rt g a lle rie s
th ro u g h e x c u r s io n s
o r o th e r p la c e s* "
t o m useum s,
S e v e r a l e x p l a i n e d t h a t no
s u c h f a c i l i t i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e h e n c e t h e y h a d g i v e n no a n s w e r *
S i x t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g m uch h e l p
su p e rv iso rs
from t h e
in e s t a b l i s h i n g an e n v iro n m e n t c o n d u c iv e to
c r e a t i v e w o rk *
T h i s w as t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f t i m e s m uch
h e l p was m e n tio n e d a s b e i n g g iv e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w ith a n y o f
th e tw e n ty ^ o n e p ro b lem s*
an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l l
have re c e iv e d
On t h i s
sch o o l e x p e rie n c e s"
s l i g h t l y m ore h e l p
On t h r e e
p r o b l e m a n d on " m a k i n g a r t
t h a n on t h e
t e a c h e r s se e m t o
o th e r p ro b le m s.
o f th e p ro b le m s n o t one t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d
m uch h e l p w h i l e s e v e r a l w e r e c h e c k e d b y o n l y o n e o r tw o
p e rso n s
i n t h a t c o lu m n *
Of a l l
th o se c h e c k in g th e h e lp
g iv e n by th e s u p e r­
v i s o r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t sh o w ed t h a t l i t t l e
h e lp was g iv e n on a l l
d ra s tic
th e p ro b le m s l i s t e d *
T he r a t h e r
a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h i s a p t t o b e m ade f r o m t h i s
44
h ig h p e rc e n ta g e
i s m o l l i f i e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t some t e a c h e r s
p o s s ib ly d id n o t a s k f o r h e lp a s e x e m p lifie d by th e p e rs o n
who s a i d :
ftI h a v e n ' t a s k e d much h e l p .
D o u b t l e s s my s u p e r ­
v i s o r c o u l d g i v e a l o t b u t s h e s a y s c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e . 11
T he t h r e e p r o b l e m s on w h i c h t e a c h e r s s e e m t o h a v e
re c e iv e d
t h e l e a s t a m o u n t o f h e l p w e r e c h e c k e d b y m o re t h a n
tw o t h i r d s
o f th e te a c h e r s .
T hey w e re : p l a n n i n g f o r s p e c i f i c
day to day a r t e x p e rie n c e s , g e n e ra l lo n g -tim e p la n n in g o f
a r t e x p e r ie n c e s f o r c h il d r e n and u n d e r s ta n d in g th e
sta g e s
o f d e v e lo p m e n t th r o u g h w h ic h c h i l d r e n p a s s i n c r e a t i n g
and a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t .
th e s e a re
It
is
s i g n i f i c a n t to n o te
th a t
two o f
e x a c t l y t h e p ro b le m on w h ic h a g r e a t num ber o f
t e a c h e r s n e e d m uch h e l p .
T he t h i r d
s t a n d s h i g h o n t h e much
o r some n e e d e d l i s t .
S l i g h t l y m o re t h a n tw o p e r c e n t o f t h o s e a n s w e r i n g
w ro te
''n o n e ” a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e
c o lu m n , s i g n i f y i n g t h a t t h e y
r e c e i v e d no h e l p fro m s u p e r v i s o r s
on a n y o f t h e p r o b le m s .
T w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h o s e g i v i n g no a n s w e r i n d i c a t e d
on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
th a t
th e y h ad no s u p e r v i s i o n ,
t h e r e w o u l d b e no h e l p f o r t h e m .
d e fin ite ly
s p e c i f i e d no h e l p
on t h o s e h a v i n g n o h e l p .
e ls e w h e re
A d d ed t o
th e re fo re ,
t h e n u m b e r who
t h i s w o u ld r a i s e
th e p e rc e n ta g e
I t m ig h t be f u r t h e r assum ed t h a t
o t h e r s h a d n o t a n s w e r e d b e c a u s e t h e y h a d h a d no h e l p b u t i t
seem s t h e p i c t u r e
is
s u f f i c i e n t l y d o u r w ith o u t t h i s p o s tu -
44
la tio n .
T here i s
n o t te a c h
e v id e n c e
t h a t i n a fe w c a s e s p p e r s o n s do
t h e i r own a r t a n d t h e n e e d f o r h e l p w as n o t f e l t
in a t l e a s t one in s ta n c e *
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r *
th is
The f i n d i n g s r e c o r d e d
c h a p t e r show t h a t a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e
in d ic a te d th e ir
th e s e
fe lt
g en eral a r t needs.
f e l t a g r e a t need f o r i n s p i r a t i o n
s ta n d in g s ,
H elp i n p l a n n i n g i n a l l
n e e d e d b y a g r e a t n u m b e r*
e v a lu a tin g th e ir a r t
th e need f o r h e lp
m a te ria ls
in
te a c h e rs
The m a j o r i t y o f
and b a s i c
a r t u n d er­
i t s p h a s e s w as a l s o
Some f e l t t h e n e e d f o r h e l p
in
t e a c h i n g w h ile a fe w e r num ber f e l t
in s e c u rin g ,
and f o r h e lp
in
s e l e c t i n g and c a r i n g f o r
i n t e r p r e t i n g a r t e d u c a tio n
to
th e p u b lic .
The d a t a sho w t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e
little
o r n o h e l p f r o m s u p e r v i s o r s on a n y o f t h e g e n e r a l
p ro b le m s,
in f a c t,
o n l y s l i g h t l y m o re t h a n h a l f o f t h e
te a c h e rs c o n ta c te d l i s t e d
any h e lp w h a te v e r g iv e n by
s u p e r v i s o r s on t h e s e p r o b l e m s *
T he e n s u i n g c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n
o f t e a c h e r s 1 needs in s p e c if ic
a r t te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s.
CHAPTER VI
SUPERVISORY HELP G3VEN TEACHERS OH S P E C IF IC
ART TEACHING A C T IV IT IES
T e a c h e r s c a n m ake t h e m an y e x p e r i e n c e s
s c h o o l c h il d r e n m o st w o rth w h ile
in te llig e n tly
if
th e
g u id e d .
o f e le m e n ta ry
c o n trib u tin g a r t
a c tiv itie s
are
a ssista n c e
in p r e p a r in g th e t e a c h e r f o r t h i s w ork.
s t u d y a r t a c t i v i t i e s w ere d i v i d e d
(1) fin e a r t s ,
a c tiv itie s ,
(2 ) c r a f t s ,
S u p e r v is o r s can be o f
in to fiv e
( 3 ) som e s e l e c t e d
(4 ) a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n and
t o d e v e l o p i n g good s o c i a l h a b i t s .
g e n e ra l g ro u p s:
c o rre la te d
(5 ) a c t i v i t i e s
te a c h in g a re d isc u sse d
ite m s
in t h i s
th e se p h ases
in th e fo llo w in g p a g e s.
A p p ro x im a te ly s e v e n ty p s ix p e r c e n t o f th e
checked th e
c o n d u civ e
T he n e e d f e l t b y t h e 1 0 6
te a c h e r s and th e h e lp g iv e n by th e s u p e r v i s o r in
of a rt
In t h is
g roup.
te a c h e rs
On t h e w h o l e t h i s
is a
s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a v e r a g e o f r e s p o n s e s t h a n w e r e m ade t o t h e
g e n e r a l p ro b le m s
I.
F in e a r t s
h a lf o f th e
needs.
TEACHERS1 HEEDS
T he f i g u r e s
sho w t h a t a b o u t o n e
t e a c h e r s who r e s p o n d e d f e l t
p . 39
t h e n e e d o f much
h e lp
in
stim u la tin g c re a tiv e
t h i n k i n g on t h e p a r t o f c h i l d r e n
a n d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i n th e m t h e h a b i t o f e x p l o r i n g a n d t h i n k ­
in g im a g in a te ly a b o u t s h a p e s ,
m a te ly th e
c h ild re n
th e
sam e n u m b e r f e l t
A p p ro x i­
in h e lp in g
to o b se rv e c a r e f u l l y and in h e lp in g c h il d r e n
need f o r a s s is ta n c e
and c h a r t s .
a id
t h e n e e d o f some a i d
th in g s th e y w ant and n e e d .
little
c o l o r s and p a t t e r n s .
A slig h tly
t o d raw
A bout one h a l f f e l t b u t
i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o m ak e m ap s
s m a l l e r num ber f e l t l i t t l e
need f o r
i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o m ake f l o w e r a r r a n g e m e n t s , w h i l e
m o s t o f t h e t e a c h e r s sh o w e d a n e e d f o r m uch o r som e h e l p
in g u id in g c h ild r e n to e x p re s s
d ra w in g and p a in tin g *
th e ir
id e a s a d e q u a te ly in
C o m p le t e f i g u r e s a r e sh o w n i n
T a b le IX .
T hese f i n d in g s
sid e ra b le
c re a tiv e
seem t o
in d ic a te
th a t th e re
is
con­
f e l t n e ed f o r h e l p w ith t h e m eth o d s o f s t i m u l a t i n g
t h i n k i n g a n d o r i g i n a l i t y o n t h e p a r t o f c h i l d r e n and
i n h e l p i n g th em t o m ore a d e q u a t e l y e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e a s .
h e lp
is
n e e d e d i n t h e m o re m e c h a n i c a l a n d u t i l i t a r i a n
o f te a c h in g fin e
L ess
a sp e c ts
a rts*
C ra ft needs*
G e n e ra lly sp e a k in g th e te a c h e rs
fe lt
l e s s need f o r h e lp in te a c h in g c r a f t s th a n in f in e a r t s .
H e lp in u s i n g d i s c a r d e d m a t e r i a l s
a s b e i n g m uch n e e d e d .
s to o d h ig h e s t in m e n tio n
S lig h tly le s s
th an h a l f o f th e
te a c h e rs f e l t l i t t l e
a s s i s t a n c e was n e e d e d i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n
w ith b lo c k p r i n t i n g ,
c l a y and m ak in g books*
TABLE IX
SUPERVISORY HELP HEEDED AND RECEIVED OH FINE ART PROBLEMS
BY 106 CLASSROOM TEACHERS
Help needed
Much Some Little
Help given
Ho
answer
Much Some Little Hone
Ho
answer
Stimulating creative thinking on
the part of children
44
30
11
21
6
11
33
11
45
Establishing in children the habit
of exploring and thinking imag­
inatively about shapes, colors
and patterns
44
30
H
21
3
10 - 37
11
45
Guiding children in their planning
of art activities
31
35
18
22
1
13
33
11
48
Helping children in the use of
brushes and paint
15
37
30
24
3
5
36
11
51
Guiding children to express their
ideas more adequately in draw­
ing and painting
38
37
8
23
4
8
'35
11
48
Helping children to observe care­
fully and accurately
14
44
23
25
3
13
30
11
49
Helping, children to draw the
things they want and need
28
40
16
22
2
13
31
11
49
Guiding children toward more
satisfaction in the use of color
22
31
28
25
2
14
27
11
52
Helping children to make flower
arrangements
20
26
37
23
2
9
31
11
53
Helping children to plan and make
attractive bulletin boards
14
34 . 31
27
1
11
33
11
50
Helping children with lettering
and poster making
21
26
33
26
3
11
27
11
53
Helping children make maps and
charts
12
26
40
28
1
12
31
11
51
48
It
I s n o t t o b© c o n s t r u e d t h a t t h e
w h o le f e l t l i t t l e
p le te
need f o r h e lp
fig u re s as p re se n te d
t e a c h e r s on t h e
i n c r a f t s b e c a u s e t h e com­
in T a b le X d e f i n i t e l y
show t h a t
a m a j o r i t y e i t h e r f e e l t h e n e e d o fm u c h o r som e h e l p i n
e v e ry one o f th e c r a f t s
lis te d #
H eeds in s e l e c t e d
c o rre la te d a c t i v i t i e s #
fe w e r a n s w e rs w ere r e c e i v e d
s e le c te d
on t h e
ite m s c o n c e rn in g th e
group o f c o r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s
th e o th e r s e r i e s
in t h i s
S lig h tly
t h a n on t h o s e o f
se c tio n #
T h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d m uch o r som e n e e d
fo r
a id fro m th e s u p e r v i s o r in h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n w ith th e s e
a c tiv itie s*
T he i t e m c h e c k e d b y m o s t t e a c h e r s
( a b o u t one
h a l f ) a s o n e i n w h i c h t h e y n e e d e d m uch a s s i s t a n c e w as
h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o m ak e p u p p e t s a n d p u p p e t t h e a t r e s *
ite m
i n w h ich o v e r one h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s
fo r l i t t l e
f e l t th e need
s u p e r v i s o r y a i d w as h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n
f o r p a r t i e s and f e s t i v i t i e s *
checked, are
A lis t
T he
to d e c o ra te
o f th e p ro b le m s a s
sh ow n I n T a b l e X I*
A rt a p p re c ia tio n needs *
In th e f o u r ite m s co n cern ed
w ith a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n n o n e s to o d o u t from th e o t h e r s f o r
any re a s o n .
m o re h e l p
A slig h tly
g r e a t e r num ber f e l t
in le a d in g c h ild re n
p e o p le and t h e i r c u l t u r e s
a rt,
th e need f o r
to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r
th ro u g h th e a p p r e c ia tio n
of th e ir
w h ile a fe w e r num ber f e l t a need f o r h e l p i n g u id in g
TABLE X
SUPERVIS OBY HELP HEEDED AND RECEIVED OH CRAFT PROBLEMS
BY 106 CLASSROOM TEACHERS
Help given
Help needed
t**
Problems
&
&
o
tr
ro
*
08
o
F*
c+
c*
I I
CD
p
P O
I
CD
0
O
P*
CQ
ICD
H
fc“*
H*
dc+
H
O
P
CD
P feJ
P O
03
I
CD
Helping children with block printing
El
24
34
27
3
6
33
11
53
Helping children in the use of clay
27
23
35
21
3
7
34
11
51
Helping children to make things from wood
27
31
26
22
3
7
34
11
51
Helping children in the use of cloth
25
24
32
25
0
9
33
11
54
Helping children in making books
18
23
37
28
1
7
35
11
52
Helping children in the construction of
other things than books from cardboard
and paper
33
26
25
22
1
8
36
11
50
Helping children to make things from
discarded materials which they can
find themselves
36
30
22
18
1
10
36
11
48
Helping children in the use of materials
of weaving
30
20
33
23
0
4
38
u
53
to
TABLE XI
SUPERVISORY HELP HEEDED AND RECEIVED OH SELECTED
CORRELATED ACTIVITIES BY 106 CLASSROOM TEACHERS
Help needed
Little
No
answer
£
Q
Some
Little
8o
1
&
Some
Help given
o
£
CD
Helping children to make costumes and
scenery for plays and pageants -
22
24
30
30
0
6
36
11
53
Helping children make puppets and puppet
theatre
34
21
21
30
1
4
34
11
56
Helping children to decorate for parties
and festivities
11
22
43
30
0
8
34
11
53
Helping children to use art in publishing
a school newspaper
17
22
29
38
0
4
34
12
56
Helping children make art function in
their clothes and home
23
34
20
29
1
7
30
11
57
Helping children recognize the art in
their written work, arithmetic and
the like
24
33
21
28
0
6
36
11
53
Guiding children in making the room an
interesting and beautiful place in
which to work
21
32
30
23
2
15
29
11
49
Problems
1CD
49A
50
c h ild re n
to en jo y b e a u ty in a l l
fig u re s a re p re se n te d
t h i n g s a ro u n d th em .
F u ll
in T a b le X I I I
H eed s i n b u i l d i n g good s o c i a l h a b i t s th r o u g h a r t .
The f i g u r e s a s
ta b u la te d
i n T a b l e X I I show t h a t i n b u i l d ­
in g s o c ia l a t t i t u d e s and h a b it s
m a jo rity o f te a c h e rs f e l t
ance in h b lp in g c h ild re n
w h ile
t h e y n e e d e d m uch o r som e a s s i s t ­
to e v a lu a te
In h e lp in g c h ild re n
h e lp .
t h e i r own a r t w o r k ,
t o w ork w i t h o t h e r s and t o l e a r n
to c a r e f o r t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s
fo r but l i t t l e
th ro u g h a r t te a c h in g th e
o v e r h a l f f e l t th e need
O n ly a f e w f e l t t h e n e e d o f much
h e l p o n t h e s e tw o p r o b l e m s .
II.
SUPERVISORY HELP
H e l p g i v e n b y s u p e r v i s o r s on s p e c i f i c
a r t p ro b le m s♦
T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t n o t a t i o n t o b e m ad e r e g a r d i n g t h e s u p e r ­
v is o r y h e lp
th is
g iv e n te a c h e r s
se c tio n is
on t h e
t h i r t y - f o u r p ro b le m s in
th e f a c t t h a t an a v e ra g e o f f i f t y p e r c e n t
o f t h o s e r e t u r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e m ad e no a n s w e r t o a n y
of th e se
ite m s.
T w e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h o s e who s t a t e d
t h e i r n e e d s d i d n o t c h e c k how t h e s e n e e d s w e r e b e i n g f u l ­
fille d
by th e s u p e r v is o r s .
Of t h i s
group t w e n ty - f i v e
e l s e w h e r e t h a t t h e y h a d no s u p e r v i s i o n ,
c o u ld n o t c h e c k th e s e
ite m s.
th e re fo re ,
sta te d
th ey
S ev eral sa id s p e c if ic a lly
th a t
t h e y h a d n o a r t s u p e r v i s o r , w h i c h i t s e e m s , m ay b e i n t e r -
TABLE XII
SUPERVISORY HELP HEEDED AND RECEIVED OH ART APPRECIATION
AND CHILDREN'S SOCIAL HABITS BY 106 CLASSROOM TEACHERS
Help given
Help needed
Some
Little
Ho
answer
Some
Little
None
No
answer
Guiding children to enjoy beauty in the
work of other children
20
35
28
23
4
10
31
11
50
Guiding children to enjoy beauty as
expressed by master artists in painting,
ceramics and the other arts
31
32
19
24
4
9
34
11
48
Guiding children to enjoy beauty in all
things around them and encourage them
to call the attention of others to it
18
35
34
19
2
12
31
11
50
Leading children to an understanding of
other peoples and their cultures
through the appreciation of their art
24
37
20
25
1
9
33
11
52
Helping children to learn to work with
others
12
26
41
27
7
12
29
11
47
Helping children to learn to care for
tools and materials
13
22
45
22
6
7
30
11
50
Helping children to evaluate their own
art work
32
34
18
22
4
13
28
11
50
Much
Much
Problems
52
p re te d
t o m ean t h a t t h e y w e re
n o t c o n sc io u s o f
v isio n
from g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r s *
any a r t
su p er­
A num ber i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y h ad r e c e i v e d s u p e r v i s o r y
h e l p on o n l y a few o f t h e l i s t e d
c la s s ro o m a l l
w ith th e
p r o b le m s , one w r o te :
th e s u p e rv is o r e v e r does i s
c h ild re n p ic tu re s
1fI n my
show a n d d i s c u s s
of g reat a rtis ts
a n d b r i n g a fe w
e x a m p l e s o f t h i n g s we c o u l d m ake i f we h a d t h e t i m e a n d
m a te ria l* * 1
th is
A n o th e r re m a rk e d :
frI t
is
im p o s sib le to c o m p lete
fo rm due to t h e l a c k o f e x p e r ie n c e
O n ly i n s i s t e n t s u g g e s t i o n r e c e i v e d
in th is
to d a te
is
c o u n ty *
t h a t X p ro v id e
e a s e l s * ff
Two p e r c e n t o f t h o s e r e s p o n d i n g w r o t e ^none** a c r o s s
th e e n t i r e
added to
c o lu m n o f h e l p g i v e n b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s *
t h e g r o u p who d i d n o t a n s w e r b e c a u s e o f n o s u p e r ­
v i s i o n , m akes a t o t a l
o f a b o u t tw e n ty - f iv e p e r c e n t o f th e
1 0 6 who d e f i n i t e l y r e c e i v e n o
V a ria n c e
p ro b le m s i s
in th e am ount
a lm o st n e g l i g i b l e .
m a j o r i t y who c h e c k e d t h e
little
T h is ,
h e lp
h e lp *
o f h e lp
g iv e n in
On t h e w h o l e t h e g r e a t
ite m s i n d i c a t e d
on e v e r y p r o b l e m .
th e s e v e ra l
th a t th ey re c e iv e d
T he p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h m o s t
t e a c h e r s h a d r e c e i v e d much a i d w a s i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n
le a rn
t o w ork w ith o th e r s *
Seven te a c h e rs checked it*
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r *
c h a p t e r seem t o
in d ic a te
to
The d a t a p r e s e n t e d
th a t th e re
is
c o n sid e ra b le
in
th is
fe lt
53
need f o r h e lp in
slig h tly
le ss
th e te a c h in g
f e l t need f o r h e lp in
to f e e l l e s s need f o r h e lp
a c tiv itie s
o f f i n e a r t s and o n ly a
c ra fts*
T e a c h e r s se e m
in te a c h in g c e r ta in
c o rre la te d
and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a n i n f i n e a r t s
or c ra fts,
h o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f th em
e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r som e
m uch h e l p
p ro b le m s,l i s t e d .
in a l l th e s p e c if ic
The f a c t s r e l a t i v e
on t h e s p e c i f i c
th a t
or
t o t h e h e lp g iv e n by s u p e r v i s o r s
a r t p r o b l e m s show t h a t i n s p i t e
of
th e f a c t
t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s n e e d m uch o r som e h e l p o n
m ost o f th e s e p ro b le m s, w e ll o v e r s e v e n ty - f iv e p e r c e n t o f
th e m r e c e i v e l i t t l e
o r no h e l p fro m t h e s u p e r v i s o r s .
The t e c h n i q u e s u s e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s
w ith a r t t e a c h in g p ro b le m s a re d e l i n e a t e d
in h e lp in g te a c h e rs
in th e n e x t c h a p te r*
CHAPTER ¥11
TECHNIQUES USED BY SUPERVISORS IN HELPING
TEACHERS WITH ART TEACHING
A lis t
o f te c h n iq u e s u sed by s u p e rv is o rs
t e a c h e r s w i t h a r t t e a c h i n g w as i n c l u d e d
in h e lp in g
on a s h e e t o f t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t e a c h e r s w ere a s k e d t o c h e c k w h e th e r
s u p e rv is o rs had u sed th e s e te c h n iq u e s f r e q u e n tly ,
a lly
or ra re ly
In w o rk in g w ith th em .
o c c a sio n ­
T hey w e re a l s o a s k e d to
I n d i c a t e w h e t h e r a m e t h o d h a d b e e n o f m u c h , som e o r l i t t l e
h e lp t o th em .
The c o m p le te r e t u r n s
on t h i s p ag e o f th e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e sh ow n i n T a b l e X I I I .
th o se r e l a t i v e
to o th e r te c h n iq u e s
T h ese f i n d i n g s and
in c lu d e d e lse w h e re In
th e s t u d y a r e h e r e su m m arize d .
I.
TEACHERS* OPINIONS REGARDING THE USE OF SUPERVISORY
TECHNIQUES
G e n e r a l co m m en ts»
T he m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t r e v e a l e d
i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w as t h a t a n a v e r a g e o f a b o u t s i x t y s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e 1 0 6 t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d i n g g a v e no a n s w e r s
t o t h e q u e s t i o n s w h ich d e a l t w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r y t e c h n i q u e s .
F a ilu re
t o a n s w e r m ay b e a t t r i b u t e d
to th e f a c t th a t
th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w as a lo n g one w ith t h i s m a t e r i a l a p p e a r i n g
on t h e l a s t p a g e .
H o v /e v e r , o v e r h a l f o f t h o s e who d i d n o t
TABLE X III
TECHNIQUES USED IN SUPERVISING ART AND THEIR HELP
TO 106 CLASSROOM TEACHERS
Used by supervisors
Techniques
Help to teachers
t*
s
%
©
&
H
Teachers’ meetings
Lecture
Discussion
Demonstration by supervisor before group
of teachers
Demonstration by a teacher for a group
of teachers
Participation in workshop or study groups
7
7
8
8
17
13
3
3
71
75
8
4
11
11
7
7
80
84
6
13
21
4
62
20
10
6
70
2
6
11
8
22
21
5
5
66
66
14
14
5
7
9
7
78
78
6
4
7
8
21
19
3
3
69
72
17
2
7
12
6
12
76
80
3
10
15
5
73
8
9
9
80
3 10
7
3
7 12
4
4
6 12
1
5
12
17
10
17
11
15
4
4
4
4
4
6
77
75
73
77
73
79
7
6
7
6
10
2
9
6
14
7
8
4
6
9
4
8
6
10
34
85
81
85
82
90
Teacher intervisitation suggested by
supervisor
Individual teacher visits another school
0
6
Group of teachers visit a given school
1 . 3
Teacher and supervisor visit school togetherO
2
20
19
16
5
7
6
75
76
82
11
7
4
5
5
4
7
6
7
83
88
91
Moving pictures
Illustrating teaching practices
Illustrating art techniques
0
0
4
2
13
14
10
10
79
80
3
1
4
2
7
9
91
94
Bulletins
Detailed outlines of work to do
Short leaflets giving suggestions
Letters
4
4
2
7
19
5
11
9
12
7
4
6
77
70
81
5
11
5
8
11
3
5
3
10
68
81
88
Use of library suggested by supervisor
Books
Magazine articles
Illustrative materials
7
5
6
17
16
19
4
6
4
5
4
4
73
75
73
9
9
12
15
13
15
2
3
1
80
81
78
4
2
12
14
11
9
3
6
76
65
9
6
9
8
5
6
83
86
1
11
11
7
76
2
10
7
87
Exhibitions of other materials used by
supervisor
In the classroom
2
In connection with conferences with teacher 3
In supervisor’s office
2
12
11
10
12
11
10
4
5
6
76
76
78
6
7
2
7
7
7
9
9
7
84
83
90
Teachers’ excursions
Suggested by supervisor for securing
first hand experiences
10
15
5
76
2
14
5
85
Supervisory visits
Supervisor teaches the class
Teacher teaches class, supervisor observes
Teacher and supervisor work together with
the class
Individual conferences
Requested by teacher
Following teachers' meetings
Following supervisory visit
In supervisor’s office
In teacher’s room
Called by supervisor
Exhibitions of children’s work used by
supervisor
In the classroom
In connection with conferences with
teacher
In supervisor’s office
0
56
an sw er any o f th e ite m s
in th e s e c ti o n
t h a t page o r e ls e w h e re ,
t h a t th e y had no s u p e r v is io n ,
th e r e f o r e , o b v io u sly th e se
one t e a c h e r p u t i t :
h a v e no s p e c i f i c
s ta te d ,
e i t h e r on
t e c h n i q u e s w ere n o t u s e d , o r a s
" T h i s p a g e i s h a r d l y p e r t i n e n t s i n c e we
c o u r s e a n d do n o t h a v e a s u p e r v i s o r . ”
A n o t h e r w r o t e : "N one o f t h i s
R e m a rk s o n t h i s
is
c a rrie d
o u t* ”
s e c t i o n o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere
num erous and i t
seem s a d v i s a b l e
t h a t s e v e ra l o th e rs be
in c lu d e d h e re :
One co m m ent w a s :
Our r u r a l s u p e r v i s o r d o e s n o t h a v e tim e t o a s s i s t
m uch w i t h t h e a r t p r o g r a m b u t d o e s p u b l i s h a n a r t s u p p l e ­
m en t i n th e c o u r s e o f stu d y *
I d o n o t f e e l i t w o u ld
b e f a i r t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s s i n c e we d o
n o t have an a r t su p e rv iso r*
A n o th e r:
S e v e r a l y e a r s a g o we h a d som e h e l p f r o m a t e a c h e r
o f a r t who c o n d u c t e d a r t c l a s s e s f o r t e a c h e r s o f
d i f f e r e n t g ra d e l e v e l s a f t e r sc h o o l*
These le s s o n s
w e re g iv e n e v e r y f o u r w eeks*
Enough w o rk w as g iv e n
f o r a r t le s s o n s f o r th e in te r v e n in g f o u r w eek s.
They w ere v e r y h e l p f u l *
A n o th e r t e a c h e r w r i t e s :
s u p e r v i s o r and h e r v i s i t s
"O ur s u p e r v i s o r i s
a re n o t fre q u e n t*
a r e g iv e n i n d i v i d u a l l y and a re u s u a l l y
q u e s tio n s by th e t e a c h e r i"
H er s u g g e s tio n s
in re sp o n se
A n o th e r s a y s :
a g en eral
to
"T hese a re n o t
checked b ecau se th e y a re n o t a p a r t o f th e s u p e rv is o ry
p r o g r a m b u t i t w o u ld b e a g r e a t h e l p
and a r t s u p e r v i s o r , " and a n o th e r ,
t o me i f I w e r e u n d e r
WI c a n n o t c o m p l e t e t h i s
p a g e b e c a u s e t h e r e h a s b e e n no s u p e r v i s i o n * "
57
I n m an y i n s t a n c e s
o n l y o n e o r a v e r y fe w o f t h e
te c h n iq u e s w ere c h ec k ed a s b e in g u s e d ,
f o r e x a m p le , one
te a c h e r ch eck ed o n ly " d e m o n s tra tio n by th e s u p e r v is o r b e f o r e
a g ro u p o f te a c h e r s * 1 and rem ark ed t h a t ” t h i s ' h a s b e e n done
once in n in e y e a r s i n o u r c o u n ty , no o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s o r
h e lp .”
A n o th e r ch eck ed o n ly t h i s
c h a n g e d t h e w o rd S u p e r v i s o r ” t o
tiv e .”
She m akes t h i s
one ite m a l s o b u t sh e
" s u p p l y c om pan y r e p r e s e n t a ­
f u r t h e r c o m m e n t:
I h a v e g a t h e r e d a g r e a t d e a l fr o m s u p p l y c o m p a n y
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s , b u t t h e i r v i s i t s have been v e ry r a r e .
T h e y c o u l d come m o re o f t e n a n d I h o p e t h e r e p r e s e n t a ­
t i v e w o u l d b e m o re a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e e l e m e n t a r y
s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and r e a l i z e j u s t w h at a c h i l d c o u ld
do and n o t t h i n k th e y a r e d e a l i n g w ith a r t i s t s and
p ro te g e s•
One t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e d
c ritic ism
o f th e ro o m .”
t h a t s h e h a d h a d no h e l p
” o n ly
O t h e r c o m m e n ts f o u n d on p a g e s
m e a g e rly c o m p le te d w e re :
"No a r t s u p e r v i s o r ,
s u p e r v i s o r g i v e s u s som e h e l p i n
our g en eral
fin d in g m a te r ia ls ;”
”S e v e r a l y e a r s a g o a n a r t s u p e r v i s o r g a v e i n s t r u c t i o n s
te a c h in g a r t to t e a c h B r ^
in
no o t h e r h e lp h a s b e en g iv e n
in
th e
t h e c o u n t y on S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g s ,
in
tw e n ty y e a r s o f te a c h in g
c o u n t y ; ” "D u rin g tw e lv e y e a r s
c o u n t y we h a v e n e v e r h a d a r t
o f my m a t e r i a l a n d i d e a s
o f te a c h in g in t h is
su p e rv isio n .
c a rrie d
on c h i e f l y
I g e t m ost
from t h e a r t d i s p l a y s a t i n s t i ­
t u t e s ; ” and "O ur s u p e r v i s o r s do n o t s t r e s s
d o a s m uch o r a s l i t t l e
in
a s sh e w ish e s*
a rt.
T eacher can
A r t seem s t o be
in c o n n e c tio n w ith s o c ia l s t u d i e s ."
58
Two o t h e r r e m a r k s w e r e :
in a r t .
“Ho h e l p o f a n y s o r t i s
We a l l w o r k i n d i v i d u a l l y h u t a r e a b l e
w hat o th e r s have done a t o u r c o u n ty f a i r s
g iv e n
to observe
once a y e a r , n and
T h is c o u n ty h ad s i x m e e tin g s l a s t y e a r , (n o n e t h i s
y e a r ) , c a l l e d b y th e C o u n ty S u p e r i n t e n d e n t .
An o u t s i d e
a r t t e a c h e r gav e one h o u r e a c h m e e tin g t o m eth o d s o f
p r e s e n t i n g w a te r c o lo r s and f i g u r e d ra w in g w ith te a c h e r s
p a rtic ip a tin g .
O n ly t h o s e t e a c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t
a tte n d e d .
N ot r e q u i r e d m e e tin g s#
One l e s s o n on b o o k
b i n d i n g good f o r s e v e n th an d e i g h t h g r a d e s ,
T hese
h e l p e d me a l i t t l e .
sta te d
Of th e num ber c h e c k in g t h e
ite m s se v e n p e r c e n t
t h a t th e
w ere n e v e r u s e d .
te c h n iq u e s l i s t e d
n u m b e r a d d e d t o t h o s e who c l a i m e d n o s u p e r v i s i o n
T h is
in d ic a te s
t h a t o n ly a b o u t tw e n ty - s ix p e r c e n t a c t u a l l y gave e v id e n c e
o f th e
te c h n iq u e s b e in g u s e d .
The f e w e s t n u m b e r o f r e p l i e s m ade a n y w h e r e on t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere i n c h e c k in g th e s u p e r v i s o r y t e c h n iq u e s
t h a t had been found h e lp f u l to th e te a c h e r*
se v e n ty -n in e p e r c e n t m ad e^resp o n se.
A p p ro x im a te ly
No s u p e r v i s i o n , a s
i n d i c a t e d s o m e w h e re i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w a s r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r m any u n a n s w e r e d s h e e t s *
in
One p e r s o n who m ad e n o a n s w e r s
t h e p r o p e r c o lu m n s p r o v i d e d h e r own a n d c h e c k e d s e v e r a l
t e c h n iq u e s w h ic h sh e s a i d
s h e w o u ld l i k e
to h av e th e s u p e r ­
v is o r use*
On t h e w h o l e t h e
f i n d i n g s sh o w t h a t o f t h e t w e n t y -
s i x pefi c e n t r e p o r t i n g u s e o f t h e l i s t e d
te c h n iq u e s
in ab o u t
o n e h a l f t h e c a s e s t h i s w as h u t r a r e l y
f o r a n y one te c h n iq u e *
On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s
in d ic a te d
th a t
w hen a n y t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d i t h a d b e e n o f much o r som e h e l p #
A m ore d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f e a c h t e c h n i q u e l i s t e d
fo llo w s h u t i t
is
t o h e rem em b ered t h a t in t h i s d i s c u s s i o n
o n l y t h o s e who r e p l i e d
(th e
tw e n ty -s ix p e r c e n t) a r e
in c lu d e d .
I X . ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF SP E C IF IC SUPERVISORY TECHNIQUES
T e a c h e rs1 m e e tin g s.
“D e m o n s t r a t i o n s b y a s u p e r v i s o r
b e f o r e a g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s , 1* “ d e m o n s t r a t i o n s b y a t e a c h e r
f o r a g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s * 1 a n d “p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n w o rkshop o r
s tu d y g r o u p s ” w ere th e m e e tin g s c h ec k ed b y th e m a j o r i t y o f
te a c h e rs as b e in g r a r e l y u sed by s u p e r v is o r s .
fu rth e r in d ic a te th a t o f a ll
t e c h n i q u e s e m p lo y ed b y s u p e r v i s o r s *
d e m o n s tra tio n s a re l e a s t u s e d .
le c tu re
T he f i n d i n g s
Of a l l te c h n iq u e s m e n tio n e d ,
an d d i s c u s s i o n t y p e m e e ti n g s w ere m e n tio n e d b y t h e
m ost te a c h e r s
(seven each ) a s b e in g used fre q u e n tly #
R e g a rd in g t h e h e lp f u ln e s s o f m e e tin g s th e f in d in g s
show t h a t “ d e m o n s t r a t i o n b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r b e f o r e a g r o u p
o f t e a c h e r s ” w as,
in a l l th e l i s t ,
th e ite m ch eck ed b y m ost
t e a c h e r s a s h a v i n g b e e n o f m uch h e l p .
The n e x t tw o
n e a r e s t w ere “d e m o n s tr a tio n b y a t e a c h e r f o r a g ro u p < o f
t e a c h e r s ” a n d “p a r t i c i p a t i o n
T hus,
i n w orksho p o r s t u d y g r o u p s . ”
i t w o u ld se e m t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e s m o s t h e l p f u l t o
are e x a c tly
te a c h e rs
t h e o n e s w h ich a r e u s e d r a r e l y b y m o s t s u p e r v i s o r s #
60
S u p e rv iso ry v i s i t s #
The t e c h n i q u e o f s u p e r v i s o r y
d e m o n s t r a t i o n s f o r a t e a c h e r w i t h t h a t t e a c h e r ’ s own p u p i l s
i n t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m o r ” s u p e r v i s o r t e a c h e s t h e c l a s s ”
s to o d , a s d id o th e r d e m o n s tra tio n te c h n iq u e s , h ig h e s t in
num ber o f m e n tio n s f o r b e i n g u s e d r a r e l y b y s u p e r v i s o r s *
L ik e v /ise ,
i t w as m e n t i o n e d a s a c l o s e s e d o n d t o ’d e m o n s t r a ­
tio n by th e
s u p e r v i s o r f o r a g ro u p o f t e a c h e r s ” a s b e in g
th e m ost h e lp f u l in a l l
th e l i s t *
’’T e a c h e r t e a c h e s
s u p e r v is o r o b s e r v e s ” r e c e iv e d m o st m e n tio n o f a l l
lis te d
as b e in g o f l i t t l e
th e c la s s ,
te c h n iq u e s
h e lp *
’’T e a c h e r a n d s u p e r v i s o r w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e
c l a s s ” re c e iv e d a m a jo r ity o f checks as b e in g u sed r a r e l y
and o c c a s io n a ll y *
In d iv id u a l co n feren ces*
w e re , as m ost o th e r te c h n iq u e s ,
C o n feren ces o f v a r io u s ty p e s
c h e c k e d on t h e w h o l e a s
o c c a s io n a lly o r r a r e ly u sed by su p e rv iso rs*
fo llo w in g s u p e rv is o ry v i s i t s
ra te d ,
C o n feren ces
in th e e n tir e
lis t,
w ith
l e c t u r e and d is c u s s i o n m e e tin g s ; h a v in g b e e n m en tio n e d by th e
m ost te a c h e r s
(se v e n ) a s b e in g u se d fre q u e n tly *
These
c o n f e r e n c e s w e r e sh o w n t o b e o f s o m e , r a t h e r t h a n m u c h , h e l p
in m ost ca se s*
C o n f e r e n c e s c a l l e d b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r w ere
n e x t to th e h ig h e s t in
h e lp
to te a c h e rs*
th e e n t i r e l i s t a s b e in g o f l i t t l e
61
T e a c h e r i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n *.
in te rv is ita tio n
h u t w h en i t
A m a j o r i t y sh o w t h a t t e a c h e r
i s r a r e l y u se d a s a s u p e r v is o r y te c h n iq u e
is used
it
is
g e n e r a l l y o f som e o r m uch h e l p *
T he i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s v i s i t
to a n o th e r sc h o o l re c e iv e d
s l i g h t l y m o r e m e n t i o n a s b e i n g o f m u ch h e l p .
M o v in g p i c t u r e s *
p ic tu r e s re c e iv e d
v iso rs.
They a l s o
n e v er b e in g u se d .
Of a l l
te c h n iq u e s m e n tio n e d m o tio n
th e fe w e s t m e n tio n s as b e in g u se d by s u p e r­
re c e iv e d th e
g r e a t e s t num ber o f c h e c k s f o r
E x p l a i n i n g t h i s , tw o p e r s o n s o f f e r e d t h e
f a c t t h a t th e y had no e l e c t r i c i t y
B u lle tin s*
th e b u l l e t i n s
g i v in g s u g g e s t i o n s w ere
ch eck ed m o st o f t e n a s b e in g u s e d , and t h a t
b u t o c c a sio n a lly .
some h e l p .
S h o rt le a f le ts
f o r m a c h in e s*
When u s e d ,
In th e e n ti r e
such m a t e r i a l i s
lis t le tte rs,
e n ce s c a lle d by th e s u p e r v is o r ,
t o g e t h e r w ith
co n fer­
s to o d se co n d in num ber o f
tim e s m e n tio n e d a s b e in g o f l i t t l e
L ib ra rie s*
o f m uch o r
h e lp to te a c h e rs *
B o o k s a n d m a g a z i n e s weie s u g g e s t e d b y m o s t
s u p e rv is o rs o c c a sio n a lly *
H ow ever, b o o k s ,
to g e th e r w ith
in d iv id u a l c o n fe re n c e s f o llo w in g a s u p e r v is o r y v i s i t and
m e e tin g s o f l e c t u r e and d is c u s s io n
t^ p e , re c e iv e d
m e n tio n o f any te c h n iq u e as b e in g u s e d f r e q u e n t l y ,
m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s fo u n d when t h e s e
t h e y w e r e o f some h e l p .
th e h ig h e s t
‘f h e
te c h n iq u e s w ere u s e d
I l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s show ed a
s l i g h t l y h i g h e r n u m b e r o f m e n t i o n s a s b e i n g o f m uch h e l p *
1
62
E x h i b i t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n f s w o rk a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l s *
On t h e w h o l e e x h i b i t i o n s
o f v a rio u s
ty p es o f m a te r ia ls ,
i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n ’ s w o rk , w ere o n ly r a r e l y o r .o c c a s i o n a ll y
used as su p e rv iso ry te c h n iq u e s•
t o g i v e m u c h , som e a n d l i t t l e
¥/hen u s e d t h e y w e r e show n
h e lp
i n a b o u t t h e sam e n u m b e r
o f c a s e s each*
T e a c h e rs’ e x c u rsio n s
ie n c e s*
f o r s e c u r in g f i r s t hand e x p e r­
O n ly r a r e l y o r o c c a s i o n a l l y h a v e s u p e r v i s o r s
su g g e stio n e x c u rsio n s
to te a c h e r s .
Summer s e s s i o n s , e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s a n d a r t a s s o c i a t i o n
m e e tin g s*
Not l i s t e d
f o r c h e c k in g w ith th e o th e r te c h n iq u e s
w e r e sum m er s e s s i o n s , e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s a n d a r t a s s o c i a t i o n
m e e t i n g s w h ic h a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t e c h n i q u e s e m p lo y ed
by s u p e rv is o rs
in h e lp in g te a c h e rs*
th e te a c h e r s r e p l i e d
te c h n iq u e s*
to th e
O n ly f i v e s a i d
S ix ty -fiv e p e r cen t of
q u e stio n s r e l a t i v e
to th e s e
t h e y h a d e v e r h a d sum m er s e s s i o n s
o r e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s s u g g e s t e d t o th em b y a s u p e r v i s o r *
F ifte e n sa id
them *
a r t a s s o c i a t io n m e e tin g s had been su g g e ste d t o
The r e m a i n d e r ,
in b o th c a s e s , h a d e i t h e r r e c e iv e d no
s u g g e s t i o n o r m ade n o a n s w e r .
C u rric u lu m c o m m itte e s and c o u r s e s o f s tu d y in a r t *
S u p e rv is o rs can u s e c u rric u lu m
c o m m itte e s and
o f stu d y f o r h e lp in g te a c h e rs w ith a r t
th e c o u rs e
te a c h in g *
Ite m s in
63
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e r e l a t i v e
to th e se
te c h n iq u e s re v e a le d
th e
f a c t t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e ly f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s w ere
s u p p lie d w ith
some t y p e
o f stu d y in a r t ,
of p rin te d h e lp .
e ith e r se p a ra te
g e n e ra l c o u rse o f s tu d y ,
from o r i n c l u d e d
t o a few *
stu d y s e v e n ty -n in e p e r c e n t o f th e
w e r e u n a w a r e o:f a r t c o m m i t t e e s w o r k i n g i n
M ine k n e w o f s u c h w o r k i n p r o g r e s s .
t h a t c u rric u lu m
in th e
i s m ost p r e v a le n t b u t s u g g e s tiv e
o u t l i n e s o r su p p le m e n ts a r e a v a i l a b l e
In th is
T he e o u n t y c o u r s e
te a c h e rs
th e ir c o u n tie s.
T h is d e f i n i t e l y
in d ic a te s
c o m m itte e s in a r t a r e n o t b e in g u s e d e x te n ­
s iv e ly as a su p e rv is o ry te c h n iq u e .
Sum m ary o f t h e c h a p t e r .
sh o w t h a t o v e r t h r e e - f o u r t h s
o f th e
no r e p l y to q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i v e
v iso rs.
H a lf o f th e se d id
su p e rv isio n .
T he f i n d i n g s
te a c h e rs
in
th is
c o n t a c t e d m ad e
to te c h n iq u e s u sed by su p e r­
n o t a n sw e r b e c a u s e t h e y had no a r t
O n ly o n e - f o u r t h
o f th e e n tir e
group c o n ta c te d 1
r e p o r te d u s e o f th e te c h n iq u e s by th e s u p e r v i s o r .
fro m t h i s
c h a p te r
T he r e t u r n s
g r o u p sho w d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , a s a s u p e r v i s o r y t e c h n i q u e ,
to be m o st h e l p f u l t o
te a c h e r s b u t l e a s t u se d by s u p e rv is o rs *
C o n feren ces, l i b r a r i e s ,
e x h i b i t s , and b u l l e t i n s w ere u s e d by
s u p e r v i s o r s t o so m e e x t e n t a n d r e p o r t e d a s o f som e h e l p
te a c h e rs*
Summer s e s s i o n s ,
c u rric u lu m c o m m itte e s,
to
te a c h e r 1
i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n , m o v in g p i c t u r e s a n d e x c u r s i o n s a r e u s e d b u t
r a r e l y as s u p e r v is o r y te c h n iq u e s*
T h e e n s u i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s som e o f t h e g e n e r a l
c o m m e n ts m a d e b y t e a c h e r s
t o t h e w h o le s u p e r v i s o r y p r o g r a m .
CHAPTER VXIX
TEACHERS1 GENERAL COMMENTS RELATIVE TO ART SUPERVISION
S e v e ra l q u e stio n s asked in
te a c h e r* s g e n e ra l a tt i tu d e
had e x p e rie n c e d .
t h e s t u d y a im e d f o r t h e
to w a rd t h e a r t s u p e r v i s i o n sh e
T he r e t u r n s w e r e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g a n d a
su m m a ry o f th e m i s h e r e p r e s e n t e d #
T h i n g s t e a c h e r s w i s h e d s u p e r v i s o r s w o u ld d o .
se em t o h a v e d e f i n i t e
t h e y w o u ld l i k e
T each ers
i d e a s r e g a r d i n g a g r e a t m an y t h i n g s
t o h a v e t h e s u p e r v i s o r d o i n h e l p i n g th e m
w ith a r t te a c h in g .
T h in g s s t a t e d h y th e t e a c h e r s
a re
sh ow n
i n T a b l e XIV t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s e a c h w a s
m e n tio n e d .
sta te d
T h i r t y t e a c h e r s who m ade no r e p l y ,
t h r e e who
t h e y h a d n o a r t s u p e r v i s o r a n d o n e who f e l t s h e
n eed ed no h e l p , a r e n o t r e p r e s e n te d
B ecause o f th e
im p o rta n c e
in t h i s
ta b u la tio n *
to s u p e rv is io n o f te a c h e rs*
d e sire s
e x p re s s in g t h e i r needs d e ta ile d
re tu rn s
on t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y i s
a n a ly s is o f th e
c o n sid e re d e s s e n t i a l
h ere.
D e o m o n stra tio n s h ead t h e l i s t
w is h s u p e r v i s o r s w o u ld d o .
o f th in g s
th a t te a c h e rs
The e m p h a tic i n s i s t e n c e
te a c h e r s f o r d e m o n s tra tio n s by th e
su p e rv iso r,
of
is p erh ap s
m o s t apH y e x p r e s s e d b y o n e o f t h e r e p o r t i n g t e a c h e r s w h e n
65
TABUS XIV
THINGS TEACHERS WISH SUPERVISORS WOULD DO
TO HELP THEM WITH ART TEACHING
T im e s m e n t i o n e d
T h in g s w ish e d
G iv e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s
24
H e lp p l a n w ork
15
G i v e i d e a s a n d m ake s u g g e s t i o n s
13
H e lp c o r r e l a t e
a r t w i t h o t h e r w o rk
5
H e lp e v a l u a t e c h i l d r e n ’ s an d t e a c h e r ’ s w ork
5
M ake l o n g e r , m o re r e g u l a r a n d f r e q u e n t v i s i t s
5
P r o v id e f o r m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u ip m e n t
4
P ro v id e c l a s s e s o r m e e tin g s
4
P ro v id e f o r exchange o f id e a s ,
school to
school
4
Show i n t e r e s t a n d g i v e e n c o u r a g e m e n t
2
N o th in g
1
66
sh e s im p ly w ro te t h a t th e one t h i n g sh e w ish e d th e
su p e rv iso r
w o u ld do w as “ d e m o n s t r a t e , d e m o n s t r a t e , d e m o n s t r a t e * w
T e a c h e r s w a n te d t h e
s u p e rv is o r to g iv e d e m o n s tra tio n
o r “a r t le s s o n s * 1 e s p e c i a l l y
t o show t e c h n i q u e s , a n d t h e u s e
o f v a r i o u s m & d ia a n d m a t e r i a l s .
v i s o r t o sh o w t h e “ c h i l d r e n
a r t m ay b e a d a p t e d * 11
a t re g u la r in te rv a ls
One w o u ld l i k e
th e u t i l i t a r i a n
One d e s i r e d
th e s u p e r­
p u r p o s e t o w h ich
th e s u p e r v is o r to
and g iv e th e p u p i l s a l e s s o n , ”
a n o t h e r w as m ore s p e c i f i c
“ come i n
w h ile
i n w i s h i n g f o r “a d e m o n s t r a t i o n
l e s s o n o n ce a m o n th * ”
I n p l a n n i n g w ork t h e t e a c h e r s * d e s i r e s
se em t o l e a n
t o w a r d p l a n s m ade b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r b u t s u g g e s t i o n s r a n g e d
a l l t h e w ay f r o m h a v i n g , t h e s u p e r v i s o r “ a s s i g n d e f i n i t e
w ork
t o b e d o n e e a c h m o n th - t h e n e v a l u a t e , ” t o “h e l p i n g t h e
t e a c h e r p l a n t h e w ork an d f i n d
tim e f o r
T h ere seem ed t o b e a d e f i n i t e
it* ”
need f o r co u rses o f
s t u d y | s e v e r a l w is h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld g i v e a n o u t l i n e
o r g e n e r a l m an u al on t e a c h i n g a r t .
a im s an d o b j e c t i v e s
s e a s o n s and u n i t s
to be ta u g h t,
to be m e t, e x p e rie n c e s to f i t v a rio u s
o f w ork, id ^ a s f o r c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s io n and
s u g g e s t i o n s f o r m a n u a l a r t w ork a r e
te a c h e rs b e lie v e d
P rin c ip le s
sh o u ld be in c lu d e d
som e o f t h e t h i n g s
in such a co u rse*
O u t­
l i n e s m ade f o r e a c h g r a d e w e re d e s i r e d *
On t h e p r o b l e m o f p l a n n i n g o n e t e a c h e r s w as e x p l i c i t
67
and i n c l u s i v e
w o u ld " e a r l y
in h e r sta te m e n t.
in
She w is h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r
th e y e a r c o ll a b o r a t e w ith
p la n n in g and f o r m u la tin g a d e f i n i t e
situ a tio n , v is it
sc h o o l,
p la n
th e te a c h e r
..
in
f o r th e s p e c if ic
ob serv e th e s i t u a t i o n
and e v a l u a t e . "
T w elv e t e a c h e r s w ere e a g e r f o r g e n e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s
a n d new i d e ^ s
f o r t h i n g s t o do an d ways t o do th e m .
f o r new m a t e r i a l s
a n d w ay s t o u s e th e m w e re ^ m e n t i o n e d a s w e r e
a r r a n g e m e n t and w ays o f u s i n g e v e r y d a y m a t e r i a l *
w i s h e d " m o re c o n c r e t e
e ffe c tiv e ly
S u g g e stio n s
in stru c tio n
One t e a c h e r
f o r h a n d l i n g a r t m ore
i n a o n e-ro o m s c h o o l* "
H e lp o r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r th e c o r r e l a t i o n o f a r t w ith
u n its
o f w ork a n d a c t i v i t i e s w ere m e n tio n e d b y f o u r t e a c h e r s
w h ile one f e l t t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n w as n o t a l l
s ta te d
t h a t s h e w o u ld b e h a p p y i f
she needed she
t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld " p e r m i t
th e te a c h e r to have an a r t p e r io d ."
One t e a c h e r f e l t
th e s u p e r v is o r c o u ld h e lp h e r - I n
s e c u r i n g m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h ich c h i l d r e n m i g h t w o rk ,
tw o
w a n ted m a t e r i a l f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n w h ile a n o th e r d e s i r e d
a r r a n g e m e n t s m ad e " f o r a k i l n
to
fire
c o u n ty sc h o o l p o t te r y * "
The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n f s a n d t e a c h e r ’ s w o r k
was m e n t i o n e d b y f i v e
te a c h e rs.
One o f t h e m o s t p e r t i n e n t
s t a t e m e n t s m ade i n c l u d e d c o r r e l a r y s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s ,
th is
t e a c h e r w i s h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld " h e l p e v a l u a t e w o rk
o f th e c h ild r e n , h e lp
sp e c ific
su g g e stio n s
s e t up sta n d a rd s fo r each g rad e ,
f o r o b ta in in g th e
g o a ls * "
g iv e
The d e s i r e
by fo u r p e rs o n s .
f o r m e e t i n g s d e v o t e d t o a r t w as e x p r e s s e d
Two w a n t e d t h e s e
c o n d u c te d a s c l a s s e s
w here t h e y m ig h t l e a r n v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s .
m e e tin g s w h ere t e a c h e r s m ig h t s h a r e i d e a s ,
One s u g g e s t e d
th e f o u r th
w i s h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld nh a v e m o r e a r t m e e t i n g s w h e r e
c h ild re n * s
( n o t t e a c h e r f s ) w o rk i s
d is p la y e d .”
An e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s a n d e x h i b i t s
w ere l i s t e d
by fo u r te a c h e r s .
id e a o f u s in g th e se
in te re s te d
of c h ild re n ^
One o f t h e s e e x p r e s s e d
w ork
th e
f o r c o m p a r i s o n , a n o t h e r w as e s p e c i a l l y
i n 11i d e a s t h a t a r e b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y w o r k e d o u t
in s i m i l a r o n e-ro o m s c h o o l s . ”
M o re f r e q u e n t a n d r e g u l a r v i s i t s
t e a c h e r s w h ile a n o th e r w ish e d th e
and s tu d y c h il d r e n
p e rio d .”
w e r e d e s i r e d b y tw o
s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld " w a t c h
i n a d a y fs w ork rath e r* * t h a n f o r a b r i e f
One m e r e l y a s k e d t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r "m ake a n
a p p e a ra n c e .”
The t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d
d e fin ite
c ritic ism
th e ir d e sire s
o f su p e rv isio n .
v i s o r w o u ld ” n o t b e l i t t l e
in te rm s o f
One w i s h e d t h e s u p e r ­
w h a t a r t w o r k we a r e a b l e
to do
u n d e r th e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , ” th e o t h e r w ish e d th e s u p e r v i s o r
w o u l d ”b e m o re i n t e r e s t e d
in o th e r
th in g s b e sid e s a c h ie v e ­
m ent t e s t s . ”
One t e a c h e r s i m p l y w i s h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d d o
" n o th in g ” w h ile a n o th e r s t a t e d
”we h a v e e x c e l l e n t s u p e r v i s i o n .
69
S u p e rv is o ry a c t i v i t i e s m ost h e lp f u l to t e a c h e r s #
S u p e r v i s o r s se e m t o h a v e d o n e m an y t h i n g s w h i c h h a v e b e e n
h e lp f u l to te a c h e rs#
A su m m arize d l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s
m en tio n ed by th e t e a c h e r s
w ere r e c e i v e d
is
sho w n i n T a b l e XV*
fro m f o r t y - f i v e
no S L ip e rv isio n ;
th e se
te a c h e rs,
a re n o t in c lu d e d
six
Ho c o m m en ts
sta te d
in th e
th e y had
ta b le #
D e m o n stra tio n s a g a in s ta n d a t th e head o f th e l i s t #
D e o m o n s tr a tio n s sh o w in g p r o c e d u r e ,
c l a s s m a n a g em en t, t e c h ­
n iq u e s and u s e s o f m a t e r i a l s w ere m e n tio n e d #
The s u p e r v i s o r ^
in te re s t
i n a n d c o m m e n d a tio n , a p p r e ­
c i a t i o n and e n c o u ra g e m e n t o f w ork d o n e by p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s
w ere m e n tio n e d a s m o s t h e l p f u l t o n i n e t e a c h e r s #
E x h i b i t s o f c h i l d r e n 1s w o r k , m a t e r i a l s ,
c r a f t o b je c ts
a n d o t h e r i d e a s w e r e i n c l u d e d b y t h e s i x p e r s o n s who l i s t e d
d is p la y s a s th e m ost h e lp f u l t h in g th e
C l a s s e s f o r t e a c h e r s w ere c i t e d
to
th re e
te a c h e rs#
s u p e r v i s o r had done#
a s b e in g m ost h e lp f u l
R ou nd t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s a n d d e m o n s t r a ­
t i o n s by a s u p p l y com pany r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w e re r e p o r t e d e a c h
once#
S u g g e s t i o n s m ad e b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r r e g a r d i n g t y p e s o f
a r t e x p e rie n c e s s u ita b le
in th e p a r t i c u l a r
s i t u a t i o n and
t h i n g s t o do w e r e m e n t i o n e d b y t h r e e t e a c h e r s w h i l e tw o f e l t
su g g e stio n s
in c o n n e c tio n w ith c o r r e l a t i o n
e x p e r i e n c e s w ere m o st h e l p f u l #
o f a r t w ith o th e r
69A
TABLE XV
SUPERVISORY A C T IV IT IE S MOST HELPFUL
TO TEACHERS I N TEACHING ART
S u p e rv iso ry * a c t i v i t y
T im e s m e n t i o n e d
Gave d e m o n s t r a t i o n s
15
N o th in g
14
G ave i n s p i r a t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t
9
P ro v id e d m e e tin g s
5
P ro v id e d e x h ib its
6
G a v e s u g g e s t i o n s a n d new i d e a s
3
H e lp e d c o r r e l a t e
Z
a r t w ith s o c ia l s tu d ie s
H e lp e d d e v e lo p a p h ilo s o p h y
1
L e f t th e te a c h e r a lo n e
1
70
On© t e a c h e r f e l t
sh e h a d g o t t e n m o st h e l p from th e
s u p e r v is o r in d e v e lo p in g a p h ilo s o p h y o f a r t ,
a n o th e r f e l t
th e s u p e r v i s o r had h e lp e d h e r m o st b y l e a v in g h e r a l o n e •
F o u rte e n f e l t
to h e lp
th a t th e
th e m i n a r t *
s u p e r v is o r had done n o th in g
One q u a l i f i e d h e r r e s p o n s e
th u s* :
" T h e s u p e r v i s o r h a s b e e n o f m uch h e l p b u t n o t i n a r t * "
o th e r sa id :
" I ' v e h a d no h e l p
s u p e r v is o r in any o f th e
in
t e a c h i n g a r t fro m a n y
f o u r c o u n t i e s w here I h a v e t a u g h t . "
In a d e q u a c ie s o f a r t
su p e rv isio n
O p in io n s w ere r e c e i v e d
from a l l
re g a rd in g th e g r e a t e s t
in a d e q u a c ie s
th e ir re s p e c tiv e
One
c o u n tie s *
in th e c o u n ti e s *
except th irty -o n e
te a c h e rs
in a r t s u p e rv is io n
A su m m ary o f t h e s e
in
o p in io n s
a p p e a r s i n T a b l e XVI*
A lm o st h a l f o f t h e
te a c h e rs
f e l t t h a t h a v i n g no s u p e r ­
v i s i o n w as t h e g r e a t e s t I n a d e q u a c y i n
th e c o u n ty *
t h e s e r e p l i e s m ig h t b e . c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h i s
M ost o f
s t a t e m e n t from
o n e o f t h e t e a c h e r s , 11t o p u t i t b l u n t l y - t h e r e h a s b e e n
none*"
S e v e ra l b e lie v e d
th e
in ad e q u ac y la y
no one c h a rg e d w ith s u p e r v i s i o n
in
in
th e
fa c t th a t
t h e c o u n ty was e q u ip p e d
to su p e rv ise a rt*
T w e lv e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y h a d h a d s o m e , b u t
in s u f f ic ie n t su p e rv isio n .
la c k o f tim e ,
m uch t e r r i t o r y
R easons c ite d
fo r
th is w ere,
in fre q u e n t v i s i t s , unannounced v i s i t s
and to o
t o c o v e r on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r *
One
71
TABLE XVI
GREATEST INADEQUACIES I E COUNTY ART SUPERVISION
AS SEEN BY TEACHERS
Inad eq u acy
T im e s m e n t i o n e d
la c k o f su p e rv isio n
43
I n s u f f ic ie n t su p e rv isio n
13
L ack o f i n t e r e s t on th e p a r t o f s u p e r v i s o r s
7
Lack o f m a te r ia ls
5
Lack o f p la n o r c o u rs e o f s tu d y
4
Lack o f m e e tin g s
1
72
seem ed t o b e l i e v e
t h a t th e s u p e r v i s o r had n o t a c c e p te d
enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a r t
is
l e f t t o o m uch t o t h e
n o t had enough t r a i n i n g
su p e rv isio n ,
she sa y s*
Mi t
i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r who o f t e n h a s
in
th is
s u b je c t.”
L ac k o f i n t e r e s t in a r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
w as m e n t i o n e d b y s e v e n t e a c h e r s .
One o f t h e s e
fe lt
th a t le s s
e m p h a s i s o n m u s i c a n d m o re o n a r t w o u ld m ak e a m o r e b a l a n c e d
program , a n o th e r f e l t
t h a t ”p e p l e s s n e s s and a s o r t o f
c o l d n e s s o f th e s u p e r v i s o r ’ s p r e s e n t a t i o n s ” was t h e
in a d e q u a c y .
A n o th e r b e lie v e d
i n t e r e s t ”a r t i s
g re a te st
th a t because o f a la c k of
not stre sse d
enough* th e
e n co u rag e i t by h a v in g d i s p l a y s .
c o u n ty l i b r a r i a n s
O u tsid e o f t h a t ,
th e re
i s n ft a t h in g .”
I n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h ich t o w o rk a n d a l a c k
o f c h i l d r e n ’s w ork f o r e x a m p le s w e re m e n tio n e d b y f o u r
te a c h e rs.
m a te ria ls
One f e l t
th e
”l a c k o f c i r c u l a t i n g
a s lo o m s , p o t t e r y w h e e ls , e t c .
se ts
o f such
fro m t h e c o u n ty
o ffic e .”
A c o u r s e o f s t u d y ©r o u t l i n e
m en tio n ed by f o u r t e a c h e r s .
quacy in th e
o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r w as
One f e l t
c o u n ty l a y in th e
th e g r e a t e s t in a d e ­
”n e e d f o r m ore m e e t i n g s t o
o b s e r v e a r t w ork o f o t h e r s c h o o l s , d i s c u s s i o n w i t h o t h e r
t e a c h e r s and w ith th e
s u p e rv is o rs .”
A c o m p a riso n o f t h e s e
re la tio n
to
fin d in g s t o th o se
found in
t h e r e a s o n s why t e a c h e r s h a v e n o t h a d m o r e s u p e r ­
v is o r y h e lp r e v e a l a c lo s e c o r r e l a t i o n .
Sum m ary o f t h e
c h a p te r c o n firm
th e
c h a p te r*
The d a t a p r e s e n t e d
in t h is
fin d in g s p re s e n te d in o th e r s e c tio n s
o f t h e s t u d y . As a s u p e r v i s o r y h e l p
d e m o n s tr a tio n s b y th e
in a r t ,
te a c h e r s w ant
s u p e r v i s o r m ore t h a n a n y o t h e r one
t h i n g and a s a s e r v i c e p e rfo rm ed b y a s u p e r v i s o r t h i s
o f h e lp sto o d h i g h e s t a s b e in g o f m ost h e lp
O th e r s e r v i c e s h i g h ly d e s i r e d
w ere: h e lp
in p la n n in g ,
to te a c h e rs#
from s u p e r v i s o r s b y t e a c h e r s
s u g g e s tio n s and i d e a s .
a b l e num ber o f t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d
done n o th in g o f m ost h e lp
to
ty p e
A c o n sid e r­
th e s u p e r v is o r s a s h a v in g
th em .
L ack o f s u p e r v i s i o n o r i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p e r v i s i o n w ere
th e o u ts ta n d in g in a d e q u a c ie s o f c o u n ty a r t s u p e r v is io n a s
re p o rte d by th e
te a c h e rs
in
th e s tu d y .
T h is c h a p te r c o n c lu d e s th e a n a l y s i s
fro m th e 106 t e a c h e r s
in resp o n se to
fo llo w in g c h a p te r c o n ta in s
fin d in g s p re s e n te d .
th e
o f d a ta secu red
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
c o n c l u s i o n s d raw n fro m th e
T he
CHAPTER IX
CONCLUSIONS
T h is stu d y p ro v id e d s u f f i c i e n t d a ta to r e n d e r
fin d in g s v a lid
c o u n tie s .
tio n
fo r a ll
th e
th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia
T he r e p o r t s f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s g a v e § v e r y i n d i c a ­
o f b e in g f a i r ,
t h e r e b e i n g no u n d u e c o m m en d a tio n o r o v e r
abundance o f a d v erse c r i t ic i s m
e v en w h ere t h e s e m ig h t h a v e
seem ed j u s t i f i e d *
An a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a h a s p o i n t e d u p n u m b e r o u s
d e fin ite
fa c ts
fro m w h ic h becom e e v i d e n t c e r t a i n
re g a rd in g th e v a rio u s a s p e c ts o f a r t su p e rv is io n
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia c o u n tie s *
a r e h e r e d raw n from t h e s e f a c t s
as
a ssu m p tio n s
in
th e
^he c o n c lu sio n s
t h e y a r e c o m p a r e d t o som e
o f th e b e s t th o u g h t as r e p r e s e n te d by a u th o rs in
th e f i e l d
o f su p e rv isio n * .
R e sp o n sib ility
f o r th e
te a c h in g and s u p e r v is io n
of a rt
M ost o f th e a r t t e a c h in g in th e
e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C a li­
fo rn ia n
c la ssro o m
c o u n tie s i s done by th e
te a c h e rs
th e m se lv e s
I n o n ly a b o u t te n p e r c e n t o f th e e a s e s a r e e x c h a n g e s m ade,
no s p e c i a l a r t t e a c h e r s w ere r e p o r t e d *
T h e r e s e e m s t o b e some c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h i s
a d m in -
75
istra tiv e
p ro ced u re#
Some'** se em t o b e l i e v e
ro o m t e a c h e r a s a r t t e a c h e r i s
she i s p r e f e r r e d ,
e sp e c ia lly
t h a t th e
c la ss­
i n a d v i s a b l e w h i l e b y o th ers??
if
s h e h a s h a d som e g o o d a r t
tra in in g *
Ho m a t t e r w h a t t h e
c o n d itio n s as re v e a le d
to s u p e rv is io n *
w ith l i t t l e
i d e a l s i t u a t i o n m ay b e t h e r e a l
in t h i s
s tu d y h ave o b v io u s im p lic a tio n s
When n e a r l y a l l
tr a in in g or a p titu d e
c la ssro o m
f o r th e
i n g a r t m o re a n d b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n
is
s t u d y was t h e l a c k o f s u p e r v i s i o n .
o f th e s tu d y
was c i t e d
s u b je c t, are
te a c h ­
tim e and a g a in
in
In ev ery s e c tio n
t h i s was t h e m o s t i n s i s t e n t f a c t *
By some i t
a s th e g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e in te a c h in g a rt*
In c o m p le te answ ers to q u e s tio n s r e l a t i v e
t o h e lp g iv e n in
g e n e r a l p ro b le m s in a r t t e a c h i n g and w ith s p e c i f i c
a c tiv itie s
and“th is
some
im p e ra tiv e *
The o u t s t a n d i n g t h i n g r e i t e r a t e d
th is
te a c h e rs,
o c c u rre d b e ca u se o f th e
d e fic ie n c ie s
art
o f su p e rv isio n
o n e f a c t w as c i t e d b y a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s
a s th e g r e a t e s t in a d e q u a c y in a r t s u p e r v is io n
I t was i n t e r e s t i n g
t h e y h a d no s u p e r v i s o r ,
in th e
c o u n ty *
t o n o t e t h a t som e t e a c h e r s s a i d
o th e rs sa id
t h e y h ad no a r t s u p e r -
" E r n e s t H o r n , ifI n e q u a l i t i e s i n O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r A r t
D e v e lo p m e n t,* 1 The F o r t i e t h Y e a rb o o k o f th e n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y
f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n , A r t in A m e ric an L i f e and E d u ca­
t i o n , ( S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C om pany , B o o o m i n g t o n , I l l i n o i s : 1 9 4 1 )
p . 494*
^ C h a r l o t t e R* K a j o r , T e a c h i n g A r t i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y
S c h o o l* P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n S e r v ic e C e n te r
P a m p h l e t 3 , (Hew Y o r k j P r o g r e s s i s v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n )
1 9 4 1 , p* 1 5 *
76
v i s o r o r s u p e r v i s i o n w h ile o t h e r s r e p o r t e d no h e l p
s u p e r v i s o r on a r t *
c a s e s fth ere t h e r e
A l l t h i s a d d s up t o
th e
sam e t h i n g :
in
a r e no a r t s u p e r v i s o r s t h e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r s
m u s t t h e n a ssu m s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
fo r th e s u p e rv is io n o f a r t ,
th e y have n o t done so to th e e x te n t t h a t te a c h e r s
i t a s such i t
from a n y
if
can re c o g n iz e
seem s o b v io u s i t d o e s n n o t e x i s t *
f o r c o n sp ic u o u sn e ss
in th e
stu d y ,
in a d e q u a te o r i n ­
s u f f i c i e n t s u p e r v i s i o n ra n k e d se c o n d o n ly t o no s u p e r v i s i o n
a t a ll*
R e aso n s f o r i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p e r v i s i o n w e re (.g iv e n b y
m an y t e a c h e r s .
In freq u en t v is its
due to th e lim ite d
tim e
o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r who h a d m an y d u t i e s a n d l o n g d i s t a n c e s
to
t r a v e l w ere f r e q u e n t l y m e n tio n e d *
to
B ut n o t so c r e d i t a b l e
t h e s u p e r v i s o r s w e r e t h o s e c h a r g e s m ade r e g a r d i n g t h e l a c k
o f i n te r e s t, p re p a ra tio n ,
ta le n t,
sk ill
and e n th u s ia s m
fo r
a r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r *
R e a s o n s b e i n g w h a t t h e y m ay t h e
t h e l e s s d e f i n i t e l y on t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e
in d ic tm e n t i s n e v e r­
f o r th e
o f e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls in C a li f o r n ia c o u n ti e s £
s c h o o ls w here m o st h e l p
in a r t
is
n o t f u l l y f e l t o r d isc h a rg e d t h e i r
I t m ig h t be an e x a g g e r a tio n
I s d e p lo r a b le b u t th e e v id e n c e
su p e rv isio n
In th e v e ry
needed s u p e rv is o rs have
o b lig a tio n s *
to sa y t h a t th e
c o n d itio n
t h a t som e o f t h e r e s p o n d i n g
te a c h e r s a r e d e e p ly co n cern ed o v e r th e g r e a t la c k o f a r t
su p e rv isio n
is
a p p a re n t in th e
fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
q u o ta tio n s
:
”T h e r e i s n o s u p e r v i s i o n
- in se v e n te e n y e a rs
i n v a r i o u s c o u n t i e s o f n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a I !v e h a d o n e
s u p e r v i s o r o f a r t and she f o r o n ly one y e a r ,
t h a t w as f o u r
o r f i v e y e a r s a g o , ” a n d ffA r t h a s b e e n a n e g l e c t e d
th is
c o u n ty *
We a r e t r y i n g t o w o r k i t
s u b je c t in
i n m o re b u t i t
seem s
ia s l o w p r o c e s s .**
S u p e r v is io n and th e
te a c h in g *
tra in in g
a rt*
T here i s
tra in in g
g reat d is p a rity
o f th e te a c h e r f o r a r t
i n th e am ount o f a r t
t h a t te a c h e r s have had in p r e p a r a tio n
T h is i s
n ot u nusual or n e c e s s a rily u n d e sira b le b u t i t
w o u ld s e e m t h a t f o r a l l
re sp o n sib le
fo r te a c h in g
fo r th e
t h e m e m b e rs o f a g r o u p who m u s t b e
o n ly g u id an c e in a r t r e c e iv e d by a
l a r g e num ber o f C a l i f o r n i a c h i l d r e n t h e r e
a m inim um r e q u i r e m e n t .
sh o u ld be a t l e a s t
A f te r a c a r e f u l and th o ro u g h s tu d y
H e le n H e f f e r n a n ^ h a s recom m ended e i g h t s e m e s t e r u n i t s
fo r
e v e ry p e rso n r e c e iv in g an e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l c r e d e n tia l in
C a lifo rn ia *
O t h e r s ^ h a v e recom m ended tw e lv e t o s i x t e e n
s e m e s te r h o u rs f o r e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .
T he f i n d i n g s r e c o r d e d h e r e
o f th e
te a c h e rs
in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls in C a lif o r n ia
c o u n tie s have had l e s s
Xn t h e
sh o w t h a t m o re t h a n h a l f
th a n fiv e
s e m e s te r -u n its o f a r t w o rk .
ju d g m en t o f a p p r o x im a te ly h a l f o f th e
te a c h e rs
th em -
^ H e l e n H e f f e r n a n , lfT he P r e p a r t i o n o f T e a c h e r s f o r
S e r v i c e i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , ft C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f
E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n , 9 58 9 , N o v e m b er, 1 9 4 0 .
4 A lo n z o P . M y e rs , an d o t h e r s , C o o p e r a t iv e S u p e r v i s i o n
i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s (New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a i i , I n c , 1 9 3 8 ) p .
172
78
se lv e s
t h e i r g r e a te s t h in d e ra n c e s
in te a c h in g a r t a re th o se
t h i n g s w h ich a r e d i r e c t l y d r i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d
p re p a ra tio n
to th e ir
and tr a i n in g *
T h a t som e o f t h e p r e - s e r v i c e
w as sh o w n "by t h e
e x c e lle n t
f a c t t h a t a few t e a c h e r s l i s t e d
fro m t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s a s t h e i r
te a c h in g a rt*
tra in in g is
B u t,
th is
te a c h e rs
g r e a te s t so u rce o f h e lp
in
s h o u l d n o t b e c o n s t r u e d t o m ean
t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f th e p r e p a r a tio n re c e iv e d by te a c h e r s
i s e n t i r e l y a p p li c a b l e o r a d e q u a te
to th e s itu a tio n
w h ic h t h e y f i n d
t o o m any o f t h o s e who
th e m se lv e s b e c a u se
a d m itte d h a v in g s e v e r a l se m e ste r u n i t s
t h e n e e d f o r much h e l p
of a rt s till
in d ic a te d
i n m an y o f t h e p r o b l e m s l i s t e d *
E s p e c i a l l y n o t a b l e w ere th e f a c t s
h e lp needed
in
re la tiv e
to th e
in u n d e r s ta n d in g th e s t a g e s o f d e v e lo p m e n t
th r o u g h w h ic h c h i l d r e n p a s s in c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g
a r t and in u n d e rs ta n d in g a r t p r i n c i p l e s
w hen t o u s e
th e s e w ith c h ild re n *
w h ic h s h o u ld l i e
w ere p r e c i s e l y
a n d k n o w i n g how a n d
T h e s e tw o p h a s e s o f a r t
a t th e b ase o f a l l
a r t e d u c a tio n t r a i n i n g
t h e p h a s e s i n w h ic h a m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s
f e l t m uch h e l p w as n e e d e d *
E d w in Z i e g f e l d h a s
o f e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s
th is
to sa y re g a rd in g th e t r a i n i n g
in a r t :
T h is e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n o f th e a r t t r a i n i n g o f th e
g e n e r a l c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r i s c r u c i a l and th e l a c k o f
t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n a r t i n e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s w o u ld
be c o u n te n a n c e d in few , i f a n y , o t h e r s u b j e c t s in th e
79
c u rric u lu m .
I t e x p l a i n s m uch o f t h e p o o r a r t t e a c h i n g t h a t
ta k e s p la c e in sc h o o ls a l l o v e r th e c o u n try .
T each ers
f o r th e m o st p a r t a r e w i l l i n g and e a g e r f o r e x p e r ie n c e s
t h a t w i l l m ake th e m b e t t e r t e a c h e r s .
I n few s u b j e c t s
does th e t y p ic a l te a c h e r f e e l l e s s s e c u re th a n in a r t ,
and i t i s th e d u ty o f th e t e a c h e r - tr a in i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s
t o i n c r e a s e and im p ro v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d * 5
M y e rs p o i n t s
o f te a c h e rs
o u t t h a t ”th e p r o f e s s io n a l
im p ro v e m e n t
in s e r v ic e m ust be a c c e p te d by th e p r o f e s s io n
i t s e l f a s a m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y * 1*5
Many t e a c h e r s h a v e f e l t
t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y an d h a v e ta k e n a d d i t i o n a l 1w ork i n
sum m er
s e ss io n *
R a n k e d w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s sum m er s e s s i o n s s t a n d
second a s b e in g m o st h e l p f u l to th e
tw o c a s e s t h e a s s i s t a n c e
re c e iv e d
te a c h e rs.
i n sum m er s c h o o l w as
s u f f i c i e n t to g iv e th e te a c h e r a f e e l i n g
su p e rv iso ry h e lp .
On t h e
In a t l e a s t
t h a t sh e n e ed e d no
o t h e r h a n d som e sum m er c o u r s e s
seem n o t t o h a v e b e e n a d a p t e d
t o t e a c h e r s 1 n e e d s a s m uch a s
th e y m ig h t h ave b e e n .
s ta te m e n t o f th e
A fa ir
r e p r e s t e n t e d by s e v e r a l te a c h e r s
s itu a tio n as
seem s t o h a v e b e e n m o st
a p t l y e x p r e s s e d b y one o f t h e i r num ber i n a n o te a c c o m p a n y in g
h er q u e stio n n a ire ,
she s a i d :
I am e n o r m o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t
b e c a u s e i t i s my m o s t ”p o o r l y t a u g h t ” s u b j e c t a n d I
d o n ’t e n jo y b e in g in a d e q u a te in a n y th in g .
I th in k th is
f% d w in Z i e g f e l d , ffP r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l C l a s s ­
ro o m T e a c h e r f o r T e a c h i n g A r t , ” T he F o r t i e t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e
N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n , A r t i n A m e ric a n
L i f e a n d E d t i c a t T o n , (B lo om i n g t o n , ' I l l i n o i s ' : P u b l i c S c h o o l
“
j P u b 'i i s h i n g C om pany , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 80 8*
M y e r s , o£* c i t * , p . 128*
80
i s b e c a u s e I am c l u m s y w i t h my h a n d s a n d I h a d v e r y l i t t l e
a r t w ork i n c o l l e g e .
I h av e t r i e d t o rem edy t h i s by
sum m er s c h o o l w o r k b u t e x c e p t f o r ( tw o c o u r s e s ) l a s t
sum m er I h a v e n f t f o u n d a n y a r t c o u r s e s i m p l e a n d e l e m e n t a l
e n o u g h f o r me t o e n j o y .
M o s t sum m er a r t c o u r s e s a r e
f o r a r t m a j o r s and r e q u i r e a b e t t e r b a c k g ro u n d i n a r t
th an I h a v e .
I have added t h i s n o te b e ca u se a s I s a i d ,
I am i n t e r e s t e d a n d s o a r e m an y o f my f r i e n d s .
We know
we a r e p o o r a r t t e a c h e r s b u t we a r e s o p o o r t h a t we
d o n ' t know w h a t t o d o a b o u t i t .
X t h i n k a good a r t
s u p e r v i s o r c o u ld a d v is e u s a b o u t b o o k s, m a g a z in e s and
t h e m an y s i m p l e c r a f t s , c l a y , w e a v i n g , e t c .
I t r y to
f i t my a r t w o r k i n t o t h e u n i t s o f w o r k we s t u d y b u t
I am h a n d i c a p p e d b e c a u s e o f t e n I ' m n o t s u r e o f d i f f e r ­
e n t p e rio d s of h is to r y or th a t ty p ic a l o f o th e r la n d s .
A ll p e rso n s
th a t th is
in te re s te d
t e a c h e r i s r i g h t in a ssu m in g t h a t th e s u p e r v i s o r
sh o u ld f e e l r e s p o n s ib le
se lf
i n s u p e r v i s i o n w o u ld a g r e e
fo r a s s is tin g
such p e rs o n s a s h e r ­
in p ro m o tin g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th .
re v e a le d
in t h is
stu d y in d ic a te
th a t su p e rv iso rs
sc h o o ls sh o u ld g iv e e s p e c i a l l a t t e n t i o n
art
tra in in g
T he f a c t s
o f a t l e a s t h a l f o f th e
to th e
in c o u n ty
in -se rv ic e
te a c h e rs under th e ir
g u id a n c e .
A ll th e p ro b le m s in
th is
stu d y and a l l
te c h n iq u e s su g g e ste d f o r h e lp in g th e
th e
su p e rv iso ry
te a c h e r w ith th e s e
p r o b le m s m ay b e c o n s i d e r e d w ays t o p ro m o te p r o f e s s i o n a l
g ro w th .
S in c e
t h e s t u d y show s t h a t
s u p e rv is o rs have n o t u se d
th e s e te c h n iq u e s to any g r e a t e x te n t in h e lp in g te a c h e r s
w ith a r t
i t m ay b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t ,
v i s o r s have done l i t t l e
g ro w th o f t e a c h e r s .
g e n e ra lly sp e a k in g , su p e r­
to p ro m o te t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t
81
A l l t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e m ay h e i n t e r p r e t e d a s
h e a r i n g on t h i s p r o b le m b $ t a few a s p e c t s o f i t h e a r f a r t h e r
d isc u ssio n .
MOne o f t h e h e s t m e a n s f o r
o f te a c h e rs
c i a t i o n s * 11^
th e p r o f e s s i o n a l im p ro v em en t
i n s e r v i c e , 11 s a y s M y e r s , 11i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o j
A rt a s s o c i a t i o n m e e tin g s can her e x tre m e ly h e lp ­
f u l to e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s and t h e r e
th e se
is
a t l e a s t one o f
g r o u p s , The P a c i f i c A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , w hose m e e ti n g s
m ost C a l i f o r n i a t e a c h e r s m ig h t a t t e n d .
t h a t s u p e rv is o rs have
7
T h is s t u d y show s
i n o n l y a n e x t r e m e l y s m a ll} p e r c e n t a g e
o f c a s e s re c o m m e n d e d a n y a r t a s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g t o t e a c h e r s .
Summer S e s s i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n
i n s p i r a t i o n and h e lp to
t o m an y o f t h e
te a c h e r s and a p p a r e n tly have been
te a c h e rs re p re se n te d
th e v a s t m a jo r ity o f c a se s
to
te a c h e rs as
to th e
c la s s e s can be o f r e a l
in t h i s
stu d y y e t in
s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e m ad e n o s u g g e s t i o n s
t y p e o f c o u r s e s t h a t w o u ld a i d
th e m i n
a b e t t y u n d e rs ta n d in g o f a r t e d u c a tio n *
T he u s e o f m a g a z i n e s a n d h o o k s i s a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e
w h ic h h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e l y u s e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s
p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th i n t e a c h e r s .
It
is
a ls o
t o p ro m o te
one o f th e
g l M a .V p. 149
7T h e P a c i f i c A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n h o l d s a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n s
i n c o p p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e S t a t e C o n f e r e n c e on A r t c a l l e d b y t h e
S t a t e B oard o f E d u c a tio n o f C a l i f o r n i a *
M e e tin g s r o t a t e ,
b e in g h e ld one y e a r i n s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , th e n e x t in
n o r th e r n C a lif o r n ia and th e t h i r d y e a r in a P a c if ic s t a t e
o th e r th a n C a lifo rn ia *
82
c h i e f s o u r c e s f r o m w h i c h m an y t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e
and h e lp
f o r day to day te a c h in g .
The f i n d i n g s r e l a t i v e
to t h i s
s u p e r v is o r y te c h n iq u e a re d is c u s s e d
se c tio n
of th is
th e t e a c h e r f s p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th
S o u th a ll^ h a s su g g e ste d e x c u rs io n s
f o r s e c u rin g f i r s t hand
H e f f e r n a n ^ ® h a s re c o m m e n d e d t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s
p ro v id e such e x p e r ie n c e s .
T h is s t u d y show s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s
h a v e s u g g e s t e d fe w o f s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s t o
In t h is
in a n o th e r
rep o rt* ®
For fu rth e rin g
e x p e rie n c e s.
in sp ira tio n
stu d y th e re
is
e v id e n c e ,
th e te a c h e r s .
i n a few i n s t a n c e s ,
o f t e a c h e r s h a v i n g h a d m uch a n d e x c e l l e n t g u i d a n c e a n d h e l p
in f u r th e r in g
c lu d e d
t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th h u t i t m u st h e c o n ­
th a t g e n e ra lly l i t t l e
had b een done to e n la r g e
a r t t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e r s e i t h e r th ro u g h a c t i v i t i e s
by th e
s u p e r v is o r s o r th ro u g h
te a c h e rs
th e
in stitu te d
t h e i r rec o m m e n d atio n to
o f w ork t h a t m ig h t b e d o n e i n e s t a b l i s h e d
in stitu ­
tio n s .
S u p e r v is io n and t e a c h e r s 1 a t t i t u d e s
a r t te a c h in g .
& C f. p .
T hat m ost o f th e te a c h e r s
to w a rd a r t and
in e le m e n ta ry
94.
9 M a y cie S o u t h a l l , " S u p e r v i s o r y T e c h n iq u e s A d a p te d t o
H e w e r T e a c h i n g P r a c t i c e s , 11 H e w e r I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s o f
P r o m is e , T w e lfth Y earb o o k o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v is o r s
and D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , ( n a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n ,
1939) p . 343.
H e len H e f f e r n a n , ^ S u p e r v is io n A p p r o p r ia te f o r P r o ­
g r e s s i v e S c h o o l s , ff C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n ,
6 : 2 4 , A u g u st, 1937.
83
sc h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia c o u n tie s lik e
q u ite
c o n c l u s i v e l y sh o w n "by t h i s
a r t and a r t te a c h in g i s
stu d y .
T h ro w n a g a i n s t t h e
i
fa c ts
t h a t m ost o f th e s e te a c h e r s have had l i t t l e
fro m s u p e r v i s o r s
i n t e a c h i n g a r t a n d m any o f th e m h a v e h a d
m eager t r a i n i n g t h i s
in trin s ic
is
in d ee d a p e r s u a s iv e arg u m en t f o r
and f a r r e a c h in g v a lu e o f th e
T he a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l i k i n g
te a c h e rs
is
o r no h e l p
a ls o m ost i n t e r e s t i n g
th e fin d in g s r e l a t i v e
th e
su b je c t its e lf *
f o r a r t on t h e p a r t o f
i n t h e l i g h t o f some o f
to su p e rv iso ry a ttitu d e s *
W h ile
n in e ty p e r c e n t o f th e t e a c h e r s e x p re s s e d th e m se lv e s as
l i k i n g a r t and
th e
th e te a c h in g o f i t
im p o rta n c e o f a r t e x p e r ie n c e s
th e m b y a s u p e r v i s o r .
F ro m t h i s
le ss
th a n h a l f had had
fo r c h ild re n
stre sse d
i t m ig h t be im p lie d t h a t
m ore t e a c h e r s t h a n s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e a p p r e c i a t i o n
p la c e o f a r t
in th e l i v e s
The s im p le
to
f o r th e
of c h ild re n .
f a c t t h a t a l a r g e num ber o f t e a c h e r s
r e p o r t t h a t t h e y a r e g e t t i n g no h e l p w h a te v e r from s u p e r ­
v i s o r s w o u ld i n d i c a t e
th a t s u p e rv is o rs have n o t c o n sid e re d
a r t a s i m p o r t a n t a s som e o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h t h e i r l i m i t e d
t i m e w i l l p e r m i t th e m t o d o .
c o n firm
A few d e f i n i t e
sta te m e n ts a ls o
th is *
T h e re a r e a few f u r t h e r e x a m p le s o f s u p e r v i s o r y
a ttitu d e s .
Some t e a c h e r s r e p o r t a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n a r t
o n t h e p a r t o f s u p e r v i s o r s a s o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s why t h e y
84
have n o t re c e iv e d
th e h e lp th e y n e e d , o th e r s c i t e d
su p e rv iso ry i n te r e s t
q u a c ie s in th e
la c k o f
in a r t a s one o f th e g r e a t e s t in a d e ­
su p e rv isio n o f a r t
in th e ir c o u n tie s .
The
t e a c h e r who w i s h e d t h a t t h e o n e t h i n g a s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d d o
f o r h e r was t o
sh o w i n t e r e s t ,
b u t a l l added to g e th e r th e s e
i s u n d o u b te d ly th e e x tre m e c a s e
f i n d i n g s do s e r v e a s an i n d i c a ­
t i o n t h a t m a n y s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e n o t m ad e c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t s
to ex p ress
t o w a r d a r t t h o s e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h i t w o u ld se e m
e d u c a tio n a l le a d e rs
On t h e
in t h e i r p o s itio n s
o th e r hand i t
is
sh o u ld *
n o t to be in f e r r e d
from t h i s
t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n n o i n t e r e s t o r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t on
th e p a r t o f s u p e rv is o rs .
U n d o u b t e d l y som e m ay b e c r e d i t e d
w ith h a v in g h e lp e d to c r e a t e
th e l i k i n g
fo r a r t.
in ,
a t l e a s t a few ,
L ik e w is e , a c o n s i d e r a b l e num ber h a v e
sh ow n i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m e v e n i n
th e m se lv e s have f e l t
te a c h e rs
i n s t a n c e s w h ere th e y
in a d e q u a te ly p re p a re d .
Such a c a s e
is
a p t l y p r e s e n t e d b y o n e t e a c h e r who r e p o r t s :
By h i s own a d m i s s i o n . ♦ . t h e G e n e r a l S u p e r v i s o r o f
t h i s c o u n ty h as v e ry l i t t l e t r a i n i n g and v e ry l i t t l e
ta le n t in a r t .
H ence, a r t s u p e r v is io n has been a t a
m in im u m .
I am s u r e t h i s w i l l e x p l a i n why c e r t a i n p h a s e s
o f th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere l e f t u n a n s w e re d .
H ow ever, t h i s b y no m ean s i n d i c a t e s a l a c k o f
i n t e r e s t o r a n u n d e r - v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t on t h e
p a r t o f th e g en eral s u p e rv is o r.
On t h e c o n t r a r y , h e
h a s b e e n m o st e n c o u r a g in g an d a t tim e q u i t e f l a t t e r i n g
t o w a r d s my e f f o r t s i n t h i s f i e l d .
85
S u p e rv iso ry m o tiv a tio n o f a r t te a c h in g .
L ead ers in
•th a t
m an y f i e l d s , i n c l u d i n g of/ e d u c a t i o n h a v e l o n g r e c o g n i z e d
th e e ffe c tiv e n e s s
of in sp ira tio n
and en co u rag em en t in c r e a t ­
in g m o ra le , e f f i c i e n c y and g e n e r a l w e ll- b e in g o f t h e i r
w o rk ers,
T each ers have r e a liz e d
have o fte n used
it
to
w o rth w h ile a c t i v i t i e s
i n t e r e s t and g u id e c h i l d r e n
and a c h ie v e m e n ts.
i n m any i n s t a n c e s , h a v e b e e n a b l e
th in g s
th e p o te n c y o f p r a i s e and
to
S u p e rv iso rs to o ,
in sp ire
th e y n e v e r dream ed t h e y c o u ld d o .
in sp ira tio n
in to
te a c h e rs
to do
F u rth e rm o re ,
i s needed by th e a b le as w e ll as th e l e s s
a b le
w o rk e rs — a l l p e o p le n eed th e a p p r e c i a ti o n o f t h e i r f e l l o w s ,
M y e r s g i v e s i i n s p i r a t i o n a h i g h p l a c e w hen h e s a y s
lis tin g
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e a r t
su p e rv iso r, i t
in
is
M ost im p o r ta n t o f a l l , to s t i m u l a t e and i n s p i r e
t e a c h e r a n d p u p i l s , n o t by , f a l s e e n c o u r a g e m e n t b u t
b y a n h o n e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a g o o d p i e c e o f w o rk
w e ll d o n e ; a l s o by b r i n g in g a g a in and a g a in to
th e t e a c h e r ’s and th e c h i l d r e n ’s a t t e n t i o n th e v i s i o n
o f e n r i c h e d l i v i n g f o r th e m t h r o u g h e v e r y - d a y a r t
e x p e rie n c in g So o f t e n t h e t e a c h e r , s u b m e r g e d i n a
m u ltitu d e o f d e t a i l s , needs th e v i s i o n o f a n o th e r to
e n l a r g e h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . 11
When a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s
s ta te ,
as
th ey d id
i
in th is
is
stu d y ,
t h a t t h e i r g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e
t h e i r own l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i t y ,
" ^ M y e r s , o>£. c i t . p .
I
274.
ta le n t,
in a r t te a c h in g
a b ility
and i d e a s ,
86
th e y r e v e a l to
o f c o n fid e n c e
t h e c a r e f u l o b s e r v e r n o t h i n g s o m uch a s a l a c k
in th e m se lv e s.
Many o f t h e s e n e e d m o s t l y a
w o rd o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t .
In a l l
th e
g e n e r a l p r o b le m s l i s t e d m ore t e a c h e r s ,
s e v e n ty -fiv e p e r c e n t o f th e
m uch h e l p
in
t o t a l n um ber,
fe lt
th e need o f
s e c u r i n g new i d e a s a n d i n s p i r a t i o n
th a n any
o th e r p ro b le m .
C lo se ly r e l a te d
to t h i s
n e e d on t h e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s
and a g a in s ta n d in g a t th e head o f th e l i s t
a p p ears i s
" H e lp in g th e
te a c h e r to
i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n . "
tio u s
t h i n g w h ic h ,
if
i n w h ic h
stim u la te
c re a tiv e
In sp ira tio n
c a u g h t by th e te a c h e r ,
is
th rill
to
an i n f e c ­
te a c h e r
s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d "m ake a r t a
t h e y o u n g s t e r s w hen s h e v i s i t s
th e m r e a s o n s f o r a g r e a t i n t e r e s t
d o in g s o ) and e n co u rag e
th in k ­
can be p a sse d
on t o t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h a t i s p r o b a b l y w h a t t h e
m e a n t who s a i d s h e w i s h e d t h e
it
in i t
i t m o re i n t h i s
and p r e s e n t to
(in a d d itio n
t o my
s c h o o l."
As a t h i n g w h i c h t e a c h e r s w i s h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s w o u ld
do " g i v i n g i d e a s and m ak in g s u g g e s t i o n s " s t a n d s
num ber o f tim e s m e n tio n e d .
A few a l s o d e s i r e d
th ird
th e
in
su p e rv iso r
t o a r r a n g e m e e ti n g s o r o t h e r m eans b y w h ic h i d e a s m ig h t b e
e x c h a n g e d b e tw e e n s c h o o l s .
T he i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s
be u n d e re s tim a te d s in c e a s a so u rc e o f m ost h e lp
to
is n o t to
te a c h e rs
87
,fo t h e r t e a c h e r s rf r a n k e d f o u r t h
I n a t l e a s t one I n s t a n c e
in th e l i s t
sources*
th e la c k o f c o n ta c ts w ith o th e r
t e a c h e r s a n d s u p e r v i s o r s w as c i t e d
h in d era n o e
of a ll
a s th e t e a c h e r 's
g re a te st
in te a c h in g a rt*
A g a in ,
in
th e
l i s t o f su p e rv iso ry a c t i v i t i e s
te a c h e r s have found m o st h e lp f u l
g iv e n by th e
w h ic h
I n s p i r a t i o n and e n c o u ra g e m e n t
s u p e r v i s o r s t a n d t h i r d h i g h e s t i n num ber o f
tim e m e n t i o n e d .
A lso in t h i s
lis t
a r e m e n t i o n e d new i d e a s
and s u g g e s tio n s g iv e n by th e s u p e r v is o r .
S ev eral te a c h e rs d e f in ite ly
in d ic a te d
I n t e r e s t on t h e ; p a r t o f th e s u p e r v i s o r s .
th e l a c k o f
T h is i s u n d o u b te d ly
t h e m o s t i n c r i m i n a t i n g ju d g m e n t on s u p e r v i s o r s i n r e g a r d
a r t h e lp needed by th e te a c h e r .
F u rth e r,
it
is
b y t h e f a c t t h a t a g r e a t ma n y h a v e n o t s t r e s s e d
te a c h e r th e
im p o rta n c e o f a r t e x p e r ie n c e s
to
c o n firm e d
to th e
fo r c h ild re n .
T h i s w o u l d i n d e e d b e d i s c o u r a g i n g t o a t e a c h e r who e s p e c i a l l y
f e l t h e r. a l l - r o u n d
l a c k i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p h a s e o f h e r w ork
a n d i t w o u ld se e m t h a t s u c h a s i m p l e e a s y t h i n g a s s h o w i n g
i n t e r e s t and a p p r e c i a t i o n c o u ld be done by a n y s u p e r v i s o r
i n a f e w m o m e n ts o f t i m e .
Sximmer s c h o o l s w e r e show n t o b e o f g r e a t h e l p
to
t e a c h e r s . U n d o u b t e d l y m an y f e l t t h i s b e c a u s e o f t h e new i d e a s
and i n s p i r a t i o n
c a p a b le
t h a t come f r o m w o r k i n g w i t h a g r o u p u n d e r
and e n t h u s i a s t i c
le a d e rs h ip .
88
T he g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y o f m a g a z i n e s w h i c h i s m o r e f u l l y
d is c u s s e d e lse w h e re i s u n d o u b te d ly due a l s o ,
to th e
th e ir
th is
te a c h e r s 1 need f o r in s p ir a tio n
in g r e a t p a r t ,
a n d new i d e a s *
A lso ,
i n t e n s i v e a n d e x t e n s i v e u s e b y t e a c h e r s a s sh o w n i n
s t u d y m ay b e i n t e r p r e t e d
as r e v e a lin g a la c k o f h e lp
from o t h e r s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y
su p e rv iso rs*
X n t e r v i s i t a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n m e e tin g s , and p e r s o n a l
co n feren ces a re
in g o f t h i s
s o r t o f h e lp
su p e rv iso r w ill
a v a ila b le *
is l i t t l e
te c h n iq u e s e s p e c i a l l y a d a p ta b le
g iv ­
in f a c t th e a l e r t and e n t h u s i a s t i c
g iv e en co u rag em en t th ro u g h e v e r y te c h n iq u e
T he f a c t s , a s r e v e a l e d h e r e , sh o w t h a t t h e r e
a r t s u p e r v is io n and t h a t
u s e d im p ly in g th e re b y t h a t
in sp irin g
to th e
th e re
te c h n iq u e s a re b u t r a r e l y
is
little
o p p o rtu n ity fo r
t h e t e a c h e r 1s a r t t e a c h i n g .
D ue r e c o g n i t i o n m u s t b e m a d e o f t h e f e w who se e m t o
have e x p e rie n c e d e x c e lle n t s u p e r v is io n
th e l i s t
m ent s ta n d s
te a c h e rs
th ird
But a l l
th is
th e
g iv in g o f i n s p i r a t i o n and e n c o u ra g e ­
i n th e num ber o f tim e s m e n tio n e d .
th e
fa c ts,
i n c l u d i n g th e one m o st o u t s t a n d i n g
s t u d y — th e l a c k o f a n y o r s u f f i c i e n t and a d e q u a te
su p e rv isio n — le a d
te a c h e rs
In
o f t h i n g s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s h a d d o n e w h ic h w e re o f
m ost h e lp to
in
in t h i s r e s p e c t .
to th e c o n c lu sio n th a t th e m a jo r ity o f
in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia c o u n tie s
a re n o t r e c e iv in g th e
causes te a c h e rs
in sp ira tio n
and e n co u rag e m en t t h a t
t o d o t h e i r b e s t w ork in a r t t e a c h i n g .
89
The v a l u e
o v e re stim a te d *
tio n
of th is
ty p e o f s u p e r v is o r y h e lp
cannot he
V e r y r e c e n t l y t h e C o m m is s io n o n T e a c h e r E d u c a ­
o f t h e A m e ric an C o u n c il o f E d u c a ti o n h a s p o i n t e d o u t
t h a t a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t i m e m o re t h a n e v e r b e f o r e a l l
o ffic ia ls
c ia te d .
sh o u ld
lfp r o v e
to th e te a c h e rs
H e l p th e m t o u n d e r s t a n d f u l l y
th ey a re p e rfo rm in g .
. . .
school
th a t th e y a re a p p re ­
th e v a lu e o f s e r v ic e
G iv e r e c o g n i t i o n
to
o u tsta n d in g
a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , s e t an e x a m p le o f d e m o c r a t i c b e h a v i o r
S u p e rv iso ry h e lp
One o f t h e
fie ld
i n fflie p l a n n i n g o f a r t t e a c h i n g .
g re a t needs as re v e a le d by t h i s
o f p la n n in g a r t te a c h in g .
T h is i s
stu d y
is
in th e
n o t u n u su al sin c e
o t h e r s^*3 h a v e f o u n d t h a t p l a n n i n g i n o t h e r w o r k i s
th e s e r i o u s p ro b lem s o f e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s ,
one o f
e sp e c ia lly
in
s m a lle r sc h o o ls*
In p a r t i c u l a r th e r e
i s need f o r h e lp
in g e n e ra l lo n g ­
tim e p la n n in g o f a r t e x p e r ie n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n .
e x p re ssed fo r c o n sid e ra b le a s s is ta n c e
cern ed w ith d a i l y p la n n in g .
in
th e e n t i r e
lis t
in th e
H eed w as
a c tiv itie s
con­
H elp w i t h p l a n n i n g 3 to o d s e c o n d
of te a c h e rs1 d e sire s
fo r th in g s a su p e r-
i S c o i n m i s s i o n o n T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , T h i s W ar a n d t h e
T e a c h e r , ( 7 4 4 J a c k s o n P l a c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C* T he C o m m is s io n
o n T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n ,
J u n e , 1942) p . 5. (C o p ies o b ta in a b le f r e e o f c h a r g e .)
^•3D e t a P . N e e l e y , flM a j o r P r o b l e m s C o n f r o n t i n g R u r a l
T e a c h e r s , 1* E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , 2 0 : 2 0 1 , J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 .
90
v i s o r w o u ld d o .
L a c k o f a p l a n w as m e n tio n e d b y a few
te a c h e r s b o th as t h e i r g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e
and a s th e
g r e a t e s t in ad e q u ac y in
in te a c h in g a r t
th e a r t s u p e rv is io n o f th e
c o u n ty .
M e n t i o n e d b y some t e a c h e r s a s t h e g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
in
t e a c h i n g a r t w ere th e l a c k o f tim e f o r a r t ,
age l e v e l s ,
siz e
d iv e rs ity of
o f c l a s s a n d s p a c e i n w h ic h t o w o rk .
a r e a l l p ro b lem s e s p e c i a l l y p e c u l i a r to
and p ro v e t o be h in d e ra n c e s n o t o n ly
school e x p e rie n c e s.
sm a ll r u r a l s c h o o ls
in a r t b u t in m ost
T h e ir c o n s id e ra tio n
re a lm o f p l a n n i n g and t h e r e f o r e
T hese
th e ir
is d e fin ite ly
in th e
in c lu s io n h e re adds to
t h e e v i d e n c e f o r m ore h e l p n e e d e d i n p l a n n i n g .
T he f a c t t h a t a l a r g e n u m b e r o f t e a c h e r s c i t e d m a g a z i n e s
and books as t h e i r g r e a t e s t so u rc e o f h e lp
in d ic a te d a need
f o r p la n n in g b ecau se th e se p u b lic a tio n s u s u a lly
su g g e stio n s
in c lu d e
f o r a r t l e s s o n s w h ic h t e a c h e r s m u s t p l a n fro m
day to d a y .
In s p ite
h ig h
o f th e f a c t t h a t p la n n in g p ro b lem s s ta n d
i n t i m e s m e n t i o n e d a s b e i n g m uch n e e d e d t h e y a r e e x a c t l y
t h e o n e s I n w h ic h t h e
h e lp .
s u p e r v i s o r s h av e g iv e n l i t t l e
Even th e a t t e n t i o n
se le c tio n
te a c h e rs
g iv e n by th e s u p e r v is o r to
o r no
th e
and s u g g e s tio n o f m a g a z in e a r t i c l e s ' and b o o k s to
seem s d e c i d e d l y
in a d e q u a te
u s e m ade o f s u c h m a t e r i a l s .
In t h e l i g h t o f th e
91
T h ere a r e , h o w e v e r,
tw o n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s *
th e c r u c i a l p h a ses o f p la n n in g in
c o rre la tio n
th e m odern s c h o o l i s
o r fu s io n o f a r t w ith th e o th e r c h ild
T h i s s t u d y sh o w s t h a t t e a c h e r s f e e l s l i g h t l y l e s s
h e lp
in t h i s
th an in
f a c t t h a t m o re s u p e r v i s o r s
h a v e g i v e n a t l e a s t som e h e l p a l o n g t h i s
e x p e rie n c e s.
need f o r
lin e *
se e m t o
I n som e
i t w a s t h e t h i n g a s u p e r v i s o r h a d d o n e t h a t w as
o f m ost h e lp
h e lp
th e
o th e r p h a se s o f th e p la n n in g p rog ram .
T h i s m ay b e d u e t o t h e
In sta n c e s
One o f
in a r t
to
th e te a c h e r s ,
in o th e rs
t h e t e a c h e r w as a b l e
one in s ta n c e
th e c o r r e l a t i o n
l i g h t I n w h ic h a r t
is
i t was th e o n ly
to re p o rt*
In a t le a s t
o f a r t seem s t o b e t h e o n ly
se e n by th e s u p e r v i s o r s .
re p o rte d :
"T h e a r t p r o g r a m i n t h i s c o u n t y I s
o n ly u se d
In s o c i a l s t u d i e s * "
The o t h e r p r o b le m i n w h ic h s u p e r v i s o r s
g i v e n s l i g h t l y m o re h e l p
is
c o n d u c iv e to c r e a t i v e w o rk .
T h is t e a c h e r
supposed to be
seem t o h a v e
in e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e n v iro n m e n t
I n one i n s t a n c e
it
seem s to
have b een th e o n ly t h i n g a s u p e r v is o r had done to h e lp w ith
a r t te a c h in g .
T hese f a c t s a re n o t to be g e n e r a liz e d
t e a c h e r s do n o t f e e l th e need f o r h e lp
in
to
f u s in g a r t w ith
o th e r e x p e rie n c e s o r in e s ta b lis h in g a s u ita b le
fo r c h ild re n .
T here
te a c h e rs d e s ir e h e lp
im p ly t h a t
e n v iro n m e n t
i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t o sh o w t h a t
in
th e s e p ro b le m s.
T he o n e t h i n g
th a t
s e v e r a l w i s h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d d o w as h e l p t o c o r r e l a t e
a r t w i t h o t h e r w o rk *
92
These d a ta a r e
s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e t h e y m ay b e v i e w e d
as p o in tin g a tre n d .
One o f t h e
c r e a t i v e a r t pro g ram i s
e n v iro n m e n t*
school l i f e
as th e
e x p e rie n c e s does is
th is
as e s p e c ia lly
T he g i v i n g o f a r t
its
e f f ic ie n t c o rre la tio n
tru e
p ro p e r p la c e
of it
a ls o a p rim a ry e s s e n tia l*
s u p e rv is o rs have done t h i s
w ith o th e r
In so f a r a s
t h e y d e s e r v e h i g h e s t c o m m e n d a tio n .
The l a c k o f a c o u rs e o f s t u d y in a r t
s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e stu d y *
is
e v in c e d in
A fe w t e a c h e r s f e l t
o f i t was t h e i r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
fe lt
f o r a good
th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e p ro p e r
Sorne**-^ h a v e p o i n t e d
f o r th e sm a ll sc h o o ls*
in
f i r s t e sse n tia ls
in
th e la c k
te a c h in g a r t ,
i t w a s t h e r e a s o n why s u p e r v i s o r s h a d n o t g i v e n t h e m
th e h e lp
th e y n eed ed , s t i l l
g r e a t e s t in a d e q u ac y in th e
o th e rs f e l t th is la c k
to be th e
c o u n ty .
C o u n tie s have p ro v id e d c o u rs e s o f s tu d y in a r t
about f if ty
p e r c e n t o f th e c a s e s .
f o r s u c h c o u r s e s w o u ld I n d i c a t e
p la n s m ig h t be a d v is a b le *
in
o th e rs
th e l i s t
is
The r a t h e r e v i d e n t d e s i r e
t h a t m o re su c h c o u n ty w id e
I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te
th a t
o f books found m ost h e l p f u l th e c o u n ty c o u rs e s
o f s tu d y sto o d t h i r d
It
in
i n num ber o f tim e s m e n tio n e d *
g e n e ra lly conceded t h a t p la n s fo r te a c h in g a re
e s s e n t ia l, h ere
th e re
is
a m p le e v i d e n c e o f t h e n e e d f o r h e l p
14 W a l t e r H* K l a r , L e o n L . W i n s l o w , a n d C* V a l e n t i n e
- K ir b y , A rt E d u c a tio n in P r i n c i p l e and P r a c t i c e , ( S p r i n g f i e l d ,
M a s s * : M i l t o n B r a d l e y C o m p any, 1933*77 P*" 15*
93
p la n n in g a r t te a c h in g *
have m ade, a s
T he f i n d i n g s
in a l i i in s ta n c e s ,
th e te c h n iq u e s a t t h e i r
far
sh o w t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
to o l i t t l e
use o f any o f
command f o r h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h
p la n s*
C u rric u lu m m ak in g i s
e d u c a to rs 15 b e lie v e
th e e sse n c e o f p la n n in g .
t h a t in e f f o r t s
to
Some
im p ro v e t h e c u r r i c u l u m
a r e t o b e fo u n d th e m o st e f f e c t i v e m eans o f a c c o m p lis h in g th e
a im s o f c r e a t i v e
su p e rv isio n *
C o u n ty c u r r i c u lu m
c o m m itte e s
o r g a n iz e d t o f o r m u la te p la n s o f t e n p ro d u c e c o u r s e s o f stu d y *
T h i s s t u d y shoves t h a t o n l y a v e r y fe w o f t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e
aw are o f su c h
c o m m itte e s w o rk in g on a r t *
Prom t h i s
i t m ust
b e i n f e r r e d t h a t a v e r y few s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e u s e d t h i s
a b le
te c h n iq u e e i t h e r
fo r h e lp in g
la u d ­
te a c h e rs to p la n o r to
f u r t h e r t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th i n a r t .
That te a c h e rs a re
o f t e n n o t c o n s c i o u s o f how i n t h i s
w ay t h e y c a n h a v e jejp art i n p l a n n i n g i s e v i n c e d
in th e f a c t
t h a t o f t h o s e who w i s h e d t h e s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d h e l p p l a n w o r k
th e g r e a t m a jo r ity r e a l l y e x p re ss e d
t h e w is h t h a t s h e w o u ld
fu rn ish
th ey p a r t i c i p a t e
a p l a n f o r th e m r a t h e r t h a n
c o o p e ra tiv e p lan *
in a
E v id e n tly s u p e rv is o rs have n o t, a t l e a s t
1 5 C . J * A n d e r s o n a n d X. J e w e l l S i m p s o n , T h e S u p e r v i s i o n
o f R u r a l S c h o o l s , (New Y o r k : D . A p p l e t o n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 2 ) ,
p T s s f : ------------------—
H enry H a ra p , " C u rric u lu m M a t e r i a l s S u i t e d t o C r e a t i v e
S u p e r v i s i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l M e th o d , 1 9 : 3 7 8 , A p r i l , 1940*
94
in
th is p a rtic u la r fie ld
w ith th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
o f p la n n in g ,
im p re ssed th e
of c o o p e ra tiv e e f f o r t ,
te a c h e rs
A fu rth e r
i m p l i c a t i o n m i g h t b e m ade t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e
su p e rv isio n , a t
l e a s t in a r t a c t i v i t i e s
in th e
is
n o t w id e s p r e a d
M iss S o u t h a l l f s re m a rk s i n
th is
c o u n tie s .
r e g a r d seem p e r t i n e n t :
A lth o u g h a c c e p te d a s d e s i r a b l e , an o r g a n i z a t i o n
f o r d e m o c ra tic c o o p e ra tiv e s u p e r v is io n i s e x tre m e ly d i f f i ­
c u lt to a c h ie v e .
Pew p e r s o n s h a v e h a d e x p e r i e n c e i n
g ro u p p la n n in g and e v a l u a t i o n .
T h ere a rerm an y te a c h e r s
who p r e f e r t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f a n a u t o ­
c r a t i c s u p e r v i s o r r a t h e r th a n t o assum e th e r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t y t h a t g o e s w i t h s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n , 16
S u p erv i s io n and th e
t e a c h e r 1s u s e o f b o o k s , m a g a z i n e s
and i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s .
s o u rc e m ost h e lp f u l to
c a te
t h a t th e
fo rn ia ,
sc h o o ls
The r a t i n g
te a c h e rs
such a s t h e s e b e in g s t u d i e d , r e l y h e a v i ly and o f t e n
im p lic a tio n a l l
is
i n t e a c h i n g a r t w o u ld i n d i ­
i n t h e m o re i s o l a t e d a r e a s o f C a l i ­
upon p e r io d ic a l p u b lic a tio n s .
little
o f m a g a z in e s a s th e
th e
fin d in g s
It
a ls o
te n d s
to c o n firm by
in th e s tu d y t h a t th e re
su p e rv isio n o f a r t in th e
sc h o o ls.
is
When s u p e r v i s i o n
i n a d e q u a t e a u s e o f m a g a z i n e s i s m ad e t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r
th e d e f ic ie n c y .
It
is
in te re s tin g
to n o te t h a t a lm o s t one h a l f o f th e
t e a c h e r s m e n tio n e d The I n s t r u c t o r , a m a g a z in e a v o w e d ly
16
S o u th a ll, op, c i t p ,
330,
p u b lis h e d
fo r ru ra l
te a c h e rs,
as m ost v a lu a b le *
T he S c h o o l
A r t s M a g a z i n e w as s e c o n d i n n u m b e r o f t i m e s m e n t i o n e d , w h i l e
The G rad e T e a c h e r s t o o d
in th ir d
I t m ay b e i n f e r r e d
p la c e *
from t h i s
t h a t anyone d e s i r i n g
som e i n s i g h t i n t o
th e ty p e
a m a jo r ity o f th e
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls o f C a l i f o r n i a c o u n tie s
w o u ld g e t a t e l l i n g
in
o f a r t e d u c a tio n
th e se p u b lic a tio n s *
th ird
a s a s o u r c e o f h e lp ^
te a c h e r s y e t a pro nounced in c o n s is te n c y e x i s t s in
re tu rn s.
o f th e
th e
W h ile ra n k e d h ig h b y o v e r s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t
t e a c h e r s o n l y f i f t y p e r c e n t m ade a n y r e p l y a s
b o o k w h ic h h a d h e l p e d th em m o st*
o n ly m eager d e t a i l s *
been as h e lp fu l
of
in
c le w fro m a c l o s e s tu d y o f th e m a t e r i a l
B o o k s w e r e sh o w n t o r a n k
to
fu n c tio n in g
as
It
T h o s e who d i d r e p l y
seem s a p a ra d o x t h a t
in d ic a te d by th e te a c h e r s
to th e
gave
i f books have
t h a t s o m an y
th e m d i d n o t s e t dow n f u l l e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e b o o k s *
M any g a v e e i t h e r
t h e a u t h o r * s nam e o r t h e
t h e b o o k , few g av e b o th *
title
A lth o u g h m e r e ly a p o s t u l a t i o n
w o u ld seem t h a t t e a c h e r s u s e b o o k s w i t h o u t s e r i o u s
of
it
e v a lu a tio n
o f them *
T h e b o o k l i s t r e v e a l s a s t r i k i n g a b s e n c e o f som e o f
t h e m o s t e m in e n t nam es i n a r t e d u c a t i o n and a m i n o r i t y o f th e
re c o g n iz e d
title s
in
th e
m e n tio n o f The A r t s i n
fie ld *
th e
A r t e d u c a to r s w i l l m iss th e
C lassro o m 1 7 b y H a t a l i e
^ N a t a l i e R o b in s o n C o le , The A r t s
(Hew Y o r k r T he J o h n D a y C om pany, 1 9 4 0 ) •
R o b in so n C o le ,
in th e C lassro o m ,
96
h e r s e l f a c la ss ro o m
te a c h e r*
It
seem i n c r e d i b l e t h a t o n l y
t h r e e p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d M a t h i a s 1 T he B e g i n n i n g s o f A r t i n t h e
1Q
P u b lic S c h o o ls , ° one o f h e r t h r e e
e x c e l l e n t b o o k s on e le m e n ­
ta r y e d u c a tio n , has been a v a ila b le
f o r n e a r l y tw e n ty y e a rs *
Much o r som e n e e d f o r h e l p
m a g a z in e s t o h e lp
In f i n d i n g books and
te a c h e r s w ith a r t
te a c h e rs ia s
sho w n i n
th e stu d y by ab o u t f i f t y p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e rs *
m a te ly tw e n ty -fiv e p e r e e n t d e f i n i t e l y
in d ic a te d
A p p ro x i­
th a t th e ir
s u p e r v is o r s had s u g g e s te d b o o k s, m ag a zin es and i l l u s t r a t i v e
m a te ria ls
to th em .
b e en found o f e i t h e r
In m ost o f th e s e c a s e s t h i s h e lp had
som e o r m uch h e l p *
The v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e
h e lp in g te a c h e rs
s u p e rv is o rs can re n d e r by
to a w is e r u s e o f m a g a zin es and books i s
s u b s ta n tia te d by se v e ra l a u t h o r i t i e s * ^
I t w o u ld seem t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e
n o t g i v e n m uch a t t e n t i o n
te a c h e rs.
as to
to t h i s
T h e y seem n e i t h e r
fo r
t o h a v e r.m a d e m an y s u g g e s t i o n s
t h e b o o k s w h ic h m i g h t b e m o s t h e l p f u l n o r h a v e t h e y
a c q u a in te d te a c h e r s w ith
th e o u ts ta n d in g w r ite r s
t h a t th e y m ig h t be a l e r t to th e
fie ld *
ty p e o f a s s is ta n c e
T h is seem s r e g r e t t a b l e
s o m uch h e l p t o
te a c h e rs
In o r d e r
fu tu re c o n trib u tio n s
sin c e
and s in c e
it
th e se
in
th e
so u rces fu rn ish
can so e a s i l y be done
t h r o u g h t h e s i m p l e m e d iu m o f b u l l e t i n s *
1 8 M a rg a re t B . M a t h i a s , The B e g in n in g s o f A r t , i n t h e
P u b l i c S c h o o l s ,,(H e w Y o rk : C h a r le s S c r i b n e r * s S o n s , 1924)*
1 9 G e o r g e C* K y t e , How To S u p e r v i s e ,
M i f f l i n C o m p an y , 1 9 3 0 ) , p>* 4 3 1 *
(New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n
97
It
th e se
is d e fin ite ly
sh ow n i n t h i s
stu d y t h a t th e r e
is
in
.
s c h o o ls a d e a r th o f m a t e r i a l such as p i c t u r e s , p o t t e r y ,
te x tile s
an d o t h e r f i n e p i e c e s o f a r t w ork f o r u s e w ith
c h ild re n .
th e
In s e v e n ty - f iv e p e r c e n t of th e c a se s th e te a c h e r s
m ust f u r n is h
such m a te r ia l i f
she i s to have
P ic tu re s a re a v a ila b le
f o r a few .
t h a t c o n sid e ra b ly le s s
th an h a l f o f th e te a c h e r s f e l t
o f m uch o r some h e l p
fo r illu s tr a tiv e
It
is
it at a ll.
in te re stin g
to n o te
th e need
in s e l e c t i n g p i c t u r e s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s
and a p p r e c i a t i o n u s e s w ith th e c h i l d r e n .
The c o u n ty f r e e
lib ra rie s
are
show n t o b e t h e
c h ie f
s o u rc e o f s u p p ly in g b o o k s, m a g a z in e s and o th e r m a t e r i a l s
h e lp w ith a r t te a c h in g .
m a g a z in e s,
m a te ria ls .
to
A g r e a t e r num ber s u p p ly b o o k s and
som e s u p p l y p i c t u r e s w h i l e a f e w s u p p l y o t h e r
It
is
im p o rta n t to n o te
have a v a ila b le m a te r ia ls
t h a t a few s u p e r v i s o r s
o t h e r th a n books and m a g a z in e s
w h i c h m ay u s e .
S o u t h a l l re c o m m e n d s t e a c h e r s *
lib ra rie s,
she s a y s :
As t e a c h e r s b e c o m e m o r e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d m o r e s e l f p
d i r e c t i v e th e im p o rta n c e o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r y a s
a s u p e r v is o r y te c h n iq u e i n c r e a s e s .
P ro fe ss io n a l l i b r a r i e s
r a n g e fro m a few s h e l v e s w h e re p e r s o n a l b o o k s a n d m a g a z in e s
a r e s h a r e d t o a b e a u t i f u l , w e l l e q u i p p e d roo m b u i l t a s a
p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r y f o r t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s , w h ic h o p e n s
I n t o , o r i s n e a r , th e c h i l d r e n ’s l i b r a r y . ^0
20
S o u th a ll,
0£
.
c i t «, p .
348.
98
She e m p h a siz e s th e
in c lu sio n
o f o th e r m a te ria ls
th a n
m a g a z in e s and b o o k s:
The t r a d i t i o n a l l i b r a r y s e t - u p , d o e s n o t m e e t t e a c h e r f s
and c h i l d r e n * s n e e d f o r m a t e r i a l s , and t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e
t r e n d to w a rd e s t a b l i s h i n g a m a t e r i a l s b u r e a u f o r t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s , o t h e r t h a n b o o k s w h ic h a r e
e s s e n t i a l t o a m o d ern p ro g ra m o f w o rk * ^
pp
O t h e r s ' 00 p o i n t o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e
in a good s u p e r ­
v i s o r y program o f f i l e s
o f i llu s tr a tiv e m a te ria ls
k in d s to be k e p t by th e
s u p e r v is o r f u r u s e w ith
T h e re seem s t o be l i t t l e
e x h ib its
of a ll
tea ch e rs*
u s e m ade b y s u p e r v i s o r s o f
o f c h i l d r e n * s w ork f o r i n s p i r i n g t e a c h e r s
c h i l d r e n , y e t some t e a c h e r s
in d ic a te d
was t h e i r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
or o th e r
t h a t th e la c k o f th e s e
in te a c h in g a r t .
In in sta n c e s
w h e r e t h e s e h a d b e e n t i s e d t h e y w e r e o f m uch o r som e h e l p
th e m a jo rity o f te a c h e rs .
I n a fe w c a s e s p r o v i d i n g e x h i b i t s
o f c h i l d r e n * s w ork o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s w e re r e p o r t e d
th e m ost h e lp f u l th in g a s u p e r v is o r had done f o r
K y te h a s t h i s t o
to
a s b e in g
th e t e a c h e r s *
say about e x h ib its :
E x h i b i t s an d c o l l e c t i o n s o f p u p i l * s w ork c h o s e n fro m
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c h o o l s , can be p la n n e d and u s e d b y s u p e r ­
v i s o r s m ore e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n b y o t h e r s c h o o l o f f i c e r s .
As a s p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r v i s i t s s c h o o l a f t e r s c h o o l , h e
i s a b l e t o m ake n o t e s o f t h e m an y t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s h e
s e e s and o f th e p r o d u c t s o f p u p i l s * l e a r n i n g .
As h e
c o n s i d e r s th e m f r o m t h e p o i n t s o f v i e w o f f u r n i s h i n g
v a lu a b le s u g g e s tio n s to te a c h e r s , o f e x e m p lify in g r e a l ^ I b i d * , p . 349*
2% y e rs ,
K irb y ,
op* c i t *
p . 275.
0£
p . 54*
c i t *,
H e l e n He f f e r n a n , f,S u p e r v i s i o n A p p r o p r i a t e f o r P r o ­
g r e s s i v e S c h o o l s , rf C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n
6 : 2 4 , A u g u s t, 1937*
99
iz a b le s ta n d a rd s o f a c h ie v e m e n t, o f i l l u s t r a t i n g
e f f i c i e n t u s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and so
f o r t h , be i s a b le to p la n f o r and u s e e x h i b i t s in
h i s p r o g r a m o f s u p e r v i s i o n * 23
S u p e r v i s i o n and t h e s e c u r i n g , s e l e c t i n g and c a r e
o f s u p p l i e s and e q u ip m e n t b y th e t e a c h e r s *
The s e c u r i n g o f
n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u ip m e n t w i t h w h ic h c h i l d r e n c a n
w o r k s e e m s t o b e a p r o b l e m f o r m an y t e a c h e r s *
show s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d
o f th e
T h is s tu d y
te a c h e rs
fe^-t th e
l a c k o f m a t e r i a l o r t h e f u n d s w i t h w h i c h t o p u r c h a s e th e m t o
be th e g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e
in te a c h in g a r t*
One t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e d
t h a t th e t h i n g sh e w ish e d a
s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld d o w a s t o h e l p p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p ­
m e n t w h i l e som e s t a t e d
th e la c k o f m a te r ia ls
g r e a t e s t in a d e q u ac y in th e
M ost t e a c h e r s ,
little
to be th e
su p e rv isio n o f a r t - i n
on t h e
o th e r hand,
th e c o u n ty .
f e l t o n l y som e o r
h e l p w as n e e d e d i n s e l e c t i n g a n d o r d e r i n g s u p p l i e s and
e q x iip m e n t, a n e v e n g r e a t e r num ber f e l t t h a t o n ce t h e y h a v e
th e m a te r ia ls l i t t l e
f o r th e m a te r ia ls
h e l p was n e e d e d i n p r o p e r l y c a r i n g
o r in g u i d in g c h i l d r e n t o do so i n th e
c la ss ro o m *
The n e e d f o r h e l p
in th e u se
of m a te ria ls
and th e
h e l p g i v e n b y t h e s u p e r v i s o r s m ay f u r t h e r b e i n f e r r e d
r
~
03
r
K y te , o p . c it *
p* 90*
from
100
th o f a c t s
in
th e
s e c tio n c o f th e s tu d y d e a lin g w ith s p e c i f i c
a r t te a c h in g a c t i v i t i e s .
a c tiv itie s
th re e
o f th e se
gro up s o f
s u p p l i e s and e q u ip m e n t a r e u s e d .
m ay b e s a i d t h a t
re c e iv e
In
On t h e w h o l e i t
t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s n e e d some a n d
in a b o u t th e
sam e n u m b e r o f c a s e s , b u t l i t t l e
S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s m e n tio n e d h e lp w ith th e u s e
a s one o f th e
of m a te ria l
t h i n g s t h e y w i s h e d a s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld d o .
A few m e n tio n e d th e d e m o n s tr a ti o n
as
h e lp *
o f th e u s e s o f m a te r ia ls
t h e t h i n g d o n e b y a s u p e r v i s o r t h a t w as m o s t h e l p f u l *
As i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s
h e lp
g iv e n h as b e e n ,
in
th is
stu d y th e
in m ost c a s e s , l i t t l e
su p e rv iso ry
or none.
In
som e c a s e s t h e y h a v e s e c u r e d h e l p
f o r th e te a c h e r th ro u g h
a s u p p ly com pany r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
I n a t l e a s t a few c a s e s
*
s u p e r v is o r s a p p a r e n tly do n o t se n se th e
h e lp
in se c u rin g m a te ria ls
T h is i s
te a c h e rs 1 needs
fo r
th ro u g h th e p ro p e r c h a n n e ls .
e v i d e n t w hen i t w a s p o i n t e d o u t b y o n e t e a c h e r t h a t
t h e s u p e r v i s o r h a d b r o u g h t a 11fe w e x a m p l e s o f t h i n g s we
c o u l d m ake i f we h a d t h e t i m e a n d m a t e r i a l s .
th e
Q u i t e a few o f
t h i n g s s h e sh o w e d we h a d n * t m a t e r i a l f o r a n d I c a n l t p e r ­
so n a lly a ffo rd
to
fu rn ish
F o rd h a s p o i n te d
it.”
o u t t h a t s u p e r v is o r s can c o n tr i b u te
g r e a t l y by b e in g f a m i l i a r w ith
in d ic a tin g
to
th e m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e and
te a c h e rs and p u p ils
th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
of
101
a d a p t i n g common m a t e r i a l s
th a t
S u p e rv iso rs
to
o u g h t to c o n s t r u c t a l i s t
th e m o tiv a tio n o f a c t i v i t i e s
use
th e ir p u r p o s e s * O t h e r s
re la te d
to
b e lie v e
as a b a sis
fo r
th e p r o v i s i o n and
o f a r t e q u ip m e n t* "^5
W h ile a l a r g e
e s t h in d e ra n c e
y e t in a l l
num ber o f t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s t h e i r
in te a c h in g a r t to be th e
th e d a ta th e r e
is
little
la c k of m a te ria l
in d ic a tio n
th a t te a c h e rs
h a v e a n y i d e a how t h e y m i g h t g e t m o r e m a t e r i a l *
su g g e ste d t h a t t h is
is
to c o n s id e r s e r i o u s l y
im p o r ta n t p ro b le m i n a r t te a c h in g *
d isc u sse d
fu lly
seem s l i k e l y
of a rt
I t m ig h t be
due in p a r t to th e f a c t t h a t te a c h e r s
and s u p e r v is o r s have f a i l e d
in te rp re ta tio n
g re a t­
te a c h in g to
on p a g e 112*
one v e r y
T h is p ro b lem i s
th e
t h e p u b l i c , w h ic h i s
S u ffic e
It
to say h e re
th a t I t
t h a t o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s why s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s
a r e n o t fo rth c o m in g i s b e ca u se
te a c h e rs have n o t s tr e s s e d
im p o rta n c e o f c h ild r e n * s a r t e x p e r ie n c e s
to
th e
t h o s e who p a y t h e
b ills *
A n o th e r a ssu m p tio n a lo n g t h i s
d a t a w h ic h show s t h a t i n
sam e l i n e
sp rin g s
fro m
s c h o o l s h a v i n g m o re t h a n o n e t e a c h e r
2<% i l l a r d F o r d , !,T he S p e c i a l S u p e r v i s o r ’ s C o n t r i b u t i o n
t o t h e New E d u c a t i o n , tf C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a ­
t i o n , 1 :1 5 9 .
^ S a m u e l S m ith and R o b e r t K. S p e e r , S u p e r v i s i o n i n
E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l*
(New Y o r k : C o r d o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , p .
375*
th e
102
t h e p r i n c i p a l r a n k e d e i g h t h a s a s o u r s e of* m o s t h e l p
te a c h e r in
th e y a re
f o r th e
te a c h in g a r t .
B usy a s p r i n c i p a l s
th e h e ad s o f t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e
co n d u ct o f th e
e x tre m e ly i n te r e s te d
sc h o o l.
to
are n e v e rth e le s s
s c h o o ls and r e s p o n s i b l e
E v id e n tly p r in c ip a ls
in a r t e d u c a tio n .
th e
are not
J u s t w hat th e
te a c h e rs
a n d s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e d o n e t o m ake t h e p r i n c i p a l a r t c o n s c i o u s
m ig h t a l s o be c o n je c t u r e d .
a ttitu d e
Is d is tin c tly
On t h e
im p o rta n t.
t h i s p a r t i c u l a r tim e "T h ere i s
ance
i s needed l e s t
in th e
It
is
Payant b e lie v e s th a t a t
little
d o u b t t h a t much g u i d ­
school a d m in is tra to rs
e n d e a v o r t o h e l p w in t h e w a r ,
a rts
o th e r hand th e p r i n c i p a l ’s
fra n tic a lly
in
t h e i r z e a lo u s
cut out a ll
th e
s c h o o l p r o g r a m . ” 26
th e p r i n c i p a l ’s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to s u g g e s t to
th e b o ard o f e d u c a tio n
t h e p o s s i b l e e x p e n d i t u r e s t o b e m ade
fo r v a rio u s a c t i v i t i e s
In th e
Th© e n l i s t e d
s c h o o l and t o o r d e r s u p p l i e s *
i n t e r e s t o f th e p r i n c i p a l m ig h t be th e m o st
im p o r ta n t t h i n g a t e a c h e r o r s u p e r v i s o r c o u ld to to
secu re
m o re m a t e r i a l s *
L ack o f m a te r ia ls
k n o w led g e o f th e
so m e tim e s r e s u l t s
s u b j e c t and i t s
la c k o f p re p a ra tio n
fro m l a c k o f
n ecessary m a te ria ls .
f e l t by te a c h e rs
in t h i s
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s was u n d o u b t e d l y one o f t h e
^ F e l i x P a y a n t,
4 3 t 3 , M arch , 1942*
The
s t u d y w o u ld
c o n trib u tin g
“A r t E d u c a t i o n P r o b l e m s , ” D e s i g n ,
103
fa c to rs
in t h i s
case.
O fte n l a c k o f p l a n n i n g i n f l u e n c e s
k i n d s a n d a m o u n ts o f m a t e r i a l s p u r c h a s e d .
E sp e c ia lly
th e
is
l o n g - ti m e p l a n n i n g n e c e s s a r y t o i n s u r e e a r l y and a d e q u a te
f u l f i l l m e n t o f a su p p ly o r d e r .
d e fin ite ly
sh ow n i n t h i s
The l a c k 6 f s u c h p l a n n i n g i s
stu d y .
A l l t h e d a t a w o u ld seem t o p o i n t t h e n e e d f o r a m o re
c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o b e m ad e on t h e p a r t s
v i s o r s and t e a c h e r s
of p rin c ip a ls,
t o d e t e r m i n e m ore a c c u r a t e l y
f o r m a t e r i a l s and to
seek
them t h r o u g h
su p er­
t h e i r needs
th e e e s ta b lis h e d
c h a n n e ls .
S u p e r v is io n and th e a c t i v i t i e s
h e lp in g o r g u id in g c h ild r e n
in
to
th e u s e
In
of p a tte rn s
g e n e r a l m eth o d s u s e d
In
i s m ost c r u c ia l b ecau se
th e p h ilo s o p h y t h a t l i e s b e h in d
w h o le a r t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m .
ta in in g
te a c h in g .
t o c a r r y on t h e m any a r t a c t i v i t i e s
t h e m o d e rn s c h o o l t h e m eth o d u s e d
f r o m i t m ay b e i n f e r r e d
of a rt
th is
th e
stu d y th e d a ta p e r ­
th ro w s t h e m o st l i g h t on t h e
in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls o f C a lif o r n ia
c o u n tie s.
T he m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s
m ad e p a t t e r n s r a r e l y .
are
in th e s e
sc h o o ls u s e re a d y ­
T h i s w o u ld se e m t o
in d ic a te
a t l e a s t t e n d i n g to w a rd th e m ore c r e a t i v e
w hose c u r r i c u l u m a n d l i f e , "
says H o c k e tt,
w i t h a n e m p h a s i s on o r i g l n d l i t y , v i t a l i t y ,
o f e x p r e s s i o n on t h e p a r t o f a l l
t h a t th e y
ty p e o f " s c h o o l
" a r e p e rm e a te d
and i n t e g r i t y
i t s m e m b e r s ." 27
2 7 J o h n A . H o c k e t t , "T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C r e a t i v e E x p r e s ­
s i o n , " C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry E d u c a tio n ,
9s163,
F eb ru ary , 1941.
104
T he u t i l i z a t i o n
o f th e pow ers w ith in
t h a n f o r c i n g u p o n h im t h e
id e a s o f o th e rs
th e new er a r t e d u c a tio n #
T a n n a h ill sa y s:
is
th e c h ild r a t h e r
th e k ey n o te
of
S l a v i s h r e p r o d u c t i o n o r i m i t a t i o n o f a n o t h e r f s w ork
h as l i t t l e v a lu e as a r t e x p e rie n c e f o r c h ild re n #
C o py­
in g , w ith o u t c o n s tr u c tiv e th o u g h t, te n d s to deaden th e
c r e a t i v e s e n s e , le a d s to a d u l l , l i f e l e s s k in d o f
e x p r e s s i o n , h i n d e r s i n i t i a t i v e , and d e v e lo p s l i t t l e o r
no a r t s e n s i t i v i t y #
Ho t r u e a r t h a s e v e r r e s u l t e d f r o m
c o p y in g #
In so f a r as th e r e
c o u n tie s th e
is
any s u p e rv is io n o f a r t in
th e
g l o r y , a s i t m ig h t b e te rm e d b y som e, r e s u l t i n g
f r o m e f f o r t s m ad e t o w a r d a m o re c r e a t i v e
te a c h in g is r e f le c te d
on t h e
A g a in t o
g ra tify in g
to n o te t h a t
art
su p e rv iso rs#
Many s o u r c e s w e r e l i s t e d
p a tte rn s #
ap p ro ach to
f o r th e p ro cu rem en t o f
th o se in te r e s te d
in c re a tiv e
art
it
is
in o n ly one i n s t a n c e d id a t e a c h e r
s a y t h a t su c h p a t t e r n s had b e e n s e c u r e d from a s u p e r v i s o r #
I t w o u ld seem t h a t d u e c r e d i t s h o u l d b e g i v e n s u p e r v i s o r s ;
if
th e y h av e,
i n m any i n s t a n c e s ,
in a d e q u a te h e lp
in fle x ib le
to tra c e
g iv e n i n s u f f i c i e n t and
t h e y h a v e n o t a p p a r e n t l y e n c o u ra g e d ? ; a n
a r t e d u c a tio n by h a n d in g o u t p a t t e r n s f o r c h i l d r e n
o r copy#.
I n a fe w i n s t a n c e s
th e y have even r e c e iv e d
28S a l l i e B . T a n n a h i l , , F in e A r t s f o r P u b l i c S c h o o l
A d m in is tra to rs,
(Hew Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l i e g e , C o lu m b ia
U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 ) # p# 2#
105
s p e c i a l m e n tio n by t e a c h e r s
f o r i n s p i r i n g and e n c o u ra g in g
c r e a t i v e w ork an d h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n
of th e ir
to a b e t t e r e x p re ss io n
own i d e a s *
In
sp ite
o f th e ten d e n cy to u se p a tte r n s
o c c a sio n a lly or ra r e ly
o f te a c h e rs need h e lp
th e
s t u d y sh o w s t h a t g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y
in s tim u la tin g c r e a tiv e
th e p a r t o f c h ild r e n and e s t a b l i s h i n g
e x p lo r i n g and t h i n k i n g
and p a t t e r n s
liste d *
th a n
T h is ty p e o f a c t i v i t y
to l i t t l e
is
i n o v e r c o m i n g on t h e p a r t s
and to o r i g i d
or a b ility
a sp e c ts
t h a t th e
t o g e n e r a l l y c a r r y on
T h e m a j o r i t y n e e d e d m uch o r som e
in h e lp in g c h ild r e n w ith a l l
S l i g h t l y m o re se e m t o h a v e n e e d e d h e l p
s lig h tly
a tte n tio n
i n t h e c l a s s r o o m w as t h e i r g r e a t e s t h i n d e r ­
in te a c h in g a r t*
a ssista n c e
of
n o t enough fre e d o m .”
l a c k o f k n o w le d g e , s k i l l
ance
in a
When a s k e d t o s t a t e
T h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r o f t e a c h e r s who f e l t
a rt a c tiv itie s
a r t p ro b lem s*
ty p ic a l o f se v e ra l r e p lie s re c e iv e d :
o f c o p y in g d e t a i l s
d e ta ils ,
sp e c ific
i n t e a c h i n g a r t o n e t e a c h e r m ade a
”My g r e a t e s t h i n d e r a n c e
c h ild re n h a b its
i n th e m t h e h a b i t o f
is a b so lu te ly e s s e n tia l
are n o t u se d .
h e r g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e
s t a t e m e n t w h ic h i s
t h i n k i n g on
im a g in a te ly ab o u t shap ed , c o lo rs
in any o th e r o f th e
p ro g ram w here p a t t e r n s
o n ly
l e s s have needed h e lp w ith
of a r t te a c h in g .
th e a c t i v i t i e s *
in fin e a r t s
and
t h e m o re m e c h a n i c a l
106
It
in a l l
is
t o "be n o t e d t h a t m o re f e l t a b l e t o h e l p
th e v a r io u s p ro b lem s ite m iz e d ,
th an f e l t
a d e q u a te
I n o th e r w o rds,
c h ild re n
e x c e p tin g fin e
a rts ,
in th e g e n e r a l p ro b le m s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . ^
t e a c h e r s n e e d m o re h e l p
i n s e c u r i n g new
i d e a s , p l a n n i n g , m o t i v a t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a r t w ork t h a n t h e y
do in a c t u a l te a c h in g .
T h is i s
and sh o u ld n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d
g u id in g c h ild r e n
In h e lp
is
t o m ean t h a t h e l p n e e d e d i n
n e g lig ib le .
g iv e n b y th e s u p e r v i s o r s
group th e m a j o r it y r e p o r t i s
stu d y , l i t t l e
o n ly a s l i g h t tr e n d how ever
o r no h e l p
w ith
e n tire
in th e
Is g iv e n .
h a s b e e n f o u n d b y some s u p e r v i s o r s
in -se rv ic e
th is
t h e sa m e a s e l s e w h e r e
The w o r k s h o p o r s t u d y g r o u p i s
to th e
in
tra in in g
th e
one te c h n iq u e
th a t
to be e s p e c i a l l y a d a p te d
o f te a c h e rs
th e a c t u a l te a c h in g a c t i v i t i e s .
e sp e c ia lly
in h e lp in g
S o u th a ll p o in ts o u t
th a t:
Many s p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r s a r e r e n d e r i n g n e w e r a n d
m uch a p p r e c i a t e d s e r v i c e t h r o u g h s t u d i o c o u r s e s w h ic h
a re g iv e n t o su p p le m e n t th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y in th e a r t s and
s c i e n c e s i n w h ic h t h e y a r e w eak o r h a p p e n t o h a v e
sp e c ia l in te re s ts * ^
29 O f. p p . 4 0 , 4 7 , 4 9 , 49A, a n d 5 1 .
3 ® S o u th a ll, o £ . o i t . , p . 3 3 8 .
Success
in h e lp in g te a c h e rs
th ro u g h th e u s e o f w ork­
shops h as been e x p re sse d by o th e r s u p e rv is o rs
In
th is
s t u d y w o r k s h o p s , w h en u s e d b y s u p e r v i s o r s ,
w e r e m e n t i o n e d b y m o re t e a c h e r s
th a n any o th e r o f th e
v i s o r y t e c h n i q u e s a s h a v i n g g i v e n m uch h e l p
In
sp ite
of a ll
t h a t any a p p re c ia b le
te c h n iq u e a t a l l
re p o rte d
th is
n o th in g in
in a rt*
stu d y in d ic a te s
num ber o f s u p e r v i s o r s h av e u s e d
and i n
c a s e s w h e re i t was u s e d
th is
th e m a jo r ity
i t used b u t ra re ly *
A n o th e r s u p e r v is o r y te c h n iq u e
to a b e t t y
tio n ,
th is
su p er­
fo r a s s is tin g
g u id a n c e o f c h i l d r e n 's a c t i v i t i e s
b o th w ith
te a c h e r s and c h ild re n *
te a c h e rs
i s d e m o n s tra ­
Ho o t h e r o n e
t e c h n i q u e r e c e i v e d m o re m e n t i o n t h a n t h i s ; i n e v e r y p a r t o f
th is
stu d y ,
i n some w a y , some t e a c h e r s m e n t i o n e d d e m o n s t r a ­
tio n s .
Of a l l
th e
th in g s l i s t e d
v i s o r s w o u ld d o a n d o f a l l
th e
th a t
th in g s
t e a c h e r s w ish e d s u p e r ­
s u p e rv is o rs have done
5 i C l a r a P . R e y n o l d s , lfThe R o l e o f t h e A r t S u p e r v i s o r ,
D e p a rtm en t o f A rt B u l l e t i n , N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n ,
V o l . V* ( 1 5 5 4 H ow ard S t r e e t , C h i c a g o : l ^ a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n
A s s o c ia tio n , 1 9 4 0 ,) p . 7 9 3 .
H a ro ld G reg g , ^ R u ral A r t S u p e r v is io n and T each e rs*
E x t e n s i o n C l a s s e s , 11 A r t I n A m e r i c a n L i f e a n d E d u c a t i o n , T h e
F o r t i e t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f "*
E d u c a tio n , (B lo o m in g to n , I l l i n o i s : P u b lio S c h o o l P u b lis h in g
C o m p an y , 1 9 4 1 , ) p . 7 9 5 .
A rth u r F . C o re y , ^ T e a c h in g t h e T e a c h e r s ,n S i e r r a
E d u c a t i o n a l N ew s, 2 9 :4 8 , D ecem ber 1 9 3 3 .
108
w h ich h av e b e e n o f m o s t h e l p , d e m o n s tr a ti o n s
sta n d a t
A few f e l t t h e y n e e d e d a l l
c la ss ro o m as
e x p r e s s e d b y o n e who s a i d
b u t th e d e s ir e
roun$ h e lp
in th e
th e
to p *
ffI n e e d t o s e e so m e o n e g o o d , t e a c h , 1*
f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s w as d e s i r e d
b y th e m a j o r i t y .
T h i s s t u d y w o u l d se e m t o s u b s t a n t i a t e
th e
fin d in g s o f
A n d e r s o n a n d S i m p s o n who h a v e c i t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f e v i d e n c e
sh o w in g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s
o f d e m o n s tra tio n and i t s
ra n k in g by te a c h e rs as a d i s t i n c t l y
In s p ite
of a ll
th e f a c t s
o n stra tio n s a re p re c is e ly
a ll
h e l p f u l s u p e r v is o r y a id *
th is
th e one s u p e r v i s o r y te c h n iq u e o f
T h at d e m o n s tra tio n s a re
a h e lp
if
at a ll.
t h a t t e a c h e r s who
i n a d e q u a t e s h o u l d r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t f ro m
th e ir su p e rv iso rs
is
t h e o p i n i o n o f some a u t h o r i t i e s .
The g r e a t e s t h e l p w h i c h t h e s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f c a n
g iv e th e i n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r i s th ro u g h a d e m o n s tra ­
t i o n o f m eth o d .
The d e m o n s t r a t i o n m ay b e g i v e n f o r
th e b e n e f i t o f o n ly one t e a c h e r , u n t i l sh e g a in s
s u f f i c i e n t s e lf -c o n f id e n c e to a tte m p t th e te a c h in g
o f i t h e r s e l f , o r i t m ay b e g i v e n f o r a g r o u p o f
te a c h e rs.
M y e rs p o i n t s
o u t t h a t wWe who t e a c h t e a c h e r s a r e
u s u a l l y l o n g on t h e o r y a n d s h o r t on t h e
how t o c a r r y t h e
3% yers,
a b ility
to
show th e m
t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . "34
^ A n derson , ojp. c i t . , p. 288 .
33K iar ,
0£ .
0£
c i t ♦, p . 1 9 6 .
.
*52
s t u d y sh o w s t h a t dem­
t e c h n iq u e s w h ich m o st s u p e r v i s o r s u s e d r a r e l y ,
fe e l e sp e c ia lly
h ig h
c i t . , p . 144.
109
S m ith and S p e e r d e f i n i t e l y
fa v o r d e m o n s tra tio n f o r th e
g ro u p and p o i n t o u t a n o t h e r v ie w o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n w h ic h s h o u l d
be rec o g n iz e d :
c la ssro o m .
t h a t o f d e m o n s tra tio n by th e s u p e r v is o r in th e
They s a y :
E f f e c t i v e i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n w o u ld p e r m i t t h e
s u p e r v is o r to abandon t h i s p o l i c y o f r e g u l a r c la ss ro o m
te a c h in g .
He w o u l d t h e n s u b s t i t u t e a p o l i c y o f o b s e r v ­
i n g , s u g g e s t i n g im p ro v e d p r a c t i c e s , and p r e s e n t i n g
d e m o n s tr a tio n l e s s o n s f o r g ro u p s o f t e a c h e r s . 55
S in c e
th e re , h a s b een l i t t l e
d e m o n s tra tio n o f any
k in d u s e d , t h i s m ig h t p r o v id e a s u g g e s tio n
a d m o n itio n to
th e
su p e rv iso rs re p re se n te d
C lo se ly r e l a te d
to d e m o n s tra tio n
E s p e c i a l l y recom m ended a r e t h o s e
o f te a c h e rs
v a lu a b le
stu d y .
in te rv is ita tio n ,
o b se rv e a n o th e r t e a c h e r a t w ork.
o f c o m p e te n t t e a c h e r s ,
f* th e v e n t u r e s o m e s o u l s who e x p e r i m e n t a r e m o re
to th e
s c h o o l sy ste m th a n s u p e r v i s o r s
p r o p e r l y u t i l i z e d . 1*5 6
C a sw e ll p o i n t s
t e a c h e r s m ay f r e q u e n t l y b e m o re a b l e
w ith
in t h i s
s i t u a t i o n s w here a g ro u p
I n reco m m en d in g th e u t i l i z a t i o n
M y e rs s a y s :
is
r a t h e r th a n an
c h ild re n th a n
is
A yer f e e l s
th e
out th a t
if
th e y a re
f,c l a s s r o o m
in a c t u a l l y w o rk in g
s u p e r v is o r .* * 37
th a t
T h e r e i s p r o b a b l y no b e t t e r w a y o f r e a c h i n g t h e
a v e ra g e te a c h e r th a n th ro u g h th e d e v ic e o f d i r e c t e d
35S m ith , o p . c i t . ,
36M y e rs ,
0£
.
f>. 1 4 1 .
c i t . , p . 144.
3 ? H o l l i s L . C a s w e l l , f,How S h a l l S u p e r v i s i o n b e A dvanced?**
E d u c a ti o n a l M e th o d , 2 1 : 7 , O c to b e r , 1 9 4 1 .
110
V isita tio n .
U nder th e s t r e s s o f su p e rv is o ry en co u rag e­
m e n t i t i s p o s s i b l e b y t h i s m e a n s t o s t i m u l a t e m an y
t e a c h e r s who o t h e r w i s e a r e s e l d o m i n s p i r e d t o c r e a t i v e
e f f o r t * 38
The u s e o f m o v in g p i c t u r e s
as a s u p e rv is o ry te c h n iq u e
is
re la tiv e ly
new b u t s u c h p i c t u r e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y a d a p t e d
to
sh o w in g t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s o f a l l k i n d s ,
and f o r d e l i n e a t i n g a r t te c h n iq u e s .
in c lu d in g a r t
S o u th a ll su g g e sts
th a t:
E d u c a t i o n a l m o v i n g p i c t u r e s h a v e m any o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s
o f i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n w ith o u t l o s s o f tim e o r e x p e n se o f
tra v e l*
T h e y m ake i t p o s s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r s t o s e e n o t
o n l y som e o f t h e b e s t p r a c t i c e s , b u t t o w i t n e s s t e a c h e r s ’
and c h i l d r e n w o r k in g t h r o u g h a w h o le u n i t o f e x p e r i e n c e s *
T h e i r e x p e n s e , h o w e v e r , m a k e s th e m p r o h i b i t i v e f o r m o s t
s y s t e m s e x c e p t on a r e n t a l b a s i s . 39
B o th i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n
v iso ry
th e
a n d m o v in g p i c t u r e s a s a s u p e r ­
t e c h n i q u e s t a n d e x t r e m e l y lo w i n t i m e s m e n t i o n e d b y
t e a c h e r s a s h a v i n g b e e n u s e d Y>y s u p e r v i s o r s
in t h i s
S u p e r v is I o n and th e e v a l u a t i o n o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s
a r t te a c h in g .
stu d y .
and
T he h a b i t o f e v a l u a t i n g o n e ’ s own w o r k a n d
3 ° F re d C. A y e r, “S u p e r v is o r y P ro c e d u re s U sed i n L i b e r ­
a t i n g a n d D i r e c t i n g C r e a t i v e E f f o r t i n T e a c h e r s , 11 S u p e r ­
v i s i o n and th e C r e a tiv e T e a c h e r, F i f t h Y earbook o f th e D e p a r t­
m e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s and* D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , N a t i o n a l
E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s - C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a
U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 61*
3 9 S o u t h a l l , o p . c i t . , p . 342*
Ill
a sk in g o th e rs
e d u c a tio n
to h e lp
is a m ost im p o rta n t phase o f a l l
in c lu d in g a r t te a c h in g .
’’E v a l u a t i o n a n d c u r r i c u l a r
a c t i v i t i e s m u s t , * 1 s a y s W r i g h t s t o n e , ”b e c o n s i d e r e d a s d y n a m i c ,
c o n tin u o u s , and i n t e g r a l p a r t s
M y e rs b e l i e v e s
th a t,
se lf-c ritic is m ,
seek i t
” th e c o m p e te n t t e a c h e r i s c a p a b le o f
se lf-a p p ra isa l,
he needs a s s is ta n c e
from h i s
o f t h e e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s . ”4 ^
in
and s e lf - im p r o v e m e n t.
When
th e s e m a t t e r s , he sh o u ld be f r e e
to
c o l l e a g u e s . If^ -
I t w o u ld seem fro m t h e d a t a
in th is
stu d y t h a t te a c h e r s
d o n o t c o n s i d e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r own w o rk o n e o f t h e i r
m ost p r e s s in g p ro b le m s.
sp e c ific a lly
w ork.
In o n ly one p la c e
o t h e r th a n w here
a sk ed d id a te a c h e r m en tio n e v a lu a tio n o f h e r
T h is one f e l t
s h e w as n o t c a p a b l e
w ork and e x p r e s s e d r e g r e t a t t h e l a c k
s u p e r v i s o r who “ s a y s
o f j u d g i n g h e r own
on t h e p a r t o f t h e
she i s n ’ t q u a l i f i e d
to
ju d g e good a r t
t e a c h i n g e v e n . 11
R e p o r t s on t h e
tio n
ite m s d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w ith e v a lu a ­
o f a r t t e a c h i n g show t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s
n e e d m uch h e l p
in e v a lu a tin g
had re c e iv e d l i t t l e
th e ir
own a r t t e a c h i n g .
o r no h e l p from t h e
M ost
su p e rv iso r.
J . Wayne W r i g h t s t o n e , ’’E v a l u a t i o n o f N e w e r I n s t r u c ­
t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s , ” New er I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s o f P r o m is e ,
T w e lfth Y earb o o k o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v is o r s and D i r e c ­
t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , (N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n s A s s o c ia tio n , 1 9 3 9 ),
p . 310.
41M y ers, £ £ .
c it. , p.
157.
112
A fe w t e a c h e r s m i g h t b e s a i d t o h a v e a l m o s t m e n t i o n e d
e v a lu a tio n o f a r t
a p p re c ia tio n
H ow ever,
t e a c h i n g w hen t h e y c i t e d
g iv e n th e
th e se
te a c h e r * s e f f o r t s by th e s u p e r v is o r *
can not be c o n sid e re d
sense of c le a rly
e n co u rag e m e n t and
th o u g h t o u t,
to be e v a lu a tio n
c o n stru c tiv e
in th e
and s p e c i f i c
e v a lu a tio n *
W rig h tsto n e p o in ts
out th a t:
T he r o l e o f t h e p u p i l i n e v a l u a t i n g h i s own g r o w t h
h a s n o t b een s u f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i z e d and u t i l i z e d b y
te a c h e rs*
The p u p i l can a i d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s
own g r o w t h b y s a v i n g s a m p l e s o f h i s c r e a t i v e w o r k , f o r
e x a m p le , in d ra w in g and w r i t i n g , 42
In th is
stu d y m ost te a c h e r s
o r m uch a s s i s t a n c e
own w o r k ,
fe lt
in h e lp in g c h il d r e n
s e v e r a l m e n tio n e d t h i s
t h e n e e d f o r some
to e v a lu a te
a s one o f th e
th e ir
th in g s
th ey
w ish e d th e
s u p e r v i s o r w o u ld d o , a* f e w c i t e d t h e i r l a c k o f
a b ility
do i t
te
a s t h e i r g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e
in
te a c h in g
a rt*
As w i t h o t h e r p r o b l e m s t h e s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e ,
i
few i n s t a n c e s ,
g i v e n m uch h e l p
in g th e re has been l i t t l e
in
th is b u t g e n e ra lly speak­
o r no h e lp *
I n t e r p r e t i n g a r t te a c h in g to
p ro b lem s l i s t e d
te a c h in g
th e p u b lic *
in th e q u e s tio n n a ir e ,
to th e p u b lic
4% rig h ts to n e ,
in a
Of a l l
in te rp re ta tio n
th e
of a rt
seem ed t o be t h e one w h ic h t e a c h e r s
0£
. , c i t *, p . 311.
113
re c o g n iz e d l e a s t a s b e in g a p ro b le m .
show s a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t
b o th
in t h i s
t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s .
th e need o f b u t l i t t l e
T he s t u d y d e f i n i t e l y
a c tiv ity
on t h e p a r t o f
T he m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s
o r a t m o s t o n l y som e h e l p
p r e t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ’ s a r t w ork t o t h e p u b l i c
e x h ib its,
of a ll
th e
g e n e r a l p ro b le m s l i s t e d .
o r no h e l p
t h e w h o le o f t h e d a t a .
Of t h o s e r e p o r t i n g m o st
in th is re g a rd .
One t e a c h e r
te c h n iq u e s u se d by th e
N o th in g to
fill
su p e rv iso rs
t h a n on a n y , s a v e o n e ,
O n l y o n e o t h e r r e f e r e n c e was m ade t o
fo llo w s :
th ro u g h sc h o o l
g iv e n by th e
p ro b le m fe w e r t e a c h e r s r e p l i e d
had re c e iv e d l i t t l e
o f th e
in te r­
P a re n t-T e a c h e r A s s o c ia tio n m e e tin g s o r o th e r w ays.
A sked t o c h e c k th e am ount o f h e lp
on t h i s
in
t h i s p ro b le m
in f a i l i n g
s u p e r v i s o r c o m m e n te d a s
i n , P . T . A . g u e s t s p e a k e r o n c e * 11
f u r t h e r b u t t h e p r o b l e m h a s m o re t h a n s u r f a c e
in te rp re ta tio n
t h e c o n n e c tio n , b e tw e e n t h i s
o f th e a r t p ro g ram t o
fa c ts
s ig n ific a n c e .
C e r t a i n l y w hen t h e l a c k o f m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h i c h
f e l t by te a c h e rs
in
to check any
I t w o u ld se e m I n c o n s e q u e n t i a l t o a n a l y z e t h e s e
fu lly
fe lt
to w ork i s
l a c k and th e
t h e p u b l i c m u s t b e m o re
sc ru tin iz e d .
I h e o n e t h i n g w i t h w h i c h a r t t e a c h i n g c a n n o t go
fo rw ard ,
o r even o n ,
is m a te ria ls .
i a l s m u s t come f r o m t h o s e who u s e
The f u n d s f o r s u c h m a t e r ­
th em .
In C a lifo rn ia
th is
114
i s p re su m ab ly done by b o a rd s
o f e d u c a t i o n who b u d g e t t h e
s c h o o l m oney f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e s c h o o l .
is
It
t h e b e l i e f o f some t h a t o n l y a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
th e v a lu e
o f a r t e d u c a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c an d i t s
d u ly e le c te d
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i l l r e s u l t i n m o re m a t e r i a l
w i t h w h i c h t o c a r r y on s u c h w o r k .
M ost
t e a c h e r s h av e a lw a y s b e en a m o d est l o t , r e l u c ­
t a n t to i n t e r p r e t sc h o o l
in g b o a s tf u l
w ork t o a n y o n e f o r f e a r o f
or a g g re ss iv e .
They h a v e la b o r e d u n d e r th e
m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t a goo d j o b i n t h e c l a s s r o o m
th e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t o f t h e p u b l i c .
th a t I f th e y f e e l
to th e
ap p ear­
in su re s
I t w o u l d se em
th e n e c e s s i t y o f “ se llin g * * c r e a t i v e
art
c h i l d r e n , a s e x p r e s s e d by one t e a c h e r in h e r r e p l y
to th e q u e s tio n n a ir e ,
th e need to
T h is
th en i t
augm ent t h i s
a ss e rtio n
i s h ig h tim e th e y r e c o g n iz e d
w ith
is b orne
in te rp re ta tio n
to th e p u b lic .
o u t b y some w e l l I n f o r m e d
e d u c a to rs , V ie r lin g K ersey s a y s :
T he s u c c e s s
in th e sc h o o ls
upon th e n a tu re
th e p u b lic and
o f th e a c t u a l program o f i n s t r u c t i o n
is o fte n d e p en d en t to a la r g e d eg ree
o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g b e tw e e n
th e ir sc h o o ls. ^
M a c k e n z ie h a s p o i n t e d
in
t h i s , he s a y s :
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
o f su p e rv iso rs
“S u p e r v i s i o n s h o u l d p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p
in
43V i e r l i n g K e rse y , P u b lic R e la tio n s A c t i v i t i e s f o r
P u b lic S c h o o ls.
(S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 4 ).
115
i n t e r p r e t i n g th e e d u c a ti o n a l program to th e
c o m m u n ity a n d i n
d e v e l o p i n g a c o m m u n ity p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e
fo r p re s e n t day l i f e * " ^
T hese t h i n g s
s o now*
tin u e d
tru e
in no rm al tim e s a r e
im p e ra tiv e ly
I f even th e a r t e d u c a tio n e x i s t e n t i s
su p e rv iso rs
to he con­
a n d t e a c h e r s m u s t h e e a k e r.tj t o
f o r m ak in g t h e p u b l i c
th e need
i n c r e a s i n g l y aw are o f a r t v a l u e s .
As a p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r , o u t s i d e
th e p a r t i c u l a r
y e t p re su m a b ly a c q u a in te d w ith i t s
can i n t e r p r e t to th e p u b lic
program th e
th e e f f o r t s
sc h o o l,
su p e rv iso r
o f b o th th e
te a c h e rs
and c h ild re n w ith o u t a c c u s a tio n o f s e lf-a g g ra n d iz e m e n t.
S um m ary o f c o n c l u s i o n s .
u n d e n ia b le
c o n c lu sio n
T he o n e o u t s t a n d i n g a n d
t o be d raw n fro m t h e
d a ta p re s e n te d
i s t h a t t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h e n e e d o f m u ch h e l p
a l l p h a s e s o f a r t t e a c h i n g and a r e r e c e i v i n g ,
little
o r no h e l p f r o m s u p e r v i s o r s .
v e r y few i n s t a n c e s w here t h e r e
is
T h ere a r e
in
on t h e w h o l e ,
o f co u rse a
e v id e n c e o f e x c e l l e n t
su p e rv isio n .
I n c a s e s w here
g en eral su p e rv iso rs
sp e c ia l a r t
s u p e r v i s o r s a r e n o t em p lo y ed ,
se e m n o t t o h a v e f u l l y a c c e p t e d
th e ir
^ G o r d o n N. M a c k e n z i e , “ S u p e r v i s i o n C o n f r o n t s a C h a n g C u r r lc u lu m ,” C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E le m e n ta ry E d u c a tio n ,
5 :1 4 2 , F e b ru a ry , 1937,
116
re s p o n sib ilitie s
in
g a id in g t h i s
g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s who a r e
n o t e s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h w ork f o r w h ich t h e m a j o r i t y
o f th e m a r e r e s p o n s i b l e *
M o s t t e a c h e r s se em .to l i k e
i t b u t th e re
a r t and th e te a c h in g o f
i s c o n s id e r a b le e v id e n c e t h a t s u p e r v is o r s ,
m an y i n s t a n c e s ,
h a v e n o t show n e n t h u s i a s t i c
p h a se o f s c h o o l w ork.
Many t e a c h e r s
i n t e r e s t in
in
th is
f e e l th e need o f i n s p i r ­
a t i o n a n d new i d e a s b u t i n r e c e i v i n g e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d h e l p
th e
te n d e n c y seem s t o be t o r e l y
on m a g a z i n e s a n d b o o k s
e x c e p t i n a few i n s t a n c e s w h ere s u p e r v i s i o n h a s b e e n e x t r e m e l y
in sp ira tio n a l•
I t m ay a l s o b e i n f e r r e d
f o r m ore s u p e r v i s i o n
fro m t h e p e r s i s t e n t d e s i r e
t h a t s u p e r v is o r s do g iv e h e lp to
i n so f a r a s t h e y h av e tim e and i n t e r e s t
in
it.
te a c h e rs
k fe w
t e a c h e r s d i d n o t a s k f o r h e l p b u t t h i s d o e s n o t im p ly t h a t
th ey d id n o t w ant i t .
th e re
O n ly i n a n e x t r e m e l y f e w c a s e s w as
e x p r e s s i o n on th e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s t h a t
th e y w a n ted
t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o do n o t h i n g o r t o l e a v e th e m a l o n e .
T he p r o b l e m o f i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s w i t h w h i c h t o
w o rk l o o k s l a r g e
in th e s e
fin d in g s and th e
fa c ts
in d ic a te
th a t v ery l i t t l e
h as b een done to g e t a t th e a c t u a l cau se
rem edy f o r t h i s .
The n e e d f o r p l a n n i n g i n a l l p h a s e s o f a r t
te a c h in g
I s e v i d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y d o e s t h e n e e d se e m a p p a r e n t f o r
117
d e v e l o p in g t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and k n ow ledges u n d e r l y i n g a r t
teach in g .
tren d
In
the a c tu a l
teach in g s itu a tio n
o f th e o r y and p r a c t i c e
creativ e a r t .
th e
general
seem s t o h e to w a rd a more
On t h e w h o l e s u p e r v i s o r s a n d t e a c h e r s h a v e
a p p a r e n tly given s l i g h t a t t e n t i o n
to
the e v a l u a t i o n o f
c h i l d r e n fs a r t work and o f a r t t e a c h i n g i t s e l f *
O n ly a few s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e u s e d more t h a n r a r e l y
the v a rio u s
tech n iq u es a t
t h e i r command f o r h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s #
I n c a s e s where th e y have been u s e d t h o s e o f m ost h e l p t o
teach ers
se em t o b e t h e v e r y o n e s w h i c h m o s t s u p e r v i s o r s
have used l e a s t fre q u e n tly .
A ll th e ev id en ce p o in ts
v isio n
of a rt
and th e
lac k of super­
in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls o f C a li f o r n ia
co u n ties but th ere
reasons fo r
to a d e fin ite
i s much e v i d e n c e t o o t h a t m an y o f t h e
th is lie
beyopd th e c o n tr o l o f th e
su p erv iso rs
teach ers.
Lack o f c o n t a c t s betw een t e a c h e r and s u p e r v i s o r due
to lim ite d
tim e,
too:m any d u t i e s ,
and o t h e r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s ,
t h e l e a s t o f w hich I s n o t d i s t a n c e s b e tw ee n t h e s u p e r v i s o r s
and t h e s c h o o l , were m e n tio n e d *
fo r the
c o u n ty ,
t o em ploy a r t
and t r a i n e d
teach ers*
failu re
In s u ffic ie n t su p erv isio n
to a sk f o r h e lp and f a i l u r e
su p erv iso rs or su p erv iso rs a t le a s t
t o some e x t e n t i n a r t may a l l
in te reste d
be l i s t e d
as
l e g i t i m a t e r e a s o n s why s u p e r v i s o r s h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o
the re q u ire d h e lp .
give
118
I t m i g h t b e b e l i e v e d b y t h o s e who c o n s i d e r a r t a s a
sp ecial su b ject th a t
th ere
is n o th in g in th ese
w hich s h o u ld be d i s t u r b i n g t o t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e
tio n
in C a lif o r n ia .
Such a n a t t i t u d e
because even h e re s u f f i c i e n t ,
is
if b rief,
fin d in g s
fo r educa­
not w arran ted
ev id en ce has been
p r e s e n t e d t o show t h a t a r t s h o u l d be one o f t h e m a j o r c o n ­
cerns of a l l e d u c a to rs.
C onsidered
in th e l i g h t o f the
fin d in g s p re s e n te d h ere are lam en tab le
are l i t e r a l l y
i f any,
im portance o f a r t
i f not trag ic.
the
There
hundreds o f c h ild r e n r e c e iv in g in a d e q u a te ,
guidance
in a r t in C a l i f o r n i a , w here s c h o o ls a r e
i n many r e s p e c t s a d m i t t e d l y above
th e averag e fo r the
co u n try .
T h e r e a r e m any t e a c h e r s who r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e
of
a r t a n d who a r e w i l l i n g b u t who a r e t o o u n p r e p a r e d a n d
unguided to p r o p e r ly r e n d e r e f f e c t i v e
seem,
o f the
to o ,
th a t there are
serv ice.
I t w ould
a number o f s u p e r v i s o r s u n aw are
i m p o r t a n c e o f a r t a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r who a r e
n o t capable
teach ers
o f assum ing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
in a r t
teach in g .
/T h e r e a p p a r e n t l y a r e e v e n a f e w
who d o n o t p r e t e n d t o h a v e a n i n t e r e s t
e f f o r t to s u p e rv ise
it.
of g u id in g
I n a r t o r make a n y
T h is seem s r e g r e t t a b l e
since
it
is
a t a s k t h a t s h o u l d be o f m a jo r c o n c e r n t o a l l b e c a u s e o f i t s
u ltim ate
in trin sic
v alu e to c h ild r e n .
1X9
I t may f u r t h e r h e i n f e r r e d
of sch o o ls,
on t h e w h o l e , h a v e n o t e m p h a s i z e d t h e
of a rt or sp e cifica lly
of its
t h a t co u n ty s u p e r in te n d e n ts
charged s u p e rv is o rs w ith
im portance
the d i r e c ti o n
teaching*
L astly
i t w ould a p p e a r t h a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e
D ep artm en t o f E d u c a tio n had n o t g iv en s u f f i c i e n t r e c o g n i t i o n
to t h is
p h a se o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l program *
have been p u b lis h e d
E x c e lle n t guides
to a id b o th te a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s
in h e lp in g c h ild r e n in v a r io u s s u b j e c t s , y e t
In a r t
th ere
seems t o be o n l y th e e m p h a s is t h a t H elen H e f f e r n a n , C h i e f
o f the D iv is io n o f E lem entary E d u c a tio n , has
featu rin g i t
lec tu re s
In group c o n f e r e n c e s and i n d i v i d u a l t a l k s
and
to s u p e r v is o r s and t e a c h e r s .
M i s s H e f f e r n a n h a s made g r e a t e f f o r t s
a guide,
given by
to
secu re such
she sa y s :
T h e p p r o j e c t was b e g u n i n g o o d f a i t h a n d much t i m e
was d e v o t e d t o m e e t i n g s w i t h a r t s u p e r v i s o r s t h r o u g h o u t
the S t a t e .
T h e re seem ed , h o w e v e r, t o be a r e l u c t a n c e
to c o n trib u te m a te r ia ls to t h i s p u b lic a tio n .
I rec all
a t t h e tim e t h a t y o u , y o u r s e l f , were v e r y d u b io u s a b o u t
su c h an e n t e r p r i s e .
You e x p r e s s e d y o u r d o u b t s t o me
i n r a t h e r v i g o r o u s te rm s a t t h e tim e and r e p r e s e n t e d
o n e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n m a k i n g me f e e l t h a t
t h a t w a s n o t t h e t i m e t o move f o r w a r d on s u c h a p r o j e c t *
Prom t h i s
4 C5
i t w ould a p p e a r t h a t e v e n a r t s u p e r v i s o r s ,
From a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r
J u l y 7 , 1942*
addressed to
5
in clu d in g
the i n v e s ti g a t o r ,
120
th is
art
in v estig ato r,
have n o t done a l l
t h e y c o u l d do t o f u r t h e r
te a c h in g in the elem en tary schools
G row ing o u t o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s
recom m endations to v a r i o u s
the s t a tu s
of C alifo rn ia
co u n ties;.
se em e v i d e n t c e r t a i n
g r o u p s who m i g h t h e l p t o
im prove
o f a r t s v ip e r v is io n and t e a c h i n g in e le m e n t a r y
schools o f C a lif o r n ia c o u n tie s .
co n clu d in g ch ap ter#
These a r e p r e s e n te d
in the
CHAPTER X
RECOMMENDATIONS
In the l i g h t o f th e f a c t s ,
p resen ted
in
th is
s t u d y i t would seem t h a t
d a t i o n s need to be made.
certain
th eir
These s p e c i f i c
suggestions
to
for
f u l l f i l m e n t follow *
1* Become i n t e r e s t e d
m ine, w ith t h e i r
in i t
stress
If
the
county s u p e r v i s o r s *
i n a r t and a r t e d u c a t i o n ;
own t e a c h e r s ,
and t r y
2.
to
c e r t a i n recom men­
g r o u p s who s h o u l d f e e l d e f i n i t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e
R ecom m endations to a l l
h elp
i n f e r e n c e s and o p i n i o n s
the
d e te r­
needs f o r s u p e rv is o ry
to m eet such n e e d s .
o th er h e lp
is
i m p o s s i b l e make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t
im p o rta n c e o f a r t and
give
e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n
i n s p i r a t i o n and
fo r t h e i r accom plish­
m e n t s on e v e r y o c c a s i o n p o s s i b l e *
3* I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g
as w ell as
is
for teach ers.
i n a d e q u a t e m ak e i t
If
i s w holesom e f o r s u p e r v i s o r s
the s u p e r v is o r 's
own t r a i n i n g
a p o i n t t o t a k e a t l e a s t one good a r t
e d u c a tio n course*
4* E n l a r g e t h e i r
art
own k n o w l e d g e o f m a t e r i a l s u s e d
in
t e a c h i n g and h e l p t e a c h e r s t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
t h e i r u se s th ro u g h the agency of b u l l e t i n s
are p r a c tic a l.
if
no o t h e r m e a n s
122
5. Budget t h e i r
a t le a s t reco g n itio n
t i m e s o t h a t on e v e r y s u p e r v i s o r y v i s i t
is
work w ith th e c h i l d r e n
g iv e n to a r t and whenever p o s s i b l e
e ith e r
g u id in g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ,
th eir
in p la n n in g t h e i r w ork,
o r and e s p e c i a l l y ,
in
in e v a lu a tin g
effo rts*
6 . H elp t e a c h e r s p l a n b r o a d e r a r t e x p e r i e n c e s f o r th e
c h i l d r e n and t h e b e t t e r u s e
of tim e,
space and m a t e r ia ls
av ailab le*
Use e v e r y m eans p o s s i b l e and e s p e c i a l l y
tiv e
i n work t h a t m ig h t l e a d t o a c o u r s e o f s tu d y *
effort
7 . Make p r o v i s i o n f o r d e f i n i t e
for teach ers,
courses,
train in g
e s p e c i a l l y d e m o n s tr a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n
e i t h e r le d by s u p e r v is o r s
cap ab le*
in -serv ice
coopera­
In any ca se
o r b y o t h e r s who a r e
t o m ak e a t l e a s t a c u r s o r y s t u d y o f
w o r t h w h i l e summer a n d e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s b e i n g o f f e r e d a n d
suggest th ese to teach ers#
8* C o l l e c t i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l s
esp ecially
o f c h i l d r e n * s work and u s e
e v e r y way p o s s i b l e
in h e lp in g te a c h e rs
of a ll
them c o n s i s t e n t l y
and c h i l d r e n
d e v e lo p a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f and a g r e a t e r
create
in a r t .
so rts but
to
d esire
E ncourage te a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n
in
to
t o make
sim ila r co llectio n s*
9* Be a w a r e o f a n d a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e n e w e r p u b l i c a ­
tio n s,
books, m agazines,
and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s
and u s e t h i s m a t e r i a l i n e v e r y way p o s s i b l e
in a r t ed u catio n
to h elp
teach ers*
123
10# P r o v i d e b e t t e r
guidance f o r te a c h e r s
o f m a g a z i n e s arid b o o k s i f
and m agazine a r t i c l e
freq u en tly *
lib ra ry
in th e use
t h r o u g h n o o t h e r m ed ium t h a n b o o k
lists
circu lated
to th e
teach ers
P u l l c o o p e ra tio n sh o u ld be given th e co u n ty
in su p p ly in g these*
11* E x p l o r e a n d m o r e a d e q u a t e l y u s e a l l
tech n iq u e s, p a r t i c u l a r l y
ed u catio n ,
i.
those e s p e c i a l l y
su pervisory
su ited
to a r t
e* w o r k s h o p s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ,
and e x h i b i t s *
12* L e a d t e a c h e r s t o
su p erv isio n
is a co o p erativ e
a re a lisatio n
e n te rp rise
o f the f a c t
th at
in w hich b o th
t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s grow i n t h e i r k n o w le d g e and a b i l i t y
to liv e w ith c h ild ren *
13* R e c o g n i z e t h e
im portance o f i n t e r p r e t i n g
the a r t
w o r k o f t e a c h e r s a n d c h i l d r e n t o t h e p a r e n t s a n d o t h e r s who
su p p o rt the sch o o l l i f e
and g iv e a t l e a s t a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r
own t i m e t o i t *
R ecom m endations t o
1.
county s u p e r in te n d e n ts o f s c h o o ls *
R e c o g n iz e t h e v a l u e o f a r t and e i t h e r em ploy a r t
supervisors
or
gsneral su p e rv iso rs w ith a r t
l e a s t some i n t e r e s t
tra in in g or a t
in i t *
2* E n c o u r a g e a n d a i d t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y
p o ssib le
i n e v e r y w ay
i n s e c u r i n g t h e f u n d s n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d u p a good
p ro fessio n al lib ra ry
p i c t u r e s and o t h e r
n o t o n ly o f books and m a g a z in e s b u t o f
i l l u s t r a t i v e m aterials*
124
3* So d e l e g a t e t h e w o r k o f s u p e r v i s i o n
w ill d e fin ite ly
t h a t some o n e
f e e l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e lp in g te a c h e r s
w ith a r t problem s.
R ecom m endations t o c o u n ty t e a c h e r s »
1* T h r o w o f f t i m i d i t y a n d r e l u c t a n c e
h elp
from t h e
su p erv iso rs.
in a sk in g fo r
The s u p e r v i s o r ’ s j o b i s
to h elp
t h e t e a c h e r , a s k f o r h e l p when a n d i f n e e d e d and f o r s u g g e s t i o n s
at a ll
tim es.
2. C a ll to th e a tt e n t i o n
t h a t may b e
i n t e r e s t i n g so t h a t
o f the s u p e rv is o r s any id e a s
t h e s u p e r v i s o r s may p a s s t h e m
on t o o t h e r t e a c h e r s .
3 . S uggest to the su p e rv is o rs
d e m o n s tr a ti o n m e e tin g s and l e a d e r s
to p ic s
cap ab le
f o r d i s c u s s i o n and
o f l e a d i n g such
groups•
4 . Be a l e r t
to th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
stu d y w ith th e s u p e rv is o r
fu n ctio n al p a rt
in the
com m unity and
t h e b e s t w a y s t o m ak e a r t a m o r e
o f t h a t com m unity.
5. P e e l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
fo r p lan n in g a r t
teach in g
f o r them s e l v e s , p r e f e r a b l y i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s .
6 . Above a l l r e m e m b e r t h a t ,
is
”T h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f t e a c h e r s
n o t s o much a s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n
c ip a te as a teacher fu n ctio n
i n w hich t e a c h e r s p a r t i ­
i n w h i c h s u p e r v i s o r s p a r t i c i p a t e • ff^
^ W i l l i a m H . B u r t o n , ”A New D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e F u n c t i o n s
o f S u p e r v i s i o n ,” C a li f o r n ia J o u r n a l o f E lem en tary E d u c a tio n ,
6 s 8 8 , N o v e m b e r , 1 9 3 7 f*
125
R ecom m endations t o c o u n ty p r i n c i p a l s ♦
1* Make s u f f i c i e n t s t u d y o f a r t t o
of its
v alu e
in su re a r e a liz a tio n
to c h i l d developm ent*
2 . Even th o u g h s u p e r v i s i o n by th e
is p ra c tic a lly
im p o ssib le,
to h e lp te a c h e rs w ith a r t
h elp of th e s u p e rv iso rs
feel
it
is
teach in g p rin c ip a l
a d u t y to be p r e p a r e d
problem s o r a t l e a s t
ie n c e s and b e t t e r p r e p a r e th e m s e lv e s t o
4 . Be p r e p a r e d t o
own a r t e x p e r ­
guide c h il d r e n .
i n t e r p r e t th e a r t program to th e
p a t r o n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y
am ong o t h e r t h i n g s ,
e n l i s t th e
in a id in g th e t e a c h e r s .
3 . Encourage t e a c h e r s to e n la rg e t h e i r
to ,
to
to the board o f e d u c a tio n in o rd e r
e n list
th e ir fin an c ia l
support of
th e program .
5 . See t h a t
s u f f i c i e n t and p r o p e r m a t e r i a l s
w ork a r e
o rd e re d and
housed*
E n li s t the a s s is ta n c e
for a rt
t h a t t h e s e a r e p r o p e r l y c a r e d f o r and
o f th e
s u p e r v is o r whenever
necessary.
R ecom m endations t o
th e S t a te D epartm ent o f
E d u catio n .
1 . Be i n s t r u m e n t a l
in p r e p a r i n g and p u b l is h in g a
g e n e r a l g u id e to c h i l d developm ent in a r t .
2 . R equire a r t c o u rs e s
m itted before
t o be a p a r t o f t h e work s u b ­
g r a n t i n g g e n e r a l e le m e n t a r y t e a c h i n g o r adm in­
istra tiv e cred en tials.
3 . Recommend t o c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s t h e
em ploym ent o f s u p e r v i s o r s p r e p a r e d
to d e f i n i t e l y h e lp
teach ers
w ith a r t .
4 . C ontinue th e encouragem ent o f b e t t e r a r t s u p e r ­
v isio n
and t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h c o n f e r e n c e s a n d o t h e r m e e t i n g s
throug hotit the
sta te ,
p articu larly
i n t h e m ore re m o te a r e a s .
R ecom m endations to t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g
1. S tru tin iz e
carefu lly
in stitu tio n s.
th e c o u r s e s i n a r t w hich a r e
now b e i n g o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s p r e p a r i n g t o t e a c h
tary
sch oo ls.
u n d erstan d
Be s u r e t h a t t h e
fu lly
in stru cto rs
t h e n e e d s and s i t u a t i o n s
in elem en­
o f such c o u rs e s
confronting
teach ers
in sm all e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
2 . C ontinue
t o o f f e r summer a n d e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s
e s p e c i a l l y d esig n ed to h e lp ele m e n tary te a c h e rs d e s ir in g
b e tter th e ir a rt
teach in g .
3 . P r o v i d e a good f o l l o w - u p p r o g r a m f o r t h e i r
b ein g sure
fo r those
to
in clude the
teach ers
in the
c o n sid era tio n
rural
cla sses,
stu d e n ts
o f a r t and e s p e c i a l l y
s e c tio n s o f the
4 . C onsider th e p o s s i b i l i t y
graduate
to
sta te .
o f w orking o u t,
in u n d e r­
a p p re c ia tio n m a te r ia l f o r lo an or as g i f t s
t o t h e more i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s . ^
^ F l o r e n c e T i l t o n A h l f e l d , ^ T eaching A rt in
The F o r t i e t h Y e a rb o o k o f th e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r
o f E d u c a t i o n , A r t i n A m e r i c a n L i f e a n d Ed u c a t i o n ,
T T l i n o i s ; P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 4 1 ) ,
R ural S chools,
the S tu d y
(B loom ington,
p . 583•
5* E n c o u r a g e m o r e a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s t o m ak e s u r v e y s
and s t u d i e s
of a r t ed u catio n
in C a lifo rn ia ,
the U n ite d S t a te s
and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .
R ecom m endations t o a l l
a r t teach ers
and s u p e r v i s o r s
in
C alifo rn ia *
1 . Lend,
in e v e ry in s ta n c e p o s s ib l e ,
e x p e r ie n c e and e n co u ra g e m e n t t o th e
t h e i r know ledge,
im provem ent o f a r t
te a c h in g in cou n ty s c h o o ls .
2 . Make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t
in a r t a s s o c ia tio n
to in clu d e e le m e n tary te a c h e rs
groups by a r r a in g in g th e
tim e o f m e e tin g s
so t h a t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s can a t t e n d and by m aking th e
program such t h a t th e y w i l l be o f h e lp t o e le m e n ta ry t e a c h e r s .
3.
P rovide l i t e r a t u r e ,
o th e r m eans,
schools
to h e lp
th r o u g h a r t a s s o c i a t i o n and
classro o m
teach ers
in sm all e le m e n tary
to e n jo y and a c c o m p lish b e t t e r a r t
teach in g .
R ecom m endations t o r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s a
1 . Make a s t u d y o f t h i s
o f th e re a c tio n s
fin d in g s
to th o se
sa m e p r o b l e m t h r o u g h a s u r v e y
of su p erv iso rs
o f 'th is
th em selv es.
stu d y .
2 . Make a s t u d y o f t h e c o u n t y l i b r a r y
sta ff,
C om pare t h e
fa c ilitie s,
fu n d s and so f o r t h , w ith a v iew t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
o f s e c u r i n g more an d b e t t e r p i c t u r e s and e s p e c i a l l y
dim ensional a p p re c ia tio n m a te r ia ls
fo r sch o o ls.
th ree-
128
3 . Make a s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t h a s b e e n d o n e i n
C a l i f o r n i a t o a c t u a l l y p ro m o te t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n t e r e s t
o f the p u b lic
sectio n s.
in a r t
ed u catio n , e s p e c ia lly
Suggest p o ssib le
i n th e m ore re m o te
th in g s t o be d o n e.
4 . Make a s u r v e y o f t h e a c t u a l u s e s o f a r t
f o r n i a c o m m u n ities, e s p e c i a l l y
in
t h e more r u r a l a r e a s *
S u g g e s t ways i n w hich th e e x p e r i e n c e s
of the a d u lt p o p u la ­
t i o n may b e b r o u g h t t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e
of a rt
in C a li­
im portance
i n t h e d a i l y l i v i n g o f e v e r y p e r s o n a n d how i t
more f u l l y e n r i c h e d
sh a rin g in a r t .
can be
th ro u g h a d e e p e r a c q u a in ta n c e w ith and
W h at p a r t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s may p l a y
in t h i s program .
5 . Make a t h o r o u g h g o i n g s t u d y o f t h e p r e s e n t c u r r i c u ­
lum an d p r a c t i c e s
in a r t ed u catio n
in sm a lle r elem en tary
s c h o o l s a n d m ak e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s
a lte re d ,
e n la rg e d and
a rea liz atio n
in
t o how t h e s e m ay b e
Im proved t o g i v e t h e
o f th e v alu e
of a r t
the p re s e n t a d u lt p o p u la tio n .
in l i f e
com ing g e n e r a t i o n
w hich i s n o t e x i s t e n t
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. BOOKS
A n d e r s o n , C. J . arid S i m p s o n , I . J e w e l l , The S u p e r v i s i o n o f
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New Y o r k : • D . A p p l e t o n a n d C o m p a n y , 1 9 3 2
467 p p .
A rt E du catio n d e p artm e n t, P r a t t I n s t i t u t e , A rt E d u catio n
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A r t E d u c a t i o n f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s o f O h i o , T e a c h e r 1s
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A u g s b u r g , De R e s c o L e o , A u g s b u r g * s D r a w i n g * F o u r V o l u m e s ;
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C lassroom T e a c h e r *
Tw elve V o lu m es; C h ic a g o :
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C lassroom
C o l e , N a t a l i e R o b i n s o n , The A r t s i n t h e C l a s s r o o m *
The J o h n D a y C o m p a n y , 1 9 4 0 • 1 3 7 p p .
New Y o r k :
D e e r i n g , J . H . , e d i t o r , P o l i t i c a l Code o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i fo rn ia.
San F r a n c i s c o : B a n c r o f t, 1^21• 204d p p •
Dewey, J o h n , D em ocracy and E d u c a t i o n .
C o m p an y , 1 9 1 6 .
434 pp.
New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n
G i s t , A r t h u r S . , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S u p e r v i s i o n *
C h a rle s S c r i b n e r s , 1934•
402 pp.
New Y o r k s
G regg, H a ro ld , A rt f o r th e S chools o f A m erica# S c ra n to n ,
P e n n s y l v a n i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k Company, 1941*
191 pp
H i l l e g a s , M i l o B* T h e E l e m e n t s o f C l a s s r o o m S u p e r v i s i o n *
New Y o r k : L a i d l a w H r o t h e r s , T 9 3 l • 2 2 4 p p •
H o c k e t t , J o h n A . , and J a c o b s e n , E . W ., M odern P r a c t i c e s i n
t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l * New Y o r k : G i n n a n d C o m p an y , 1 9 3 6 *
346 pp.
K ersey, V ie rlin g , P ublic R e la tio n s A c tiv itie s fo r P ublic
S c h o o ls* S acram ento, G a lif o r n ia : C a lf f o r n ia ^ S ta te D e p art­
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19 p p ,
K i r b y , C , V a l e n t i n e , The B u s i n e s s o f T e a c h i n g a n d S u p e r v i s i n g
t h e A r t s * C h i c a g o : A b b o t t E d u c a t i o n a l C o m pany, 1 9 2 7 * 7 3 p p
K l a r , W a l t e r H * , W i n s l o w , L e o n L * , a n d K i r b y , C* V a l e n t i n e ,
A r t E d u c a tio n i n P r i n c i p l e and P r a c t i c e * S p r i n g f i e l d ,
M a s s a c h u s e 1 1 s ':“ M i l t o n B r a d l e y Company, 1 9 3 3 . 4 22 p p ,
K y t e , G e o r g e C * , How t o S u p e r v i s e *
C om p an y , 1 9 3 0 *
435 pp.
New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n
Lemos, P e d ro J * , A p p l i e d A r t * M o u n ta in V ie w , C a l i f o r n i a :
P a c i f i c P r e s s P u b l i s h i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1920* 379 p p .
, The A r t T e a c h e r *
491 p p •
W o rc e s te r, M ass: D av is P r e s s ,
M a th ia s, M argaret E*, A rt in th e E lem en tary S c h o o l*
Y o rk : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r f s S o n s , 1929*
180 p p .
_______ , The B e g i n n i n g s o f A r t i n P u b l i c S c h o o l s *
cHarTes S c r i b n e r * s S o n s , 1 ^ 4 1
IT$s> pp*
1931*
New
New Y o r k :
________, The T e a c h i n g o f A r t * New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ’ s
S o n s , 1932*
356 pp.
M y e r s , A l o n z o F* a n d O t h e r s , C o o p e r a t i v e S u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e
P u b l i c S c h o o l s * New Y o r k : B r e n t i c e - H a l 1 , I n c * , 1 9 3 8 ,
340 pp.
131
N i c h o l a s , F l o r e n c e W i l l i a m s , M a w ho o d, N e l l i e G l a r e , a n d
T r i l l i n g , M a b e l B , , A r t A c t i v i t i e s i n *t h e M o d e r n S c h o o l ,
New Y o r k : T h e M a c m i l l a n C m p a n y 7 ^ ‘93T5r* Sfr&Vpp,
N u t t , H, W ,, C u r r e n t P ro b le m s in S u p e r v i s i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n ,
J o h n s o n P u b l i s h i n g Com pany7~l928 * 538 p p ,
, The S u p e r v i s i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n ,
M i f f l i n C om pany, 1 9 2 0 ,
277 p p .
New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n
P e r r y , Evadna K ra u s, A rt A d v en tu res w ith D isc ard e d M a t e r i a l s ,
L o s A n g e l e s : W e t z e l P u b l i s h i n g C o m p an y , 1 9 3 3 ,
169 p p .
S c h o o l Gode o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ,
o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 9 , "T55 pp ,
S acram ento: S t a te
S h e r e r , L o r r a i n e M i l l e r , T h e i r F i r s t Y e a r s i n S c h o o l , ' Los
A n g e l e s : C o u n ty B oard o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 § 7 281 p p .
S m ith , Sam uel and S p e e r, R o b e rt K . , S u p e r v i s i o n in t h e E lem en­
ta r y School,
New Y o r k : C o r d o n , 1 9 3 8 ,
460 p p •
S m i t h , S u s a n , Made i n M e x i c o ,
New Y o r k : K n o p f , 1 9 3 0 ,
81 p p ,
Snov/, B o n n i e E , a n d F r o e h l l c h , Hugo B , , I n d u s t r i a l A r t s T e x t
Books,
E i g h t P a r t s ; New Y o r k : The P r a n g C om p an y , 1 9 1 5 ,
S t a f f and S t u d e n t s o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f ^ in e and I n d u s t r i a l
A r t s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , ffA r t E d u c a ­
t i o n , Dem ocracy and t h e W a r ,” A r t E d u c a ti o n T o d ay ;
New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 4 2 ,
86 p p ,
S t a f f o r d , Cora E ld e r and R u ck er, P e a r l , A r t A p p r e c ia tio n
T ext B ooks,
E i g h t P a r t s ; New Y o r k : L a i d l a w B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 0 ,
S to n e , C laren ce R , , S u p e rv is io n o f the E lem en tary S c h o o l,
New Y o r k : H o u g h t o n M i f f 1 i n C o m p an y , 1 9 2 9 ,
57 3 p p .
A S u g g e s tiv e Course o f S tu d y in I n d u s t r i a l A r t For R u ra l
S ch o o ls,
C a l i f o r n i a S t a te D epartm ent o f E d u ca tio n
B u l l e t i n B - l , S acram en to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent
o f E d u catio n , 1928,
62 p p .
T a n n a h ill, S a l l i e B ,, F ine A rts f o r P u b lic School A d m in istra to rs.
New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y ,
1932.
145 p p .
132
T e a c h e r s 1 G uide t o C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , A M anual f o r K i n d e r ­
g a r t e n and P r im a r y T e a c h e r s .
S acram ento: C a li f o r n ia
S t a t e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , 1930.
658 p p .
T e a c h e r s 1 Guicb t o C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s .
S acram ento: C a l i f o r n i a S t a te D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n ,
1936.
631 p p .
T e s s i n , L o u i s e D , , C r e a t i v e A r t vf o r G r a d e d S c h o o l s .
E ig h t'
p a r t s ; S p r i n g f i e l d , Mas s : M i l t o n B r a d l e y C o m pany , 1 9 4 1 .
W h i t f o r d , W i l l i a m G . , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r t E d u c a t i o n .
Hew Y o r k : D . App 1 e t o n and' C o m p a n y , 1 9 2 9 .
337 p p .
B . PERIODICAL ARTICLES
B u r t o n , W i l l i a m H . , lfA Hew D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e F u n c t i o n s o f
S u p e r v is io n ,” C a li f o r n ia Jo u rn a l of E lem entary E d u c a tio n ,
6 : 8 2 - 8 9 , Hovember, 1 9 3 7 .
C a s w e l l , H o l l i s L * , ”How S h a l l S u p e r v i s i o n Be A d v a n c e d ? ”
E d u c a tio n a l M ethod.
2 1 :2 -8 , O cto b er, 1941.
C l a r k , A r t h u r B . , ” The P a c i f i c A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , ” The S c h o o l
A r ts M agazine, 2 5 :3 8 8 -9 1 , M arch, 1926.
C o r e y , A r t h u r P . , “T e a c h i n g t h e ’ T e a c h e r s , " S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l
Hews, 2 9 : 4 8 , D ecem ber, 1 9 3 3 .
F o r d , W i l l a r d , “ The S p e c i a l S u p e r v i s o r ^ C o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e
Hew E d u c a t i o n , ” C a l i f o r n i a ' J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a ­
t i o n , 1 : 1 5 7 - 1 6 1 , MayV 1 9 3 3 .
H arap, H enry, “C urriculum M a te r ia ls s u i t e d to C re a tiv e
S u p e r v i s i o n , ” E d u c a tio n a l M ethod, 1 9 :3 7 8 -3 8 3 , A p r i l , 1 940.
H e f f e r n a n , H e l e n , “ The P r e p a r a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s f o r S e r v i c e
i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l , ” C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E lem ent a r y E d u c a t i o n , 9 : 8 5 - 9 0 , H ovem ber, 1 9 4 $ .
________, “ S u p e r v i s i o n A p p r o p r i a t e f o r P r o g r e s s i v e S c h o o l s , ”
C a li f o r n ia J o u rn a l o f E lem entary E d u c a tio n , 6 :2 1 -2 5 , A u g u st,
1937.
133
H o o k e t t , Jo h n A . , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f C r e a t i v e E x p r e s s i o n , "
C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E lem entary E d u c a tio n , 9 :1 5 9 -1 6 5 ,
F eb ru ary , 1941.
M a c k e n z ie , Gordon N . , " S u p e r v i s i o n C o n f r o n t s a C h a n g in g C ur­
ric u lu m ," C a li f o r n ia J o u rn a l o f E lem entary E d u c a tio n ,
5 :1 3 6 -1 4 3 , F e b r u a r y , 1937•
" M a jo r E d u c a t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e s , " R e p o r t o f C om m ittee o f C a l i ­
fo rn ia School S upervisors* A s s o c ia tio n , C a lifo rn ia J o u rn a l
o f E lem en tary E d u c a tio n .
8 -5 7 9 -8 2 , Ju n e , 1927,
M o rris o n , K a t h e r i n e , " F o r t y Thousand M ile s o f D ra w in g ,"
School A rts M agazine, 2 6 :5 7 9 -8 2 , J u n e , 1927.
The
N e e le y , B e ta P . , "M ajor P ro b le m s C o n f r o n t in g R u ra l T e a c h e r s ,"
E d u c a tio n a l M ethod, 20*2 0 0 -2 0 4 , J a n u a r y , 1941.
P ayant, F e l iz ,
1942.
" A rt E d u c a tio n P r o b l e m s ,” D e s ig n , 4 3 : 3 , M arch,
P e r r y , Evadna K ra u s, "A c tiv e A rt in R u ra l S c h o o ls ,"
School A r ts M agazine, 40*147, J a n u a r y , 1941.
The
C. PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
C o m m i s s i o n on T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , T h i s War a n d t h e T e a c h e r ,
7 4 4 J a c k s o n P l a c e , W a s h i n g t o n , iD'. G . : TKe C o m m l s s i o n on
T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n o f t h e A m e ric a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n ,
J u n e , 1942*
8 pp.
F o r t i e t h Y earbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y o f
E d u c a t i o n , A r t i n A m erican L i f e and E d u c a t i o n . B lo o m in g to n ,
I l l i n o i s : P u b l i c S c h o o l t u b ' l ’i s h i n g C o m p a n y ,' 1 9 4 1 . 8 1 9 p p .
G re e n , H a r r y , " A r t E d u c a t i o n Im .a R u r a l C om m unity,"
Proceed­
ings o f th e P a c if ic A rts A s s o c ia tio n , S ta n f o r d 'U n iv e r s ity
P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 . p p . 1 ’6 - W .
M ajor, C h a r lo tte R ., T eaching A r t , P ro g re s s iv e E d u catio n
A s s o c i a t i o n S e r v i c e C e n t e r P a m p h l e t 3 , New Y o r k :
P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , 1941. 30 p p .
134
Hewer I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e s o f P ro m ise *
T w e lfth Y earbook
o f t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s and D i r e c t o r s o f
I n s t r u c t i o n * W a s h i n g t o n , D* G . j N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n
A s s o c i a t i o n , 1939* 379 p p .
P e r r y , Evadna K ra u s, “R u ra l A rt E d u c a ti o n ,” P ro c e e d in g s o f
P a c i f i c A r t s A s s o c i a t i o n , n . p * , 19 3 2* p p * 2 5 - 3 0 *
P e r r y , E v a d n a K r a u s , “ R u r a l S c h o o l A r t * 1,1 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e
P a c ific A rts A s so c ia tio n , S ta n fo rd U n iv e rs ity P re s s ,
1 93 1 *
pp. 30-32.
P o t t e r , G ladys L . “S i g n i f i c a n t T rend s in C a l i f o r n i a fs program
o f R u ra l S u p e r v i s i o n . ” P ro c e e d in g s o f the 1932 A nnual
C o n v e n t i o n o f C o u n t y , C i t y and D i s t r i c t Sup e r T n t e n t s o f
S c h o o ls and A nnual C o n fe re n c e o f R u r a l S u p e r v i s o r s #
§ t a t e o f C a l i f o r n l a D epartm ent o f~ E d u catio n B u l l e t i n
No 2 2 .
S acram en to : C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D epartm ent o f
E d u c a t i o n , November 1 9 , 1 9 3 2 ,
pp . 232-36.
R e y n o l d s , C l a r a P . “ The R o l e o f t h e A r t S u p e r v i s o r , ”
D epartm ent o f A rt B u l l e t i n , N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia ­
t i o n , V o l . V . 1554? How ard S t r e e t , C h i c a g o : N a t i o n a l
E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , 1940.
p p . 106-108.
S u p e r v is io n and th e C r e a tiv e T e a c h e r . F i f t h Y earbook o f th e
~
D epartm ent of S u p e rv is o rs and D ir e c to r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n ,
N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s
C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 .
APPENDIX
R ay A dkinson
C
o u n t y
o f
S
EVADNA KRAUS PERRY
u p e r in t e n d e n t
S
GEN ERA L SU PERV ISO R
c h o o l s
P a g e 136
312 C ourt H ouse A nnex
S anta
Ana
J a n u a ry 28 , 1942
D e a r F e llo w W orker:
As a t e a c h e r i n t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s o f C a l i f o r n i a y o u h a v e
u n d o u b te d ly o f t e n b e e n c o n f r o n te d w ith t h e p ro b le m o f j u s t
w hat a r t e x p e r i e n c e s you s h o u ld and .c o u ld g iv e y o u r c h i l d r e n . .
As a s u p e r v i s o r I h a v e f e l t f o r a l o n g t i m e t h a t we s u p e r v i s o r s
a r e n o t f u l l y aw are o f th e a r t n e e d s and p ro b le m s o f t e a c h e r s .
I n o r d e r t o g e t a m o re a d e q u a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e a r t p r o b l e m s o f
t e a c h e r s I h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ic h i s e n c l o s e d .
T h is q u e s ti o n n a ir e , i s b e in g s e n t to a s e l e c t e d group of r u r a l
t e a c h e r s and fro m t h e i r r e p l i e s i t i s h o p ed re c o m m e n d a tio n s
m ay b e m ade f o r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f s u p e r v i s i o n o f a r t i n
C a lifo rn ia ,
I am w o n d e r i n g i f y o u w i l l h e l p w i t h t h i s s t u d y b y c h e c k i n g t h e
i t e m s on t h e s h e e t s . Y o u r h e l p w i l l b e v a l u a b l e t o s u p e r v i s o r ® ,
a l l o v e r t h e s t a t e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o b e m o re h e l p f u l t o
t e a c h e r s a n d I s h a l l b e p e r s o n a l l y g r a t e f u l a n d i n d e b t e d t o you*
O n ly a b o u t f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l r u r a l t e a c h e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a a r e
b e i n g .a s k e d f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n so y o u r r e p l y i s im p o r ta n t i n
g iv in g y o u r c o u n ty a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n th e t o t a l r e s u l t s ,
I n o rd e r to keep th e s tu d y im p e rso n a l and as o b je c tiv e as
p o s s i b l e I am a s k i n g y o u n o t t o s i g n y o u r nam e t o y o u r r e p l y .
You may b e a s s u r e d t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n s u b m i t t e d w i l l b e h e l d
s tr ic tly c o n fid e n tia l.
I f y o u c o u l d r e t u r n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o me b y M a rc h 1 s t I
w o u ld a p p r e c i a t e i t g r e a t l y . A s e l f - a d d r e s s e d , s t a m p e d
en v elo p e i s e n c lo se d f o r y o u r c o n v e n ie n c e .
Thank you a g a in f o r any
criu-e
o rd ia lly y o urs,
E vadna K raus P e r r y
137
THE SUPERVISION OF ART IN CALIFORNIA RURAL SCHOOLS
I n r e p ly in g to q u e s tio n s on th e s e s h e e ts w i l l you k in d ly f i l l i n th e answ ers a s of th e d a te
on which you a r e re p ly in g * A ll in fo rm a tio n su b m itte d by you w i l l he h e ld s t r i c t l y .
c o n f id e n tia l*
DO NOT SIGN YOUR NAME.
Below a re some g e n e ra l q u e s tio n s .
o r check a s in d ic a te d ,
W ill you f i l l i n th e b la n k s w ith t h e a p p r o p r ia te answ er
1. How many te a c h e r s a re t h e r e i n yo u r s c h o o l? ^
3* How many c h il d r e n a re e n r o lle d i n y o u r room?
2 . Which g rad e o r g ra d e s do you te a c h ? ___
4*
you te a c h a r t i n y o u r own room?___
5* Do you te a c h a r t i n any o th e r g ra d e s i n th e sch o o l?_______
7. Does some one e l s
6 . I f s o , which g rad es? _________
te a c h a r t i n y o u r room?_______ 8 . I f s o , who?______________
9* A pproxim ately how many se m e s te r u n i t s o f a r t d id you have i n p r e p a r a ti o n f o r te a c h in g ? __
10. Do you l i k e a r t ?
11. Do you l i k e h e lp in g c h ild r e n do a r t work?______________________
12. I n doing a r t work do y o u r p u p i ls u s e ready-m ade p a tt e r n s ?
F r e q u e n tly
O c c a s io n a lly
Check ( ^
)
one.
R a re ly _____
13. From what s o u rc e s a r e p a t t e r n s o b ta in e d ?
______ _____ _______________ ______ ____________
14. What book h a s h e lp e d you m ost w ith y o u r a r t te a c h in g ?
__________________________
15» What m agazine i s most v a lu a b le to you i n te a c h in g a r t ? - ____________________________________
16. Where do you g e t books and m agazines to h e lp you?__________________________________________
17. Are such m a t e r i a ls as p i c t u r e s , p o t t e r y , t e x t i l e s and o th e r f i n e n ie c e s o f a r t work
a v a i l a b l e to you f o r a p p r e c ia t io n work w ith th e c h ild r e n ?
“________________________
18 . From what so u rc e s a re th e s e s u p p lie d ?
Check ( k '').
th e sc h o o l_____________ s u p e r v i s o r _____________ ____O th e r____________________
c o u n ty lib ra ry _ _________ te a c h e r h e r s e l f
_________________ ___________________
19. What h a s been th e g r e a t e s t h in d e ra n c e to you i n te a c h in g a r t ? _ _________ __________________
20.
W ill you r a t e (b y num bering 1, 2, 3» e tc ) th e fo llo w in g so u rc e s i n th e o rd e r in which
th e y have g iv e n you h e lp w ith a r t te a c h in g .
p r i n c i p a l ___________ su p p ly company r e p r e s e n t a ti v e _____
21.
m agazines____ ______
s u p e rv is o r
summer sch o o l c la s s e s ________________"books_________ _____
o th e r te a c h e r s
o th e r
Are you p ro v id e d w ith a c o u n ty c o u rs e o f stu d y in a r t , e i t h e r s e p a r a te o r in c lu d e d in a
g e n e ra l c o u rse o f stu d y ? ____
_____ ______________ '
___
___
2 2 . So f a r a s you know, a re t h e r e any c u rric u lu m com m ittees working on a r t i n y o u r county?_
I n w orking w ith you h a s a s u p e rv is o r!
23 . s tr e s s e d th e im p o rta n c e o f a r t e x p e rie n c e s f o r c h il d r e n ? ________________________
24 . su g g e ste d sximmer sc h o o l or e x te n s io n c o u rs e s to h e lp you w ith a r t te a c h in g ?_
25 . recommended a r t a s s o c i a t i o n m e e tin g s which m ight be
h e l p f u l t o you?________
26 . h e lp e d you w ith a r t a s much a s you f e e l you n e e d ? __________________________
27.
I f th e s u p e r v is o r s have n o t h e lp e d you a s much a s you f e e l you need why do you th in k you
have n o t re c e iv e d more h e lp ? ______________________________________________________________
28 . What a r e some o f th e th in g s t h a t you w ish a s u p e rv is o r would d o 7
29, What one th in g h a s a s u p e r v is o r done t h a t h a s been o f m ost h e lp t o you in te a c h in g art?_
30« What do you c o n s id e r th e g r e a t e s t in ad eq u acy i n th e s u p e r v is io n o f a r t i n y o u r county?_
138
Below a re some g e n e ra l problem s which c o n fro n t te a c h e r s and on
which s u p e r v is o r s c a n h e lp . W ill you check ( ^ ) each ite m in
th e p ro p e r colum n to show w h e th e r you f e e l t h a t you NEED much,
some o r l i t t l e h e lp . At th e extrem e r i g h t w i l l you check ( v ')
each item to show w h ether you GET much, some o r l i t t l e h e lp
from a s u p e r v is o r .
1 . F o rm u la tin g a p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n showing th e p la c e o f a r t
2 . G en eral lo n g -tim e p la n n in g o f a r t e x p e rie n c e s f o r c h il d r e n
3- P la n n in g f o r s p e c i f i c day to day a r t e x p e rie n c e s
4 . E s ta b lis h in g an environm ent conducive to c r e a t i v e work
5* U n d e rsta n d in g th e s ta g e s o f developm ent th ro u g h which c h ild r e n
p a s s i n c re a tin g - and a p p r e c ia tin g a r t
6 . U n d e rsta n d in g a r t p r i n c i p l e s and knowing how and when to u se
them w ith c h il d r e n
7 . A rran g in g th e d a i l y program and o rg a n iz in g th e room a c t i v i t i e s
to in c lu d e n e c e s s a ry work w ith a r t m a t e r i a ls
8 . Making a r t an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l l sch o o l e x p e rie n c e s
S e le c tin g th o s e a re a s o f e x p e rie n c e which a re r i c h i n a r t
p o s s ib ilitie s
10 . S e ttin g up aim s o f a r t f o r y o u r group
n .
S e le c tin g p i c t u r e s and o th e r m a t e r i a ls f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n and
app r ec i a t i on
12 . Taking ad v a n ta g e of th e a r t re s o u r c e s in th e sch o o l and
community environm ent
13 . K eeping m a t e r i a l s fond t o o l s i n an o r d e r ly f a s h io n in th e
cla ssro o m
14 . P la n n in g f o r a r t e x p e rie n c e s th ro u g h e x c u rs io n s to museums,
a r t g a l l e r i e s o r o th e r p la c e s
15 . S e le c tin g and o rd e r in g s u p p lie s end equipm ent s u i t a b l e f o r
a r t e x p e rie n c e s
16 . F in d in g books and m agazine a r t i c l e s , to h e lp w ith a r t te a c h in g
17 . D is c o v e rin g , c o n s e rv in g and g u id in g t a l e n te d p u p ils
18 . S e c u rin g new id e a s and i n s p i r a t i o n
19 . E v a lu a tin g y o u r own a r t te a c h in g
20 . I n t e r p r e t i n g th e c h ild re n * s a r t work to th e p u b lic th ro u g h
sc h o o l e x h i b i t s
21. I n t e r p r e t i n g th e c h i l d r e n 's a r t work to th e p u b l ic th ro u g h
o th e r ways, such as P .T .A , t a l k s .
Help needed
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139
Below a re some s p e c i f i c ways o f h e lp in g c h il d r e n in a r t . W ith
th e s e some te a c h e r s f e e l th e y need t h e h e lp o f s u p e r v is o r s .
W ill you check ( \ / ) each item i n th e p ro p e r column to show
w h eth er you f e e l t h a t you NEED much, .some or l i t t l e h e lp . At
th e extrem e r i g h t w i l l you check ( vk) each item to show w hether
you GET much, some o r l i t t l e h e lp from a s u p e r v is o r .
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1. S tim u la tin g c r e a ti v e th in k in g on th e p a r t o f c h ild r e n
2 . E s t a b l is h i n g i n c h ild r e n th e h a b it o f e x p lo rin g and th in k in g
im a g in a tiv e ly ab out sh a p e s, c o lo r s and p a t t e r n s .
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3. G uiding c h il d r e n i n t h e i r p la n n in g o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s
1
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4 . H e lp in g c h il d r e n i n tn e use o f b ru sh e s and p a i n t
5 . G uiding c h il d r e n to e x p re s s t h e i r id e a s more a d e q u a te ly in
draw ing and p a in tin g
6 . H elp in g c h il d r e n to o bserve c a r e f u l l y and a c c u r a te ly
7. H elp in g c h il d r e n to draw tn e t h in g s th e y want and need
8 , G uiding c h ild r e n tow ard more s a t i s f a c t i o n in th e u se o f c o lo r
9 , H elp in g c h il d r e n to make flo w e r a rra n g e m e n ts
i
10 . H e lp in g c h il d r e n to p la n and make a t t r a c t i v e b u l l e t i n b o a rd s
.........i
!
11, H e lp in g c h il d r e n w ith l e t t e r i n g and p o s t e r making
1
12, H elp in g c h il d r e n make maps and c h a r ts
i------ i1
\
I 3 . H e lp in g c h il d r e n w ith b lo c k p r i n t i n g
14. H elp in g c h il d r e n i n th e u se o f c la y
15 . H elping c h il d r e n to make th in g s from wood
l 6 . H elp in g c h il d r e n in th e u se o f c lo t h
17* H e lp in g c h il d r e n i n making books
l 8 . H elp in g c h il d r e n i n th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f o th e r th in g s th a n
books from c a rd b o a rd and p a p e r
19. H elp in g c h il d r e n i n th e usd o f m a t e r i a ls o f weaving
.........
j
20. H elp in g c h ild r e n to make th in g s fx’om d is c a r d e d m a t e r i a ls
which th e y can f in d th e m se lv e s
5
i
21. H elp in g c h i l d r e n to make costum es and sc e n e ry f o r p la y s and
p a g e a n ts
22. H elp in g c h il d r e n make p u p p e ts rand pu p p et t h e a t r e
23 . H e lp in g c h il d r e n to d e c o ra te f o r p a r t i e s and f e s t i v i t i e s
24. H elp in g c h il d r e n to u se a r t i n p u b lis h in g a sc h o o l new spaper
25 . H elp in g c h il d r e n make a r t f u n c tio n i n t h e i r c lo th e s and homes
26. H elp in g c h il d r e n re c o g n iz e th e a r t i n t h e i r w r i t t e n w ork,
a r i t h m e ti c and th e l i k e
27 . G uiding c h il d r e n i n making th e room an i n t e r e s t i n g and
b e a u t i f u l p la c e in which to work
1
28 . H elp in g c h il d r e n to l e a r n - t o work w ith o th e r s
i
29 . H elp in g c h il d r e n to l e a r n to c a re f o r t o o l s and m a te r ia ls
I
3 O. H elping c h il d r e n to e v a lu a te t h e i r own a r t work
31. G uiding c h il d r e n to e n jo y b e a u ty i n th e work o f o th e r c h ild r e n
32 , G uiding c h il d r e n to e n jo y b e a u ty a s e x p re sse d by m a s te r
a r t i s t s i n p a i n t i n g , c e ra m ic s and th e o t h e r a r t s
33« G uiding c h il d r e n to en jo y b e a u ty i n a l l th in g s around them
and encourage them to c a l l th e a t t e n t i o n o f o th e r s to i t
34* L eading c h il d r e n to an u n d e rs ta n d in g o f o th e r p e o p le s and
t h e i r c u l t u r e s th ro u g h th e a p p r e c ia tio n o f t h e i r a r t
■
140
r z -------------------S u p e rv is o r y F or me method
u s e s method ; HAS BEEN o f
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Below a r e some m ethods t h a t s u p e r v is o r s u se i n h e lp in g
te a c h e r s w ith a r t te a c h in g . W ill you check ( * y each
ite m i n th e p ro p e r column to show w hether y our s u p e r v is o r s
u s e th e method f r e q u e n tly , o c c a s io n a lly o r r a r e l y . At th e
extrem e r i g h t w i l l you cneck
each item i n tn e p ro p e r
column to sh@w w h eth er th e method HAS BEEN o f much, some
o r l i t t l e h e lp to you i n te a c h in g a r t .
I
i
....... ! ......
3. D e m o n stra tio n by s u p e rv is o r b e fo re group o f te a c h e r s
4 . D e m o n stra tio n by a te a c h e r f o r a group o f te a c h e r s
5. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n workshop o r s tu d y groups
S u p e rv is o ry v i s i t s
6. S u p e rv is o r te a c h e s th e c la s s
7. T each er te a c h e s c l a s s , s u p e rv is o r o b se rv e s
8. T each er and s u p e rv is o r work to g e tn e r w ith th e c la s s
I n d iv id u a l c o n fe re n c e s
9. F o llo w in g t e a c h e r s ' m e e tin g s
10. F o llo w in g a s u p e rv is o ry v i s i t
11. I n s u p e r v i s o r 's o f f i c e
12. I n t e a c h e r ’ s room
I 3 . C a lle d by s u p e rv is o r
14. R equested by te a c h e r
T each er i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n s u g g e ste d by s u p e rv is o r
15. I n d iv id u a l te a c h e r v i s i t s a n o th e r sch o o l
l 6 . Group of te a c h e r s v i s i t a g iv e n sch o o l
17» T each er and s u p e rv is o r v i s i t sch o o l to g e th e r
Moving ^ P ic tu re s
l o . I l l u s t r a t i n g te a c h in g p r a c t i c e s
19. I l l u s t r a t i n g a r t te c h n iq u e s
B u lle tin s
20. D e ta ile d o u t l i n e s o f x o rk to do
21, S h o rt l e a f l e t s g iv in g s u g g e s tio n s
,
22. L e t t e r s
Use o f L ib ra ry su g g e ste d by s u p e rv is o r
23 . B o o k s
24 . M agazine a r t i c l e s
25 . I l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a ls
E x h ib itio n s o f c h i l d r e n ’ s*. w o rk 'u se d by s u p e rv is o r
26. I n th e cla ssro o m
27 , I n c o n n e c tio n w ith c o n fe re n c e s w ith te a c h e r
28, I n s u p e r v is o r ’ s o f f i c e
E x h ib itio n s o f o th e r m a t e r i a ls u sed by s u p e rv is o r
29 . I n th e c la ssro o m
30. I n c o n n e c tio n w ith c o n fe re n c e s w ith te a c h e r
31. I n s u p e r v i s o r ’ s o f f i c e
T e a c h e rs ’ e x c u rs io n s
32. S u g g ested by s u p e rv is o r f o r s e c u rin g f i r s t
hand e x p e rie n c e s
i
.
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