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An alumni evaluation of certain aspects of the elementary training-school program

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AN ALUMNI EVALUATION OP CERTAIN.ASPECTS
OP THE ELEMENTARY TRAINING-SCHOOL PROGRAM
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
L. Clair Armin
June
1942
UMI Number: EP54337
All rights reserved
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UMI EP54337
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the candidate's G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been presen ted to a n d a ccep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
Date...
?.?.* . f . ?.
Dean
Guidance Committee
Louis P. Thorpe
Chairman
M. M. Thompson
Wm. G. Campbell
A
&
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS
OF TERMS USED . . .
.
The problem . . ...............................
1
1
Statement of the problem
............. .
.
1
Importance of the study
.. ..................
1
Definitions of terms used
.. . ................
3
Training school ...............................
3
Program ........................................
3
Certain aspects
3
...........•• .............
Limitations of the s t u d y ............... ..
Scope
II.
III.
............... . .
3
. . ............
3
Construction of the questionnaire . . . . . .
4
Subjectivity
5
.................................
Organization of remainder of the thesis . . . .
6
RELATED STUDIES ....................................
7
METHOD OF P R O C E D U R E ............................
16
Distribution of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ......... ..
IV.
21
EXAMINATION OF DATA OBTAINED FROM QUESTION­
NAIRE ............................................
22
Subject-matter courses • • • • . . . . . • •
22
Music
22
...........
Music a p p r e c i a t i o n ........................
24
A r t .........................................
25
ili
CHAPTER
PAGE
R e a d i n g ......................................
31
Physical education
. . . . .
.............
37
Keeping a register
.
....................
41
Marking report c a r d s ...........
42
School p r o g r a m s .............................
43
Public relations
49
..........................
Playground supervision
.............
54
D i s c i p l i n e .................................
55
Teacher recruiting
......................
61
. . . . . . .
61
Practice teaching ..........................
61
Education courses .
......................
66
. . . . .
72
Academic courses
Faculty personnel
Summary
V.
...............................
SUMMARY AID C O N C L U S I O N S ...................... .
78
.
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
79
Training in
the teaching of m u s i c ........
79
Training in
the teaching of a r t ..........
80
Training in
the teaching of reading . . . .
81
Training in
teaching physical education . .
82
Training in
keeping a register
..........
82
Training In
marking report cards
........
83
Training in
producing school programs . . .
83
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Training in
public relations
. . . . . . . .
Training in
playground supervision
........
85
Training in
maintaining discipline
........
86
. . . . . .
88
The education courses ........................
89
The training-school staff . . . . .
.........
90
......................
94
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ............................................
97
Practice teaching . . ...........
Conclusions . . . . . . .
A P P E N D I X .............................
84
101
LIST OP FIGURES
FIGURE
PAGE
1*
Training in Vocal Music
• . . . .............
23
2*
Training in Music Appreciation . . ..........
25
3.
Training in the Teaching of A r t ............... . .
26
4.
Training in the Teaching
of Art (Drawing)
. . . .
27
5.
Training in the Teaching
of Art (Painting)
. . . .
28
6.
Training in the Teaching
of Art ( C r a f t s ) ....
7.
Training in the Teaching
of Art (Appreciation)
8.
Training in the Teaching of Reading
9.
Training in the Teaching of Reading (Techniques
29
. .
30
. . . . . . .
32
for H o n r e a d e r s ) .................................
10.
34
Training in the Teaching of Reading (Techniques
for Slow R e a d e r s ) ...................
11*
35
Training in the Teaching of Reading (How to
Maintain Enthusiasm for R e a d i n g ) ................
12.
Training in the Teaching of Physical Education .
13.
Training in the Teaching of Physical Education
14.
36
.
38
(Knowledge of a complete schedule of games played
throughout the y e a r ) ..........................
39
Training in the Teaching of Physical Education
(Knowledge of Athletic Equipment)
...............
40
15.
Training in Keeping a R e g i s t e r ....................
41
16.
Training in Marking Report Cards ..................
42
17.
Training in Producing School Programs
44
...........
Vi
FIGURE
18.
PAGE
Training in Producing School Programs (Activity
Culminations)
19.
. ................................
Training in Producing School Programs
(Holiday
P r o g r a m s ) .....................................
20.
......................
Training in Producing School Programs
Plays)
. . . . . .
..........................
Training in Public Relations . . . . .
23.
Training in Public Relations (Parent-teacher
Associations)
.
. . • « • • . • •
.
.........
48
50
. . . . .
Training in Public Relations (Dealings
Parents)
25.
.........
47
(School
22.
24.
46
Training in Producing School Programs (Gradua­
tion Exercises)
21.
45
51
with
....................
52
Training in Public Relations (Community Rela­
...............
tionships)
53
26.
Training in Playground Supervision ..............
54
27.
Training in Maintaining D i s c i p l i n e ......... ..
.
55
28.
Training in Maintaining Discipline (Reasons
.
- 56
Checked for Inadequacies)
...............
29.
Practice T e a c h i n g ................
30.
The Education Courses (Degree of Adequacy)
31.
The Education Courses (Reasons Checked for
Inadequacies)
32.
. . . . . .
62
...
67
....................
68
The Training School S t a f f .......................
73
vii
PAGE
FIGURE
33.
The Training School Staff (Faculty Personnel)
34.
The Training School Staff (Critic Teachers)
35.
The Training School Staff (Resident Teachers)
. .
...
. .
74
75
76
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
When any imperfect state of affairs exists, there is
always a cause, or more than one cause.
Any query of "Why?11
or a search for these causes is justified.
It would be
unfair to point naively at any one agent and claim that to
be the sole or chief cause of a given problem.
It might thus
seem to be superficial thinking to name teacher-training
institutions as the chief source of the trouble in the ease
of inadequate teachers.
But, since the teachers who admit
that they have been inadequately prepared to teach are
products of, and recent graduates from, a teacher-training
institution, It seems logical that an investigation and reevaluation of certain phases of the training program for
elementary-school teachers is warranted.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
The purpose of this study
was to survey the adequacy of certain phases of the teachertraining program, as revealed by questionnaires and interviews
with teachers who have been in the teaching field for one
year.
Importance of the study.
The requirements of an elemen
tary teacher are not particularly difficult.
Yet every year
hundreds of contracts of beginning teachers are not renewed*
Thousands of other teachers have perplexing difficulties
which are very serious but which may not be sufficiently grave
to cause dismissal*
Still other superior teachers may feel
that they have not been prepared in some particular phase of
their duties.
There are also those teachers who, even though
they may have no especial difficulty,
continue to teach at a
certain level of mediocrity year after year.
is widespread and is well known to educators.
waste to society,
This situation
The educational
to taxpayers, to school children, and to
teachers themselves is obviously considerable.
An examination of the literature in this field reveals
the fact that there is quite universal agreement as to the
extent and seriousness of the teacher-training problem*
There are scores of studies which show that teachers are
granted certificates and allowed to teach before they have
demonstrated competency adequately to handle many of the
important situations they will be required to face.
An
excellent statement of this situation is made by Stoddard,
who speaks for many other investigators:^
Of course, it is realized that the art of teaching
cannot be perfected in a few weeks or months of practice
even under the best of conditions. . . . However the
National Survey of the Education of Teachers sets a
”safety-minimum” as the lowest standard to be reached
I
A. J. Stoddard, f,One Hundred Thousand New Teachers
Every Year,” Educational Record, 19:141-57, April, 1938.
3
by each person.
According to this standard, the practice
period should enable the beginning teacher to take over
a class on the first day of school and to proceed, without
the presence of a critic or a supervisor, to conduct
successfully the ordinary routine of class procedure.
There should be no floundering, no indecision; there
should be no lack of planning, and no program making based
on trial and error, even during the initial period of
teaching.
Even the inexperienced teacher should not be
allowed to acquire tfoe minimum e"ssentials of the art of
teaching at the expense of children. It is a sad commen­
tary on the present stage of progress that large numbers
of persons are permitted to begin their teaching service
each year without having attained this safety-minimum
standard.
For this £ acT many institutions and state
departments of education are quite properly and severely
criticized.
Italics not in the original.
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Training school.
This term was meant to include the
teacher-training departments of colleges, universities,
and
teachers colleges.
Program.
The term "program” was interpreted as being
the sum total of the experiences set up for the trainees at
the training school.
Certain aspects.
The evaluation of "certain aspects"
of the program was specified because it seemed advisable not
to investigate in detail the whole field of teacher training.
III.
Scope.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Three hundred twelve questionnaires were sent
to teachers who had taught for one year.
These included
graduates from nearly every major training school in California.
The opinions of these teachers are invaluable, although the
study would be more reliable if there had been hundreds of
other carefully collected opinions to add to these.
The teachers who were questioned in this study had only
one year of experience in the teaching field.
Thus they had
the advantage of knowing about the latest methods of the train­
ing schools.
On the other hand,
these teachers had not had
all the experiences in the field which would aid in giving an
accurate criticism of the complete program of the training
school.
All the teachers questioned were at least sufficiently
able that each secured a job for the second year.
teachers are eliminated the first year.
Many
The reactions
obtained from these eliminated teachers would not only have
been particularly valuable, but they might also have signifi­
cantly changed the results of the study.
Reliability of the
results was also affected b y the fact that the teachers
questioned taught all grade levels from the first through the
eighth grade, in all possible combinations of duties.
Uni­
formity of reactions is also very greatly affected by the
fact that a total of twenty training schools is represented.
#
Construction of the questionnaire.
This survey has
the weaknesses inherent in any questionnaire study.
It is
possible that, in constructing the questionnaire, some impor­
tant items were omitted from consideration.
Also, there is
always the possibility that certain items were misinterpreted
by the questionees.
Subjectivity,
Almost all of the data collected deal
with how the teachers felt and what their personal reactions
were concerning certain aspects of the training-school pro,gram.
The teachers’ judgments are highly subjective.
It is possible that many teachers are not aware of
their own limitations and weaknesses.
They may feel that
they are doing a good job when in reality they are inefficient
or incompetent.
There is always a group who may be unable
to detect weaknesses in a teacher-training program, because
they have always been conditioned to accept things as they
are and never think of possible improvement.
An attempt was made to cope with some of these limita­
tions by the following means:
(1) sending out twice as many
questionnaires as originally intended,
(2) reducing subjectivity
b y making the queries as objective as possible through provision
for a large number of specific and detailed choices,
(3) pro­
viding at all times for the questionees to add their own
comments, reasons,
criticisms, and recommendations, and
(4) compensating for the fact that the teachers questioned
taught all combinations of grade levels and came from many
different training schools b y the relatively large number of
questionnaires sent out in comparison with similar studies.
IV.
ORGANIZATION OP REMAINDER OF THE THESIS
Chapter II contains a review of related researches in
the field of evaluation of training-school programs for ele­
mentary teachers.
The method of procedure of this study is
explained in Chapter III.
The data obtained for this study
and the results of the findings are contained in Chapter IV.
Chapter V contains the summary and conclusions of this thesis,
together with some recommendations.
An annotated bibliography
of selected references will be found at the end of the final
chapter.
CHAPTER II
RELATED STUDIES
Not many studies of alumni evaluations of the elementary
training-school program are available.
A few investigators,
however, have secured a sampling of alumni criticisms of their
training.
Other Investigators have obtained the ratings of
beginning teachers from their principals and superintendents.
This procedure, b y revealing weaknesses, should also serve as
a valuable index to the adequacy of the training-school
program.
Adams interviewed forty-one beginning primary teachers
concerning the difficulties encountered during their first
year of teaching.’*’ Rating sheets were also sent to the prin­
cipals of these teachers for evaluation in various teaching
skills.
Adams found that 70 per cent of the interviewed
teachers had difficulty with discipline, 65 per cent had
difficulty in providing suitable seatwork,
50 per cent had
difficulty with teaching numbers, 40 per cent with music,
55 per cent with drawing, and 35 per cent had difficulty
supervising one class while teaching another.
Other diffi­
culties mentioned included teaching foreign children, keeping
_
Alice Adams, ’’Weaknesses in the Training of Beginning
Primary Teachers as Revealed by Ratings of Principals and
Interviews with Teachers,” (unpublished M a s t e r ’s thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, August, 1930).
8
a register, teaching reading,
teaching phonics, checking
seatwork, planning work of proper difficulty, interpreting
the course of study, making out report cards, teaching nature
study, teaching language, teaching projects, teaching word
study, teaching physical education, changing classes efficient­
ly, and providing a variety of drill devices.
As revealed by the principals rating scales, the
following difficulties were apparent to both teachers and
principals:
(a) discipline,
while teaching another,
purposeful seatwork,
class records,
(b) supervision of one group
(c) provision of variety of interesting,
(d) ability to teach phonics,
(e) keeping
(f) ability to teach music, and (g) ability to
teach drawing.
Adams, while recognizing that the data collected on
forty-one teachers are too limited to be conclusive,
stated
that the results of the study seemed to warrant the following
recommendations:
1.
Lengthening the period of practice teaching,
2.
Giving students experience in handling larger
groups of children,
3.
Providing more directed observation correlated
with education courses.
4.
classes.
Requiring students to teach at least two consecutive
9
5.
Providing more experience in organizing work
around a central theme, or project*
6.
Providing opportunities for students to supervise
one group while teaching another*
7.
diving greater consideration in education courses
to the followings
8.
a*
Teaching of numbers*
b*
Teaching of phonics*
c*
Problem of foreign children.
d*
Keeping of class records,
especially the register.
Placing greater stress on the teaching aspects of
music and drawing.
DeVore
o
sent a questionnaire to 120 graduates of eight
standard normal schools and teachers colleges located in
various sections of the United States.
The purpose was to
ascertain the reactions of their students to certain phases
of their practice teaching.
Although only forty responded,
and the questions asked did not cover all phases of practice
teaching, some of the representative reactions and suggestions
are significant.
DeVore states that her investigation seems
to suggest certain conclusions, three of which are quoted
below:
Q
Emily DeVore, tfImprovement of Practice Teaching as
Suggested by Graduates of One-Year!s Teaching Experience,”
Educational Administration and Supervision, 13:611-24,
December, 1927.
10
1.
Students want a greater opportunity to observe
the critic teach; not only prior to practice teaching but
also during the period of responsible practice.
2. A majority of the students prefer to write plans,
but only until they have demonstrated their ability to
teach without them.
3.
Students want a closer feeling of comradeship
between themselves and the critic; they feel the need
of encouragement.
They welcome criticism but wish to
have it given in a spirit of helpfulness.
Another alumni evaluation was made by Bathurst,
3
who
asked 250 teaching graduates to check those of the following
points in which they considered themselves inadequately
prepared:
Seatwork.
1.
2.
Teaching children to study.
Managing p u p i l s 1 study while another class is
3.
reciting.
4.
Subject-matter in the common branches.
5. Arranging a program.
6.
Teaching beginners.
Teaching b y the problem method.
7.
8. Use of the state course of study.
Teaching phonics.
9.
(Other items to be listed by the graduate.)
10.
Although it is readily seen that the number of teaching
problems here listed is extremely limited,
this study does
add something to the collection of data in this field.
The
greatest needs felt by the eighty-four who returned the
questionnaires were more training in planning seatwork and
managing p u p i l s 1 study while another class is reciting.
3
Effie Bathurst, "Alumni Evaluation of Training," Educa­
tional Administration and Supervision, 13:485-488, September,
1927.
11
An Informal study was made by Kirkley,^ who collected
representative reactions from "a well distributed group of
graduates” of normal schools ”b y conversation and correspon­
dence.”
Because this study was made in 1921, some of the
criticisms voiced at that time no longer hold true.
The
defect in normal-school training which had almost ”universal
mention” in K I r kley’s returns, however,
is still being voiced
today, namely, the training was ”too abstract” and ”too
theoretical.”
Keller
5
sent a questionnaire to each shop teacher in
the state who had not more than two years of experience.
A
similar questionnaire was later sent to the principals of
these teachers.
Data were compiled concerning the problems
of new industrial arts teachers and the relation of these
problems to what is presented in the training schools.
Although the survey was of limited value to this study, it
was significant In that an attempt was made to secure an
evaluation of the training-school program In Industrial arts
4
J. A. Kirkley, ”Virtues and Defects of Hormal School
Training, As Seen by Graduates of Two, Five, and Ten Years
Service,” Educational Administration and Supervision, 7:103-110,
January, 1921.
5
Adrian D. KeLler, ”An Evaluation of the Adequacy of the
Teacher Training Courses Offered b y the State of California,”
(unpublished Mas t e r 1s thesis, The University of Southern
California, Los Angeles, 1932).
12
b y recent graduates.
One criticism that was made again and
again, which was similar to other studies of this nature was,
” There is too much theory without the practical application,”
and ” Too much theoretical knowledge given which is of no
value at all.
More time should be required in actual shop
construction work and less history and methods and pedagogy.”
A study was made by Hall
7
which was similar to this
one in that an objective type of questionnaire concerning
the adequacy of a teacher-training program was sent to firstyear elementary-school teachers.
Eighty-four questionnaires
were sent out to the teaching graduates of the University of
Southern California training school.
were returned and used.
wide variety.
Porty-six of these
The information requested was of a
Data were obtained concerning selected non-
instructional problems such as attitudes and practices in
community relations and participation, where the teacher may
live and spend her money, contacts with parents outside of
school, relations with colleagues,
in-service training,
relations with the administration,
and school committee work.
Data were obtained in certain instructional problems such as
6
Ibid., p. 17.
7
Robert 0. Hall, ”A Study of the Problems of the Begin­
ning Elementary School Teacher,” (unpublished Master*s thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1941).
13
control of the learning situation, problems of routine class­
room procedure, lesson planning,
ties,
and extracurricular activi­
Data were obtained regarding professional advancement,
reaction to teachers institutes, professional literature,
teachers organizations.
and
Of especial interest to this study
was the evaluation of the training program of the University
of Southern California.
Some of the weaknesses in the
training school were listed as follows:
1. There was too much observation and theory and not
enough practice.
2.
A longer practice teaching time was needed.
3. Practice teaching time should be in longer periods
per day, or for a certain number of full days.
4.
There were too many cadets for each critic teacher.
5. More attention should be paid to administrative
routine.
6. The situation of the training classes was too
ideally set up.
7. There were not enough actual responsibilities in
practice teaching.
8. Student teachers needed more help in organizing
units of work.
9. The student teachers needed more experience in
extra-curricular activities.
10. Ho training was given in making out state regis­
ters •
11. The school should have given more ideas on room
arrangement and organization.
12. Ttie school should train teachers in methods for
both primary and upper grades and should allow for actual
teaching in these grades.
14
13.
The teachers needed more practical suggestions for
handling difficult classroom situations.
14.
There was too little stress on teaching techniques.
This was especially true in art and music.
15.
The training institution maintained little or no
contact with its teacher graduates.
A published survey made by Cahoon^ has limited value
for the present study, because it is on the secondary-school
level.
However, it is a study of an alumni evaluation of the
training-school experience, and as such it contains suggestions
which warrant consideration.
Typical of the questions asked
of the teaching graduates were the following:
(a)
In what
ways do you consider that your preparation or your student
teaching experience could have been improved?
(b)
What
phases of your work have been the most difficult for you in
your teaching?
(c)
What part of your training do you think
has been of most value to you as a teacher?
(d)
What matters
do you think should be given the greatest stress in practice
teaching?
It was found that discipline and classroom manage­
ment, in their various aspects, include the most difficult
problems for beginning teachers.
The "how-to-do-it" side of
teaching seemed to be uppermost in the mind of these young
people.
8
G. P. Cahoon, "What Training do Beginning Teachers
Heed?” University High School Journal, 10:131-159, August,
1930.
15
The studies quoted above are valuable and add to the
knowledge in this field, but they have some limitations which
must be considered when an evaluation is being made of the
data presented.
These limitations are presented below, in
the order of -their probable importance:
(1) the number and
extent of teaching problems considered in each study were
entremely limited,
(2) the number of people responding to the
questionnaires was relatively small,
(3) the questions
asked were very general, and there was almost no provision
made for specific reactions, and (4) only a relatively few
studies of this type were made on the elementary-school
level.
In the present study, an attempt was made to add to
the data in this field of investigation by (1) collecting
reactions in numbers large enough to make the results some­
what conclusive,
selves,
(2) collecting data from the teachers them­
(3) collecting data from a group that was homogeneous
in that they had only one year of teaching experience,
(4) questionning teachers concerning nearly every phase of
their teaching experience, and (5) b y a system of checking
causal factors, seeking to ascertain results that were as
objective as possible.
CHAPTER III
METHOD OP PROCEDURE
Developing the questionnaire.
A questionnaire was
devised whereby a teacher could record her reactions concern­
ing the adequacy of her training by merely checking in the
provided spaces.
ness, however,
For the sake of thoroughness and complete­
spaces were always provided for the addition
of more information and comments.
The purpose of the study
was to make a general survey of the adequacy of the elementary
training-school program; therefore, the teachers were given
an opportunity to evaluate their own experiences with regard
to the subjects taught and the various situations encountered
during their first year of teaching.
The emphasis was
placed not on whether they succeeded or failed in these situa­
tions but rather on how well they were prepared by the training
school.^Ihe teachers were asked, "Remembering your first year
of teaching, please check the degree of adequacy of your
training-school program in the items listed below."
A space
was provided for an "adequate," a "partly adequate," or an
"inadequate"
check.
The items listed for evaluation were as
follows:
I
A copy of the questionnaire used will be found In the
appendix.
17
1.
Any subject-matter courses
Which ones
2*
Music
Vocal
Appreciation
3.
Art
Drawing
Painting
Crafts
Appreciation
4.
Reading
Techniques for nonreaders
Techniques for slow readers
How to maintain enthusiasm for reading
(Any other)________________
5.
Physical Education
Knowledge of a complete schedule of games
played throughout the year
Knowledge of athletic equipment
(Any other)_______ _________
6..
Keeping a register
7.
Marking report cards
8.
School programs
Activity culminations
Holiday programs
Graduation exercises
School plays
(Any other)
9.
____________
Public relations
Parent-teacher associations
Dealings with parents
Community relationships
(Any other)______________
10,
Playground supervision
11.
Discipline
Maintaining order in the classroom
Adjustment of dignity and familiarity
Types of punishments
Destruction of school property
Lack of attention
Problems involving disrespect for authority
Problems with defiant pupils
Problems with lazy pupils
Problems with incorrigible pupils
Problems with bullies
Problems of fighting among pupils
Problems of stealing
Problems of lying
Problems of truancy
19
Problems of smoking
Problems of immorality
(Any other)________________
12*
Other problems
Ibis survey would be of only limited value without
further qualification regarding causes; therefore, the teachers
were asked, ”Regarding those items you rated as only partly
inadequate or inadequate, it would be valuable if you could
indicate in what way or ways they were inadequate so that
some remedies could be instituted.
Please check those items
which you consider as causes or reasons for inadequacies:”
The following reasons were listed for checking:
(a)
Item was not taught in the training school
(b)
Adequate time was not given to this subject
(c)
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
(d)
Problem was handled superficially
(e)
Available specific information was not given
(f) Alternative methods of handling the problem
were not given
(g) A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
(h)
Other reasons
The teachers were also asked to check their opinion
concerning the degree of adequacy of the following aspects of
20
the training-school program, indicating, as before, whether
adequate, partly adequate, or inadequate:
Practice teaching
The education courses
Principles of education
Philosophy of education
Educational psychology
Methods courses
Child development
Others________________
The academic courses
The teacher-recruiting system
Again, the teachers were asked to indicate in what
specific ways a given item was considered inadequate.
The
following causes or reasons were listed for checking!
(a)
Hot functional or useful
(b)
Pew specific applications made to school situations
(c)
Lack of emphasis on items you considered important
(d)
Available specific solutions to problems not given
(e)
Practice teaching conditions not typical
(f)
Too much "busy work" required
(g)
Other reasons
The faculty personnel, the critic teachers (supervisors),
and the regular teachers in the training school (resident or
21
master teachers) were also checked for adequacy as teacher
trainers.
The causes or reasons given to be checked against
were:
(a)
Inappropriate teaching methods used
(b)
Not enough specific help given
(c)
Important Information not given
(d)
Other reasons
At the end of the questionnaire a space was provided
with the following invitation:
”Any comments,
suggestions,
or recommendations will be greatly appreciated.”
Distribution of the questionnaire. The superintendents
2
of schools of eight California counties were asked to supply
the names and addresses of elementary-school teachers who had
only one full year of teaching experience.
Three hundred
twelve questionnaires were sent to these teachers.
One hundred sixty-five questionnaires were answered and
returned.
This Is a total of fifty-three per cent.
In most
cases, additional comments and suggestions were included, and
many people wrote separate letters giving their reactions and
recommendations.
2
The counties used in the study were Kern, Imperial,
Tulare, Ventura, San Mateo, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara,
and Fresno.
CHAPTER IV
EXAMINATION OP DATA OBTAINED PROM QUESTIONNAIRE
The reactions contained in this questionnaire are
especially significant, because they are admissions of
personal weaknesses rather than the usual rating given by
an administrator or supervisor.
Subject-matter courses,
Teachers do not usually
have a great deal of trouble with subject-matter courses.
They were included in the questionnaire mainly for the
purpose of completeness in covering all phases of the
teacher*s work.
apathetic.
The reaction to this item was rather
Fifty-four per cent of the teachers did not
even check this column;
sixteen per cent checked these
courses as adequate; while twenty-eight per cent checked at
least one subject-matter course as inadequate in some way as
presented to them In the training school.
Some of the sub­
jects listed most often as inadequately presented at the
training schools were elementary science,
spelling,
social studies, English grammar and composition,
Music.
Regarding vocal music,
arithmetic,
and literature
thirty-nine per cent of
the teachers checked this training as adequate, while thirtyseven per cent marked this item as totally or partly inadequate
■^Except In the accompanying graphs or tables of figures,
the percentage of teachers leaving the item unchecked will be
omitted.
23
The reasons checked most often for these inadequacies,
as seen
in the graph shown "below, were (1) adequate time was not given
to this subject,
(2) the problem was handled superficially,
and
(3) a real picture of conditions in the field was not given.
Degree of Adequacy
Reasons checked for Inadequacies
w
pi Item was not taught in the
training school
Unchecked
Adequate time was not given to
this subject
Existence of the problem was
not mentioned
2$
17$
Adequate
39.4 $
I
10$
8$
Partly
adequate
24 # ocr/
/
/
17 $
/
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information
was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in
the field was not given
/
u
Inadequate
13.3$
Other reasons
8$
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 1
TRAINING IN VOCAL MUSIC
24
Some of the additional comments made by teachers were
as follows:
"Wasn’t required, and program was too crowded.11
"No actual practice teaching of music.11
riI believe teachers should all have a course in how to
teach these subjects to children, rather than to merely
learn the skills themselves,11
rrSubject was offered, but not required.11
"No time in my program.11
"Not enough work with monotones.11
"Didn’t have time to take these courses.11
11Had no practice teaching in music.11
"Training was not practical.11
"Subjects were taught but not required for teaching."
"Course not required.
Need for it not stressed."
"Summer-school course was good."
"Learned about these courses in summer-school work.
Did not learn anything about them in the training school.”
"Not much opportunity to teach music in training."
"Taught but not demanded."
Husic appreciation.
Training in music appreciation was
regarded much the same in ranking of adequacy.
Thirty-five
per cent of the teachers checked this training as adequate,
while thirty-seven per cent marked this item as partly or
totally inadequate.
The reasons checked most often for these
inadequacies were (1) adequate time was not given to this sub­
ject,
(2) available specific information was not given, and
(3) a real picture of conditions in the field was not given.
Some of the additional comments made by teachers con­
cerning music appreciation are quoted below:
"The adult student was given a course in appreciation
that fits the adult levels, but more time should be given
to thinking about the child1s level."
"Not taught how to present to children."
"We were taught appreciation, but not how to teach it."
25
"Had no opportunity to teach, appreciation during
practice teaching."
"Too much theory given.”
"Summer-school courses were better taught than in
the regular session."
Reasons checked for Inadequacies
Degree of Adequacy
3.1#
Unchecked
23.8^
37.5#
Adequate
35.7/b
2%
10.4#
12.5#
Partly
adequate
2 1 .2%
/
V
Adequate time was not given
to this subject
Existence of the problem was
not mentioned
Problem was handled super­
ficially
Available specific information
was not given
Alternative methods not given
/
12.5#
A real picture of conditions
In the field was not given
Other reasons
'/
3.1#
11.5#
/
-u
Inadequate
15.1#
7.3#
Item was not taught in the
training school
/
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 2
TRAINING IN MUSIC APPRECIATION
Art.
headings:
The training In art was considered under four
drawing, painting,
crafts, and appreciation.
The
\
26
rankings for these four groups were very much alike, as may
he seen in the graphs shown below.
groups,
As an average of the four
thirty-six per cent of the teachers marked training
in art as adequate, while forty-one per cent checked training
in art as either partly or totally inadequate.
Drawing
Unchecked
21 .2 $
Unchecked
21 .2#
Adequate
34. 6$
Partly
adequate
19.4$
I
Adequate
37$
/
/
Partly
adequate
17.6$
/
Inadequate /
/
24.8$
/
Crafts
Painting
Inadequate
24.2$
I
9
/
7
/
/
Appreciation
Unchecked
21.8 %
Uncheeked
23$
Adequate
39.4$
Adequate
34.5$
Partly
adequate
15.8$
Partly
adequate
22.4 $
Inadequate /
23$
Inadequate ^
20 $
/
/
FIGURE 3.
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF ART
y
I
27
The reasons checked most often for these Inadequacies
were the same for the three manual-art skills.
The following
three reasons were checked most frequently in the order named;
(1) adequate time was not given to this subject,
not taught in the training school,
(2) item was
and (3) a real picture of
conditions in the field was not given.
The follov/ing graphs
show this information in detail:
Reasons checked for Inadequacies
Drawing
18.2$
Item was not taught in the training school
24.4$
Adequate time was not given to this subject
1.14$ L-l
10.2$
5.6$
14.8$
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods of handling the problem
were not given
A real picture of conditions in the field
was not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 4
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF ART
28
Reasons checked for Inadequacies
Painting
17.05?
Item was not taught in the training school
30.8J?
Adequate time was not given to this subject
1.15?
1 2 .15?
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
9.95?
Available specific information was not given
3.3 %
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
12.15?
6 .85?
7 ^Qffy
Other reasons
Reasons -unchecked
m
FIGURE 5
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF ART
In art appreciation,
the indicated reasons were
checked the most frequently in the following order:
Reasons checked for Inadequacies
Crafts
13.3$
'60.1%
2 .2 $
11.4$
6 •O 70
2 .2 %
12.5$
6 .8 $
13.3$
ES3 Item was not taught in the training school
Adequate time was not given to this subject
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 6
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF ART
30
(1) adequate time was not given to this subject,
was not taught in the training school,
(2) item
(3) problem was
handled superficially, and (4) available specific information
was not given.
This information is shown in the graph
below:
Reasons checked for Inadequacies
Art Appreciation
21.8$ Va Item was not taught in the training school
26.5^ HI Adequate time was not given to this subject
4.0/0
13.8,%
1.9%
2.3%
6.9%
4.
11.5%
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 7
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF ART
J;
31
Some of the additional comments made by the teachers
were as follows:
”1 believe teachers should all have a course in how
to teach these subjects.11
11We were not taught how to teach these subjects.”
” There was no required course covering this field."
"Subject was offered but not required.”
"Not enough taught for practical use.”
"Not required."
"Learned about these courses in summer-school work.
Did not learn anything about them in the training school."
"Not taught how to teach the crafts."
"Course not required-."”
"Not on first-grade level."
"No actual practice of teaching in art."
"Liberal arts colleges do not spend enough time nor
stress enough the importance of training -in music and
art."
Reading.
The subject of reading might be broken down
into dozens of separate skills.
Many of these skills seem to
offer no special difficulties, and with others it is not easy
for a teacher to evaluate her own effectiveness.
Only some of
the more trying and perplexing techniques were considered in
this query,
such as techniques for slow readers, techniques
for nonreaders,
and how to maintain enthusiasm for reading.
Thirty-two per cent of the teachers regarded training in the
techniques for teaching slow readers as adequate, while fiftysix per cent believed this training to be partly or totally
inadequate.
Techniques for handling nonreaders was checked
by twenty-seven per cent of the teachers as being adequately
taught at the training schools, while sixty-two per cent
regarded this as partly or totally inadequate.
How to maintain
32
enthusiasm for reading was regarded a little more favorably.
Thirty-eight per cent regarded this instruction as adequate,
and forty-four marked it as partly or wholly inadequate.
Techniques for
Ifonreaders
Techniques for
Slow Readers
How to Maintain Enthusiasm
for Heading
Unchecked
10 .
Unchecked
10 .
Unchecked
16.4#
Adequate
27.
Adequate
32.7 %
Adequate
38.7#
Partly
adequate
27.2#
/
-d
Partly
adequate
27.8#
/
/
7
/
Inadequate
34.5#
/
/
/
/
Inadequate
28.5#
Partly
adequate
20 6%
.
/
/
/
V
/
Inadequate
24.2#
FIGURE 8
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF READING
/
/
2
33
The causes or reasons indicated for the insufficiency
of training in techniques for slow readers were checked as
follows,
in order of frequency:
given to this subject,
not given,
(1) adequate time was not
(2) available specific information was
(3) a real picture of conditions in the field
was not given, and (4) alternative methods of handling the
problem were not given.
Techniques for nonreaders were
checked for inadequacies in the following order:
time was not given to this subject,
information was not given,
in the field was not given,
(1) adequate
(2) available specific
(3) a real picture of conditions
(4) problem was handled super­
ficially, and (5) alternative methods of handling the problem
were not given.
The reasons indicated for a lack of suitable
instruction in how to maintain enthusiasm were checked as
follows, in order of frequency:
given to this subject,
was not given,
(4)
(1) adequate time was not
(2) available specific information
(3) problem was handled superficially,
and
alternative methods of handling the problem were not
given.
This information, with the exact percentages involved
in each case, is shown in more detail in the graphs on the
following pages.
Some of the additional comments made by the teachers
were as follows:
”Children in training schools are of a much higher
type than most of us find in the field.
More
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Techniques for
Nonreadera
9 .7 *
n
Item was not taught in the training school
Adequate time was not given to this subject
27.1%'
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
4. o/o
12.9#
Problem, was handled superficially
IO
rz•O/o
coo/l
Available specific information was not given
12 .2#
Alternative methods not given
13 .5#
5.
0
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 9
TRAIN HI G IN THE TEACHING OF READING
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Technigues for
Slow Readers
9.4$
25.4$
4.5$
Item was not taught in the training school
Adequate time was not given to this subject
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
12.9$
Problem was handled superficially
13.5$
Available specific information was not given
1 2 .2 $
Alternative methods not given
13.5$
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
.7$
5.0$
FIGURE 10
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OP READING
36
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
How to Maintain Enthusiasm
for Reading
7.2^
23.4^
n
ggj Adequate time was not given to this subject
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
7.2%
13 .7*
Item was not taught in the training school
|
Problem was handled superficially
16 .1*
Available specific Information was not given
1 2 .1*
Alternative methods of handling the problem were
not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
10 .4*
.8%
8 .8 *
FIGURE 11
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING- OF READING
Some of the additional comments made b y the teachers
were as follows:
"Children in training schools are of a much higher
type than most of us find In the field.
More considera­
tion should be given the mixed racial and migrant
groups.tf
"Lots of theory, but too remote from practice."
"Too much theory."
"Rushed for time during training period.”
"Methods not adequate for the migratory child.”
37
tfI consider this one of the most important problems
that training schools neglect.
Methods of handling read­
ing problems should be given thorough consideration
through actual experience or observation in handling the
problem.”
"Teacher of college course lectured on theory that
could never be practiced.
Didn*t teach anyone how to
teach anything to anyone."
"Reading methods were not taught in any required
education course.
In my opinion, the courses under
Dr. _____
were a total loss as far as assisting in
teaching." (Italics that of the teacher giving the
3 t S.teraent.)
"Need to know more about skills to be acquired for
each grade."
Physical education.
The reports on training in phys­
ical education give a somewhat brighter picture.
When-‘asked
about the sufficiency of the facts taught concerning a know­
ledge of a complete schedule of games played throughout the
year, fifty-five per cent of the teachers checked this phase
of instruction as adequate, and twenty-eight per cent marked
it as partly or totally inadequate.
Fifty-five per cent of
the teachers checked their knowledge of athletic equipment
as adequate, while twenty-six per cent marked this knowledge
as partly or totally inadequate for their purposes.
Other
items in this field indicated as inadequate were a knowledge
of rhythmic activities, first-aid training,
hygiene instruction,
training in
a knowledge of what games to play at
various age levels, how to maintain enthusiasm for physical-education activities, rural-school physical education,
and playground relationships.
The graphs of the degree of
adequacy of the questionnaire items in physical education
appear on the next page.
38
Knowledge of a. complete
schedule of games played
"
‘ the year
Knowledge of
Athletic Equipment
Unchecked
16.4%
Unchecked
Adequate
55.7$
Adequate
55.7$
Partly
adequate
17%
Partly
adequate
13.3%
Inadequate
10.9$
Inadequate
13.
FIGURE 12
'
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The causes given for inadequacies In the first item
named above were checked in the following order of frequency:
(1)
adequate time was not given to this subject,
picture of conditions in the field was not given,
(2) a real
(3) available-
specific information was not given, and (4) problem was handled
superficially.
The causes checked for inadequacies in the
second item listed above were checked In this order of
frequency:
(l) item was not taught in the training school
(2) available specific information was not given, and
(3) adequate time was not given to this subject.
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Knowledge of a complete
schedule of games played
throughout the year
12.5#
Item was not taught in the training school
18.7#
Adequate time was not given to this subject
6 .2 #
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
15.6#
Problem was handled superficially
15.6#
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
4.7#
17.2#
3.1#
6 .2 #
I
A real.picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 13
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OP PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
40
Knowledge of
Athletic Equipment
25.0%
Item was not taught In -the training school
15.0%
Adequate time was not given to this subject
11 .6%
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
13.3%
Problem was handled superficially
15.0%
Available specific information was not given
5.0%
5.0%
3. 3%
6 .6%
Alternative methods of handling the problem were
not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 14
TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Some of the additional comments made by teachers are
quoted below:
,fNot enough emphasis on rules and actual training in
basketball, speedball, baseball, and volleyball as it is
being played in most elementary schools."
“Not specific enough information g i v e n / 1
f,A physical education course was offered, but not
required,11
"Should have more knowledge of many games and age levels
at which they should be played."
"On the training-school playground there is not the
problem one faces in the field where you must have organi­
zed physical education with one teacher in charge of
thirty to fifty boys."
41
Keeping a register.
In the matter of training in
keeping a register, forty-nine per cent voted this as ade­
quate, while forty-five per cent declared it to be partly
or totally inadequate.
for inadequacy,
When asked to check their reasons
the two chief causes given were (l) item
was not taugh-t in the training school, and (2) adequate time
was not given to this subject.
This information is given
in more detail in the graphs below.
Degree of Adequacy
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Unchecked
5.4#
45.1#
Item was not taught In the
training school
26.4#
Adequate time was not given to
this subject
Adequate
49.1#
Partly
adequate
10.3 %
Inadequate
35.1#
5.5#
4.4#
5.5#
3.3#
1 .1#
8.9#
Existence of the problem was not
mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Specific information not given
A real picture of conditions in the
field was not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 15
TRAINING IN KEEPING A REGISTER
42
Marking report cards.
Instruction concerning the mark­
ing of report cards was reported by forty-two per cent of the
teachers to he adequate and by fifty per cent as being partly
or wholly Inadequate*
The reasons most frequently checked for
a lack of training were (1) item was not taught in the training
school,
and (2) adequate time was not given to this subject.
Degree of Adequacy
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Unchecked fl
6. 6 %
40.
Item was not taught in the
training school
18.
Adequate time was not given to
this subject
Adequate
42.4$
Partly
adequate
15.
6 .2$
10.3$
Inadequate
35.1$
8 .2 $
3.1$
6 .2 $
1 .0$
6 .2 $
Existence of the problem was
not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information
was not given
Alternative methods not given
I A real picture.of conditions not given
H Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 16
TRAINING IN MARKING REPORT CARDS
43
School programs,
The situation regarding school
programs Is clearly indicated,
With all the emphasis on
activity units- during the past decade, it seems only natural
that activity culminations should rank highest on the list
of school programs.
Training in producing activity culmina­
tions was regarded as adequate b y forty-nine per cent of
the teachers, and as partly or totally inadequate by
thirty-eight per cent of them.
Training in other types of
school programs, however, was not so well regarded.
Thirty-
two per cent of the teachers answering the questionnaire
marked training in presenting holiday programs as being ade­
quate, while fifty-nine per cent thought this to be partly
or totally inadequate.
Training in the technique of preparing
for graduation exercises was checked as adequate by twenty
per cent and as partly or wholly inadequate by fifty-five per
cent.
Training in the production of school plays was marked
as adequate b y twenty-seven per cent of the teachers and as
partly or completely Inadequate by fifty-five per cent.
information is shown in detail in the following graphs.
This
44
Activity
Culminations
Holiday
Programs
Unchecked
8.5$
Unchecked
1 2 .1$
Graduation
Exercises
["] Unchecked
U
24.2$
School Plays
Unchecked
16.4$
Adequate
32.1$
Adequate
49.7$
Partly
adequate
20.
Adequate
20 $
Adequate
27.8$
Partly
adequate
1 2 .1$
Partly
adequate
18.2$
Partly
adequate
18.8$
/
7
Inadequate
19.4$
7
Inadequate
38.7$
Inadequate)/
43.7$
7
7
Inadequate
37.6$
/■
7
FIGURE 17
TRAINING IN PRODUCING SCHOOL PROGRAMS
The causes or reasons most frequently checked for any
inadequacy In preparing the teachers for producing activity
culminations, holiday programs,
and school plays were:
(1) item was not taught in the training school, and (2) ade­
quate time was not given to this subject.
The reasons for
the-indication of inadequacy of preparing graduation exercises
were checked in order of frequency as follows:
(1) item
45
was not taught In the training school,
problem was not mentioned,
(2) existence of the
and (3) adequate time was not
given to this subject.
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Activity Culminations
25.6#
H
Item was not taught in the training school
19.
Adequate time was not given to this subject
7 •0#
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
8 .1#
1 .1#
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
7.0#
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 18
TRAINING IN. PRODUCING SCHOOL PROGRAMS
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Holiday Programs
27.7#
16.
13. 8$
8.5$
10.7$
8.5$
2.3$
8.5$
Item was not taught in the training school
I
Adequate time was not given to this subject
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 19
TRAIN 117G IN PRODUCING SCHOOL PROGRAMS
47
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
G-raduation Exercises
33.9% ^
Item was not taught in the training school
15.5%
Adequate time was not given to this subject
14.4^ fgl Existence of the problem was not mentioned
7. 6%
Problem was handled superficially
9.3 $
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
6 • O/O
A real picture of conditions in the field was not given
Other reasons
10 .2%
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 20
TRAINING IN PRODUCING SCHOOL PROGRAMS
48
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
School Plays
31.5%
Ed Item was not taught in the training school
15.
Adequate time was not given to this subject
12.3#
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
6 .1#
Problem was handled superficially
10#
1.5#
6 .1#
4.6#
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was not given
Other reasons
12.3#
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 21
TRAINING IN PRODUCING SCHOOL PROGRAMS
The following were some of the comments made by
teachers concerning school programs:
11This is really an Important item.
It is a time when
parents come to see what the teacher can do with their
child.
Until I put on a Thanksgiving play In my first
year of teaching, I had no experience in this work.”
”Beginning teachers should have some knowledge of
how to handle royalty restrictions and similar problems.”
”Not on primary level.”
”Not a required course.”
”These were not touched.
Have to rely on outside
activities in college.”
49
“Needed very much, in a rural situation.“
“Very little was mentioned on these phases of school
programs as the colleges are trying to get away from them
although the community demands them. Very little good
material can he found ahout this.“
Public relations.
Training in other public relation­
ships was considered under the headings of Parent-teacher
Associations, dealings with parents, and community relation­
ships.
Instruction in Parent-teacher Association activities
was regarded as adequate by thirty-seven per cent of the
teachers and as partly or totally inadequate by fifty-three
per cent.
Some instruction in dealings with parents was
checked as adequate b y thirty-three per cent.
Training in
community relationships was marked as adequate b y forty-six
per cent of the teachers and as partly or completely inade­
quate by forty-four per cent.
the following graphs.
This information is shown in
50
Parent-teacher
Associ a 11ons
Dealings with
Parents
Community
Relationships
Unchecked
9.
Unchecked
12.7$
Unchecked
7 •9%
Adequate
37$
Adequate
33.9$
Adequate
Partly
adequate
20 6
.$
7
7
7
7
/
/
Inadequate
32.8^
7
Partly
adequate
26. 1 %
n
7
Partly
adequate
26.6$
/
7
7
Inadequate
27.2$
inadequate
18.2#
7
7
7
FIGURE 22
TRAINING IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
In each case,
the first two reasons checked for the
inadequate situations were, respectively,
(1) item was not
taught in the training school, and (2) adequate time was not
given to this subject.
The next two reasons checked were
either (3) a real picture of conditions in the field was not
given, or (4) problem was handled superficially.
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Parent- Teacher
Associations
27.4$
Item was not taught in the training school
17.9$
Adequate time was not given to this subject
10.
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
13.7$
Problem was handled superficially
5.2$
3.1$
12 •U/3
1$
8.4$
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 25
TRAINING IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Parents
19.8#
Item was not taught in the training school
19.1#
Adequate time was not given to this subject
7.3 #
12.5#
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
8 .1#
Available specific information was not given
8.8#
Alternative methods not given
14.7#
.7#
8.8#
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 24
TRAINING IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
53
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Community
Relationships
20%
Item was not taught in the training school
18.
Adequate time was not given to this subject
4.7 %
16.4 %
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
1%
Available specific information was not given
5.9 %
Alternative methods not given
16.4 %
A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
10.5 %
Other reasons
FIGURE 25
TRAINING IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
Some other suggestions made by teachers follow:
“ This information found mainly in graduate courses.11
"Some attention given to dealings with school officials
and also with teacher relationships would be helpful."
"Beginning teachers should have a more thorough know­
ledge of professional organizations such as the California
Teachers1 Association, the National Education Association,
and bthers.
54
Playground supervision.
Training in playground super­
vision was considered as adequate by fifty-one per cent of the
teachers answering the questionnaire, while thirty-five per
cent regarded this item as partly inadequate or inadequate.
As seen in the graphs shown below, the two reasons checked most
frequently were (l) item was not taught in the training school,
and (2) adequate time was not given to this subject.
Degree of Adequacy
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Unchecked
12.7#
Adequate
51.5#
31.
Item was not taught in the
training school
15.9#.
Adequate time was not given
to this subject
5.8#
1 0 .1#
Partly
adequate
18.8#
Inadequate
17#
4.3#
2.9#
5.8#
.1#
2 1 .8#
Existence of the problem was not
mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information
not given
Alternative methods not given
A real picture of conditions in
the field was not given
Other reasons
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 26
TRAINING IN PLAYGROUND SUPERVISION
55
Discipline.
Training in the techniques of maintaining
discipline was investigated by asking the teachers to check
the adequacy of the training-school instruction,
sixteen specific problem-situations.
according to
The reactions of the
teachers to the training they received in these items of
discipline are shown in the following graphs.
Unchecked
Maintaining order
in the classroom
Adjustment of dignity
and familiarity
6.6%
Adequate
Partly
adequate
p
.... ^
50. 35
7. 5%
38.2%
f—■■ ■ i
13.9%
SSS2SSS
41.2%.
10.
DD/o
9.1 %
52.'7%
51.5%
9.6%
Inadequate
\
26 %
14%
Types of punishments
Destruction of school
property
Lack of attention
Problems involving
disrespect for
authority
Problems with
defiant pupils
Problems with
incorrigible pupils
Problems with bullies
1 2 .1%
xzzszzxcx
51.2%
22.4%
-v
IXIZXEZL. 1
40%
22.4%
7.3 %
37.7%
36.4%
28.5%
r
20%
29.1%
29.7%
32.7%
11.5%
"TTC
V
19.4%
\l
10.3%
X I
16.4%
28.5%
\
A.
24.2%
V" M A T H
23.6%
V V
27.8%
l\
V
23%
M
I
■n , ,
P r. , . .
Unchecked
Problems of fighting
p ~ ■
among pupils
Problems of stealing
c
S,
20.3$
Problems of lying
Problems of truancy
c
23$
M
S.
M
21.2$
32.7$
r
Vy
V. 1
26.7$
\ vvirm
29.7$
26.7$
23$
\ \
24.8$
23$
\ V \
23.6$
c
c
V,
\ ^ V >C-|V
17.6$
21.8 %
Problems of immor­
ality
\
Inadequate
^ .■]—
35.1$
23$
20.3$
Problems of smoking
Partly
adequate
^
Adequate
2 1 .2 $
23$
V \
30.1$
H V
\ I
V v, M
32.1$
FIGURE 27
TRAINING IN MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE
In every case the reason most frequently checked for
the Inadequacy was that enough time was not given to this
subject.
The two next most frequently checked reasons for
inadequacy of training in discipline were either (1) a real
picture of conditions In the field was not given, or (2) prob­
lem was handled superficially.
The exact percentage of choices
is shown in the graph below:
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Maintaining order
in the classroom
4$
A«udSf
« m U ia r it vy g n lt7
and famil
K
^
Types of punishments
r
a
\a
10$
22$
1Q^
i
3$ 13$ 10$
C^ 114^
1)
1Q
p
m
13$
z
w
15$
I i*& ^I P TEE2 Q ^
h t
r~i
10$ 7$
^
eIFI a m
ir
n
20$
4$
17$
10$ 9$
12$ 3$ 12$
57
Destruction of school
property
A
B
13#
18#
A
Problems involving
disrespect for
authority
Problems with
defiant pupils
Prob 1 ems wi th
lazy pupils
Problems with in­
corrigible pupils
12#
8$
5#
A
c=
7#
D
D
15#
C
22 #
8$
D
B
C
D
6$
17$
C
D
9$
A
23$
B
C
12 #
Problems of truancy
Problems of smoking
Problems of im­
morality
Problems of lying
23#
H
P
G H
n n
10$ 6$ 11$
n
I
]
11$
P
G H X
1
3T
10# 8# 9# .8# 11#
E P G H
I
33
O
10# 6# 9# 1# 11#
C
C
5#
17#
D
21#
= )
H I
1
3E
C
9#
9#
13#
.7#
10#
7#
18#
21
#
10
D
E P G H I
A
B
G
__________
II
I
□
I
9# 14# 10# 4# 11# ]# 11#
23#
13#
D
E F G H I
A
B
I
1 I= J1
J
12# 13# 11# 4# 10#]# 10#
20 #
15#
C
D
E
P
G II I
A
B
L
ITT IE
E
15# 11# 10# 6# 10% 3# 12#
19#
14#
D
E/ P G H
I
A
B
S\YC^S\YY^V WM ^ ^ N \\\V \\\Y '
r
11#
23#
6#
22#
8# 8# 8# .8# 13#
B
A
Problems of stealing
I
T
14$ 4$ 10$
G
E
E
I
no
3=1
Problems with bullies
Problems of fighting
among pupils
P .
10$ 11$ 14$
s
25$
H
17# 4# 6#
13#
E
I
5# 8#
G
11#
r =
B
15#
WWWWWY
I
7#
H
G
wwwwww 3 = 1
E
I
B
A
P
I
11# 6#
15#
ss
12#
E
\\\\\\\\\\\
&x~fo
B
&
21 #
A
□
H
I
H
I
I
4 8# 11# 4# 9#
19#
G
H I
E
G
P
XWWWWY kWXVCXW = 3 =
I
14# 10# 15#
15#
6#
21#
C
B
\\\\\\\\V 3\\\X w m m
3$
A
P
D
B
ss
Lack of attention
E
D
C
D
$
E
P
G
o
I I .u
FIGURE 28
TRAINING IN MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE
.:=
58
FIGURE 28 (continued)
(Meaning of the alphabetical letters in the graph)
A
B
C
D
E
F
-
Item was not taught in the training school
Adequate time was not given to this subject
Existence of the problem was not mentioned
Problem was handled superficially
Available specific information was not given
Alternative methods of handling the problem were
not given
G - A real picture of conditions in the field was
not given
H - Other reasons
I - Reasons unchecked
Teachers commented freely on this problem.
Some of
their remarks are quoted below:
"The greatest inadequacy of all was In the matter of
discipline, in which absolutely no training methods or
specific help was given at all in training school and for
which a dire need was felt in my first year .of teaching.”
"Too often training schools take for granted the fact
that there will be stealing, smoking, truancy, and im­
morality without teaching the student any method of hand­
ling.
If there could be case studies given and various
procedures of handling would be given new teachers, they
would have something to start with.”
"Too much theory and not enough actual practice."
"No examples or cases given of discipline problems."
"Nothing too definite was said on these problems.
There should be a special course in the psychology de­
partment to cover this, In my opinion."
"Discipline should be stressed more in relation to
life situations."
"I wish that there had been more chances to observe
many public schools, not just demonstration schools."
"I believe that there is not enough emphasis on the
fact that situations vary.
The training school tells
you only of the ideal situation and how to handle It."
"in general there was too much theory and not enough
practical, usable methods given."
"Many good applicable courses were in graduate summerschool work, but I felt they were best then after exper­
ience, so definite teaching problems could be brought up,
59
discussed, and solutions offered by other experienced
teachers.ft
”Too much emphasis is placed on theory and the ideal
situation, which rarely occurs,'’
”Practically all discipline was omitted during teach­
ing courses— excused by the professors because, fWe
would not have any discipline problems in s c h o o l . ™
11The ideal situation is dealt with too much.”
tfThere were very few problems of discipline during my
training period of one hour a day. Very little attention
was given discipline in my education courses.”
nThe teacher-training schools have been too theoretical
to the exclusion of practical devices and techniques.
I
feel this is especially true in regard to discipline.
This
is lamentable since most serious teacher problems are
discipline problems.”
”Of course mastery of your school-room discipline
comes to you by experience, but it would have helped
to have had these various problems discussed.”
"Discipline problems were mostly left up to the
discretion of the cadet teacher.
It was supposed that
good character in the teacher would give her the ability
to give good character to the student.
Help in methods
of working with such problems was needed.”
”1 believe that practical, workable methods of treat­
ing such cases should be given.”
” The idea that under the ideal set-up where the work
is so well presented that high interest on the part of
children prevents any discipline cases from arising within
the school is possibly the reason so little attention is
given.
However, in the typical school situation are cases
that do not react to ’interest* cures.
The teacher should
be equipped to handle such cases.”
”1 d i d n ’t contact this problem in training, but it has
proved to be a real problem since.”
"Gases were always given but very few methods of
effective punishments were mentioned.”
”The training school took the attitude that if teachers
were good, children would be interested.
Ttiis is not
always true.”
"Treated much too far in the theoretical plane.”
"Training-school suggestions inadequate— partially
effective.”
"Student teachers should not be permitted to teach
first assignment in problem room.”
"Primacy of problem not stressed sufficiently.”
"The student teacher has very little to do with dis­
ciplining children because her critic teacher is nearly
always in the room and the children are usually conscious
of her presence.”
60
11Talking to children was emphasized.
This procedure
is good for some children, but for others the only things
that touch them are penaltiess such as doing time after
school, writing sentences, and losing certain privileges.
The psychology behind this type of punishment may not be
favorable, but it is ao eff ective .
,lf
"Discipline training came in an excellent practiceteaching situation."
"Where there was more than one grade, not enough
experience was given on keeping each grade occupied after
assignments are finished."
"Too many new ideas presented that don't work.1 I use
my own judgment and some of the old-fashioned methods.
They work 1"
"Too much theory in training schools."
"It is my opinion that training schools often present
the situation too idealistically.
The people leaving the
training school and going out into a true teaching situa­
tion then feel disappointed, discouraged, and bewildered."
. "The main difficulty I found with discipline was that
the practice-teaching situation was so unnatural in
comparison with a normal-school situation.
The various
types of discipline did not occur until I found them in
a real life situation of teaching, and then my own judg­
ment was the guide to solving them."
"I practice taught where discipline was well organized,
and it had been many a day since the school had seen any
rowdy-ism.
My first position was in a school where there
are a great many Mexicans and discipline has always been
a source of trouble.
My training had given me no inkling
that there could be such a situation, but I came through,
perhaps not always with the best method."
"The only valuable information I got dealing with dis­
cipline problems was through a report and research made
during a course in summer school."
A survey of this type would not be entirely complete
without some evaluation of various aspects of the trainingschool program.
Some of the items considered here were the
education courses,
the academic courses,
system, practice teaching,
the teacher-recruiting
and the teaching personnel.
61
Teacher recruiting*
The teacher-recruiting system was
not checked b y forty-seven per cent of the teachers;
per cent checked this system as adequate;
thirty
and the remaining
twenty-one per cent indicating it to be partly or totally
inadequate.
The large percentage of teachers who refused
to express themselves probably indicated that they are not
too well acquainted with this phase of the training-school
program.
Academic courses♦
percentage of teachers
There was also a fairly large
(thirty-two) who declined to comment
on the adequacy of the adademic courses.
indicated these courses as adequate,
Fifty per cent
and seventeen per cent
checked them as being partly inadequate or inadequate.
Practice teaching.
The practice teaching was marked
by twenty-seven per cent of the teachers as adequate and as
partly or completely inadequate by thirty-three per cent.
Causes or reasons for inadequacies were checked in order of
frequency as follows:
typical,
(l) practice-teaching conditions not
(2) "other reasons,"
tions to problems not given,
required,
important.
(3) available specific solu­
(4) too much "busy work"
and (5) lack of emphasis on items you considered
This information is shown in the graphs on the.
following page.
62
Degree of Adequacy
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Hot functional or useful
Pew specific applications made
to school situations
Lack of emphasis on items you
considered important
4. 9$
7.3$
Unchecked
39.4$
1 2 .2 $
Available specific solutions to
problems not given
13.1$
Adequate
27.
50,5%
Partly
adequate
27.2$
13.1%
Too much ”busy work” required
18.
Other reasons
E3 Practice-teaching conditions
not typical
Inadequate
FIGURE 29
PRACTICE TEACHING
Some of the ’’other reasons” listed by the teachers .as
causes for inadequacies in practice teaching together with
their additional comments are quoted below:
’’Five practice teachers in one room are too many.”
”Too short a period of practice teaching.”
63
"Economic difficulties of student teachers."
"There is a lack of practical observation and exper­
ience in seeing how different grades are taught.
I did
all my practice teaching in the first grade; consequently,
when I first started teaching I found it difficult to,
take other grades♦"
■ "I never had any real training in a typical rural
situation."
"Not enough practice teaching given."
"Cadet teachers were set to drift.
Some of them sank."
"More time needed to be given to practice teaching."
"No supervisor."
"I feel that the six-week training period, teaching
three subjects and living in the community is far superior
to the eighteen-week, one-course method."
"Not-enough practice teaching."
"More full days of teaching should be given a training
teacher in order that she will feel the complete routine.
Such clerical work as report cards, registers, etc., are
more likely to come up."
"My suggestion is for a two year practice teaching or
apprenticeship period, with careful and intelligent
guidance."
"I was ’on my own.11"
"I taught under very critical supervisors, and a
principal who liked nothing better than to 1call you
for a m i s t a k e . ’"
"Each practice teacher should be able to teach all
afternoon or all morning b y herself without having to
divide time with one or two others."
"Only taught three subjects."
"Pelt that cadet teachers were unfairly rated."
"More hours devoted to practice teaching would be
helpful."
"in m y practice teaching I only taught three subjects
and now I teach about eight.
If I could have had a small
amount of practice teaching in all the subjects, it would
have helped me a great deal."
"Should have had more of it."
"We w e r e n ’t given enough of the actual teaching by
ourselves."
"Too short a period."
"If a cadet teacher could practice for some time In
a rural situation, It would help her to meet such a
situation if she got a job in the country."
"I feel that much more observation of the finest of
teachers is needed."
64
"One of the biggest needs is more observation and
practice teaching.
It is not enough to have worked with
only two teachers.
By varied observation, five or six
more techniques would be acquired.”
"Not nearly enough.”
”More pre-teaching observations would help greatly.”
”Ihe addition of a few more specific subject courses
such as the actual teaching methods would be of great
value in the first years of teaching.”
” Too much book work and theory--one learns by doing.”
” 1 learned how to teach in the classroom, but did not
find out anything else about what goes on in the school
and playground.”
"Actual work with students is extremely inadequate.”
” The number of subject-matter courses is all too small.
I and many others I know had no actual work and very little
knowledge of reading and arithmetic methods until we took
our practice teaching.
Then the training teachers seemed
to think we should know all about the methods.”
”Since there are so many small rural schools In Calif­
ornia, I think that the supervisors in the colleges should
devote a period of time to conducting a schoolroom under
these conditions.
Let the student teachers observe and
get the whole picture.
A large percentage of beginning
teachers have to start teaching in rural schools and are
confronted with the same situation.
Why not prepare them
for it?”
” 1 d i d n ft have an opportunity to teach some of the
subjects.
I think every student should have at least a
*taste* of all subjects.”
"My suggestion is that the new teachers should be
better equipped with simplified teaching methods with
which to begin.”
"Less theory and more practical work.”
"The fault I find with my training for teaching Is
that I feel that I did not have any course or courses in
which definite instruction was given as to how to teach
drill subjects.”
"Not enough information on how to teach drill sub­
jects
”The big change for the teacher from cadet to regular
is organizing for the full teaching load."
"There is too much generalization and not enough
specific cases.”
”1 believe that the teaching program, per se, should
be lengthened.”
65
"There is too great a difference between the training
and the needs in the field,”
”1 d o n !t know where they expect you to find out about
what a child should be able to do in the three H fs at
different ages,”
”Because my county gave me visiting days during my
first year of teaching, it helped me more than anything
else,”
nNot enough time is given to actual teaching exper­
ience.”
”The student teacher should be in the classroom the
whole time a unit is carried on so she can see the
lauching and the culmination.”
”More experience should be given in each grade.”
”More emphasis should be placed on teaching of the
fundamental subjects.
Por instance, no arithmetic
methods were even mentioned in my teacher training.”
"Many things were in graduate courses.
They should
have been brought in more in undergraduate work.
Some
items were mentioned, but not emphasized nearly
enough.”
”A student teacher should carry on a unit of work;
and at the same time the entire program of subjects.”
"Practical training should be more thorough, and
have not so much theory.
I spent two years studying
theory which I couldn't use and when I went into practice
teaching, I d i d n ft know how to teach a drill lesson.
I could write an activity unit but I couldnft teach
it.”
"More training in rural education is needed.”
"More help is needed in devoting one's time between
two classes.”
"The training student should have more field work,
not as an observer, but as a teacher.
She then would
have a fuller background and be more capable of handling
almost any problem.”
”1 did not have enough experience in working with all
grades.”
"I think training teachers should be required to
observe good teachers much more than they are--before
trying to teach and also while they are teaching.”
"Need more classroom observation, discussion, and
participation in classroom activities before actual
supervised teaching.”
” 1 feel that if more opportunity for practice teach­
ing had been available these problems would have been
more easily faced when one is on their own."
66
11All of my reactions hinge upon the fact that the
period of actual practice teaching is inadequate.
Most
of the students, myself too, did not have enough exper­
ience to build confidence in ability to take over alone*
Many of us were never given one full day of teaching.
I suggest that each student teach at least one year--full
time.
They should receive interne’s pay for at least
the second half of practice period.
"More training in rural education is needed.11
Education courses.
Of the many education courses
offered, five were chosen for evaluation, namely, principles
of education, philosophy of education,
child development,
and methods.
educational psychology,
Rankings of adequacy were
very nearly alike for the first four of the courses named
above,
the average for this group being fifty-nine per cent
of the teachers giving an adequate check, and twenty-nine
per cent giving a mark of partly or totally inadequate.
methods courses were not so highly regarded.
The
Only thirty
per cent of the teachers regarded the instruction given in
methods courses as adequate, while sixty per cent of the
teachers answering the questionnaire indicated that these
courses were partly or wholly inadequate.
is shown in the following graphs:
This information
(on the following page)
The same causes or reasons for inadequacies were
assigned to the principles of education and philosophy of
education courses and in the same order of frequency.
Those
reasons indicated were (l) few specific applications made
67
Degree of Adequacy
Partly
Unchecked
I—
12.7$
Principles of
education
Philosophy of
education
10.3$
Educational psy­
chology
8
.
58.1$
VI VI
\
20$ 9.1$
61.8$
\
\i
20$ 7.9$
v- ^ I V l
23 %
6.S %
62. 5 %
\
Methods courses
7 . 9%
Inade-
Adequate
31.5%
\
\
V
19.
Child development
13.5 %
^
41.. 2#
.$
21 2
I71%
8
FIGURE 30
THE EDUCATION COURSES
to school situations,
(2) not functional or useful,
(3) lack
of emphasis on items considered important, and (4) available
specific solutions to problems not given.
The educational
psychology courses were checked in a somewhat different
order of frequency,
for causes of inadequacies.
indicated reason was the same in each case;
The first
i.e., few
specific applications made to school situations.
The next
reasons assigned by the teachers in order of frequency, were
(2) lack of emphasis on items considered important,
functional or useful,
to problems not given.
(3) not
and (4) available specific solutions
Teachers who checked the methods
.
68
courses and the child development courses assigned the same
reasons for inadequacies and in the same order of frequency.
They were as follows:
(1) lack of emphasis on items con­
sidered important,
(2) few specific applications made to
school situations,
(3) not functional or useful, and
(4) available specific solutions to problems not given.
These facts are shown with some detail in the following
graphs:
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
D
B
Principles of
Education
S
30%
28%
B
S
31%
A
Philosophy of
Education
29%
C
16#
A
B
13#
A
24#
B
in
14#2## 4#
D
EFGH
IJ
17#
B
s
34^
A
Educational
Psychology
20#
FGH
20#
r/o±./o±.yQd/o‘k'7o
D E F GH
L. II -JJU
1 3#1#9 #1#4#
D
27#
C
E F G H
O
I~1 I
12# 7#5# 8#4#
D F G
H
23%
15% 1%7% 12%
Methods courses
Child development
18$
21%
FIGURE 31
THE EDUCATION COURSES
69
FIGURE 31 (continued)
(Meaning of the alphabetical letters in the graph)
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
-
Not functional or useful
Few specific applications made to school situations
Lack of emphasis on items you considered important
Available specific solutions to problems not given
Practice-teaching conditions not typical
Too much "busy w o r k n required
Other reasons
Some of the additional comments made by teachers
answering the questionnaire are quoted below.
"Repetitious•"
"Limited."
"Inconclusive."
"Went too fast."
"W e r e n ft broad enough.”
"Undue emphasis on social studies."
"Too little time given to important Items."
"Need more on first-grade level."
"The methods courses were only partly adequate due
to the fact that the training school was In favor of
the activity program, and therefore we were not given
specific training in teaching certain of the skills
such as language, arithmetic, and reading.
Rather our
methods courses dealt more with subject matter and
problems arising from ’units of w o r k . 1”
"Teaching of spelling, arithmetic, grammar, and
geography should be given."
" I ’d suggest that there be more method courses the
last two years in preference to theory courses.
I
d o n ’t expect anyone to answer everything, but there
i s n ’t enough of the practical teaching material outside
of twelve weeks of student teaching."
"Too abstract.”
"More time should be given to methods--the actual
teaching in a typical situation."
"More instruction and application of methods, how
to handle children, and what to do under specific,situa­
tions ."
""inadequate because of emphasis on social studies."
70
"There should be more participation and observation
in college."
"Not enough methods given."
"I believe some of the education courses could be
combined advantageously."
"I believe more attention could be given to the
methods courses b y the colleges.
Principles of Educa­
tion and Philosophy of Education were so dry and boring,
that while I was in college I would much rather have
spent my time on methods or appreciation courses.
How­
ever, now that I have had experience in teaching, I
believe I would be much more interested in them."
"Theoretically adequate, but too remote from prac­
tice."
"I cannot see where the education courses have helped
me in teaching."
"I have yet to run across a practical education
course.
They could be practical."
"After a year of teaching I have left only the
vaguest memories of these courses.
My actual teaching
experiences have completely overshadowed them."
"If it were possible to combine theory and practice
in many of the education courses it wotild be a great
help."
"Education courses are too remote from the actual
teaching experience.
It would be of more value for an
institution to spend more money for better supervisors
and less for doctors of education who know too little
of actual classroom problems.
My suggestion is for a
two year practice teaching or apprenticeship period,
with careful and intelligent guidance."
"The required education courses are all too theoreti­
cal, stressing unimportant subjects.
No help is given
in required courses that make teaching easier."
"The required education courses were mostly a waste
of time as far as helping me in my work today is con­
cerned. "
"Philosophy of education should be a valuable course,
but ours was far too dull to arouse any enthusiasm or
desire to improve o n e ’s own philosophy.
The field of
education is in danger of degenerating unless we stop
repeating meaningless platitudes and attempt to practice
them."
"More training should have been given us in conscious­
ly forming our own practical philosophies of education
instead of so much time being spent on learning the
educational philosophies of John Dewey and other educa­
tors.
We need a conscious workable philosophy of edu­
cation that we feel is our own, every minute that we
are teaching."
71
nThe courses are too theoretical and not functional
enough.
They should tell h o w . They should give specific
classroom demonstrations and use classroom examples.”
”Training schools have failed to prepare their stu­
dent teachers for the migratory child and the problems he
presents.”
”Our training was for Progressive Education of a .
type not used in our school or in many schools in this
county.”
”One of my problems is that of trying to crowd every­
thing into the school program— including health, outside
activities, P.T.A., Hed Cross, programs, holidays,
science, besides social studies, and the regular course
of study.”
” The education courses should not deal so much with
abstract rules of teaching and learning, but should
give definite methods of teaching subject matter.”
” In my arithmetic course I had arithmetic, but I did
not learn how to teach it to children.
The same can be
said of music, art, and physical education.”
”The beginning teacher is not prepared; she d oesn ft
find in children what she expects and what to do with
them is not in her background.”
”Students are not taught how or what to teach.1”
”Not enough stress is given to the handling of routine
details of teaching so that they could be handled efficient­
ly from the first, thereby freeing the instructor for
real teaching.”
”My entire training was entirely too theoretical.
Very few practical problems were dealt with or devices
discussed.
Training-school conditions were artificial.”
” Teachers should be given more specific information
on handling a number of grades and classes in a one-room
rural school.”
”My educational courses were mostly theory without
practical application.”
”In teaching the general principles of education,
I think it would be valuable to indicate some of the
techniques which others have used in solving the problem.
Then one would at least have a starting point from which
to work.”
” In general, there was too much theory— not enough
practical, usable methods given.”
”Need of more practical methods that can be used in
a typical school situation, less theory and more good
ideas and workable methods.”
”Need to be taught more techniques not only for average
pupils, but for slow learners.”
”More time should be given in teaching a teacher-train­
ing student how to teach.”
72
tfThe progressive-training school in which I did my
practice teaching simply does not train teachers for
actual school teaching.
Too much time is devoted to
philosophy of education, educational psychology, etc.,
and not half enough time to practice teaching.
What
the student teacher needs is actual contact with pupils
in a schoolroom where problems arise because all chil­
dren are not alike.
Therefore, it would seem to me
that If more time were put into actual teaching it would
be worth dozens of education courses that deal with
history of education, etc.
I am not the only teacher
that Is teaching pupils today the way I was taught
several years ago when I attended grammar school.
There
is something wrong somewhere when Y*e have to do that.
The progressive system is just too indefinite.
All
teachers of the third grade, for example, should be
teaching their pupils the same thing.
It is difficult
for a teacher to get children from other schools and
find they have not been doing the same work.
That
happens almost every day.
I also think a student teacher
should actually teach some in every grade, for she never
knows what grade she will teach when she gets a job.”
Faculty p e r s onnel.
The faculty personnel was regarded
by forty-seven per cent of the teachers as being adequate
for their role in the teacher-training program,
and by
thirty-two per cent as partly inadequate or inadequate.
master or resident teachers
The
(the regular teachers in the
training school) were regarded b y fifty per cent of the
teachers as adequate,
and by twenty-eight per cent of the
teachers as being partly inadequate or inadequate.
critic teachers
The
(training-school supervisors) were not so
highly regarded, however.
Forty-one per cent of the teachers
checked the supervisors as being adequate, while forty-six
per cent regarded them as only partly adequate or totally
inadequate.
73
Faculty Personnel
Critic Teachers
Unchecked
12 .1 #
Uncheeked
19.4#
Resident Teachers
Unchecked
21 .2 #
Adequate
41.8%
Adequate
47.
Adequate
50.3$
Partly
adequate
29.1$
Partly
adequate
23.
Inadequate
9.1$
.#
Inadequate
17$
/
Partly
adequate
20 .6$
Inadequate
7.9#
FIGURE 32
THE TRAINING SCHOOL STAFF
In each case,
the first two reasons assigned as
causes for inadequacies were the same.
An average of forty-
eight per cent of the teachers Indicated that not enough
specific help was given, and twenty per cent of the teachers
indicated that important information was not given to them.
The following graphs will show this more clearly:
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Faculty Personnel
16.4#
Inappropriate teaching methods used
52#
Wot enough specific help given
19.3#
Important Information not given
10.9#
Other reasons
1.3#
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 33
THE TRAINING SCHOOL STAFF
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Critic Teachers
n#
Inappropriate teaching methods used
47. 5#
Not enough specific help given
2 1 .2 #
Important information not given
16.1#
Other reasons
4.2#
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 34
THE TRAINING SCHOOL STAFF
Reasons Checked for Inadequacies
Resident Teachers
15.8#
Inappropriate teaching methods used
44. V#
Not enough specific help given
22.3#
Important information not given
13.1#
Other reasons
3.9#
Reasons unchecked
FIGURE 35
THE TRAINING SCHOOL STAFF
77
Some additional comments made by the teachers are
quoted below.
ffMore critical than actually helpful.11
ftMore critic teachers are needed with recent elementary
experience.rr
ffToo critical.”
”1 felt the critic teachers did not use the right at­
titude toward the student teachers.
Why should they scare
us to death? After we get out into the field our attitude
toward county or city supervisors, which should be one
of wanting their advice and help, jLs_ instead one of fear.n
"They are too busy to give adequate attention to the
individual cadet teacher.
They are overloaded.”
"Not as helpful as should be.”
" Inactive.11
"Too critical."
"Were stale."
"Too self-centered in making a big impression, instead
of helping the student teacher."
"I saw my supervisor only once.”
"The resident teachers used practice teachers as
helpers rather than training them."
"I d o n ’t believe it is their fault.
I t ’s just the
progressive system of education that they are teaching
which is inadequate and impractical."
"I just happened to get a good teacher in the field
to work with.
Others were not so fortunate."
"Teacher unhelpful, continually said things were wrong '
but gave little help in correction of problems."
"Not always anxious to be helpful."
"Hard to talk to."
"Students feared teachers."
"Relationship between students and teachers not close
enough."
"Adequacy or inadequacy in a master teacher was purely
chance.
I happened to be lucky and got two good ones."
"It seemed to me as if the training-school teachers
were more interested in ’cutting our throat’ than trying
to help us to become good teachers.
Their attitude was
an aloof, smug, ’I ’ve got you under my thumb’ attitude.
. . . I would suggest that more and better methods
courses be given.
I would also suggest that the teachertraining teachers be more interested in helping us. to
teach."
"The faculty and critic teachers lacked knowledge of
what the teacher is up against in his field."
78
"No congeniality.”
rfOne or two are too petty.”
"Not friendly enough.”
"Their effect on many cadet teachers was that of
fright and embarrassment."
"Too old."
"Disagreement between supervisors."
"Some of the supervisors made us practice things they
never did themselves."
"Lack of close understanding due to overloading of
supervisors."
"Lack of knowledge of v#hat the teacher is up against
in his field."
"Supervised fields in which they were unfamiliar."
"Not friendly enough.
Their effect on many cadet
teachers was that of fright and embarrassment."
S u m mary.
It was revealed that there are large numbers
of recent graduates of elementary teacher-training institutions
who regard a large part of their training as unsatisfactory.
There is a possibility that a small number of the questionnees
in this study were mistaken,
and that still others were dis­
gruntled with some aspects of the training-school program for
some obscure, personal reason.
However,
the great majority
of the indications of inadequacy are probably sincere and
reliable.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS
The data presented in the previous chapter revealed a
large percentage of recent graduates from teacher-training
institutions who are not satisfied with the training they
received and who believe themselves inadequately prepared to
handle many phases of their jobs.
It is to be expected that
no system of training, no matter how perfect it may be,
could please every individual.
Yet, when such a relatively
large percentage of teachers is not satisfied,
the trend
must be regarded as significant.
I.
SUMMARY
Training in the teaching of m u s i c .
Training in the
teaching of vocal music and music appreciation seemed to
present no problems to music teachers who had special
training in these skills.
However,
knew but very little about music,
to many students who
a three- or a five-unit
course probably does not prepare them well enough to teach
the subject.
This is borne out by the fact that the item
checked most frequently as a cause of inadequacy was that
enough time was not given to this subject.
Another fre­
quently indicated reason for dissatisfaction was the fact
that a real picture of conditions in the field was not
given.
If the cadet teacher is made to understand toy her
professors that there are monotones and methods of helping
them,
that many supervisors in the field expect the teacher
to teach part-singing, that there is a lack of interest
toy some students that will lead to discipline problems,
that there is often a lack of music materials,
and
she will try
to find remedies for these situations while she has access
to good literature and expert guidance.
One particular remark was made several times which,
on second thought,
is not so surprising as it at first seems.
A typical comment was that ”Summer-school courses were
better taught than in the regular session.”
Is it not sig­
nificant that these summer-school courses are very often
taught not by a professor of music but toy an outstanding
elementary-school teacher or an elementary-school-music
supervisor who has a fresh and intimate knowledge of con­
ditions in the field?
Training in the teaching of a r t .
In art training
also, the most frequently checked reason for inadequacy was
that enough time was not given to the subject.
The art
majors h a d no trouble with this subject, but, it is very
difficult for a student who has no natural aptitude for
art to acquire enough knowledge and skill to teach it
effectively after having taken only a three-unit college
81
course.
Also,
as some of the teachers remarked,
problem to learn the skills yourself,
teach the skills to others,f!
11It is one
and still another to
The Indications are that cadet
teachers must have more practice in actually teaching art
to children.
Training in the teaching of reading.
When sixty-four
per cent of the teachers were dissatisfied with their train­
ing in the techniques for handling nonreaders and fifty-six
per cent believed that their training was unsatisfactory
concerning techniques for teaching slow readers,
there can
be no mistake that there is much room for improvement by
the training schools in this regard.
Again,
the chief
reason given for this inadequacy was that not enough time
was given to the subject.
This indicates that, regardless
of how effective the Instruction happened to be,
the situation
would be more satisfactory if only the condition were con­
sidered and discussed for a longer period of time.
Another
cause that many indicated as a reason for Inadequacy was that
available specific Information was not given.
There are
scores of little techniques and ways of managing routine
procedures and situations that occur in every type of reading
class.
It is inconceivable that the training-school staff
does not know, or is not aware,
of this information.
Rather,
it is probably taken for granted that the student teachers
82
already have much of this information,
or that the importance
of it is not recognized*
Naturally,
lems.
every classroom presents different prob­
Yet the teachers stated that if they had been told
something about the high percentage of slow readers,
problems presented by the migratory child,
the
the nonreader,
the pupils who dislike reading, the lack of materials in
many places, and other common problems,
they could have taken
steps to prepare themselves for these situations.
Training in teaching physical education.
The teachers
were somewhat better satisfied with the training given in
physical education, although over twenty-six per cent found
this also inadequate in some ways.
Not many teachers other
than physical-education majors had very much knowledge of
a complete schedule of games played throughout the year or
knowledge of athletic equipment.
The graduates indicated
that they would like to have more time given to this item,
that they wanted to know more about actual conditions in the
field, and that they wanted more specific information in
handling certain aspects of this program.
Training in keeping a register.
Forty-five per cent
of the graduates checked the training received in keeping a
register as inadequate;
the most frequently checked cause
was that they had to learn how to do this during their first
83
year of teaching instead of at the training school.
Perhaps
this is not such a serious matter as some of the other items
considered here, because it does not act as a detriment to
the children, and they do not have to suffer for the teacher's
inadequacy.
Training in marking report cards.
Instruction con­
cerning the marking of report cards was reported by fifty
per cent of the teachers as inadequate;
the most frequently
marked cause was that the item was not taught in the train­
ing school.
Perhaps the main reason for so little attention
being given to this b y the training schools is that less
emphasis is being given to marks and marking systems.
How­
ever, even when.a mark of "satisfactory11 or "unsatisfactory"
is given, some care is needed, and there are generally other
items on the report that should be carefully considered.
Also, with so many marking systems in use, it would probably
be helpful to consider as many of them as possible at the
training school.
This phase of the school program should
not be slighted, for most children are very serious concerning
their report cards,
and it also is an important item in
public relations.
Training in producing school programs.
Of the four
types of school programs listed— holiday programs,
exercises,
school plays,
graduation
and activity culminations,--the
84
latter type received the largest vote as being adequate
(49.7 per cent).
This is to be expected, as there has been
so much emphasis on activity units during the past decade.
It is seen that training in the other types of school pro­
grams is not so well regarded, however, with well over fifty
per cent of the teachers indicating that they were not
sufficiently trained to prepare their pupils for holiday
programs,
graduation exercises,
and school plays.
The reason
for inadequacy most frequently indicated was that the item
was not even taught in the training school.
graduation exercises,
In the case of
over fourteen per cent of the graduates
admitted that the item was not even mentioned to them at
the training school.
Many communities regard these public appearances of
the school children as being very important.
Some schools
place a h igh value on this form of public relations,
and the
new teacher is expected to follow the custom of her predecessor
in this matter.
This is one type of instruction that the
training schools could impart with but very little added
time or effort, and the results would probably more than jus­
tify this step.
Training in public relations.
Other aspects of the
public-relations program considered for evaluation were
Parent-teacher Associations,
dealings with parents, and
85
community relationships.
vious chapter,
As seen by the figures in the pre­
large percentages of the graduates regarded
training in these items as partly or totally inadequate.
The poor attendance at most P.T.A. meetings is an expression
of the fact that the Parent-teacher program does not begin
to live up to its possibilities.
A little more attention
at the training schools could bring great changes to this
phase of public relations.
It is natural to assume that in the matter of dealings
with parents and in community relationships,
common sense
on the part of the teacher is all that is necessary.
How­
ever, the fact that there are often serious disagreements
and difficulties between the patrons,
the school attests
the community,
and
to the fact that some attention should
be given to this matter at the training school.
Often very
serious misunderstandings and unfortunate impressions, which
could be avoided, are created.
The natural place for a
consideration of these matters is at the training school,
and it is there that much ill will and hard feeling could
be prevented before it has a chance to begin.
Training in playground supervision.
The success of
a teacher in the classroom can be influenced to a very great
extent b y her demeanor on the playground, during the physicaleducation period, when she is on duty before school, or
86
during the noon period as a playground supervisor.
not odd,
Is it
then, that over thirty-one per cent of the teachers
who answered the questionnaire reported that the item was
not even taught in the training school?
It is granted that
common sense is probably the greatest factor of success in
this matter, but a little advance knowledge of conditions as
they are found on many playgrounds, plus a few techniques in
handling little incidents that arise now and then, is no
doubt helpful to the neophyte teacher.
Training in maintaining discipline.
Regardless of
how excellent preparation a teacher has had in any phase of
her training, it is her knowledge and skill in the techniques
of discipline which invariably "will make or break11 her.
In
view of the wide acceptance of this fact, the reports of
the graduates, as recorded in the previous chapter, are very
significant.
The widespread indication of dissatisfaction
with training in the techniques of discipline is startling.
It was revealed that the ”how-to-do-itn part of
teaching seemed to be uppermost in the minds of these beginning
teachers.
The graduates want more specifics.
Two sample
quotations from this group will serve to illustrate:
(a) fTIf one-half of the time that was devoted to generalities
in teaching had been devoted to showing me exactly what to
do, I should have been saved many a trying ordeal.”
(b) r,No
87
specific training was given in handling problem children, or
explanation of the classroom crises that-arise which are much
more difficult for the young teacher than subject matter.”
Someone will no doubt object that the beginning teacher
should show some initiative,
and that the solution of cer­
tain situations will depend upon circumstances which will
differ with the personality of the teacher and other variable
factors.
Granted.
But that teacher will be in a much better
position to act if several alternative courses of action
have been brought to her attention,
ted with one procedure,
or if she is well-acquain­
technique or skill.
There are many
very trivial matters that experienced teachers handle expertly
without a second thought but which may throw a beginning
teacher into a state of extreme confusion when confronted
suddenly with the necessity of making a decision.
There are
many beginning teachers who do not realize that normal,
berant children do not move like checkers.
exu­
Granted that no
one can give all the answers, no matter how experienced he
may be, yet should not some of the following sample situations
at least be discussed at the training school?
1.
One or two children refuse to play games during
the physical-education period.
2.
Two boys fight on the way home after school.
3.
Twenty-five cents is stolen from the teacher’s desk.
4.
A boy purposely breaks a ruler.
88
5.
There is unnecessary noise when the children are
coming in from recess.
6.
An irritating noise seemingly comes from nowhere.
7.
The class seems to show a lack of respect for the
teacher.
8.
Some children refuse to sing during music period.
9.
One grade finishes an assignment before the other
is through reciting, and the room becomes noisy.
10.
A girl uses profane language on the playground.
11.
The unmistakable odor of cigarette smoke can be
detected on the breath of some of the boys.
■Of the sixteen specific examples of discipline prob­
lems likely to arise, which are listed in the questionnaire,
in every case the reason most frequently checked for the
inadequacy in training was that not enough time was given
to this subject.
In most cases,
this means
no time was given to its consideration.
that practically
Indeed, many teachers,
reported that the existence of the problem was not even men­
tioned.
The two next most frequently checked reasons for
inadequacy of training in discipline were either (a) a real
picture of conditions in the field was not given, or (b) the
problem was handled superficially.
Practice teaching.
It was revealed by the question­
naire returns that thirty-three per cent of the graduates
believed their practice teaching to he inadequate.
The
chief reason indicated for this was that practice-teaching
conditions were not typical.
Naturally,
it is quite impossible
to exactly to duplicate a normal teaching situation, but
these teachers believed that more of an effort should be
made to create a condition for the cadet teacher that
approaches as nearly as possible actual conditions in the
field.
This fact is attested to by the comments of the
teachers, which are quoted in the previous chapter.
want an opportunity to teach in a rural school.
an opportunity to teach every subject.
They
They want
They also want a
full day of teaching.
Many other suggestions that seem strange are made by
these recent graduates, because they are sometimes contra­
dictory.
This of course is explained by the fact that so
many training schools are represented by these teachers that
conditions cannot be alike.
what,
Conditions may even vary some­
in the same training school from year to year.
The education courses.
chosen for evaluation,
Of the five education courses
the methods course is the one by far
with which the graduates were most dissatisfied.
Over sixty
per cent of the teachers indicated that the training they
received in this course was partly inadequate or inadequate.
This is indeed a serious indictment.
The oft-repeated,
almost
90
trite phrase is repeated again and again by these teachers:
"Too much theory was offered and not enough of practical
application,11
Because they voice the opinions of so many
of the teachers answering this questionnaire,
comments quoted in the previous chapter
here:
yo .11
two of the
be requoted
"More instruction and application of methods
needed), how to handle children,
conditions.tT
(is
and what to do under specific
"The courses are too theoretical and not
functional enough.
'They should tell h o w .
They should give
specific classroom demonstrations and use classroom examples."
The training- school staff.
The training-school staff
was considered under three separate items:
critic teachers
(supervisors),
not surprising that
faculty personnel,
and resident teachers.
It is
the critic teachers received the most
frequent checks of inadequacy, because these people must, by
the very nature of their duties,
criticize and judge the
cadet teachers and therefore risk arousing antagonistic
feelings.
Yet, because this is so, it does not follow that
it is a necessary or a natural state of affairs.
The role
of the critic teacher is especially important not only because
of the guidance given In the teaching skills but also because
the young teacher!s whole attitude toward the profession and
Its task ma y be set for years to come by the behavior of the
supervisor.
91
Mutual understanding between supervisor and teacher
is basic to effective supervision.
can hardly be overestimated.
The importance of rapport
Any resentment,
any fear, or
any disagreement with the methods of the critic teacher acts
as an obstacle which is an unfortunate barrier to further
growth and improvement.
The cause of this condition is pro­
bably the fault of both parties; however, we must put the
responsibility almost wholly on the supervisor, because she
is most fitted by experience,
training, and position to avoid
such a feeling.
Because of its direct bearing on this point, a study
conducted at New York State College for Teachers, at Albany,
1
is worth quoting herewith.
A mutual understanding is the
result of a similarity of attitudes between supervisors and
teachers as to supervisory principles and techniques.
In
order to determine whether the same attitudes exist between
these two groups, a question blank concerning supervisory
principles and techniques was submitted to 119 practice
teachers,
seventeen members of a college class in supervision,
and twelve of the supervisors of the practice school.
A few
of the significant results are disclosed below;
1.
About seventy-three per cent of the supervisory
groups thought that the supervisor should visit the class
1
R. W. Frederick and H. Halter, "Conflicting Attitudes
Toward Supervision,” Educational Administration and Super­
vision, 19:307-314, April, 1933.
92
of a student teacher on the average of twice a week.
However, fifty-seven per cent of the student teachers
thought that one a week or even less frequent visits
would he more desirable.
2.
Forty-two per cent of the supervisors said that
twenty minutes should be the length of the usual visit.
However, fifty-two per cent of the student teachers
thought that ten minutes was sufficiently long for a
visit.
Sixty-five per cent of the supervision class
thought the entire period visit was preferable.
3.
Eighty-four per cent of the supervisors and
seventy-six per cent of the supervision class said that
the supervisor should always or frequently take notes
while observing a class, but forty per cent of the
student teachers said that the supervisors should never
take notes while observing a class, and another twentythree per cent said that notes should seldom be taken.
4.
Almost half of
the supervisor should
fifty per cent of the
right to interrupt on
the student teachers feel that
never interrupt a lesson, while
supervisors would reserve the
rare occasions.
5.
One per cent of the student teachers believe that
the principal should never visit a class, and eleven per
cent believe he should seldom visit a class.
6 . All the supervisors indicated that it is always
within the province of a supervisor to require a student
teacher to read new professional books.
However, nine­
teen per cent of the student teachers said that a super­
visor seldom has the right to ask the student teacher
to read a professional book, and three per cent said the
supervisor never has this right.
7.
All the supervisors agreed that it is always within
the province of a supervisor to ask a student teacher to
be more neat about her personal appearance, get more
sleep, or wear less cosmetics.
About fourteen per cent
of the student teachers thought the supervisor in the
practice school seldom has the right to speak of such
personal things, and seven per cent thought the practiceschool supervisor ought never to speak of them.
8 . There was similar disagreement concerning oral
conferences, lesson plans, demonstration lessons, faculty
meetings, and other phases of relationship between super­
visory groups and student teachers.
93
These findings are significant and unfortunate, not
necessarily because either one of the groups may be right or
wrong concerning any of the issues but because of the pro­
nounced differences of opinion which should be eliminated in
order to attain proper supervisory rapport.
When student
teachers are regarding the classroom visit as a technique to
be tolerated rather than as helpful and desirable, when they
wish the visits to be short and over as soon as possible,
when they regard supervision as inspection rather than a
co-operative planning of improvement, when they are jealous
of their rights and resentful of many of the things a super­
visor does, and when there is a misconception of the function
of the principal or the supervisor,
It is difficult to see
how there can be mutual understanding which makes for that
rapport between these two groups which is essential to an
effective program of Improvement.
Many graduates have expressed a desire for more
friendly, helpful,
individual guidance.
Mass production
methods with the concomitant attitudes should have no part
in the training-school program.
sentimentality; however,
There is no place for
an unmistakable spirit and attitude
of kindliness, friendliness,
and genuine helpfulness on the
part of those people in charge of student teachers should
prevail.
Ho w much better it would be If the student teacher
would sincerely say to herself,
n0h, good I
The supervisor is
94
going to come In to see me today J” rather than the usual,
"Here is that old supervisor again]
Oh well, maybe she w o n ’t
be here long this time.”
II.
1.
music.
CONCLUSIONS
That more time be given to training In art and
This seems necessary because the great majority of
cadet teachers know very little concerning the content
material of specialized subjects such as art and music.
addition,
In
they still must master the teaching skills in these
subjects.
2.
That more emphasis be devoted to techniques for
slow readers and for nonreaders.
Tills change is probably
justified, because so many of the teachers have made the
suggestion.
Also,
slow readers and nonreaders ought to have
more attention, because
they will not improve without special
help, whereas the, average and the fast readers do not require
nearly as much attention.
3.
That the students in the training schools be given
as complete and authentic a picture as possible concerning
the actual conditions they will find in the schools through­
out the state.
It is as true here as anywhere that ”to be
forewarned is to be forearmed.”
4.
That Insofar as possible all training and instruc­
tions given to students be as specific and detailed as
95
possible.
Naturally,
situations will vary,
and teachers
will not always wish to rely on directions from others.
Still,
if they were given detailed and specific instructions
it would eliminate a great deal of confusion and trial-byerror learning.
5.
Hi at students be thoroughly trained,in handling
extracurricular activities,
programs,
such as all types of school
school clubs, playground supervision,
teacher Associations.
and Parent-
Even an expert classroom teacher is
seriously handicapped in doing a good and complete job of
teaching unless she can manage her extracurricular duties
effectively.
6.
That every discipline problem likely to arise be
carefully considered,
and several specific and detailed
methods of dealing with the situation be offered.
7.
That practice-teaching conditions be a duplication
of conditions in the field as far as this is practicable.
It
might even be feasible to put cadet teachers in the field as
” internes,tr and to pay them a s^^bsistence salary.
8.
That all theory given in education courses be
supplemented with specific, practicable, and functional
applications to real school situations.
Unless a theory can
be demonstrated or given concrete illustrations,
forgotten.
it is soon
96
9.
That the training-school staff make more of an
effort to cultivate a spirit of helpfulness and friendliness
between themselves and their students.
seern to be self-evident and basic,
This statement would
yet a great number of
graduates have indicated that this is not always the case.
10.
That the training program be constantly evaluated.
As many students and teaching graduates as possible should be
contacted for criticisms and reactions.
These data concerning
all phases of the training-school program should be carefully
and systematically collected and used.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Adams, Alice, W e a k n e s s e s in the Training of Beginning Pri­
mary Teachers as Revealed by Ratings of Principals and
Interviews with Teachers.” Unpublished M a s t e r Ts thesis,
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Califor­
nia, August, 1930.
Title is self-explanatory.
The data from forty-one
teachers is too limited to be conclusive.
There is a
good treatment of the material, however, and the study
has a splendid annotated bibliography.
Bathhurst, Effie, ”Alumni Evaluation of Training,” Educa­
tional Administration and Supervision, 13:485-488,
September, 1927.
Eighty-four teaching graduates indicated the adequacy
of their preparation in nine items.
The study is of
limited value because of the small number of teaching
problems which were considered.
Cahoon, G. P., ”What Training do Beginning Teachers Heed?”
University High School Journal, 10:2, 131-159, August,
1930.
This survey has limited value for the present study as
it is on the secondary level.
However, It is a study of
an alumni evaluation of the training-school experience,
and as such it contains suggestions which warrant con­
sideration.
, 11Does a Teacher-training Program Adequately Pre­
pare Teachers?” School and Society, 20:228-232, August,
1934.
In this article, Cahoon discusses and evaluates the find­
ings of the study mentioned in the above reference.
DeVore, Emily, ”Improvement of Practice-Teaching as Suggested
b y Graduates of 0ne-yearfs Teaching Experience,” Educa­
tional Administration and Supervision, 13:611-24,“D e c e m ­
ber, 1927.
Discusses suggestions made b y forty graduates of eight
normal schools and teachers colleges located in various
sections of the United States concerning various aspects
of their training program.
99
Drake, Lois M . , "Externs in Teacher Training,” Journal of
National Education Association, November, 1928, pp. 241243.
Describes the method employed b y Eastern South Dakota
State Teachers College In helping beginning teachers over
difficulties encountered during first year of teaching.
Frederick, R. W. and H. Hollister, "Conflicting Attitudes
Toward Supervision,” Educational Administration and
Supervision, 24:69-73, January, 1938.
Emphasizes the importance of rapport, and reveals how
it is lacking between practice teachers and supervisors.
Hall, Robert 0., "A Study of the Problems of the Beginning
Elementary School Teachers,” Unpublished Master's
thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
California, 1941.
A questionnaire concerning selected Instructional and
non-instructional problems of teaching was sent to eightyfour teaching graduates of the University of Southern
California.
The forty-six questionnaires which were re­
turned yielded much helpful information on these prob­
lems.
A valuable study.
Kelly, Florence M., ”An Analysis of the YJork of an Elementary
Principal in Assisting the Beginning Teacher,” Unpublished
Master's thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1929.
This reference is helpful in studying the weaknesses of
beginning teachers fresh from the training schools.
KIrkley, J. A., "Virtues and Defects of Normal School Train­
ing, as Seen by Graduates of Two, Five, and Ten Years
Service,” Educational Administration and Supervision,
7:103-110, January, 1921.
Some of the criticisms voiced in this very informal
study no longer hold true today.
However, the same things
are still being said concerning the abstract and theoreti­
cal nature of some of the training.
Leitzell, Hazel G. , "Education Students1 Ideas on Certain
Questions of Instructional Technique."
Unpublished
Master's thesis, University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, California, 1931.
100
A list of methods of solving almost every variety of
problem met with in high-school instruction by students
in education classes.
Many of these are very practical,
concise, and concrete.
Lit tier, Sherman, ” Causes of Failure Among Elementary-School
Teachers,” School and Home Education, 33:255-256, March,
1914.
Of 676 elementary-school teachers who were dropped for
incompetency, ”lack of discipline” was given as the
largest single cause of failure*
An old study, but the
nature of its contents makes it worth-while reading.
Morrison, Robert H . , ”Facts Causing Failure in Teaching,”
Journal of Educational Research, 16:98-105, September,
1927.
Lists the causes of failures of Colorado State Teachers
College graduates.
Stoddard, Alexander J., ”0ne Hundred Thousand New Teachers
Every Year,” Educational Record, 19:141-157, April, 1938.
Examines some very searching questions on the adequacy
of present teacher-training institutions, and recommends
necessary changes*
An excellent reference.
Remembering your first year of teaching, please check the
Regarding those items you rated as only "partly adequate" or "inadequate," it would be
valuable if you could indicate in what way or ways they were inadequate so that some
degree of adequacy of your training-school program in the items
remedies could be instituted. Please check those items which you consider as causes or
reasons for inadequacies.
listed below:______________________
j___________;
________________ ;
___________________
Alternative A real pic­
Available
Existence Problem
Item was ■ Adequate
time was
of the
methods of ture of con­
Partly
not
was hand­
specific
Other
not given problem
Ade­
Ade­
Inade­
taught in
led super­ information handling the ditions in
problem were the■field was Reasons
quate
the train- to this
was not
ficially - -Was not
quate
quate
■ing -school subject
given
not given
not given
mentioned
1.
Any subject-matter Courses
Which ones
2. Music
Vocal
Appreciation
3.
Art
Drawing
Painting
Crafts
Appreciation
U.
Reading
Techniques for non-readers
Techniques for slow readers
How to maintain enthusiasm
for reading
(Any other)
*
Remembering your first year of teaching, please check the .
degree of adequacy of your training-school program in the items .
listed below:
Ade­
quate
Partly
Ade­
Inadequate . quate
Regarding those items you rated as only "partly adequate" or 'inadequate," it would be
valuable if you could indicate in what way or ways they were inadequate so that some
remedies could be instituted. Please check those items which you consider as causes or •
reasons for inadequacies.
‘;
Adequate
Item was
Existence Problem
Available
Alternative
A real pic­
not
time was
of the
.was hand­
ture of con­
specific
methods of
taught in
not given problem
information handling the ditions in
led super­
Other
was not
the train­ to this
ficially
problem were the field was Reasons
was not
sub.iect
ing school
mentioned
given
not given
hot given
5. Physical Education
Knowledge of a complete
schedule of games played
throughout the year
Knowledge of athletic equipment
('Any other)
'
6.
Keeping a register
7.
Marking report cards
S.
School programs
Activity culminations
Holiday programs
Graduation exercises
School plays
’ '
(Any other)
9.
Public relations
P.T.A.
-------
L
|
____
Remembering your first year of teaching, please check the'
Regarding those items you rated as only "partly adequate" or "inadequate,".it would be
valuable if you could indicate in what way or ways they were inadequate so that some
degree of adequacy of your training-school program in the items. remedies- could be. instituted. Please check those items which you consider as causes or
:
• reasons'for inadequacies,
' ■
., :
Ade­
quate
9.
Public Relations (continued)
Dealings with Parents
Community relationships
(Any other)
10. Playground Supervision
11. Discipline
Maintaining order in the
classroom
Adjustment of dignity and
familiarity
Types of punishments
Destruction of school .
property
Lack of attention
Problems involving dis­
respect for authority
Problems with defiant pupils•
Partly
Ade­
quate
Inade­
quate
Item was
not
taught in
the train­
ing school
Adequate
time was
not given
to this
subject
Existence
of the
problem
was not
mentioned
Problem
was hand­
led super­
ficially
Available
specific
information
was not
given
Alternative
methods of
handling the
problem were
not given
A real pic­
ture of con­
Other
ditions in
the 'field was Reasons
■not given
Remembering your first year of teaching, please check the .
degree of adequacy of your training-school program in the items
Regarding those items you rated as only "partly adequate" or "inadequate," it would be
valuable if you could indicate in.what wav or ways, they were inadequate so that some
remedies could be instituted. Please check those items which you consider as causes or
reasons for inadequacies.
,
listed below:
Ade­
quate
11.
Discipline (continued)
Problems with lazy pupils
Problems with incorrigible
pupils
Problems with bullies
Problems of fighting among pupils
Problems of stealing
Problems of lying
Problems of truancy
Problems of smoking
Problems of immorality
(Any other)
12.
Other problems .
COMMENTS:
Partly
Ade­
quate
Inade­
quate
Item was
not
taught in
the train­
ing 'school
Adequate
time was
not given
to this
subject
Existence
o.f the
problem
was not
mentioned
Problem
.was hand­
led super­
ficially
Available
specific
information
was not
given
Alternative
A real pic­
methods of
ture of con­
handling the ditions in
problem were the field was
not given
not given
Other
Reasons
Please give your opinion of the degree of adequacy of the
following aspects of the training-school program:
Ade­
quate
Partly
Ade­
quate -
Inade­
quate
Again,- it would be valuable.if you could indicate in what way or ways a given item was
inadequate. Please check those items which you consider as causes or reasons for inade­
quacies:
Not
functional
or
useful’ _
Few specif­
ic applica­
tions made
to school
situations
Inappropri­
ate teaching
methods used
Not enoxigh
specific
help given
Lack of
emphasis
on items.you con­
sidered
important
Available
specific
solutions
to problems
not given
Practice
teaching
conditions
not typical
Too much
"busy work"
required
Other
Reasons
Practice Teaching
The Education courses
Principles of education
Philosophy of education
Educational psychology
Methods courses
Child■development
Others
The academic courses________
The teacher-recruiting system
Important
information
not given
Other
Reasons
The faculty personnel
sary)
The critic teachers (supervisors)
The regular teachers in the training
school (resident or master teachers)
Any other
o
ANY COMMENTS, SUGGESTIONS, OR
RECOMMENDATIONS WILL BE GREATLY
APPRECIATED:
Si
O
CO
TJ
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