close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

A job analysis of the dictating machine operator

код для вставкиСкачать
A JOB ANALYSIS
OF THE DICTATING MACHINE OPERATOR
A, Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
*>y
Margaret Marie Rannow
June 1942
UMI Number: EP54289
All rights reserved
INFORMATION TO ALL USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.
In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed,
a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54289
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.
All rights reserved. This work is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC.
789 East Eisenhower Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346
T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the candidate's G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been prese n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
........
Date..
Dean
Guidance Committee
E.
G-,...Blacks tone
Chairman
D. Welty Lefever
Theodore H.
E.
Chen
table of omrmys
CHAPTER
PAGE
I. MATURE M B PURPOSE OF THE STUDY • • ♦# « • • •
Statement of the problem
• • • • •• • • • •
1
1
Importance of the study . « • • • « • • • • •
3
Definitions of terms used , • • • •• • • • •
4
Method of procedure and sources of data • • •
5
Classroom methods # • • • * • »
6
• *•••••
Organization of the remainder of the thesis •
9
II, REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE * « . . . , . • • . .
10
Literature on performance standards by Fox
•
10
Literature on performance standards
-
by liVylie • • • • • • • • • • • • . . • •
•
11
•
13
•
13
Literature on performance standards
by Carlton
• • • ♦ • • •«, •• • • • •
Literature on teaching of typewriting
through use of the dictating machine
• •
Literature on organization of the class
by Agnew * # • • • « , • * • • • • • • • •
13
Literature on organization of the class
by Morse
* « ♦ • •
14
Literature on organization of the class
by Eutledge • # • • • • • •
• •
14
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Literature on advantages of the dictating
machine by Wylie
•••••••••••«
15
Literature on advantages of the dictating
machine by Galloway • • • • « • + « • •
«
15
Literature on disadvantages of the dic­
tating machine
• •• + • * • • • • • • •
15
Literature on the uses of the dictating
machine by Morse
•••••••••••*
16
Literature on the uses of the dictating
machine by Eedington
• • • •, * • • •«
16
III*. FESDINGS AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS AS TO
THE WORK OF THE DICTATING MACHINE
OPERATOR * . . . „ ♦ ♦ * • . « •
Types of records
••••••«•
19
• •• • •
19
Letters and carbon copies * * • * • #. . •
27
Rate of production • • « • • • •
31
. •• • •
Time spent operating the dictating
machine • • • • • • « • . • « • • # * # «
55
Extent to which the operators use other
machines
••••••••••••••••
56
Duties of the operators other than oper­
ating the dictating machine • • • • • • •
Duties accompanying the transcription of
records » • « • • • • » » • » • • * • • *
44
49
CHAPTER
IF.
PACE
Summary of findings • • . . • • • * . • • •
54
Summary of educational implications . • • •
55
SUMMAET 1HD COHCLUSICMS . . . . . . . . . . .
60
Summary • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
60
Conclusions • • , • • • • • • • • • . . • •
60
Recommendations • • • • • • • •
62
BIBLIOGRAPHT
APPETOEC
• • • • • •
. ... . * . ...........
.. . . . . .
.
64
68
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
£AGE
I* Frequency Distribution of Time Spent
i.
Transcribing Various Types of Records
on the Dictating Machine
II*
**•*••«••
BO
Frequency Distribution of Difficulty En­
countered by Operators with Less Than
Three Weeks Training and Operators with
More Than Three Weeks Training in Tran­
scribing Certain Records
III*
•••»••••
*
S3
, * * * *
35
Total Weights of the First Three Tables * * *
37
Opinions of the Operators as to the Imof the Records Being Transcribed
IV*
V*
Average Kumber of Letters Usually Found on
a Cylinder
VI*
•**•••**••*•••**
Extent to Which the Operators are Required
to Make Carbon Copies In Their Work * * * *
VII*
39
50
Humber of Cylinders Transcribed a Day by
Operators Having Over Three Weeks Training
on the Dictating Machine Before Employ­
ment
*.••••••••«•••••••*
VIII* Humber of Cylinders Transcribed a Day by
Operators Having up to Three Weeks Train­
ing on the Dictating Machine Before
33
vi
PACE
TABLE
^
••••••*•••*••••
33
IX* Humber of Hours the Dictating Machine is
34
Used a Day
X*
Length of Training on the Machine After
Employment • • « • • • • • • * • • • • *
XI.
Extent to Which the Operators Shave the
Cylinders
XII.
36
Extent to Which the Operators Use the
Machine to Dictate Letters . . . . • • •
XIII.
37
40
Frequency Distribution of Time Spent Oper­
ating Office Machines Other Than the
Dictating Machine
XIV.
• • • • *••••..
43
The Amount of Difficulty Encountered in
Operating Machines Other Than the Dic­
tating Machine
XV.
43
Opinions of Operators in Respect to the
Importance of Operating Machines Other
Than the Dictating Machine • • » • • • »
XVI.
45
Frequency Distribution of Time Spent in
Performing Duties Other Than Operating
Dictating Machine
XVII.
••.>•••••••
46
The Amount of Difficulty Encountered in
Performing Duties Other Than Operating
the Dictating Machine . . . . . . • • »
50
vii
, TABLE
,PAGE
XVTII. Frequency Distribution of Difficulty En­
countered by Operators with Less Than
Three Weeks Training and Operators with
More Than Three Weeks Training in Per­
forming Certain Duties Accompanying
Transcription of Records # » ♦ * * • • • •
51
XEC. Frequency Distribution of Time Spent by
Operators in Performing Certain Duties
Accompanying Transcription of Records
• ♦
52
CHAPTER I
NATURE AND PURPOSE OP THE STUDY
Statement of the problem. Business transactions are
practically as old as the history of man. At first these
transactions were quite simple and unorganized. However,
with the coming of the industrial revolution a more complex
system was necessitated.
The old methods of conducting
business were no longer feasible.
They were out of date—
replaced by more employees, larger and more fully equipped
factories and offices, improved working conditions, the de­
velopment of international commerce, and mass production*
In short, production was; being pushed up in ever increasing
quantities.
This naturally increased the work of the employee.
Thus office machines were Introduced to aid in this work.
The tremendous growth in office machines especially in
the past few years justifies the teaching of these machines
in the schools.
The writer, however, is especially interested
in the dictating machines as taught in the office machines
class.
The foremost objective of this study, then, is to try
to determine what can be done to improve instruction in the
use of this machine.
It is clear that such improvement is
needed from the fact that many of the students upon receiving
their positions require additional practice and work on the
machine before they are able to turn out satisfactory work*
One of the teachers openly expressed this opinion when he
said in a recent article that the secondary schools are not
fulfilling their obligation to train vocationally competent
people for office positions:
During the past ten years several of the larger cities
in the United States have made surveys that, without ex­
ception, have demonstrated the need for broadening the
knowledges and skills required of high school students if
they are to find employment after leaving school*!
The purpose of this study, therefore, is to analyze the
activities, duties, and training of the dictating machine opera­
tors in order better to make suggestions which might be used to
develop more adequate dictating machine training for use in the
secondary shhools.
Importance of the study* The dictating machine is a rela­
tively recent invention.
The first practical model was intro­
duced in 1887* A newer and greatly improved model was put be­
fore the public by the English branch of the American Graphophone Company in 1907.
This later development undoubtedly
accounts in part for the small amount of research work done in
this field*
Several books have been written on this machine
but the content of these books seem to be limited chiefly to
1 H* G* Goodfellow, "Office Practice Program— Howard,
Hew kersey,n national Business Education Quarterly, December,
1956, Humber 2, Volume 5, p.1'28.
descriptions of the machines and how to operate them#
In
some cases they go into the advantages or disadvantages of
the machines and the uses to which they may he put.
Thus this study may he considered to he justifiable in
that it will tend to clarify and add to the present available
information in this field,
A second justification for this study is to he found in
the curricula,
jsach year the secondary schools send many
commercial students out in the business world to take their
place as secretaries, stenographers, bookkeepers, comptometer
operators, dictating machine operators, and so forth# Are
these students adequately trained so that they may enter in­
to their new positions with the assurance that they are compe­
tent and fully equipped to become useful, productive and
worthy members of the organizations in which they are employed?
In the majority of the cases the answer is no) In a study con­
ducted by Ruth Redington2 at the University of Southern Cali­
fornia, it was shown that 52#9 per cent of the firms studied
offered instruction on dictating machines.
Then 41.2 per cent
stated that they train all their operators#
Thus the employer is often required to take his new employ­
ees and invest a great amount of energy and time in giving them
2 R# 1# Redington, ^Mechanical Devices ITsed in Shorthand
Transcription,w (unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935), p# 40#
more extensive training*
Son© organizations have even gone
so far as to establish what is known as corporation schools
for the training of their employees#
And so it seems that
much of the above is due largely to inadequate curricula*
The
present day curricula in many of the secondary schools have
not kept abreast of changing conditions*
for revision*
Thus one finds a need
The second justification for this study, then,
is to try to improve the classroom instruction in the office
machines class to an extent whereby the new dictating machine
operators will be able to take over their new positions in a
more capable manner and with a minimum amount of training by
the employers*
Definitions of terns used* The Dictaphone and Ediphone
are tradenames for a machine which is rapidly coming into use
in the business office*
This machine consists of three parts:
(1) The dictating machine; (£) the transcribing machine; (5)
the shaving machine*
l
<
The dictating machine is used by the employer to record
his voice on records which, are known as cylinders*
By the
use of the shaving machine the cylinder may be used time after
time*
This is made possible by slicing a very thin layer away
fro® the cylinder*
By thus smoothing it down it is ready for
a second or third dictation.
The transcribing machine is the one with which this study
is most concerned* Through the use of earphones the stenographer
types the letters, interdepartmental communications, speeches,
etc* as she listens to them over the transcribing machine* Por
this study the girl typing the letters from the transcribing
machine will be referred to as the dictating machine operator*
Method of procedure and sources of data* Two methods of
investigation were used for this study*
check lists and personal interviewing*
The methods used were
The check lists were
used much more extensively than personal interviewing*
Since
a great majority of the dictating machine operators are paid
by the amount of work put out in a day it was decided that it
would be a much fairer plan to distribute check lists which
could be filled out at the convenience of the operators*
This
would not take up the operators time and thus decrease their
output and salary*
Much valuable assistance was obtained through the personal
interview for the purpose of making up a check list to be used
by the operators. Most of the people interviewed were heads
of dictating machine departments«
The check lists were given to dictating machine operators
in Los Angeles, California, and Phoenix, Arizona.
The list of
operators was chosen from records which were made available to
the author through the Ediphone Company in Los Angeles and
their representative in Phoenix (Peterson, Brooke, Steiner,
and Wist), and the Dictaphone Company in Los Angeles*
Further information was obtained through a study of re­
search which has already been done in this field and through
pamphlets distributed by different companies.
Classroom methods. Looking now at classroom instruction,
one finds that there are three methods by which the office
machines class is usually conducted:
(I) The Integrated Labo­
ratory Plan; (2) the Battery Plan; (5) the Rotation Plan#
The Integrated Laboratory Plan has the student work on
two or three machines at a time or as he needs them. His
work is all integrated and connected as it sight be in a large
office.
This plan would be excellent for a large high school
which had adequate funds.
From the teacherfs standpoint, the Battery Plan is very
easy and practical when it comes to instruction#
The instruction
is simplified as all students are working on the same machine
at the same time.
This plan, however, is impractical for the
average high school due to the limited number of machines.
For the majority of schools the Rotation Plan is the most
successful. Under this plan instruction is given for the oper­
ation of several different types of machines.
The student
moves from one machine to another until he has attained a gener­
al knowledge of each machine.
The authorities in this field advocate that the class
should be taught five days a week for forty-five minutes daily.
The time required to learn to operate the dictating machine
efficiently varies from two to four months*
The operating fundamentals of each machine are taught
to the class and then each student is assigned to a machine*
After this point has been reached, each person proceeds at
his own rate of speed and receives most of his additional
help from self-instructing manuals,
then any difficulty or
problem arises over a certain machine the teacher is free to
help*
Thus after the lecture or demonstration has been given,
several pupils are assigned to the transcribing machine. Work
on this machine in the average high school would consist of
transcribing several cylinders (perhaps 10 or 15) containing
for the most part letters, a few telegrams and perhaps a few
lists or specifications.
The average school because of financial conditions must
limit the commercial department to the transcribing machine
alone*
Thus in the majority of eases the students do not
learn to operate either the dictating or shaving machine.
The
department need not be too concerned over the absense of the
dictating machine but since the shaving machine is such an
integrated and vital part of the ordinary business office,
each student should have the opportunity to learn to use this
machine.
If the curriculum of the average office machines class
could be improved the students would be able to operate
efficiently th© machines to be found in the business office
without much of the present additional training* More empha­
sis must be placed upon this phase of the curriculum as these
machines are becoming increasingly important to the modern
office.
Instead of being mere luxuries they are rapidly talcing
over many of the superfluous duties of the employee and thus
increasing his quality and quantity of work.
As Mr* Schneider said:
It is a well recognised fact that modern business
offices have changed during the past two decades. The
business machine is now an integral part of the business
office* Calculating machines, • • • dictating and tran­
scribing machines are all commonplace tools in the ef­
ficient execution of office services. They are no oddi­
ties, whims or playthings. They are the answer to our
technological age. Without these machines the offices
which speed the paper work of our vast industrial system
would be chaotic bottlenecks. The business world could
not do without these machines.3
Further evidence of th© tremendous utilization of office
machines partieularily the dictating machine comes from studies
made by Mss Redington and Mr. Thacker.
Miss Redingtom^ shows the growing demand for these machines
in her thesis on devices used in dictation transcription.
In
her study she points out that fourteen large business concerns
(such as H. I. Heinz, Armour and company, and the Eastman hodak
3 a . E. Schneider, nThe Function of Office Machines in
Teachers Training Institutions,” Dictaphone Educational Forum.
December, 1941, p. 5.
4 R. E. Redington, ”A Study of Mechanical Devices Used
in Dictation and Shorthand Transcription,” (unpublished Master*s
thesis, The university of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933)
p«; 35.
Company) studied reported a total usage of 617 machines with
the employment of 201 dictating machine operators.
In Mr. Thacker’s study§ it was pointed out that 96 firms
studied reported the use of the dictating machine using a
total of 458 operators. He also reports that Boston newspapers
for one year contained a total of 517 advertisements seeking
the services of competent dictating machine operators.
Organization of the remainder of the thesis. Chapter two
is concerned with a review of the literature which most specifi­
cally deals with this subject.
Chapter three will contain results of the check lists and
personal interviews from the dictaphone operators.
This chapter
will also include educational implications of the findings (how
to improve the classroom instruction through the use of the
above information,)
Chapter four will contain a summary of the findings and
also conclusions and recommendations.
Bibliography
5 H.
Thacker, ’’Dictating Machine Operators,” Vocational
Monographs, No. 4, pp. 1-22, (Boston University College of
Business Administration, 1932)
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE
There has been very little literature written on this
phase of Business Education* What has been written is mostly
repetition and is concerned mainly with a description of the
machines and how to use them.
of a controversial nature*
There seems to be very little
There are to be found, however,
some debatable points in regard to the production or amount
of work turned out by the operators and the use of the machine
in teaching typewriting*
Each operator is expected to produce so many lines of
typing each day and in most cases, this is the basis of his
salary*
The salary increases along with the increases in the
rate of production*
According to Pox^ the minimum number of standard sixtyspace lines that should be turned out in an hour by the
dictating machine operator is 124*
Thus they are turning out
nine hundred lines a day for six days making a total at the
end of the week of 5400 lines*
A transcription rate of
^ F* 6* Pox, "Performance standards in Office Operation
national Business Education Quarterly, Spring, 1941, pp* 54-35
11
approximately twenty-five words per minute is considered reason­
able*
The maximum number of lines which is turned out in a day
is around 241.
The operator turning out the minimum of 124
lines an hour is earning a salary of forty cents an hour while
the operator turning out the 241 lines is receiving a salary
almost double that of the first operator or seventy-five cents.
WylieS
cm the other hand, would say that an operator pro­
ducing 112 six inch lines an hour would be acceptable.
In ad­
dition to having a lower standard of production than Pox, Wylie
would pay his dictating machine operators higher wages or fiftysix cents an hour.
By the end of the week the operator*^ salary
would be $22.40 or over seven dollars more than the operators
mentioned by pox.
Looking at both sides it was discovered that the first
operators would be turning out five and one fourth pages an
hour and the last operator would be turning out four and one
half pages an hour.
A page is made up of 25 six inch lines.
Looking now at the teaching of typewriting it is found
that some teachers advoeate the use of the machine for this
purpose while others are very much opposed to it.
under this
plan, the student learns to type with the use of the dictating
2 H. L* wylie, M. P. Samber, and R. P. Frecht, “Practical
Office Management,w (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1937)
IE
machine.
As the student Improves, the speed of the cylinders
is increased*
Carlton3 says that students should attain a speed of forty
words a minute in typing before enrolling in Dictaphone or Edi­
phone classes, since typing should he an automatic process
rather than a learning process.
The above statement seems to indicate that Carlson is op­
posed to using the machine for typewriting Instruction.
In
direct contrast to the above opinion is that of Marion Tedens,
supervisor of typewriting in Chicago, Illinois.
Miss Tedens definitely believes that the Dictaphone is
one of the most effective methods of teaching typewriting. She
upholds this point of view by saying: ton may ask, as did many Chicago teachers, why the Dicta­
phone offers such a satisfactory solution of the problem.
The best answer to such a question is the plain statement
^of fact that it effectively overcomes each and every ob­
jection to the copy book and class dictation methods . • •
No student can be expected to attain the utmost speed of
which he is capable unless dictation is given to him at a
speed consistent with his best efforts. Heretofore, how­
ever, we have been content to leave the student to his own
devices asking him merely to copy his work from a printed
page. He is not thus given the necessary urge which is
mechanically supplied by the Dictaphone. « . • The Dicta­
phone plan provides direct dictation at the proper speed
and involves no vocal strain on the teacher whatsoever.
Through the use of the Dictaphone • • • each group or unit
of students is given the equivalent of an individual in­
structor.4
3 M. B. Carlton, "A Forward Step in Office Machine
Training.,'* Journal of Business Education, January, 195% I*is-15
^ M. F. Tedens, "Chicago Establishes Typewriting
Standards," university of Iowa Monographs in Education, Mo. 4,
p. 40
13
In regal'd to the actual classroom organization, there is
some difference of opinion to be found in the number of hours
which should be taken from the office machines class in the
application of the Dictaphone or Ediphone,
Some teachers say
that eight hours are sufficient while others say that twenty
hours are needed.
The consensus of opinion, however, seems
to indicate that the average time spent on the machine should
be ten hours,
P, I,
machine.
AgnewS
would spend five laboratory periods on the
Since every laboratory period is two hours long the
student would receive ten hours of instruction*
These five
laboratory periods would be broken up as follows:
Dictaphone Transcribing Unit— three laboratory periods
Ediphone Transcribing Unit— -One laboratory period
Dictaphone Dictating Unit— one half laboratory period
Ediphone Dictating Unit— one half laboratory period
The office machines class would meet once a week for
thirty weeks during the academic year.
Each meeting would
be used for lecture and discussion and the other two hours
for actual laboratory practice.
The reason that more time is spent on the Dictaphone
than on the Ediphone is probably due to the fact that there
5 P, L, Agnew, "Principles and Problems of Office
Practice," (Hew York University Bookstore, 1937), p# 87,
14
are more Dictaphone machines available in the classroom than
there are Ediphone machines*
Morse6 says that in the usual office machines class the
pupil operates either the Ediphone or Dictaphone for two weeks.
During this time at least eighteen transcripts are completed.
The students should also have at least three records to tran­
scribe during this time#
It is hard for one to compare the above statement with
the others as there is some doubt as to the number of hours
spent a week in this class.
In speaking of the dictating machines as given at the
Merritt Business School, R. E. Rutledge7 says that twenty
hours is spent on the first unit.
During this time the student
transcribes twelve practice cylinders and makes carbon copies
of all of his letters after the first six cylinders.
If the
student shows an aptitude for dictating machine work, she is
counseled to continue on the dictating machines and complete
the second training unit.
cylinders.
The second unit consists of thirty
The material transcribed covers letters, reports,
etc. collected from various business firms in the area.
After
6 P. Morse, "Business Machines,” (Longmans, Green and
Company, 1932), pp# 102-105.
7 R# E. Rutledge, "Dictating Machines as Given at
Merritt Business School,” Journal of Business Education.
May, 1938, 5t15-20.
15
completing this she may take the third unit which is more
advanced and specialized.
There have heen many advantages claimed for this work*
Among the more important advantages are the following:®
(1)
Dictating machines are always available for dictation (in
large offices it is often very difficult to find a stenographer
who is free at that certain time to take the dictation.
This
frequently causes costly delays or the tie-up of business); (2)
it eliminates much wasted time; (5) there is a reduction in the
cost per letter; (4) the service is greatly improved; (5) it
encourages planned thinking and dictation; (6) it pexmits central­
ization; (7) the system is more elastic; (8) the personnel problem
is reduced; (9) it makes the measurement of production easier;
and (10) it simplifies supervision.
Galloway9 would add to the above list the advantage of in­
creasing the production and decreasing the cost.
In addition to these above advantages the American Office
Machine Research Serviced would list the following disadvantages:
(1) Occasionally the dictators find it hard to adapt their method
of dictating to a machine; (2) the dictator may forget to record
a correction.
® H. I*. Wylie, M. P. Gamber, and R. P. Frecht, "Practical
Office Management," (Mew York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1937)
9 L. Galloway, "Office Management," (Mew York:
Press Company, 1920)
Ronald
10 American office Machines Research Service, Vol. II, 1937
pp. 25-26.
#
Along this same line, Sorse^1 lists the following uses
of the machine:
(1) To use in recording instructions, which
when dated for follow-up permits a checkup by the executive;
(s) another use is in recording important proceedings of con­
ferences, Many executives use a dictating; machine for re­
cording conversations or quotations received over the phone,
R. E, Redington^-2 has listed in her thesis a number of
excellent uses of the machine:
(1) Announcements; (2) col­
lection letters; (5) confirming verbal orders; (4) contracts
and agreements; (5) correspondence; (6) delivery follow-ups;
(7) dictating at home; (8) dictating before and after hours
at the office; (9) form letters; (10} improving the value of
reading by dictating digests of matter read; (11) interdepart­
mental communications; (12) letters to customers; (15) letters
to salesmen; (4) memos to salesmen; (15) organizing and di­
recting business activities; (16) preparing speeches; (17)
purchasing; (18) recording advertising copies; (19) recording
new ideas; (20) recording radio talks; (21) recording reminders;
(22) recording special meetings; (23) recording telephone calls;
(24) requests for bids; (25) requests for credit information;
11 P* Morse/ "Business Machines,” (Longmans, Green and
Company, 1932), p* 104,
12 R, E, Redington, "A Study of Mechanical Devices Used
in Dictation and Shorthand Transcription,” (unpublished Master*s
thesis, The University cf- Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935),
p, 48,
17
(26) rough drafts of sales campaigns; (£7) special paragraphs
in f o m letters; (28) training salesmen; (29) writing for publi­
cations.
"The limitations of this type of equipment are governed
only by the applications of the person using it.,,3*3
The above statement is very true, but evidence gathered
in compiling this study indicates that the employers make wide
use of the dictating machine only with certain types of material
such as letters to customers, letters to employees, interdepart­
mental communications, etc.
Summary. The minimum number of lines which the average
operator turns out is 112, but some of the fastest operators
can do 241 lines per hour.
The question of using the machine to teach typewriting
arouses much controversy.
Some praise this method with the
Justification that the student attains utmost speed only when
dictation is given to him at a speed consistent with his best
efforts.
The speed of the dictating machine is adjustable.
addition to this the machine acts as a direct urge or stimu­
lation on the student.
On the other hand, it is argued that *a student should
have mastered the typewriter before enrolling in the office
13 Morse, ©£. cit., p# ios.
In
18
machines class as typing is an automatic rather than a learning
process*
Among the more important advantages of this machine are
the following:
(1) Eliminates much wasted time; (2) the ma­
chines are always available for dictation; and (3) it increases
production# .
As disadvantages:
(1) The dictators find it hard at times
to adapt their method of dictating to the machine; (2) the dic­
tator may forget to record a correction*
These studies indicate a growing demand and further utili­
zation for these machines in the modern business offices*
conse­
quently there is need for intensive study of the exact nature of
the work of the dictating machine operators, of the standards of
performance set up by business, and of methods of instructions
to meet such requirements*
FINDINGS AND EDUCATIONAL DUPLICATIONS
This chapter is included for the purpose of reporting
the findings of the questionnaires which were received from
the operators.
The chapter will deal with the type of work,
the hours spent with each type of work, and the amount of
training completed by each operator before employment.
This
information was obtained by means of questionnaires which were
delivered to dictating machine operators in Los Angeles, Cali­
fornia and Phoenix, Arizona.
distributed 117 were returned.
Out of the 125 questionnaires
The reason for such a high
percentage is due to the fact that the author delivered each
questionnaire and called for it a few days later.
In many
cases it was necessary to return several times for a question­
naire which an operator had neglected to fill out because of
sickness, work, or other factors. Many of the tables have
been divided into two parts— the first part dealing with those
operators who had less than three weeks training on the machine
before employment and the second part dealing with operators
who had more than three weeks training before employment.
Looking now at Table I in regard to the types of records
transcribed on the dictating machine and the length of time
required for each one, it is found that letters to customers,
^ ablb i
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TIME SPENT
TRANSCRIBING VARIOUS TYPES OF RECORDS
ON THE DICTATING MACHINE
—
Types of records
Less one 1<*5 hours Over 5
hour a day a day
hours day
No* %
No* %
No. %
Letters to customers 17 14*5
22 18*8
Reports
Interdepartmental
eoiamunioations
40 34*2
46 39*3
Office memos
Collection letters
13 11*1
Letters to salesmen 16 13.7
Telegrams
37 31.6
18 15.4
Statements
Invoices
11 9.4
Bills
15 12*8
Purchase orders
11 9.4
Bank drafts
8 6.8
7 6
Pay rolls
Speeches
6 5.1
Cash memos
8 6.8
Commercial drafts
7 6
Distribution sheets
4 3*4
39 33*3
26 21*6
25 21*3
22 18.8
14 12
10 8*5
•9
1
4 3.4
4 3.4
3 2.6
3 2.6
2 1.7
2? 1.7
1
*9
0
0
0
15 12.8
8 6*8
4
1
4
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5*4
.9
3.4
1.7
♦9
Totals
Operators Hours
No* % weighted
71 60.7
56 47*9
69
69
31
28
39
22
15
18
14
10
9
7
8
7
4
58*2
58*2
26.5
23.9
33.3
18.8
12.8
15.4
12
8*5
7*7
6
6*8
6
3*4
200|
129
UB
94
68^48
21
174
164
14f
10
6
4
2
21
office memos, and interdepartuiental communieations are the
most frequently transcribed records*
Seventeen operators,
or 14.5 per cent, spend less than one hour a day on letters
to customers. However, thirty-nine, or 53.5 per cent of the
operators, type these letters from one to five hours a day
and fifteen, 12.8 per cent, of the operators spend oyer five
hours a day in this work*
This makes a total of seventy-one
operators who work on letters to customers. After weighting
the hours spent in a day by these seventy-one operators it was
found that the total was 200j hours.
This means that seventy-
one operators spend the equivalent of 8GO§- hours a day trans­
cribing letters to customers* For the purposes of weighting,
a value of half a point was placed on ”less than 1 hour a day.”
Three points were given on ”1-5 hours a day,” and five points
on ”over 5 hours a day.” One half was then multiplied by the
number of operators spending less than one hour a day on that
type of record and so on.
Twenty-two operators, 18.8 per cent, spend from one to
five hours each day transcribing office memos.
Forty-six, or
39*3 per cent, operators spend less than one hour each day
with this record.
Only one operator spent over five hours a
day with this type of work.
The total number of hours spent
by these operators was 129.
Forty operators, 34.2 per cent, spend less than one hour
a day working on interdepartmental communications but twenty,
zz
or 21.3 per cent, spend from one to five hours a day. Four
operators worked on this type of record for over five hours
a day.
The number of hours spent on interdepartmental communi­
cations each day is 115.
A great many of the operators also spend from one to
five hours a day on the following types of records:Beports,
21.6 per cent; collection letters, 12 per cent, and letters
to salesmen (employees), 8.5 per cent.
Since the above records are such an integral part of the
operator’s work,' special attention should be given to them in
the classroom.
The students should have enough training in
these types of records so that they are able to transcribe
them effectively.
From Table II it may be seen that letters to customers,
interdepartmental communications, reports and statements are
the source of greatest trouble for the operators.
Three oper­
ators, 3.1 per cent, had a great amount of difficulty with
their letters to customers while seventeen, 17.7 per cent, had
average trouble and twenty-six, or 27.1 per cent, had minor
difficulty.
Three operators, 3.1 per cent, had a great deal
of difficulty in transcribing interdepartmental communications.
Twenty, 20.8 per cent, of the operators had average difficulty
and twenty-three, 24 per cent, had minor difficulty.
In re­
gard to the reports, two operators, or 21 per cent, encounter
a great amount of difficulty with these records.
Twenty-five,
TABLE II
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFICULTY ENCOUNTERED
BY OPERATORS WITH LESS THAN THREE WEEKS TRAINING
AND OPERATORS WITH MORE THAN THREE WEEKS
TRAINING IN TRANSCRIBING CERTAIN RECORDS
(less than three weeks)
Average
Minor
Great
No. %
No* %
No* %
Reports
Letters to cus­
tomers
Interdepartmental
communications
Offiee memos
Collection letters
Letters to sales­
men
Telegrams
Statements
Bills
Purchase orders
Invoices
Bank drafts
Cash memos
Pay rolls
Commercial drafts
Speeches
Distribution sheets
(more than three weeks)
Great Average
Minor
No* No* %
No. %
Weight
both
groups
2 2.1
25 26
12 12.5
0
7 40
1
5 3.1
17 17.7
26 27.1
0
7 40
3 20
116
3 3.1
0
0
20 20.8
21 21.9
9 9.4
23 24
26 27.1
9 9.4
0
0
0
5 33.3
4 26.7
3 20
2 13.3
5 33.3
3 20
115
106
48
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10 10.4
6 6.3
6 6.3
4 4.2
4 4.2
4 4.2
4 4.2
2 2*1
2 2.1
2 2.1
1 1
1 1
111 11.5
23 24
11 11.5
9.4
9
5 5.2
6 6.3
5 5.2
5 3.1
4 4*2
4 4.2
4 4.2
1 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
2
3
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
6.7
2 13.3
3 20
1 6.7
0
0
0
0
1 6.7
0
0
0
0
46
44
44
27
26
24
17
13
10
10
7
4
20
13.3
20
13.3
6.7
6.7
119
Notes This table should be read as follows* Twenty-one, or 21*9 per cent, of the opera­
tors had average difficulty with office memos and twenty-six, or 2:7*1 per cent, had minor
difficulty with them* (These operators are the ones who have had less than 3 weeks train­
ing before employment*) Four of the operators with more than 3 weeks training had average
difficulty while 5, or 33*3 per cent, had minor difficulty*
26 per cent, have average difficulty*
In transcribing state­
ments, one operator, or 1 per cent, encounters average diffi­
culty*
Looking now at the operators with more than three weeks
training before employment, it is interesting to note that
none of these operators experience great difficulty in trans­
cribing any of the records.
This, thep, would seem to in­
dicate that the more training these operators received before
their employment the less trouble they had with transcription
after receiving a position*
After weighting the amount of difficulty encountered by
the operators in both groups (a value of five points was
attached to great, three points to average and one point to
minor importance), it was found that reports cause the most
difficulty with a total of 119 points*
Letters to customers
followed with a total of 116* Following close with a total
of 115 were the interdepartmental communications*
The last
which might be mentioned are office memos with a total of 106*
It is evident from this that the operators did not receive
the proper amount of practice on these types of records while
in school*
The teacher should emphasize those records with
which the operator has the most difficulty in order that the
students may overcome this difficulty*
Table III shows the opinions of the operators as to the
importance of the records being transcribed*
The greatest
TABLE III
OPINIONS OF THE OPERATORS AS TO
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RECORDS BEING TRANSCRIBED
Total
Groat
checking No* %
record
Letters to customers
Reports
Interdepartmental
eoamnraieatiens
Office memos
Telegrams
Collection letters
Letters to salesmen
(employees)
Statements
Bills
Purchase orders
Invoices
Bank drafts
Pay rolls
Commercial drafts
Cash memos
Speeches
Distribution sheets
Average
No* %
Minor
No* %
Weight
65
62
47
45
72*3
72.6
16 24.6
14 22.6
2
3
3.1
4.8
285
270
63
61
34
25
35
29
19
10
55*5
47.5
44*1
40
26
27
10
12
41.3
44*3
29.4
48
2 3.2
5 8.2
5 14.7
3 12
255
216
125
89
26
20
14
10
11
9
7
6
6
4
2
10
7
5
4
3
4
3
3
2
1
1
38*5
35
35*7
40
27.3
44*5
42*9
50
33.3
25
50
13
10
4
4
5
3
3
1
2
1
0
50
50
28*6
40
45.4
33.3
42.9
17.7
33.3
25
3
3
4
2
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
11.5
15
28.6
20
27.3
22.2
14.2
33.3
33.3
50
50
72
68
44
34
33
31
25
20
18
10
6
Note* This table should he read as followss Sixty-five operators
cheeked this record* Forty-seven operators thought that letters to
customers were of great importance• Sixteen operators thought they
were of average importance, and two operators said they were of
minor importance• The score given to letters to customers sifter
weighting is 285*
importance is attached to letters to customers, interdepart­
mental communications, reports, office memos, telegrams,
letters to salesmen (employees) and collection letters.
Com­
paring Tables I and II with III, it is found that the records
which cause the most difficulty for the operators and take up
the most of their time are the same records which are con­
sidered the most important by the operators:
Letters to
customers, interdepartmental communications, reports, and
office memos.
In weighting this table, a value of five points
was given to great, three points for average, and one point
for minor importance.
Table IV shows the total of the weights of the first
three tables.
Letters to customers receive a total of 601§
points; reports receive 518; interdepartmental communications
485; and office memos 416.
These four records rank the high­
est and thus special attention should be given to them in the
office machines class.
The students should be effective in
their transcription of these records before they finish the
course as these are the types of records which they will be
confronted with most frequently after they receive employment.
Letters and carbon copies. In Table V is given the aver­
age number of letters usually found on a cylinder. However,
it would be practically Impossible to make a definite state­
ment concerning this question as the length of each letter
varies. Some letters would take up the whole cylinder while
TOTAL OF THE WEIGHTS
-OF THE FIRST THREE TABLES
Difficulty Frequency Importane© Total
Letters to customers
Reports
Interdepartmental
communications
Office memos
Collection letters
Telegrams
Letters to salesmen
(employees)
Statements
Bills
Purchase orders
Invoices
Bank drafts
Pay rolls
Commercial drafts
Cash memos
Speeches
Distribution sheets
116
119
BOOj129
285
270
601|
518
115
106
48
4A
1TX
115
94
68|
26|
255
216
89
125
485
416
205#
19Si-
46
A
MA
NJL27
26
24
17
10
10
15
7
4
48
21
Ids'
14#
in
10
72
68
cx
34
33
31
25
20
18
10
6
166
133
87i74#
74§
58
44#
33s
35
23
12
4
4
6
2
ten or fifteen shorter letters could be placed on another
cylinder#
Then, too, the dictator is an important factor to
be considered#
The faster dictator will put more letters on
a cylinder than will another dictator who talks at a slower
rate of speed#
Forty-one of the operators, or 39.8 per cent,
report that the average number of letters on a cylinder is
from one to five#
Thirty, or 29.1 per cent* report from six
to eight, while thirty, or 31#1 per cent, say over eight#
Thus if there were from six to eight letters on each cylinder
and the operator transcribed from six to ten cylinders a day,
she would be turning out forty to seventy letters a day#
The use of carbons is a very integral part of the opera­
tor* s work#
This is evidenced by Table VI. Here it is found
that one hundred twelve, or 95.7 per cent of the operators^
must use carbons in transcribing their letters.
Only four
operators, or 5.4 per cent, reported that they do not use
carbons in their work.
The operators were also asked whether they address the
envelope first or type the letter first. With the exception
of one operator, all answered that they type the letter first.
Thus it was not considered necessary to make tables for questions
numbered five and six#
(See the appendix)
TABLE V
AVERAGE HUMBER OF LETTERS
usually mum m a gylitoer
Letters
Humber
Per cent
One to five
41
39*8
Six to eight
30
29#1
©Ter eiglit
32
31*1
TABLE YZ
EXTENT TO WHICH THE OPERATORS ARE REQUIRED
TO MAKE CARBON COPIES IB THEIR WORK
Using carbons Mot using carbons
Number
Per cent
112
95*7
4
3«4
31
Hate of production* The dictating machine operators were
asked to indicate the average number of cylinders transcribed
when working a full day at the machine • Table VII shows the
number of cylinders transcribed a day by operators having over
three weeks training on the dictating machine before employ­
ment*
Two operators, or 16*7 per cent, transcribe less than
six cylinders* Hine, or 75 per cent, transcribe from six to
ten cylinders in one day*
Then there was one operator, 8*3
per cent, transcribing over SO in a single day.
This leads to the conclusion that the students should be
required to transcribe at the rate of six to ten cylinders a
day before they complete their training on the dictating machine*
If this requirement is met, the student, after employment, will
be able to produce the amount of work which is average for her
group.
Table VIII shows the number of cylinders transcribed a
day by operators having up to three weeks training on the dic­
tating machine before employment.
Sixteen operators, or 18.6
per cent, transcribe less than six cylinders a day. Hiftyfive, or 64 per cent, transcribe from six to ten in one day.
Then fifteen, 17*4 per cent, transcribe from eleven to twenty
in a single day.
Six operators, or 5.1 per cent, failed to indicate the
amount of training that they had received before employment.
Thirteen, or 11.1 per cent, did not check the number of
33
TABLE Til
NUMBER OF CYLINDERS TRANSCRIBED A DAY
BY OPERATORS HAYING OVER THREE WEEKS TRAINING
ON THE DICTATING MACHINE BEFORE EMPLOYMENT
Number of cylinders
transcribed a day
Number
Per cent
Under
6
6-10
11-30
3
9
0
16,7
75
Over 30
1
8*3
TABLE VIII
NUMBER OF CYLINDERS TRANSCRIBED A DAY
BY OPERATORS HAVING UP TO THREE WEEKS TRAINING
ON THE DICTATING MACHINE BEFORE EMPLOYMENT
Humber of cylinders
transcribed a day
Under
6
6-10
11-20
Number
16
55
15
Per cent
IB*6
64
17*4
Over 20
0
cylinders which they could transcribe in a day.
In many cases
this was probably due to the fact that they had never worked a
full day at the machine and thus did not think they should
check the question.
This part of the study indicates that the majority of the
operators had very little training upon the dictating machine
before they received their positions*
The amount of training
received by these operators seems to have had little effect
upon the quantity of work which they are able to turn out.
Sixty-four operators, or 64.3 per cent, out of both groups
were able to transcribe from six to ten cylinders. However,
there were fewer operators with more than three weeks training
who were transcribing under six cylinders than there were oper­
ators with less than three weeks training.
compared with 18.6 per cent)
(16.7 per cent as
Then there is one operator with
more than three weeks training who can transcribe over twenty
cylinders in a single day.
These deviations would seem too insignificant to worry
about and it might be concluded that skill is developed rapidly
on the job with a minimum of training. However, one should
take into consideration the fact that using the cylinder as a
unit was a very rough measure as there was no provision made
to measure the difficulty of the material contained thereon.
Time spent operating the dictating machine# It would be
well at this time to note the number of hours spent a day in
TABLE 3X
M 3 ® EE OE HOURS THE DICTATING MACHINE IS
USED A DAY
Operator A Operator B Total
No*
% No*
%
One to three
4 26*7
34 35.4
38
Four to six
5 35.3
24 24
29
Six to eight
2 13.5
29 30.2
4.27
hours
4.49
hours
Average number of hours the
machine is used a day by each
operator
4.47
hours
Operator A: Those operators with more than three weeks
training on the machine before employment*
Operator B: Those operators with less than three weeks
training on the machine before employment*
35
operating the dictating machine.
Table IX gives the number of
hours for operators with more than three weeks training on the
machine before employment and operators with less than three
weeks training. According to this table, four of the operators
with more than three weeks training, or 26.7 per cent, use the
machine from one to three hours a day.
use it from four to six hours.
Five, or 33.3 per cent,
Two operators, 15.3 per cent,
use the machine over six hours a day.
Four operators, 26.7
per cent, did not answer this question.
Thirty-four of the operators with less than three weeks
training on the machine, or 35.4 per cent spend from one to
three hours on the dictating machine.
Twenty-four operators,
24 per cent, work from four to six hours a day on this machine.
Twenty-nine, or 30.2 per cent use it over six hours a day*
Nine, or 9.4 per cent of the operators, did not answer this
question.
From this table it is apparent that the operators with
less than three weeks training on the machine before employ­
ment spend more hours a day transcribing cylinders than do the
operators who had more than three weeks training before their
employment.
This would seem to indicate that those operators
with more training were promoted more rapidly than those with
less training.
It might have been that these operators with
greater training were also competent in the operation of other
business machines and thus their duties were spread into other
36
fields.
The operator with only one skill is practically worth­
less to her employer.
She must also he ahle to operate other
machines common to business and perform additional duties.
Table X shows the time necessary to develop satisfactory
efficiency on the machine after employment.
Thus sixty-five
operators, 60.7 per cent, needed from ”0-3 weeks” adjustment
on the dictating machine after they were employed.
Twenty-
nine, or 27.1 per cent, had from ”3-6 weeks” additional ad­
justment., Jive, 4.7 per cent, had from ”6-9 weeks” adjustment.
Eight operators, 7.5 per cent, received ”over 9 weeks” ad­
justment, and ten operators, 10.4 per cent, did not answer
the question.
In considering this table, one must not forget
that it was merely a matter of opinion.
by the operator was:
The question answered .
”After you obtained a position how long
did it take to develop satisfactory efficiency on the machine?”
It must be taken into consideration that satisfactory efficien­
cy does not mean the same to all. Although the information on
this table was not of the most reliable type, it would appear
that most of the operators had to have at least three weeks on
the dictating machine and in some cases more# Almost every
operator, however, in spite of her previous training needs a
short period of time after her employment in which to adjust
herself to the different environment.
Tftr-hant to which the operators use other machines. Tables
XI and XII show the extent to which the operator is required
EEBFGTH OF TMJWIM® ®
THE MACBJMB
j&rm
0-3
weeks
5-6
weeks
6-9
weeks
Mumber
65
29
5
8
Per cent
60*7
27*1
4*7
7*5
over 9
weeks
This is an opinion of the operators as to the length
of time it took item after employment to develop sat­
isfactory efficiency on the machine* It must be
taken into consideration that satisfactory efficiency
does not mean the same to all*
38
table
xi
M T M T TO WHICH THE OPERATORS
SHAVE THE CTEIHPERS
Number
Per cent
Always
25
21,4
Sometimes
26
22«2
Never
66
56#4
to operate the shaving machine and the machine to dictate
letters. According to Table XI, twenty-five operators, 21.4
per cent, always use the shaving machine to restore the cylin­
ders.
Twenty-six, or 22. S per cent, sometimes shave the cylin­
ders.
Sixty-six, or 56.4 per cent, never shave the cylinders.
Thus 44 per cent of the operators have to shave the cylinders
at one time or another, and should he trained to use this ma­
chine at the same time they are learning to use the trans­
cribing machine. Many of the offices have only one person each
to do all of the clerical work.
In these cases the operator
must use the shaving machine to shave all of her cylinders.
Since this machine is used by such a large number of operators
after employment, it would be wise to include it in the class­
room instruction.
According to Table XII there is little need for the oper­
ator to learn the use of the machine to dictate letters.
five operators ever dictate to the machine.
Of these five oper­
ators, three, or 2.6 per cent, use it occasionally.
ators, 1.7 per cent, use it rarely.
Only
Two oper­
On the other hand, one
hundred one operators, 86.3 per cent, never dictate to the
machine.
Eleven operators, 9.4 per cent, did not answer for
one reason or another.
Thus there seems to be little reason
for including this machine in classroom instruction.
In some
of the larger schools this machine might be included and spe­
cific stress given for those boys who expect later to enter
businessfor themselves or go into organizations headed by
4©
TABLE XII
ESTMT TO WHICH THE OPERATORS
USE THE mCHHO) TO DICTATE LETTERS
Hamber
Rarely
llever
Per cent
3
2.6
2
1.7
101
86.3
41
their fathers or other relatives.
Knowledge of the machine
would thus prove of value*
Looking now at Table XIII, it is found that the adding
and listing machine, duplicator, calculator, teletype, number
and date machine, and envelope sealers are the machines most
frequently used by the operators in addition to the dictating
machine.
Two operators use the adding and listing machine
from one to five hours a day.
Three use the duplicator and
the calculator from one to five hours, while one operator uses
the teletype, multigraph, and bookkeeping machines from one
to five hours a day.
Twenty-two operators use the adding and
listing machine less than one hour a day.
duplicator less than one hour.
Seventeen use the
Eleven operators use the tele­
type and number and date machines less than one hour a day.
Ten operators use the calculator and envelope sealers less
than one hour a day.
There is one operator that uses the
duplicator and card punch machine for more than five hours a
day.
Thus one may say that it is advisable to give training
on the adding and listing machine, duplicator, calculator, and
teletype before employment.
Table XI? shows the amount of difficulty encountered by
the operators in operating machines other than the dictating
machine.
This table seems to be of little actual value since
so few operators answered the question. However, one will
observe from the table that the billing machine and the card
punch machine are the only ones causing a great deal of trouble*
42
TABLE XIII
s’REfrarcrr bisthibutiom of time spm r
operating office machimes other m m
THE MCTATIH0 MAGKME
less
1 hour
a day
Adding and listing
Duplicator
Calculator
Teletype
Humber and date
Envelope sealers
Multigraph
Comptometer
Bookkeeping
Billing
A&dressograph
Card punch
22
17
1©
11
U
10
8
8
7
7
7
5
1-5
hours
a day
2
3
3
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
Over 5
hours
a day
0
1
0
O
O
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Total
Ho.. H
24
21
13
12
11
10
9
8
8
7
7
6
20.5
17.9
11.1
10.3
9.4
8.5
7.7
6.6
6.8
6
6
5.1
TABLE XIV
THE AMOUNT OF DIFFICULTY ENCOUNTERED
IN OPERATING MACHINES OTHER THAN THE
DICTATING MACHINE
(less than three
Minor
Great Average
No* % No# %
No* %
Duplioator
Adding and listing
Teletype
Calculator
Multigraph
Number and date
Envelope sealers
Comptometer
Bookkeeping
Billing
Addressograph
Card punch
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 2*1
0
1 1
©
©
1 1
1 1
©
©
1 1
0
0
©
©
1 1
B
314 14*6
16 18*7
9 9*4
8 8*3
7 7*3
6 6*3
6 6*3
5 5*2
5 5*2
4 4*2
7 7*3
4 4*2
(more than three weeks)
Great Average Minor
No* No* %
No* %
©
©
©
©
0
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
0
3 20
4 26*7
0
0
1 6*7
1 6*7
1
©
©
0
2 15*3
©
1 6*7
I 6.7
1 6*7
©
0
0
©
©
©
0
6*7
44
There are only two girls bothered by these two machines and
both of these girls received less than three weeks training
before employment.
Little importance should be attached to
this, though, as these two people constitute less than 1 per
cent of the total number of operators.
Table XV shows the opinions of the operators as to the
importance of operating these machines.
The greatest im­
portance was attached to adding and listing machines, dupli­
cators, and the teletype.
These machines were among the
machines most frequently used by the operators other than
the dictating machine.
(This importance is according to the
weights which were given each machine.
For this purpose, a
value of five was given for great importance, three points
for average, and one point for minor importance.
Thus it is apparent that more attention should be given
to these machines in the classroom.
The student must have a
working knowledge of these machines, as in most cases, she
will be required to operate them after receiving her position.
Duties of the operators other than operating the dictating
machine. Table XVI is perhaps one of the most interesting.
According to this table one discovers that many of the oper­
ators have things to do in addition to operating their dic­
tating machine.
For instance, those duties taking up most of
the operator*s time are: Answering the phone, filing, ad­
dressing envelopes, packages, etc., handling the mail, using
45
TABLE XT
, OPINIONS OE OPERATORS IN RESPECT TO THE IMPORTANCE
Of OPERATING MACHINES OTHER THAN THE DICTATING MACHINES
Great
Adding and listing
Duplicating
Teletype
Calculator
Number and date
Mmltigraph
Envelope sealers
Comptometer
Bookkeeping
Billing
Addressograph
Card punch
5
3
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Average
8
9
3
6
5
4
4
4
3
4
3
2
Minor
weight
8
7
3
3
3
4
4
2
3
a
z
B
57
49
37
26
25
16
16
14
12
14
n
8
TABLE XVI
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TIME SPENT
IN PERFORMING DUTIES
OTHER THAN OPERATING DICTATING MACHINE
Great
No. %
Answering the phone 23
30
Filing
16
Addressing envelopes,
packages, etc.
Handling the mail
21
Using the telephone 14
Preparing reports
16
Taking dictation di­ 7
rect to 333achine
Ordering supplies
8
Receptionist duties
18
Making appointments 11
Cutting stencils
10
Operating card index 4
Keeping hooks
5
Writing checks
5
Acting as cashier
7
Making inventories
3
Operating switchboard 2
Average
No.
<%>
Minor
NO.
<fo
19.7
25.6
13.7
21 17.9
24 20.5
21 17.9
34 29.1
16 13.7
22 18.8
212
258
165
17.9
12
13.7
6
21
22
22
20
17.9
18.8
18.8
17.1
17
20
14
23
14.5
17.1
12
19.7
185
156
160
118
6.8
15.4
9.4
8.5
3.4
4*3
4.3
6
2.6
1.7
21 17.9
13 11.1
8.5
10
8 6.8
18 15.4
9,4
11
7 6
5 4.3
6 5*1
3 2.6
20
16
22
22
12
11
13
15
9
7
17.1
13.7
18.8
18.8
10.3
9.4
11.1
11.1
7.7
6
123
145
107
96
86
79
59
63
42
26
Weight
47
the telephone, preparing reports, receptionist duties, making
appointments, and cutting stencils.
(This is according to the
weights which were given each duty.
The same values were
attached to great, average, and minor as in Table XI)
filing
is the duty which takes up most of the operator1s time.
It is
found that thirty operators, 85.6 per cent, spend a great deal
to time with filing.
Twenty-three, or 19.7 per cent, spend
much time answering the phone.
Twenty-one, 17.9 per cent, re­
port that handling the mail takes up a great deal of their time.
Eighteen operators, 15.4 per cent, have a great number of re­
ceptionist duties to perfom.
Sixteen operators, 13.7 per cent,
reported that they spend a great amount of time preparing re­
ports, and addressing envelopes, packages, etc. fourteen oper­
ators, IS per cent, spend much time using the telephone.
E-
leven operators, 9.4 per cent, make appointments a great deal
of the time and ten, 8.5 per cent, of the operators spend a
great amount of time cutting stencils.
One may observe that
several of these duties seem to be repetitious— answering the
phone, using the telephone, making inventories, keeping books,
operating card index, filing, handling the mail, addressing
envelopes, packages, etc. However, since the duties of cleri­
cal workers have become so specialized, an attempt was made to
break each duty down into as many parts as were required to
take in and describe the duties of each operator.
As was mentioned before, many of these offices have only
one person each to do all of their clerical work.
This then
48
would explain the frequency distribution of the time spent in
performing duties other than operating the dictating machine#
The duties mentioned above which took up most of the operator1s
time are duties which the average office receptionist or secre­
tary might be required to perform, such as answering the phone,"
filing, handling mail, preparing reports, cutting stencils,
making appointments, etc.
This indicates that more training
should be offered in the schools so that the student will be
more adequately equipped to perform her job more competently#
&s was mentioned before, the operator must be able to perform
duties other than that of operating the dictating machine as
very few of the operators transcribe cylinders eight hours a
day#
The teacher could integrate these duties with the class-
work in such a way as to give the student an insight of what
will be expected of her after she is employed. With such prac­
tice she will also have the experience with which to meet these
problems as they arise.
Table XVII shows the amount of difficulty encountered by
these operators in performing duties other than that of oper­
ating the dictating machine. The duties causing the most diffi­
culty are filing, handling the mail, preparing reports, using
the telephone,5receptionist duties, and answering the phone.
Thirty-three of the operators, 28.2 per cent, reported great
difficulty with their filing.
Thirty operators, 25#6 per cent,
reported great difficulty in preparing reports and handling the
mail.
Twenty-five, or 21.3 per cent, have great amount of
49
difficulty over answering the phone* While nineteen operators,
16*2 per cent, have great difficulty in performing simple re­
ceptionist duties.
In the last column of Table XVII these duties have been
weighted (five points was the value given to great difficulty,
three points were given to average and one point was given to
minor difficulty) in order to show the difficulty for each*
The most difficult duties according to this column are filing,
answering the phone, and handling the mail,
in most cases the
filing is included in the office machines class,1but provision
must be made for the remaining duties which are not taken into
consideration.
Duties accompanying the transcription of records* Looking
at tables XVIII and XIX, it is interesting to note that the
duties which are the most difficult for the operators and upon
which they spend the most time are directly traceable to the
dictator. Most of their difficulty arises from:
(1) Hot being
able to understand the dictation; (2) not having corrections in­
dicated on the slip; (3) the unintentional use of wrong words by
the dictator.
Twenty-seven of the operators, 28.1 per cent,' re­
ported that their greatest difficulty arose from not having the
corrections indicated on the slip.
would have to retype the letter.
In many cases the operator
Eighteen operators, 18.8 per
cent, have a great amount of difficulty in understanding the
poor dictation. Five, 5.2 per cent, have difficulty when the
dictator unintentionally uses the wrong words.
TABLE XVII
THE AMOUNT OF DIFFICULTY ENCOUNTERED
IN PERFORMING DUTIES
OTHER THAN OPERATING THE DICTATING MACHINE
Duties
Filing
Answering the phone
Handling the mail
Preparing reports
Using the telephone
Addressing envelopes,
packages, etc.
Taking dictation di­
rect to machine
Receptionist duties
Ordering supplies
Making appointments
Keeping books
Cutting stencils
Operating card index
Writing checks
Making inventories
Acting as cashier
Operating switchboard
Great
No*
$
33
25
30
30
20
23*2
21*3
25*6
25.6
17.1
16 13*7
17
19
13
16
15
9
7
10
5
4
3
14.5
16*2
11.1
13.7
12.8
7.7
6
8*5
4*3
3*4
2*6
Average
No*
%
Minor Weight
No.
%
20
25
13
7
19
17.1
21.3
11.1
6
16.2
5 4.3
14 12
9 7*7
7 6
11
9*4
230
214
198
178
168
17 14.5
16 13*7
147
15
10
16
10
7
12
13
6
8
4
1
10 8.5
9 7.7
15 12*8
12 10*3
3*4
4
12 .10*5
8*5
10
6 5*1
4 3*4
9 7*7
5 4*3
140
134
128
122
100
93
84
74
53
41
23
12.8
8.5
13*7
8.5
6
10.3
11.1
5*1
6*8
3*4
1*7
TABLE m i l
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFICULTY ENCOUNTERED
BY OPERATORS WITH LESS THAN THREE WEEKS TRAINING
AND OPERATORS WITH MORE THAN THREE WEEKS
TRAINING IN PERFORMING CERTAIN DUTIES ACCOMPANYING
TRANSCRIPTION OF RECORDS
Great
No# %
Understanding poor
dictation
Not having correc­
tions indicated
on slip
Using baekspaee to
listen over
Unintentional use
of wrong words
by dictator
Estimating place*
ment of a letter
Adjusting minor
troubles in the
machine
(less than three weeks)
Average
Minor
No# %
No# %
Weight
Great
No# %
IS 18.8
30 31#3
31 31L#3
211
11
27 28.11
18 18.7
SI 31*1
220
23 24
56 58
11 11.5
0
5
5.2
0
1
1
(mare than three weeks)
Average
Minor Weight
No# %
No# %
5 33*3
6 33#3
26
2 13.3
3 20
4 26#7
23
125
1
3 20
7 40
21
57 59*4
115
0
2 13*3
7 40
13
10 10#4
64 66*6
94
10 66.7
13
13 13*5
57 59*4
101
5 33.3
11
0
0
6#7
6.7
1
6#7
2 13.3
' TABLE XIX
‘ FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF TIME SPMT
BY OPERATORS IN PERFORMING CERTAIN DUTIES
ACCOMPANYING TRANSCRIPTION OF RECORDS
Great
No. £
Using backspace to
4 3.4
listen over
Understanding poor
8 6.8
dictation
Estimating placement
7
6
of a letter
Not having correction
19 16.3
indicated on slip
Unintentional use of
wrong words by the
3 3.6
dictator
Adjusting minor
•9
troubles in machine
1
Average
No.
Minor
No. $o
Weight
68 58.1
31 36.5
355
57 48.9
35 39.9
346
17 14.5
63 53.8
149
39 34.8
43 35.9
319
30 17.1:
66 56.4
141
78 66.7
110
9
7.7
Not©: This table should, he read as follows: Four operators,
or 3,4 per cent, spend a great deal of time using their back­
space to listen over. Sixty-eight operators, or 58.1 per
cent, spend an average amount of time in this duty, etc*
53
In regard to those operators with more than three weeks
training on the machine before employment, it is found that
they* too, are bothered by not having corrections indicated
on the slip and in understanding poor dictation.
One oper­
ator, 6*7 per cent, also reported difficulty in using the
backspace to listen over*
tors:
This might be due to several fac­
(1) Blow rate of typing; (2) bad hearing; (3) bad dic­
tation on the part of the dictator*
In addition to causing the operators a great deal of
difficulty, not having the correction indicated on the slip
also takes up a great deal of their time, nineteen, 16.2 per
cent, reported that this duty took much of their time*
A
great amount of time is also spent in understanding poor dic­
tation and estimating the placement of a letter.
The operators are required to operate the shaving machine.
However, there is little need for the operator to learn the use
of the machine to dictate letters as the average operator has
little opportunity to use this machine*
The adding and listing machine, duplicator, calculator,
teletype, number and date machine, and envelope sealers are the
machines most frequently used by the operators in addition to
the dictating machine.
The operators have the greatest diffi­
culty in operating billing machines and card punch machines.
Answering the phone, filing, addressing envelopes, prepar­
ing reports, handling the mail, using the telephone, reception­
ist duties, making appointments, and cutting stencils are the
54
duties which require the most time outside of operating the
dictating machine,
Filing, handling the mail, preparing re­
ports, using the telephone, receptionist duties, and answering
the phone are the duties which cause the operators the most
difficulty.
In regard to the duties directly connected with the dic­
tating machine it was found that the dictator is directly re­
sponsible for the time wasted and difficulty encountered by
the dictating machine operators,
This is due to poor enuncia­
tion, unintentional use of wrong words, and not indicating the
corrections on the slip*
Thus one sees that much difficulty could be avoided by im­
proving the dictator.
Since the student will run into these
difficulties after she is employed, it is wise to confront the
student with these problems in the classroom*
The teacher
could create situations of this type in the classroom in order
that the student could have experience in dealing vd.th these
problems. Have the student transcribe a cylinder in which the
dictation is poor, or insert a slip in the cylinder which does
not have the corrections indicated.
This will equip the student
to deal more adequately with these problems as they arise after
employment,
Summary of findings. Letters to customers, office memos,
and interdepartmental communications are the most frequently
transcribed records.
Letters to customers, interdepartmental
communications, reports, and statements are the records which
55
cause the greatest trouble in transcription*
These records
were also considered to be the most important by the operators.
Operators with less than three weeks training on the
machine before employment had more difficulty, on the whole,
in transcribing these records than did the operators with more
than three weeks training.
The operators report that carbon copies must be made for
each letter.
Sometimes only one, but in some cases as many as
four.
When using the dictating machine all day the operators
turn out from six to ten cylinders.
Most of the operators spend over four hours a day oper­
ating the dictating machine.
The operators with less than
three weeks training on the machine before employment spend
more hours a day transcribing cylinders than do the operators
who had more than three weeks training before their employ­
ment.
At least three weeks training was required on the dictat­
ing machine after employment before the operator was able to
develop satisfactory efficiency.
Summary of educational implications. Every good teacher
is aware of her studentfs needs.
She is constantly analyzing
and setting up her objectives in tems of these needs.
Since
the author was most interested in the dictating machines, she
decided to concentrate on a job analysis of this work for the
56
purpose of analyzing and discovering the needs of the student
in order to prepare them for this type of a position.
With the interpreting of the tables several interesting
points were brought out. Perhaps the most interesting was the
fact that the individual qualified only to operate the dicta­
ting machine will have difficulty in finding a position.
The
student may specialize on the dictating machine but must also
be able to operate other machines common to business and per­
form additional duties.
The operator with only one skill is
practically worthless to her employer.
In considering the machines, stress should be given in
the classroom to adding and listing machines, duplicators, and
calculators.
If finances permit, it would be wise to provide
instruction on the teletype, and the number and date machines.
However, this is often impossible in the smaller high schools.
After weighting the time spent, difficulty, and importance
of these machines, it was found that the adding and listing
machines ranked highest.
Thus the stress placed upon these
machines by the teacher should be second only to the dictating
machine.
In considering the shaving machine and the machine for
dictating the letters, it was decided that it would be worth
while to include only the shaving machine for instruction.
The machine for dictating the letters was used very rarely by
the operator and thus the author could not justify its use in
the office machines course except in the larger high schools
which are well financed.
In such cases one of these machines
could he included and specific attention given to those hoys
in the class who expect later to enter business for themselves
or to go into organizations headed hy their fathers or other
relatives,
The shaving machine, on the other hand, is a very inte­
gral part of the dictating machine operator* s work.
Going hack to the dictating machine, it is found that the
operators have a variety of records to transcribe,
The most
important of these are letters to customers, reports, inter­
departmental communications, office memos, collection letters,
telegrams, letters to salesmen (employees), and statements,
(listed according to importance— letters to customers being
the most important,) Thus the teacher will put the most
emphasis upon the first few types of records.
However, the
students should have the experience of transcribing each of
the types of records listed above*
In some schools the author has noticed that emphasis has
been placed on letters to such an extent as to disregard the
other types of records and thus the operators go into their
new job without the slightest idea of how to set up or tran­
scribe other types of records.
Since the operator must be adept in the use of carbons,
the teacher should instruct the pupils on the proper use of
58
these carbons.
The students should also have a working knowl­
edge of how to erase when using carbons.
One of the minimum requirements of this course would be
the ability of the student to type from six to ten cylinders a
day or the average of one an hour.
There are many duties in addition to operating the dicta­
ting machine which should be included in classroom instruction.
These duties are ranked according to their importance— the
first duty being the most important:
Filing, answering the
phone, handling the mail, preparing reports, using the tele­
phone, and addressing envelopes, packages, etc.
These duties
may be included in the class in such a way as to give the stu­
dent an insight of what to expect in an office.
The teacher
should endeavor to make the classroom take on the appearance
of a business office as much as she possibly can.
The teacher may have the student address envelopes and
packages which must be sent out by the school.
Then the stu­
dent may work at the placement desk answering the phone and
preparing reports.
Instruction on filing is nearly always
included in the class work.
The teacher should also give the students experience in
taking dictation direct to the machine.
This process may up­
set the students for a short time, but with practice they will
soon become accustomed to it.
In addition to the above duties there are certain other
duties which accompany the transcription of the records. Hot
59
having the corrections indicated on the slip and not being able
to understand poor dictation are the most important for the
operators*
These two duties cause a great deal of trouble for
the operator and result in a great loss of time* Most of this
is the fault of the dictator* However, since the operator will
be confronted with this type of trouble after employment it
would be advisable for the teacher to create situations of this
type in the classroom in order that the student may have ex­
perience in dealing with these problems.
For instance, one
day the students may be asked to transcribe a cylinder in which
the dictator was careless in regard to his enunciation.
The
next day the teacher may insert a slip in the cylinder which
does not indicate the corrections to be made*
Thus in this way
the student will be brought face to face with these difficulties
and will be forced to take definite action in the matter*
In concluding one will observe that every operator, regard­
less of previous training, must undergo a certain period of ad­
justment after employment. However, the more training an oper­
ator has before employment, the shorter is her period of ad­
justment*
CHAPTER I?
GOTCLUSIONS AND REGQMMENDATICMS
Summary and conclusions. The purpose of this chapter is
to summarize the study and draw the necessary conclusions*
Recommendations relative to this study will also he made.
The findings of this study are the result of 125 question­
naires which were distributed to dictating machine operators
to fill out.
Of these 125 questionnaires, 117 were returned#
These were divided into two groups:
Operators with less than
three weeks training before employment; and operators with
more than three weeks training before employment.
The findings
of these two groups were later correlated and summarized in
order to form the educational implications.
The author realizes that this study is not highly reliable,
but the operators gave generously of their time and it was de­
cided that it would be unwise to give them a second question­
naire to fill out.
After looking over the findings of this study the follow­
ing conclusions resulted:
1.
The most important records which the dictating machine
operators have to transcribe are the following:
Letters to
customers; reports; interdepartmental communications; office
memos; collection letters; telegrams; letters to salesmen (em­
ployees); and statements.
Thus in her teaching the teacher
should place most of the emphasis upon these types of records.
61
Cylinders for the transcribing of these records shouia be
provided as practice for the students*
2*
The student must know how to make carbon copies of
all letters*
5.
Six to ten cylinders are the average number turned
out in a day*
This should be a minimum requirement for the
student of the dictating machine*
4*
The student must be able to operate other business
machines (in addition to the dictating machine) and perfom
other duties*
Just knowing how to operate the dictating machine
is not enough*
5* At least a three week period of adjustment is re­
quired by the dictating machine operator before she is able to
develop satisfactory efficiency.
(Eor operators with less than
three weeks training on the machine before employment*)
6* Every operator regardless of her previous training
must undergo a short period of adjustment after employment*
7.
The more training received before employment, the
shorter the period of adjustment*
S.
Training should be offered in the classroom on the
shaving machine*
9.
The adding and listing machines, duplicators, and
calculators are machines which should be taught in the class­
room*
62
10*
If finances permit, the teletype, and the number and
date machine should also be taught.
11. Most stress in the classroom should be placed on the
adding and listing machines.
12.
The student should also have a working knowledge of
the following duties:
Filing; answering the phone; handling
the mail; preparing reports; using the telephone; and address­
ing envelopes, packages, etc.
These should be incorporated in
classroom instruction.
13.
The student should have experience in taking dicta­
tion direct to the machine.
14. Hot having the corrections indicated on the slip and
not being able to understand poor dictation are the most im­
portant duties which are specifically related to the operation
of the machine.
15.
The above duties are directly traceable to the dic­
tator.
16.
The teacher should create situations involving the
above duties in order that the students may have experience
in dealing with them.
Recommendations ♦ The author has the following recommen­
dations to make in regard to this study:
1.
There is a need for further research on all types of
office machines.
63
2. Instruction on these machines should he revised and im­
proved in order to meet the students needs.
3. Courses of instruction on office machines should be
made.available to all high school students.
4. Further research should be conducted for the purpose
of investigating the possibilities of using the dictating ma­
chine as a teaching device for typewriting.
5. Ihe teacher should include in her office machines
class instruction on correct methods of answering phones,
handling the mail, etc*
6. The teacher should endeavor to make the atmosphere
of the office machines class as much like that of a business
office as is possible.
BIBLIGGRAEHy
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Agnew, P. L., Principles and Problems of Qffioe Practice# Hew York*
New York University, 1937. pp. 87-122.
Galloway, L., Office Management. Hew Yorks
701 pp.
Ronald Press Company, 1920,
Hainfeld, C. F., Secretarial Practice. Chicago and Hew Yorks
Carnahan, 1932.
Lyons and
Morse, P., Business Machines. Longmans, Green and Company, 1932.
281 pp.
Slade, M. L., Hurley, M. H., and Clippinger, K. L., Secretarial Training.
Boston, Massaohusettess Ginn and Company, 1934.
Stiokney, R., and Stiekney, B • G., Office and Secretarial Training. Hew
York* Prentioe-Hall, Inc., 1931.
Wylie, H. L., Camber, M. P., and Frecht, R. P., Practical Office Management.
New Yorks Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1937. 300 pp.
66
B.
PERIODICALS AND UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
American Office Machines Research Service, Volume 2, 1937* 26pp.
Carlton, M. B., nA Forward Step in Office Machine Training,”
Journal of Business Education, January 1937, 1*13-15.
Felsen, J., "A Study of the Values to be Derived from a Knowledge
of Typewriting by College Students,” Unpublished Master’s
Thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1933.
Fox, F. G., ”Performance Standards in Office Operation,” National
Business Eduoatlon Quarterly, 9*15-16, March 1941. ,
Goodfellow, R. C., "Office Practice Program— Newark, New Jersey,”
National Business Education Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1936. p. 28.
Heidrich, "A Study to Determine the Skills Needed in Business
Offices,” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of
Southern.California, Los Angeles, 1936.
Mitts, N. G., ”A Method of Teaching Office Practice,” Journal of
Business: Education, December 1939
Redington, R. E., "Mechanical Deviees Used in Shorthand Transcription,”
Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The University of Southern California,
Los Angeles, 1933. xiO pp.
Rowe, C. S., "Office Practice," Eastern Commercial Teachers Association,
Eighth Yearbook
— —
—
Rutledge, R. E«, "Dictating Machines as Given at Merritt Business
School," Journal of Business Education, 13*20, May 1938.
Schneider, A. S., "The Function of Office Machines in Teacher Training
Institutions," Dictaphone Educational Forum, December 1941. p. 3.
Stern, A., "Preliminary Steps in Organizing a Business Machime-Practice
Project,” Business Edueation World, 20*133-5
Tedens, M. F., "Chicago Establishes Typewriting Standards," New York*
Monographs, in Education, No. 4, 1937.
Thacker, H* Gr., "Dictating Machine Operators," Vocational Monographs,
Ho* 4, Boston University College of Business Administration, 19S2,
pp* 1-22.
APPENDIX
DUTIES OF THE
DICTAPHONE OPERATOR
69
Please cheek the correct answer for each question:
1. How much training did you have on the dictaphone while in
school if any?
0 to 3 weeks__________
3 to 6 weeks_______
6 to 9 weeks__________
over 9 weeks__________
2# After you obtained a position how long did it take to
develop satisfactory efficiency on the machine?
0 to 3 weeks
_______
3 to 6 weeks
______
6 to 9 weeks ______ _
over 9 weeks._________
3* When you work a full day at the machine how many cylinders
do you usually transcribe from the machine?
under 5 ______ _
6 to 10 ________
11 to 20
over 20 _______
4* How many letters are usually on a cylinder?
1 to 5
_____
6 to 8_________
over 8____
5* Which task do you do first?
address the envelope_________ _
type the letter
"_________
6 o When the envelope is typed first where do you get the in­
formation for the address?_____ ______________________
7* Do you make carbon cbpies of material transcribed on the
machine? Yes
____
No ______
8* How many hours a day do you use the transcribing machine?
1 to 3 hours________
4 to 6 hours„_______
6 to 8 hours________ ~
9» Is it one of your duties to shave the transcribed cylomders?
never__________ sometimes^____ _
always_______
f
10. In your job do you dictate letters or other materials to
the dictating machine? never__________ rarely___________
occasionally
____
frequently
_______
11
.
DIRECTIONS
70
Place one check (/O in each column to indicate the frequency and impor­
tance of any of the following duties which you perform other than oper­
ating the dictating machine* See the following examples*
Example?
FREQUENCY
Minor Average Great
Filins
Cashier
»i< H4**H4^
*H
4*
*H45^* ^*H4^** j< Jfc'jfc
^ >j< *
**slf 9#c sjc sjc 5f« **H4* #
* 4
FREQUENCY
Minor Average Great
Answer ins the phone
Writing checks
Keepins hooks
Preparing reports
Operating card index
Ordering supplies
Making appointments
Handling the mail
Filing
Operating switchboard
Acting as cashier
Cutting stencils
Using the telephone
Acting as receptionist
Making inventories
Taking dictation direct'
to the machine
Addressing envelopes, pack.. ages, etc.........
. i
Other duties
T.. . 11"U
IMPORTANCE
Minor Average Great
j<^cs}<^cs|<sj<jf:>i<^<s|<5j<:i4>!
44:H4Sl4,J4>i
45J4if4:!54
IMPORTANCE
Minor Average Great
12
/
DIRECTIONS
71
Place one check (*0 in each colmn to indicate the difficulty, impor­
tance, and number of hours spent a day in typing each of the following
records. See the following example.
Example
Bills
Invoices
Great
Aver­
age
Great
i
iS
i.
i
\
il
!
IMPORTANCE
hO
ccS
U
<D
i
'
Great
.. <D
Minor
Great
Average
1... ....
—
—
—
1Minor
DIFFICULTY
!hours
|a day
Over 5
i hours
1a day
i
Less 1
hour
a day
Other records
IMPORTANCE
JS
FREQUENCY
Bills
Invoices
Telegrams
Letters to customers
Office memos
Reports
Pay rolls
Distribution sheets
Cash memos
Speeches
Commercial drafts
Bank drafts
Statem-ents
Purchase orders
Collection letters
Letters to salesmen
(employees)
Interdepartmental com­
munications
Aver­
age
Minor
Less 1
hour
a day
1-5
hours
a day
Over 5
hours
a day
DIFFICULTY
Minor
FREQUENCY
DIRECTIONS
13
72
Place one check {t/ ) in each column to indicate the difficulty and fre­
quency of any of the following duties which are connected with the oper­
ating of the dictating machine.
See the following example.
Example:
FREQUENCY
Minor Averag e Great
DIFFICULTY
Minor Averag e Great
FREQUENCY
Minor Average Great
DIFFICULTY
Minor Averag e Great
Using backspace
Understanding poor dictation
Adjusting minor troubles in^
the machine
Using backspace to listen
over again
Understanding poor dicta­
tion
Not having the corrections
indicated on the slip
f■■ .
Estimating placement of. a
letter
1
Unintentional use of wrong
!
words bv the dictator
i
—------- —1... ...»
•
Other duties
I4
DIRECTIONS
Place one check (e^) in each column to indicate the difficulty, impor­
tance, and number of hours spent a day in operating machines in addition
to the dictating machine.
See the following example.
I
___ _I ..
Comptometer
-M u l t i g r a p h
Bookkeeping machines
Billing machines
Adding and listing machines
Duplicating machine
Teletype
Calculating machine
Number and date machines
Addressograph
C a r d •p u n c h
Envelope sealers
Other machines
T
Great
Great
Average
IMPORTANCE
Minor
-"
DIFFICULTY
Great
1-5
hours
a day
Over
5 hours
a day
Less 1
hour
a day
FREQUENCY
a
Average
A-"
Average
Minor
Great
IMPORTANCE
Average
1-5
hours
a day
Over
5 hours
a day
DIFFICULTY
Minor
Comptometer
Multigraph
FREQUENCY
(Less 1
[hour
1a day
1
i
Minor
Example:
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
3 946 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа