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A COMPARISON OP RULES AND REGULATIONS OF
THE ARIZONA HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION
WITH THOSE OP OTHER STATE ASSOCIATIONS
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
(
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
by
Robert E. Crouch
February
19^2
UMI Number: EP54187
All rights reserved
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a note will indicate the deletion.
Dissertation Publishing
UMI EP54187
Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.
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unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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EXVa. c'jSa.
T h is thesis, w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the
C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been prese n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
D a te ...
D ean
Guidance C om m ittee
Pauline M. Frederick
C hairm an
T. H. Chen
Lloyd S. Webster
Aa */£,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
PAGE
I. INTRODUCTION .............................. ..
.The. problem
................................
1
,2
Statement of the problem . . .......... . .
2
Importance and significance of the problem .
3
Review of related investigations
II.
. .
.............
4
Method of p r o c e d u r e .........................
10
Organization of the remaining chapters . . . .
11
THE ADMINISTRATION OF INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS.
12
Written constitutions
.......................
14
State organizations.
.......................
16
District organization
.......................
23
Classification of schools
...................
28
D u e s ..........................................
32
Penalties for various violations
38
.............
The National Federation of State High School
Interscholastic Athletic Associations
...
S u m m a r y ...............................
III.
44
45
REGULATIONS REGARDING ELIGIBILITY AND
COMPETITION
48 '
Introduction ..................................
48
Age L i m i t ....................................
52
S c h o l a r s h i p ..................................
58
R e s i d e n c e ....................................
63
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
Physical examination and parental consent
. .
68
Eligibility lists required ...................
72
Rules governing post-season games, length
of schedules and spring practice
. ....
76
O f f i c i a l s .......... '........................
8^
Athletic benefit plans
. . . - ? ...............
85
...........
84
Miscellaneous eligibility rulings
S u m m a r y ......................................
IV.
92
95
THE ARIZONA INTERSCHOLASTIC ASSOCIATION . . . .
Introduction ..................................
95
The administration and control of inter­
96
scholastic athletics in A r i z o n a .......
Written Constitution ...............
. . . . .
96
98
State o r g a n i z a t i o n ............
District o r g a n i z a t i o n ..............
100
Classification of schools
100
.................
D u e s .....................................
Penalties for violations
101
...................
102
Regulations regarding eligibility and
. c o m p e t i t i o n ............... ..
.
Age l i m i t ................ '.................
S c h o l a r s h i p ............................
105
104
R e s i d e n c e ..............
Physical examination and parental consent
-10^
105
.
106
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Eligibility lists required ...................
107
Post season games, length of schedules,
and spring practice
Officials
......................
.....................
Athletic benefit plans
Miscellaneous rulings
109
....................
.............
. . . .
S u m m a r y ........................................
V.
108
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . .
109
109
110
114
S u m m a r y ........................................
114
C o n c l u s i o n s ....................................
120
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ...............................
123
B I B L I O G R A P H Y ....................... ..
.
..........
125
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
PAGE
Time of Printing, Sponsorship and Form of
Written Constitutions of Various State High
School Athletic Associations of the United
States
II.
.................
State Organization of State High School
Athletic A s s o c i a t i o n s ..........
III.
.......................
.....................
.................
.......................
56
Academic Requirements of the Various State
High School Athletic Associations
X.
4-6
The Age Limit Requirement of High School
Athletic Associations
IX.
4-1
Members and Non-Members of the National Federa­
tion of State High School Athletic Associations
VIII.
37
Violations with the Penalties by State High
School Athletic A s s o c i a t i o n s .................
VII.
31
Dues Required of Member Schools of State High
School Athletic Associations
VI.
25
Classification of Schools in State High School
Athletic Associations
V.
18
District Organization of State High School
Athletic Associations
IV.
15
...........
6l
State Athletic Association Regulations
Governing Transferred Students
...............
66
Vi
TABLE
XI.
PAGE
The Physical Examination and Parental
Consent of State High School Athletic
Associations
XII.
................................
71
Eligibility Lists Required by State High
School Athletic Associations
...............
75
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
During the rise and the rapid growth of free secondary
schools in this country, pupil interest and initiative in
athletic contests between neighboring high schools has
arisen.
In the early stages of the development of athletic
activities, there was a tendency toward spontaneous athletic
relationship on the part of the students without any control
by the school authorities.
According to Wagenhorst:
In the early stages of Its development school
authorities either winked at the strange type of
pupil activity or remained in blissful ignorance as
to its management or direction. Under a laissez
faire policy, this competitive spirit grew until it
permeated the very life of the school and community.
The skilled contest naturally attracts. Winning
teams brought crowds and aroused partisan interests
and rivalry.
The student manager, lacking support
from his school, went outside to get it. Leagues
were organized. Gate receipts mounted. Sharp prac­
tices, professionalism, rowdyism, dishonesty, trick­
ery, and other evils crept in.
Within the last two decades, however, school adminis­
trators have become aware of the necessity for control, and
a process of evolution is joining adult educational leader­
ship and responsibility with pupil control and management.
Thus the attempt to regulate high school interscholastic
1 L. H. Wagenhorst, ,f,Are Athletics Overdone?,”
Journal of Education. 110:236, September, 1929*
2
athletic contests has developed, until today every state in
the Union has a planned program to control interscholastic
athletic activities.
Thomas states thats
Those who are acquainted with the high school
situation for the past twenty-five years appreciate
the steady improvement that has been made since the
state associations began to function with power and
authority.
Formerly there were no regulations on
scholarship, age, physical condition, or length of
time in school, and consequently there developed
antagonisms that destroyed the possibility of friend­
ly feeling; but the presence of these undesirable
features did not prevent the spread of competition
for supremacy.
Boys who were in school before the
time of the athletic associations engaged in interscholastic contests.
It was a struggle to keep going,
but the boys persisted. School administrators first
ignored these contests, then tolerated them, and
finally conceived the idea of taking over the program
and providing the necessary safeguards to make it
meaningful and valuable to the school .2
It seems that competitive athletics will always be
carried on by the high school pupils of this country, so it
is reasonable to presume that only an agency such as the
state interscholastic athletic association can properly con­
trol a program of interscholastic athletics.
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem.
The purpose of this study
is to investigate the rules and regulations governing inter­
scholast ic athletic competition as provided by the state
2 E. A. Thomas, "Functions of a State High School
Athletic Association, * Journal of Health and Physical Educa­
tion , 5:16-17* November, 193^•
3
high school interscholastic athletic associations in the
United States in order to reveal the answers to the following
questions:
1.
To what extent do the rules and regulations of the inter­
scholastic athletic association of Arizona differ from
those of the athletic associations of other states?
2.
To what extent are the rules and regulations of Arizonafs
interscholastic athletic association similar to those of
the other states?
3*
In what respect do the rules and regulations of the inter­
scholastic athletic association of Arizona need changing?
Importance and significance of the problem.
Athletic
activities are highly social in nature, and interscholastic
athletic associations exist primarily for the purpose of
broadening the social horizons of the students.
Therefore,
it seems to the investigator that any rules or regulations
which tend to curtail activities or destroy social harmony
should be rejected by association officials; likewise, any
rules and regulations which tend to make for an increase of
happy, social contacts in athletics between schools should
be encouraged.
Many state associations have been created
without benefit of precedents established in similar asso­
ciations; later, changes and even entire revision of their
methods of operations have been necessary in order to take
care of the rapid increase in number and the complexities of
4
interscholastic contests.
Inasmuch as Arizona is the youngest state in the Union
and consequently one of the later states to adopt the state
control of interscholastic athletics, it seems important that
the association officials of Arizona profit by the valuable
experiences of the other states in the Union.
It is, there­
fore, hoped that the material found in this study may be of
assistance to any group of high school executives engaged in
organizing a state interscholastic athletic association, or
in making revisions of the rules and regulations now func­
tioning in the present organization.
II.
REVIEW OF RELATED INVESTIGATIONS
The investigator has not been able to find numerous
or recent studies in this field.
Only three investigations
were found which are of a similar nature and have a direct
bearing upon this study.
!•
The administrat ion and cost of high school inter3
scholastic athletics♦ Wagenhorst submitted this doctoral
dissertation to Columbia University, which treats of the
administration and cost of high school interscholastic
Lewis Hoch Wagenhorst, The Administration and Cost
of High School Interscholastic Athletics (New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1931) •
5
athletics.
The study is based upon a survey of the constitutions
of the interscholastic athletic associations in forty-five
states.
A questionnaire was also submitted to the secretaries
of these organizations to secure additional pertinent facts.
This study shows the influences of the most important
agencies that are involved in promoting and controlling high
school interscholastic athletics, and the sources of revenue
and methods of handling the money for carrying on these ac­
tivities.
A state association with the following constitutional
provisions is recommended:
a.
A state board of control elected by the representatives
of the high schools belonging to the association and em­
powered by the const it tition to supervise and control inter­
scholastic athletic activities.
b.
Provision for dividing the state into districts with
boundaries clearly defined for competition in all inter­
scholastic athletic sports.
c.
Provision for the election of a district board in each
district by the representatives of the schools located
within the district, empowered by the constitution to
exercise general supervision over all interscholastic
athletic contests between Ugh schools located in the d i s ­
trict, to enforce all rules and regulations set forth in
the constitution, and to have jurisdiction over all ques,tions arising therefrom.
6
d.
The adoption of uniform acts of disbarment for amateurs.
e.
Universal requirement of the successful completion of
fifteen weekly prepared recitations or hours during the
preceding semester, and of the same standard of work
during the current semester up to the week preceding
the contest.
f.
A specified time limit— a fixed number of school days
within the first month of the semester— as an enrollment
eligibility requirement.
g.
Legislation favoring a fuller realization of the educa­
tional values of athletics, e.g., health of pupils,
trained coaches, qualified officials, character, and con­
duct.
Such legislation has been very limited, while
legislation favoring administration, business management,
and fair play has been quite general.
2.
Comparison of rules and regulations of state high
school athletic associations of the United States.
This study,
made by Hair,**- attempts to analyze the constitution and by-lare,
and the rules and regulations, of state high school athletic
associations.
This study was based on the following materials:
^ Jesse William Hair,
lations of State High School
United States,H The Phvsleal
Quarterly. 2:42-62, October,
”Couparison of the Rules and Regu­
Athletic Associations of the
Education Association Research •
1951.
The constitution and by-laws of forty-seven state high
school athletic associations.
The form reports and eligibility blanks of forty-seven
states .
(1) 93*6 per cent of the states adopted the inter-school
report before the games
(2 ) 57 *^ per cent of the states have adopted the annual
report to state secretary
(3 ) 61.7 per cent
of states play only association teams
(4)
of states require physical examinations
51.0 per cent
of players
(5 ) *1-6.8 per cent of states make no awards to players
which have a value of more than one dollar
(6 ) 76.6 per cent of states use official contracts for
games
(7 ) 87.2 per cent of states have annual meetings in their
associations
(8 ) 61.7 per cent
of states employ full time coaches
(9 ) 93*6 per cent
of states control all athletics
(10 ) 29*8 per cent
of states prohibit pre-season practice
for teams
(11) Nineteen states rule students ineligible after eight
semesters 1 attendance; two after nine semesters 1
attendance; and two after ten semesters 1 attendance.
(12 ) 89»3 per cent of the states demand that students pass
three out of four subjects taken the preceding semes­
ter to be eligible.
8
(12 ) 78.7
cent of the states have the age limit at
twenty-one years
(14) 21.2 per cent of the states have the age limit at
twenty years
(15 ) 87.2 per cent of the states allow four years' com­
petition in any sport
(16 ) 14.9 per cent of the states rule students ineligible
for competition when-guilty of using tobacco, pro­
fanity, or intoxicants
(17) 89*3 per cent of the states enforce the migratory
rule
(18 ) 55*2 per
cent of the states
have entrance dates set
after which no students may enter school and be
eligible
(19) 42.5 per
one game
cent of the states
count participation in
as aseason in that
sport
(20) 100 per cent of the states have the amateur rule
2•
A survey of state organizations for the super­
vision and control of secondary school interscholast1c athletic
R
contests . In this survey Bearrr presents an overview of the
present types of state organizations for the supervision and
^ LeRoy Wesley Beam, "A Survey of State Organizations
for the Supervision and Control of Secondary School InterScholastic Athletic Contests,” (unpublished Master's Thesis,
The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1926).
9
control of secondary interscholastic athletic contests now
functioning in various states, in order to reveal their
individual points of strength and weakness.
This survey
presents methods of financing and results obtained in con­
siderable detail.
The study is based upon the following materials:
a.
The constitutions and by-laws of the interscholastic
athletic associations of the United States.
b.
A questionnaire covering topics not found in the con­
stitutions and by-laws.
This survey has shown that some sort of organization
for sponsoring, and controlling high school athletics now
exists in all states.
In the majority of states this organ­
ization is state-wide and control
of high school executives.
rests largely in the hands
In a few states the organization
is dominated by a state university or college.
The majority of associations limit their operations
to the field of athletics, but a few are more comprehensive,
including in a few instances all types of interscholastic
contests.
Fundamentally, the rules and regulations of the
various state organizations are the same, but they differ
in details to a considerable extent.
10
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The investigator has not been able to depend upon
the results of previous studies, in this survey, because of
constant changes in the rules and regulations governing
interscholastic athletic contests in the forty-eight states.
The information required was not available except as it
existed in the written constitutions and by-laws of the
interscholastic athletic associations.
Therefore, letters
were written to the secretaries of the forty-six state
interscholastic athletic associations requesting copies of
their written constitutions and by-laws.
Since the states
of Delaware and Maryland have no high school athletic
associations, letters were sent to the State Director of
Physical and Health Education, and the State Supervisor of
Physical Education and Recreation of these states, requesting
copies of the rules and regulations governing their inter­
scholastic competition.
The second step in this investigation was to make a
careful study of the administration of interscholastic
athletics, regarding written constitutions, state organiza­
tion, district organization, classification of schools, dues,
penalties for various violations, and functions of the
National Federation of State High School Athletic Associa­
tions .
11
The third step includes a study of the regulations
regarding age limit, scholarship, residence, physical
examination, parental consent, eligibility lists, post­
season games, length of schedules, spring practice, offi­
cials, athletic benefit plans, and miscellaneous factors.
The fourth step was to compare Arizona’s rules and
regulations with those of other states.
The chief weakness of this study lies in the fact
that the investigator was unable .to include any possible
recent changes in the rules and regulations of the various
state high school associations because a few of the asso­
ciations do not edit their handbooks annually.
IV.
ORGANIZATION OF. THE REMAINING CHAPTERS
In Chapter II the administration of athletics is
dealt with.
Chapter III deals with the regulations regarding
eligibility and competition.
Chapter IV presents a comparison of Arizona's inter­
scholastic athletic association with the athletic asso­
ciations of other states.
In Chapter V is given a summary of the study, with
conclusions and recommendations based upon the data studied.
CHAPTER II
THE ADMINISTRATION OP INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS
Introduction.
When state interscholastic associations
were first established, it was realized that athletics, to
make a contribution to the educational program of the coun­
try, must be managed according to sound educational pro­
cedures.
Those who took the initiative in this movement
attempted to make the program of the associations contribute
to the fundamentals of education:
high standards of scholar­
ship, building of well adjusted personalities, and sound
characters.
This background makes the athletic program of
different state organizations worthy of the support of the
educators in the United States .
They saw the need of having
the athletic program managed in such a manner that it would
contribute to the well-being of the community, as well as
the schools.
They were greatly concerned with the promotion
of feelings of good will, based upon fairness, consistency,
and good sportsmanship.
These ideals make athletics worthy
of the support of the citizens of the different states.
They realized that nothing contributes to individual w e l ­
fare unless it increases the possibilities of the individual—
physically, mentally and morally.
To this end they planned
safeguards for the well-being of boys and girls.
In the
various state ihterscholastic athletic associations, health
13
was considered, morals were made a matter of eligibility,
and academic accomplishment was made one of the prime re ­
quirements for participation.
To assure the progress of the associations, it is
important that these fundamentals to which they all owe their
success, influence and prestige be kept as their guiding prin­
ciples.
Basically, the interscholastic athletic associations
must always concern themselves most with the serious side of
the program--the development of boys and girls of sound
health, balanced personality, high scholastic accomplishment,
and high moral character.
This can be done in connection
with the avocational part of the program and need not inter­
fere with the genuine pleasure which may be derived from
athletics by boys and girls of high school age.
The value of administration and control in the state
organizations of interscholastic athletics is well expressed
in the Statement of Purpose in the Constitution of the Con­
necticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference:
To provide a central organization through which the
public secondary schools of the state may cooperate
for the following ends: To develop a more intelligent
recognition of athletics for boys and girls; to stand­
ardize methods of administration and regulations for
all athletic sports; to offer a system that will make
for more equitable competition; to promote the organi­
zation of recreational athletics and play for the
majority of the students; to provide for competent
officials; to organize a force of opinion to keep in­
terscholastic athletics within proper bounds, that
will expressly encourage all that is honorable, sports­
manlike and gentlemanly in any branch of athletics.
The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference
Handbook. 1937 > P • 3•
14
WRITTEN CONSTITUTIONS
A nation-wide belief in the need and importance of
the administration of interscholastic athletics is shown
by the fact that forty-six out of the forty-eight states
have interscholastic athletic associations with written
constitutions.
Delaware and Maryland are the only states
not having associations with written constitutions.
Table I shows the various methods of arrangement,
the recency of printing, and the sponsorship of the con­
stitutions of the different state associations.
Thirty-six of the state associations have their con­
stitutions in the form of handbooks; four in the form of
State University Bulletins; two have issued year books; two
have rules and regulations on mimeographed sheets; one has
a State Department of Education Bulletin; and one has a
pamphlet.
Five of the constitutions were published in 1941;
twenty-five in 1940, seven in 1939* four in 1936; three in
1936; one in 1933 &&& one *n 1928.
The two states having no
constitutions, Delaware and Maryland, published their
eligibility rules in 1938 and 1940, respectively.
A few state associations include in this handbook of
rules and regulations such supplementary material as finan­
cial reports, insurance plans, regulations governing tourna­
ments and championships, state records in track and field,
certified lists of officials, and rulings on protests and
15
TABLE I
TIME OF PRINTING, SPONSORSHIP AND FORM
OF WRITTEN CONSTITUTIONS OF VARIOUS STATE HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
State
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Method of Arrangement
Time of
Print ing
State Department of Education
Bulletin
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
1940
19^0
1939
1936
1933
1940
1938
1939
Idaho
Handbook
Organization Disbanded
Handbook
Bulletin of the University of
Georgia
Handbook
1940
1939
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
1941
1940
1940
1941
1940
Louis iana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Handbook
Handbook
No organization
Pamphlet
Handbook
1939
1938
1940
1939
1940
Minnesota
Mississ ippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Yearbook
1940
1940
1940
1938
1940
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Handbook
Mimeographed Sheet
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
1938
1928
1940
1941
1941
Connect icut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
15 a
TABLE I (cont inued)
TIME OP PRINTING, SPONSORSHIP AND FORM
OF WRITTEN CONSTITUTIONS OF VARIOUS STATE HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
State
North Carolina
Method of Arrangement
Time of
Print ing
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Circular of University of North
Carolina
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Mimeographed Sheet
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
Handbook
1940
1939
1940
1940
1940
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
Univers ity of Texas Bulletin
Handbook
Handbook
Univers ity of Virginia Bulletin
Handbook
1940
1940
1940
1940
1936
West Virginia
Wiscons in
Wyoming
Handbook
Yearbook
Handbook
1936
1940
1936
a
19^1
1938
19^0
19^0
1940
Mimeographed sheet containing eligibility rules published
by the State Department of Education
16
infractions of certain rules.
Accompanying the handbooks
of rules and regulations of some associations are seasonal
bulletins, which report activities in different sports,
minutes of association and board of control meetings, in­
terpretations of decisions, penalty cases, and other
related matters.
STATE ORGANIZATION
All of the forty-eight states except Delaware and
Maryland have planned state organizations for the adminis­
tration of their interscholastic athletic activities.
In-
Maryland the direction of athletics has been placed under
the supervision of county game committees.
The Delaware
organization was disbanded several years ago and the super­
vision of athletics placed under the State Department of
Public Instruction.
The majority of the state organizations
have definitely stated times for meetings and election of
officers.
Powers and duties are vested in executive com­
mittees and in executive secretaries.
Forty-six states, all
except Delaware and Maryland, have the Board of Control
method of administration.
The administration of interscholastic athletics in
the state of Michigan is somewhat different in that the
Superintendent of Public Instruction has supervision and may
exercise control over the interscholastic athletic activities
17
of all the schools of the state.
The legislature passed
the law giving the Superintendent of Public Instruction
such power in 1923, and in 1924 the Michigan High School
Athletic Association was organized at the request of the
State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Through the
functioning of this organization, he supervises and controls
the interscholastic activities of .the schools of the state.
The constitution adopted by Michigan High School Athletic
Associations, together with the eligibility rules and regu­
lations governing contests adopted by that associations and
published in the handbook, have the approval of the Superp
intendent of Public Instruction.
As shown in Table II, it is found that forty-six
states have unified state organizations.
Only Delaware and
Maryland do not have any organizations.
Twenty of the forty-six state associations have their
meetings in conjunction with their respective state education
associations.
Three of the state associations (Arizona,
Iowa and North Dakota) meet semi-annually, their second meet­
ing being at the time of the State Track Meet, State Basket­
ball Tournament, and High School Conference, respectively.
Four states hold their annual meetings in December (Indiana,
Michigan, New York and Ohio); two in September (Colorado and
2
Handbook of the Michigan High School Athletic Asso­
ciation, 1940, p. 9-
TABLE II
Yes
Yes
Arkansas
California
Yes
Yes
Colorado
Yes
Annually, at time of Alabama Ed. A s s ’n.
Semi-annually, at time of Arizona Ed. Ass'n, and
time of State Track Meet
Annually, at time of Arkansas Ed. Ass'n.
Bi-Annually, at time of Interscholastic Track Meet
and on call
Annually, second Saturday in September
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually, at
Organization
Annually, at
Annually, at
Annually, at
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Yes
Yes
Yes
Kansas
Yes
Kentucky
Yes
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Michigan
Yes
Minnesota
Mississippi
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
330
6
5.
3
Yes
No
No
No
(a)
10
5<
No
Yes
No
Yes
206
No
No
95
time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
disbanded 1933
time set by the Legislative Council
time of Georgia Ed. A s s ’n.
time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
5
2
3
9
1
Humber of
Member Schools
9
Commissioner
2
Executive
Secretary
Humber of execu­
tive committee
Alabama
Arizona
Humber of
Officers
Frequency,
and
Time of Associa­
tion meetings
State
Organization
State
STATE ORGANIZATION OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
61
4
3
3
3
16
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
379
Annually, at time of High School Conference
Annually, on third Saturday in December
Semi-annually, at time of State Ed. A s s ’n. and time
of State Basketball Tournament
Annually, at time of meeting of the Council of
Administration
Annually, at time of Kentucky Ed. A s s ’n.
3
6
6
6
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
901
806
5
5
Yes
No
(a)
4
3
6
6
No
No
Yes
No
674
555
3
3
9
5
No
No
No
No
(a)
185
3
5-
Yes
No
(a)
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
(a)
487
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
531
fa }
(a;
570
3
3
4
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
32
(a)
(a)
No
No
(a)
Yes 1,154
No
723
No
(a)
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually, at time designated by Executive Committee
Annually, at time of Maine Ed. A s s ’n.
None, under State Supervision
Annually, at time and place of High School Principal’s
Convention
Annually, not later than Third Friday following
Thanksgiving Day
Annually, between September 1 and October 15
Semi-annually, early in December and soon after
State Track Meet
Annually, at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
Four meetings a year, called by President
Annually, at call of Chairman of the Board of Control
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually, at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
Time of meeting not stated
Annually, first Friday in October
Annually, at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
Annually, in December, and on call of Chairman
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually, in
Bi-annually,
Annually, in
Annually, at
Annually, at
Pennsylvania
Rhode Is1and
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually,
Annually,
Annually,
Annually,
Annually,
at time of State Ed. A s s ’n*
during month of May
in April
at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually,
Annually,
Annually,
Annually,
Annually,
at time of State Meet
on Saturday of State H . S .BasketballQburnament
at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
Second Saturday in February
Third Saturday in September
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Annually, Second Saturday in February
Annually, in November
Annually, at time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
May
at times of High School Conf.and N.D.Ed.A
December
time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
time of State Ed. A s s ’n.
4
4
14
8
2
5
3
3
8
2
10
5
6
3
3
9
3
10
6
3
3
5
5
2
8
4
2
3
3
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
4
4
3
3
3
13
7
14
5
9
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
1
3
3
9
7
7
2
11
3
5
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
3
4
#
5
5
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
2
197
160
200
(a)
600
(a)
(a)
(a|
(a)
429
(a)
74
110
230
(a)
(a)
463
76
(a) Number of member schools not stated.
# All High, school principals are members of the executive committee.
co
19
Washington) 5 two in February (Virginia and West Virginia);
two in May (Worth Carolina and Rhode Island); one in
October (New Jersey); one in November (Wisconsin); one in
April (South Carolina); one between September 15 and
October 15 (Minnesota); Massachusetts at the same time as
the State High School Principals1 Meeting; Illinois at the
time of the High School Conference; Louisiana at the time
designated by the Executive Committee; Florida at the time
of the Legislative Council; Nebraska at the time set by the
Board of Control; California at the time of the Interschol­
astic Track Meet and on call; Kansas at the time of the
meeting of the Council of Administration; Texas at the time
of the State Meet; Utah on Saturday at the time of the State
High School Basketball Tournament; Mississippi in December
and as soon after the State Track Meet as possible; Montana
has four meetings a year, called by the Association President.
The frequency and time of the meetings of New Hampshire are
not stated in the constitution or by-laws.
The greatest number of state associations have three
officers, which are usually a president, vice-president,
and a secretary-treasurer.
As shown in Table II, twenty-
one state organizations have three officers; ten states have
four; eight states have two; three states have five; and
two states have six; the University Interscholastic League
of Texas has but one officer, a chairman of an executive
committee, while New Mexico is at the other extreme with ten
20
officers (a president, eight vice-presidents, and a secretarytreasurer).
The state associations that have comparatively
few officers supplement them with committees, or director
generals for each regional unit or county, as in the case
of Texas Interscholastic League.
These sub-officials handle
separate phases of administration.
In almost all of the state organizations, the presi­
dent has the power to call all the meetings and the duty of
presiding over them.
The vice-president presides in the
absence of the president.
The secretary keeps a record of
the proceedings of all meetings, and conducts all necessary
correspondence, and keeps official records of all interscholastic contests engaged in by the schools within his own
association.
The treasurer handles the finances and renders
reports thereon.
The executive control of the state associations is
vested in the executive committee, usually called the Board
of Control.
As shown in Table II, the number of members
of such an executive committee varies greatly.
Thirteen
state associations have five members on this committee
(Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Mississippi,
Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washing­
ton, Wisconsin and Wyoming); eight states have three
(Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Havada, New Hampshire, Oklahoma,
Oregon and Utah); six states have six (Illinois, Indiana,
Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, and New York); six states have
nine (Alabama, Connecticut, Louisiana, New Jersey, Tennessee
and Texas); two states have seven (Rhode Island and Vermont)
two states have ten (California and New Mexico); two states
have fourteen (Michigan and South Carolina); Virginia has
eleven; Pennsylvania has thirteen; Georgia has sixteen, and
West Virginia has the largest group in that it is specified
in its constitution that all high school principals shall
compose the executive committee of the association.
Out of the forty-six state associations, thirty-five
have an Executive Secretary.
Only six state organizations
have a Commissioner; they are Colorado, Illinois, Indiana,
Kansas, Michigan and Ohio.
The Commissioner assumes the
usual activities of an executive secretary.
These duties
are well stated in The Indiana High School Athletic Associ­
ation Constitution:a. The Commissioner shall file with the President
of the Board of Control on or.before December first,
each year an estimate of the expenses of I.H.S.A.A.
for the ensuing year.
Such a budget to be approved
by the Board of Control and become effective on
January first following for the calendar year.
b. Expenditures in excess of the budget shall be
subject to the approval of the Board of Control.
c. The Board of Control shall provide the annual
audit of the books of the I.H.S.A.A.
d. It shall be his duty to:
1. Collect all receipts and funds and report
same to the treasurer of the Board at the next regular
meeting following their collection.
2. Approve officials as provided in Article VI
of the Constitution.
3* Collect and compile materials for the Annual
Hand Book.
4. He shall issue bulletins as directed by the
Board of Control.
22
5* He shall prepare all official forms approved
by the Board of Control for the use of the I.H.S.A.A.
6.
To recommend to the Board of Control new
standards, regulations and policies for the good of
the I.H.S.A.A.
7* He shall initiate investigations, conduct
hearings, collect information, render decisions and
fix penalties based on the evidence, and in accordance
with the rules and regulations of the I.H.S.A.A.
Such decisions shall be subject to review by the
Board of Control on appeal by the principal or prin­
cipals of the member school or schools involved.
8 . He shall conduct correspondence for the
I.H.S.A.A.
9* He shall furnish all proper information
requested by the National Federation of H.S.A.A. and
other State H.S. Athletic Associations.
10. Maintain contacts and relations between the
I.H.S.A.A. and: State Department of Public Instruction,
colleges, universities, normal schools, high schools,
service clerks, teachers 1 associations, press, physical
education groups, coaches 1 groups, junior high schools,
city superintendents, county superintendents, fans,
American Legion and similar organizations, colored
schools, parochial schools and principals of member
schools .
11. He shall assist I.H.S.A.A. committees in
their work by furnishing data and information, requested
by them.
12. He shall make detailed arrangements for all
interscholastic meets, tourneys, and events as directed
by the Board of Control.
13* It shall be his duty to check all tourney
reports and other financial statements, to reconcile
discrepancies, if possible, and report the same to
the Board.
14. He shall prepare and present at each regular
meeting of the Board of Control a complete report of
the activities of his office since the last preceding
meeting of the Board.
15* He shall arrange the program and details
of the annual meeting of the I.H.S.A.A.
He may
■secure speakers subject to the approval of the Board
and-he may delegate speakers to athletic meetings
elsewhere when requested to do so by school officials.
16. To have charge of the property and records
of the association.
17* To attend meetings of the Board of Control
and serve as a secretary.
25
18. He shall include the rules, amendments and
regulations of the Athletic Council, as they are
passed, in the Constitution of the I.H.S.A.A., har­
monizing the related sections in the Constitution
with the inclusions.-'
Of the forty-six state association constitutions
studied, only twenty-five stated the number of member schools.
Of the twenty-five, Nevada has the smallest number of schools,
there being only thirty-two.
Utah has seventy-four.
Arizona has only sixty-one and
Ohio with 1,154 and Illinois with 901
member schools are two of the states with larger membership.
Indiana with 806 member schools, and New York with 600 member
schools have the third and fourth largest membership, accord­
ing to the available data.
There are, however, several other
states, including Texas and Iowa, which may have larger m e m ­
bership .
DISTRICT ORGANIZATION
The growth of the state interschool associations is a
result of the desire of geographical groups— district, con­
ferences, leagues— to have some foundation for inter-group
contests.
This step is a logical one from the original
spontaneous student activity in the first stage of inter­
school activity.
5 The Indiana High School Athletic Association Handbook,
1940, pp. 157-159- (Privately printed under the direction of
Arthur L. Trestor, Commissioner* 812 Circle Tower, Indianapolis,
Indiana.)
24
Throughout the states these various subsidiary organi­
zations grew up and have been in existence for some time,
and are in the majority of cases the forerunners of later
state organizat ions .
The experience and leadership of these
organizations served as the basis for state organizations.
In this manner development from group to state associations
took place.
Table III shows the district organization of the
state high school interscholastic athletic associations.
Forty-one of the forty-eight states have district organiza­
tions working in coordination with the state organization.
The absence of district organizations in the remaining nine
states may be accounted for by the small size and limited
territory of these states; distances are short and central
meeting places are within close -proximity of all schools in
these states.
Forty-one of the forty-eight states are organized
into districts.
In many cases the districts are well
outlined, with maps showing their geographical location.
More states have five districts than any other number; they
are Arizona, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Wisconsin and Wyoming.
Worth Carolina has only two districts,
while Virginia with twenty-three, West Virginia with twentyfour, Oklahoma with thirty-one, Minnesota and Texas with
thirty-two, and Kentucky with sixty-four districts have the
largest number of districts.
The district organization of
TABLE III
DISTRICT ORGANIZATION OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
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43 43
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W
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P K-P
1
1
1
2
1
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
8
5
12
Colorado
Yes
4
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
No
No
Yes
Yes
8
11
Idaho
Yes
(a)
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentuc ky
Yes .
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
17
5
5
64
16
Louisiana
Yes
2;4
Yes
No
5
(a )
(a)
(a)
Maine
Maryland
(a)
fa)
(a)
1
1
Massachusetts
Michigan
Yes
Yes
5
5
Class A., 2; Class B, 4; according to
size of schools
By counties
(Under supervision of county)
game committees)
Geographically
Four by counties and one city
(a)
On call
(a)
(a)
fa.)
(a)
3
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
32
Four regions, 8 districts in each
By regions
By counties and cities
Designated by Board of Control
Same as for Teachers Association
Annual
Annual
Sepi-Oct.
(a)
Annual
1
2
2
4 members
(a)
3 members
(a)
(a)
4
4
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
3
B y 'zones
Annual
(a)
8
According to location of schools
By zones
Annual
Annual
1 1
1
3
3
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Geographically
Geographically
Geographic ally
By regions (eight)
By county groups
Annual
(a)
Dec.
(a)
Annual
Pennsylvania:
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
2
6
31
11
12
By counties--some cities at large
Annual
13
(a)
9
By counties
Districts s6t by Board of Control
By regions (three)
Annual
(a)
Annual
4 5 memberss
(a)
(a)
3 3 members
Texas
Utah
Vermont
VirgInia
Washington
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
32
(a)
By counties (eight regions)
By regions (seven)
Annual
On call
(a)
23
9
(a)
By counties--Some cities at large
(five regions)
Annual
3
Annual
(a)
By counties and cities
By counties
By counties
Annual
Annual
Annual
(3
West Virginia
WIsconsin
Wyoming
Yes
Yes
Yes
4
6
10
8
4
6
9
(a)
24
5
5
By counties
Geographically
Geographically
According to sections of State Teachers
Association
Geographical combination of leagues
(Organization disbanded)
Designated by Executice Committee
10 Congressional districts and 1 at
large
Designated by Board of Control
By
By
By
By
counties combined
counties
counties
counties
regions of 4 districts each
(a) Information not stated.
(t>) Number of Officers and members on executive committee varies
On call
On call
On call
3 3 members
(B)
(B)
4 4 members
On call
On call
(a)
On c al1
Annual
October
On call
On call
fa}
(a)
Annual
2
Gov. Board
(a)
1 One director (a)
6 6 members
1
1
3 3 members
1
(a)
} (a)
fa)
1
(a)
1
>a <
fa)
fa)
1
la)
(a)
1
(a)
member
3 members
1 1 member
(a)
(a)
5 5 members
(a)
(a)
1 4 members
4
6
8 8
(a)
members
members
(a)
3 members
(a)
3 members
3 members
(a)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(a)
1
1
2
1
1
(a)
1
fa)
(a)
(a)
1-3
1-2
1
1
Louisiana is unusual in that it has two class A districts and
four class B districts.
No mention is made of the number of
districts in the written constitutions of the states of Idaho,
North Dakota, South Dakota and Utah, while the states of
Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
Rhode Island and Vermont do not have district organizations.
The most common manner of forming districts is by
counties and county groups. * Fourteen of the state associa­
tions follow this procedure.
is by geographic division.
Another form of making districts
Traveling facilities, road condi­
tions, natural barriers and proximity to centers of population
are all taken into consideration in such a division.
Most
likely natural rivalry is respected in this case, although
as a rule there are no regulations prohibiting inter-district
competition.
The regional method of division is also popular
when topographical conditions will permit.
When the term
region is used in these cases, it has the same meaning as
district, although it is found that regions often involve
districts within themselves.
Another method of grouping is
to adhere to the state teachers 1 association sections; this
is done in California and Nebraska.
Georgia1s procedure is
unusual in that it makes use of the Congressional districts
of the state as a basis for subdividing its organization.
The method of forming districts in Idaho, Montana and South
Dakota is designated by the State Board of Control, and in
Florida the districts are designated by the Executive Committee
27
no mention is made of the method of designating districts in
the state of Virginia.
Of the district organizations in the forty-one states,
nineteen meet annually, ten meet on call, only three states
meet on a designated date, and nine states fail to indicate
in their written constitutions when the district meetings
are to be held.
The average number of officers for the district organ­
izations, as for the state organizations previously mentioned,
is three.
Twenty-one of the written constitutions designate
the number of officers to be provided in the districts; seven­
teen of the states do not make any definite statement at all
in this regard; in one state the constitution indicates that
the number of officers is varied according to local classifi­
cation of schools.
The district organizations also, like the state asso­
ciations, have an executive committee.
Twenty state con­
stitutions indicate such a committee for their districts.
It
again seems that the general policy is to let the district
executive committees take care of the local conditions as
long as there is no violation of the state association rules
and regulations.
Close cooperation between the state associa-.
tions and the district organizations is suggested by the fact
that thirty-six state constitutions provide that the districts
shall have representatives to take part in the executive
28
control of the state organization.
The average number of
district representatives indicated is one.
. CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS
In tracing the evolution of the control of inter­
scholastic athletics, it is interesting to discover a
changing conception, in the minds of those in control, of the
proper methods for accomplishing those educational outcomes
which have been set up in the field of athletics.
This
change of mind is probably due to several causes, but the
most important factor seems to be the change in the coaching
or directing personnel which has occurred in the past fifteen
years.
The day of the ,fhard-boiled,” loud-spoken, driving
type of coach, whose main objective was to win at all costs,
is past.
As in other fields, a newer type of man, concerned
with youth and leadership, has been attracted into the pro­
fession.
This new type of personality has been the result
of the higher type of professional training now offered in
many of the leading universities and colleges in the United
States.
Such men are of deep thought, and are concerned with
the physiological and psychological aspects of athletics in
their relation to an educational program.
An outstanding indication of this seems to be in the
classification of competitors in athletics.
There seems to
be a definite trend toward classification of schools and
.29
competitors, as evidenced by the written constitutions in
many states.
This movement seems destined to grow in scope.
Rogers states that:
A group of boys 1choosing up sides, 1 preparatory to
a sand lot game has a profound symbolic significance.
It dramatizes the instinctive desire of children to
play with those their equals.
In the absence of
third parties (coaches, spectators, reporters, par­
ents, etc.) children and animals truly play, even in
formalized combat. Not victory is their object but
the game! Physiologically their impulse is to exer­
cise muscles and senses; psychologically their urge
is to overcome obstacles; reasonably their desire is
to seek obstacles worthy of their mettle; sociologi­
cally their impulse is to seek more and more intimate
contacts with other individuals of the same species.
Methodically their procedure is to divide into oppos­
ing groups of equal number or equal physical size,
but always the ideal of equality is present in prac­
tice .
The outcomes of such contests include improved
physical vitality, increased skill and knowledge,
deeper insight into playmates 1 nature— and even one*s
own— and joy. Above all, joy, happiness, sense of
increased control over environment, through greater
skill, deeper friendship, and heightened awareness,
rather than personal triumph over the ego of a
friend-in-play.
In the absence of rational guidance the tendency
of school-boy sports seems until lately to have been
away from equality-for-the-sake-of-personal-dominance .
Joy-in-play was subordinate to striving-for-victory.
This tendency was imposed from above, by coaches,
principals, sport news, parents: in short, the third
parties. Left to themselves, boys and men in every
walk of life and in every sport have always reverted
and still do to a striving for equality, a tendency
which is charmingly manifest in the play of kittens
or dogs: as soon as one clearly gains the upper hand,
he relinquishes his advantage.
Which alternative is more rational, the adjustment
for equality, or the struggle for superiority between
friendly opponents in games? Which yields more lasting
satisfaction? Which better develops skill and health
and citizenship? School men ought to know--
30
The doctrine of equality may be stated thus:
In competitive sports educational objectives and
canons of fair play will be realized most complete­
ly only when powers of opposing individuals or
teams have been equalized.
The mere statement of the doctrine is sufficient
to convince most persons of its validity; and
certainly the latest trend, even in inter-collegi­
ate football, is definitely in the direction of
active acceptance of the principle.
Methods of equalizing teams which have been used
by sports managers and directors include among
others the following interesting list,; setting age
or height or weight limits or combinations of these,
matching weights, setting weight limits for teams,
establishing major and minor leagues, using school
enrollment to determine eligibility for leagues,
and using.strength index limits or levels or
averages.
The methods of classification used in the high school
interscholastic athletic association throughout the United
States are 3hown in Table IV.
Twenty-eight of the state
associations provide for some form of classification for
athletic competition.
It may be that more states use some
method of classification, but their constitutions fail to
include such information.
The method based on school enroll­
ment, used by twenty-four states, seems to be the most common;
in Idaho, the classification of schools is left to the dis­
cretion of the districts; North Dakota uses as its basis for
classification the population of towns, while Tennessee uses
^ Frederick Rand Rogers, "The Doctrine of Equality,"
American Physical Education Association Publication (March,
1935)> Supplement to the Research Quarterly, pp.l89~190.
31
TABLE IV
CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS IN STATE HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connect icut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Classification
of Schools
Method of
Classification
Not specified
A, B, C
A 3 B, C y D
School enrollment
School enrollment
Not specified
Not specified
School enrollment
A, B, C, D
Organization disbanded
School enrollment
A, B, C, D, (E,
jr.high school)
A, B, C, D (two- School enrollment
year high school)
At discretion of <
Yes
Kentucky
No specified
School enrollment
I,II,III,IV, V
School enrollment
A, B,
A, B, C
(jr.high school) School enrollment
Not specified
Louis iana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
A t B, C,
Not specified
Not specified
Not specified
A, B, C, D
Minnesota
Mississ ippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
A, B, C
Not specified
A, B
A, B
A/ B, D
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Not specified
I, II, III
I, II, III, IV
Not specified
Not specified
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
School enrollment
Not specified
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
31a
TABLE IV (cont inued)
CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS IN STATE HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Class IfIcation
of Schools
Method of
Class Ification
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Not' specified
A, B, C
A, B
A, B, C
A, B
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
T enne ss ee
School enrollment
I, II, III, IV, V,'VI
Not specified
School enrollment
Af B, C
Not specified
A (4-yr.high school)
B (2-yr.high school) By grade
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
A, B
School enrollment
Not specified
Not specified
A, B, C, D
Not specified
School enrollment
West Virginia
Wiscons in
Wyoming
Not specified
A, B, C, D, E
Classes not
titled
By population of towns
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
School enrollment
the "grades in school" method, because of the fact that there
are both two and four year high schools in that state.
Twenty-two of the state constitutions specifying
methods of classifying schools title their classes by letters
(A, B, C, D, etc.), while four states use numbers (I, II,
III, etc.).
The state of Michigan association indicates the
uses of classification, but does not specify the method used.
Many evidences point to the fact that some of the state asso­
ciations are using classification for competition but do not
specify any such action fn their written constitutions or
by-laws.
This is indicated by references to championships
declared in several classes.
Several of the handbooks pro­
vide records of track events and other sports in which
several methods of classification are mentioned.
There are
also evidences of proposals for classification through legis­
lative procedure, which point to a growing tendency in this
direction.
DUES
Financing the program of athletics is a problem to
be dealt with, because the promotion of athletics is expen­
sive.
Organization and executive control take a great deal
of time, and consequently there is a stipulation in many of
the state association constitutions for some sort of remun­
eration for the men who are devoting themselves to this
33
important service.
There this item of finances is definitely
specified and dealt with in state organizations.
To a small degree, some schools admit the public to
amateur athletic exhibitions without charge, and in the fu­
ture such practice may be more wide-spread.
Those in charge
of the supervision of these state organizations have been
forced into the present methods, which bear criticism.
The
predominating thought among the public seems to be that
expenditures of public school funds for activities of this
nature are unwarranted and illegal.
In the state of Arizona
a question in regard to the expenditures for athletic equip­
ment has been brought up by the office of the State Super­
intendent of Public Instruction, and there are probably more
cases which deal with this matter which have not come to the
attention of the investigator.
In the state of Michigan legislative action provides
that the supervision of athletic organizations in the schools
of the state shall come under the control of the Department
of Education Office.
Funds are appropriated by this same
department, and consequently it is not necessary for the mem­
ber schools to pay dues for the purpose of financing the
state athletic association.
In the state of Arkansas, ath­
letic expenses are included in the school budgets.
This is
an indication that the tax-paying public in these two states,
at least, realizes the value of game participation in the
education of youth..
34
For the purpose of pointing out the extent to which
the item of finances
forinter-scholastic
grown in the schools
of this country,
athletics has
the financial report
of the Indiana High School Athletic Association for the
year 1940 is presented in the following statement of cash
5
receipts and disbursements.
CASH ON DEPOSIT— November 14, 1939 ................ $752.74
RECEIPTS
Entry f e e s ............. ............ $
775-00
Interest on securities .............
4,028.75
Membership dues
...................
1,255*50
Official fees
.....................
558.00
49*00
Official registration fees ........
Sale of securities--(principal
amount $67 *000) ................. 73 >899*18
Sale of securities--accrued interest
850.50
State outdoor track meet ...........
243*25
Tourneys--sectional
...............
790.72
Tourneys--regional ................. 14,546.43
Tourneys--semi-final ............... 13*834.62
Tourneys--state final--tickets . .. 17*771*25
Tourneys--state final— concessions .
472.30 129*074.50
Total to be Accounted for . . . .
$129*827-24
DISBURSEMENTS
Annual meeting . . . . .
...... $
3 86 .10
Auditing e x p e n s e ..........
87*50
Bank service c h a r g e s .......... .. .
10.47
Books and m a g a z i n e s ...............
14-55
Dues--National Federation
........
45*50
Insurance--Fidelity bond ...........
200.00
Insurance--owners, landlords
and tenants
.....................
1,236.99
Insurance— workmen’s compensation
and public liability .............
215*76
5 The Indiana High School Athletic Association HandB o o k , 1940, op -cit. , pp.203-204.
35
CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS--Continued
Office supplies and expense
;
58.45
698.00
Postage
...........
Printing and mailing handbooks
805.05
1,547-04
Print i n g - - g e n e r a l ...........
Purchase of securities-(principal amount $ 30 ,000 ) .
52 ,025.00
Purchase of securities-........
accrued interest)
212.50
Rent--Butler University-5 ,000.00
athletic facilities
. . . .
Rent, light and towel service-1.987.71(A)
o f f i c e ................... .
Rule books and guides
. . . .
. 483.88
Safety deposit box ...........
8.33
Salary--executive--Arthur L. Trester 7.320.00
2 080.00
Salary--clerical--Lucille Rector
28.00
Salary--clerical--other
. . . .
529.02
State clinic expense--basketball
104 .50
State clinic expense--football .
State outdoor track meet expense
1,992.85
245.00
State swimming meet
...........
245.00
State wrestling meet ...........
Sectional track meets-78.41
l /2 of deficit ...............
Surplus distribution to member
schools
.....................
60 ,008.00
245 .92 (A)
Telephone and telegraph
. . . .
357.90
Tourney expense--golf
........
.
Tourney expense--state
basketball final:
Expense allowance to
schools
...........
Compensation of assist­
ants, inspectors,
officials scorers,
timers, ushers, etc.
Programs, tickets,
trophies, etc. . . .
Traveling expenses:
Arthur L. Trester
. .
Board members
. . . .
Athletic council . . .
$1 ,474.16
1 ,239.75
515.25
3,229.16
739.85
1,508.98
971.44
Cash on deposIt--November 14, 1940 . . . . . . $
124,506.86
5,320.38
Note A--The amounts indicated include expense for 15
months.
36
The Ohio High School Association definitely announced
in its 1940-41 constitution that the annual dues have been
suspended for 1940-41.
It seems logical to conclude that
there was an adequate accumulation of funds in the treasury
of the association to take care of the expenses for the
time being.
Due to the fact that the financial conditions of
some state associations are connected with an insurance
financing program, their financial status reaches great
proportions.
Wisconsin is a good example of such a state.
Table V indicates whiGh state associations specify
the payment of dues by member schools, and gives the basis
on which such dues are assessed.
Forty-three of the- state associations specify in
their written constitutions the payment of membership dues
by member schools.
New Hampshire and Worth Carolina do not
indicate any payment of dues.
Twenty-four of the forty-three
states requiring dues stipulate a
school enrollment.
graduated fee based on
The state association requiring the low­
est minimum assessment is Worth Dakota with $1, while the
Wisconsin association designates $50 as the highest maximum
assessment.
Fourteen state organizations specify annual
uniform membership fees, the range being from $ 1.50 to $10 ,
with the following frequency:
one state $ 1 .50 ; five states
$ 2 ; one state $5l six states $5 ; and two states $10.
The
37
TABLE V
. DUES REQUIRED OP MEMBER SCHOOL OP
STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
St at @
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louis iana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Amount of Dues
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment not to exceed $10
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $7-50 to $25
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $5 * $4, $3 and $2
$100 per section
$5
Graduated membership based on enrollment,
$ 5 , $4, $3 and $2
Organization disbanded
Graduated membership fee based on enrollment, $ 2.50 to $15
$5 ($2 to state organization)
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $ 7-50 to $25
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $ 2.50 to $20
$1.50
$2
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $2 to $20
$3
Graduated membership based on enrollment,
$2 to $15
$2
No membership dues specified
$2
No d u e s . Association financed by State
Department of Education
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $5 to $10
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $3 to $10
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $3 to $5
57a
TABLE V (continued)
DUES REQUIRED OP MEMBER SCHOOL OP
STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Amount of Dues
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $5 to $ 12.50
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $5 to $15
Registration fee of 25^ per athlete per
sport at time of registration
No membership dues specified
$5
$5
Graduated membership fee based on enroll-.
ment, $4 to $10
No membership dues specified
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $1 to $5
Annual dues suspended for 19^1* Usually 5$£
per boy pupil; minimum $2 .50 , maximum $15
$5
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $2.50 to $10
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $2 to $15
$10
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $5 to $11
On basis of not more than 5^ per pupil;
minimum $5 > maximum $25
$5 for four-year high schools; $2.50 for
two-year and junior high schools
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment , $2 to $10
$10
$2
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $2 to $25
Graduated membership fee based oh enroll­
ment, $2 to $12
$5
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $ 7*50 to $50
Graduated membership fee based on enroll­
ment, $5 to $20
58
plan of the California association is unusual in that it
requires a membership fee of $100 from each section, each
section having the privilege of deciding how this fee is
to be raised within its own limits.
The South Dakota athletic association collects its
dues on a pupil basis, assessing each member school not
more than five cents per pupil, and at the same time limit­
ing the minimum and the maximum payments to $3 and $25
respectively.
The state association of Ohio did not require
any dues for the year 1940-41, but usually its due 3 are
assessed on the same type of basis, charging not more than
three cents per boy pupil, with a minimum of $2.50 and a
maximum of $15 *
As stated before, no dues are required of the members
schools of the Michigan association, since the State Depart­
ment of Education finances that organization.
Some of the
state associations incorporate in their written constitutions
the right to make special assessments when necessary.
PENALTIES FOR VARIOUS VIOLATIONS
Even the field of interscholastic athletics is no ex­
ception to the practice of evading the law.
Consequently,
the formulators of the rules and regulations of the various
interscholastic athletic organizations have seen fit to !fput
teeth 11 in the law in the form of specified penalties for rule
violations.
This is not a reflection upon the spirit of good
39
sportsmanship that predominates in this field, but merely a
safeguard against a lowering of standards and ideals.
It might be well to point out that there are no
evidences of flagrant violations of the rules and regula­
tions as a whole.
This fact is substantiated by the scarcity
of reference to cases of violations, which are often included
in the minutes of the meetings of the boards of control
appearing in the supplementary bulletins published by the
various state associations.
It appears that the majority of cases of violation
found in such minutes have been due to a lack of thorough
knowledge of the rules involved rather than to intentional
evasion.
In order to correct this condition, many of the
state associations stipulate
that, before membership is
granted to a school, a program be held to familiarize the
students with the rules and regulations.
require this practice every year.
A few of the states
The use of bulletin boards,
the issuing to the students of small handbooks containing
the rules and regulations, and the devoting of home room or
assembly periods to the reading and explaining of the rules
are some of the methods used in reaching this end.
The failure to pay membership dues is the most fre­
quent unintentional violation of the rules and regulations.
In order to correct this situation, many associations penal­
ize a school for failure to pay dues on time.
However,
40
leniency is granted here in that grace periods are extended
and in many cases several notifications are issued before
a penalty is imposed.
In order to minimize unjust accusations, a protesting
school is usually required to formally file its accusation
in writing accompanied by a protest fee.
On the other hand,
the accused school is given the opportunity of presenting
its case before the governing board of the state association
before any action is taken on the indictment.
The spirit of
fairness is present here in that leniency is again shown in
limiting the action taken— suspensions or expulsions are
limited in duration, and reinstatement is provided for when
grievances are not of major importance.
Table VI shows in detail the penalties imposed for
the non-payment of dues and for other violations, and the
methods of reinstatement after the non-payment of dues.
As shown in Table VI, thirty-three state organizations
impose the penalty of suspension for non-payment of dues.
Grace periods are granted, however.
In four state athletic
associations, the penalty for non-payment of dues by the
member schools is subjected to action by the Executive Com­
mittee of the state organization.
In two state associations,
failure*to paymembership dues automatically bars the offend­
ing schools from the right to participate in championship
tournaments.
In the state of Nevada no student can take part
11
TABLE VI
VIOLATIONS WITH THE PENALTIES BT STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Penalty for non-payment of dues
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Suspended after October 1st
Suspended after November 1st
Subject to Executive Committee
Subject to Federated Council
Suspended
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Suspended after January lst<"
(Organization disbanded
Suspended; barred from tournaments
Georgia
■ Suspended after-November 1st
Heinstatement after non-payment of dues
Pay penalty of $2.50 by October 15
Not stated
Subject to Executive Committee
Subject to Federated Council
Upon payment of dues
Penalty for other violations
Temporary suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension subject to Executive Committee
Suspension subject to Executive Committee
Suspension 1 yr,subject to Federated Council
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Upon payment of dues
Suspension 1 yr,subject to Executive Committee
Upon payment of penalty of $5,00 and
annual dues
Not stated
Suspension 1 semester or fined not more than
$50.00 for each offense
Suspension 1 yr, may be appealed to Executive
Committee
Idaho
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Penalty added to membership fee of J1.0C
for1dach month dues remain unpaid
Suspension or fine subject to Bd.of Control
Illinois
Suspended after December 1st
Indiana
Iowa
Suspended after January 1st
Suspended after October 1st
Kansas
Kentucky
Suspended after January 10th
Suspended after October 1st
Upon payment of dues and penalty amount­
ing to 1/3 of annual dues
Upon payment of dues
Pay fine of {1,00 and apply for re­
instatement
Pay fine of {1,00 by January 10th
Upon payment of dues
Not permitted to compete for championship
honors after January 15th
Maine
Not stated ■
Maryland
Not stated
Massachusetts Suspended after January 1st
Michigan
No dues required of member schools
Suspension subject to Bd.of Appeals
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Louisiana
Minnesota
Suspended after October 15th
Mississippi
Missouri
Subject to discretion of the region committee
Suspended after October 1st
Montana
Nebraska
Suspended after October 1st
Suspended after September 30th
Not
Not
Not
Not
for one year
stated
stated
for one year
No consideration given in determining
district championship honors for yr,
Pay penalty of 1 yr!s additional dues
Pay penalty of {3,00 or {5,00 according
. to class
Pay dues of previous and present years
Pay penalty of {5,00 and back dues
(maximum $20,00)
Suspension 1 yr,(maximum)
Not stated
Not stated
Forfeit of games '
Subject to Executive Council or forfeiture
Suspension 1 yr,subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension 1 yr,subject to State Committee
Suspension 1 yr,subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension 1 yr, or forfeiture of games
Suspension 1 yr,subject to Bd.of Control
TABLE VI (continued)
VIOLATIONS VM THE PENALTIES BY STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Penalty for non-payment of dues
Reinstatement after non-payment of dues
No student can take part in inter-school contest
until he has registered and paid 25 cents
New Hampshire Not stated '
Subject to executive committee
New Jersey
Forfeit of right to enter sectional and State
New Mexico
Tournaments after January 20th
Suspended
after January 15th
New York
Proper registration of players and pay■: ment of their dues
Not stated
Subject to Executive committee
Pay fine of $5.00 for every year lapsed
(maximum $10.00)
Not for one year
North Carolina Not Stated
North Dakota Suspended after September 30th
■Suspended after January 15th
Ohio
Not stated
Subject to Bd.of Control
Pay fine of 25 per cent of dues
Nevada
Oklahoma
Oregon
Suspended
Not stated
Not for one yr,
Not stated
Pay fine of $2.00
Penalty for other violations
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Not stated
Suspension and no championship ratings
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Suspension subject to Central Committee
Suspension and game forfeiture
Suspension by Bd.of Control
Subject to Commissioner, may be appealed
to Bd.of Control
Suspension for 1 yr,subject to Bd.ofControl
Suspension
Suspended
Suspended after October 15th
Suspended after January 1st
Suspended December 31st not eligible for
basketball
Not stated
Not, stated
Pay membership dues and sign pledge
Suspension and forfeiture of games and
championship rights
Forfeiture of games
Forfeiture of games
Suspension, subject to Bd.of Control
Not stated
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Texas
Utah
Suspended for 1 yr,
Suspended after January 1st
Suspension for 1 to 3 yrs,
Vermont
Virginia
Not stated
Suspended after June 15th
Not stated
Pay fine of $5.00 in addition to de­
linquent dues
Not stated
Pay fine of $1.00 by October 31st
Washington
Suspended after September 1st
Not stated
Pennsylvania Suspended after November 1st
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Nest Virginia Suspended after October 1st
Nis cons in­
coming
Suspended after October lsth
Suspended after November 1st
Subject to suspension and forfeiture games
Subject to Executive Council
Suspension and forfeiture of games subject
to Executive Committee
Suspension and forfeiture of games subject
to Bd.of Control
Pay fine of $5.00 for elapsed yr, and dues Suspension for 1 yr.no participation in
State Tourney
Not stated
Suspension subject to Bd.of Control
Pay dues double within ten days after
second notification
Suspension or forfeiture of games
42
in inter-school contests until he has registered and paid
twenty-five cents, while naturally, in the state of Michigan
where no dues are required, there are no penalties.
Five
state associations make no statement in their written con­
stitutions in regard to any penalties for different violat ions.
In regard to reinstatement after the non-payment of
dues, sixteen state organizations impose fines ranging from
$1 to $5 or to one-third of the annual dues, in addition to
requiring the payment of back dues before reinstatement be­
comes effective.
The rules of four state associations
definitely state that reinstatement occurs when the delinquent
dues are paid.
In four states delinquent schools are subject
to action by the Executive Committee.
Four states stipulate
that there may be no reinstatement for a period of one year
after after the grace period has elapsed and notification
sent.
The Wyoming state athletic association requires the
delinquent schools to pay dues double within ten days after
the second notification, while the South Dakota association
requires the payment of membership dues and the signing of a
pledge.
No. statement in regard to provision for reinstatement
of delinquent schools was mentioned in the written constitu­
tions of fourteen state associations; it seems very probable
that reinstatement is automatically granted to member schools
of these state associations upon payment of delinquent dues.
With reference to penalties imposed for violations
other than the non-payment of dues, in the associations of
twenty-six states member schools that violate rules are sub­
ject to suspension, through action of the governing com­
mittee.
Six state associations designate suspension and
forfeiture of gam e s .
In three states these cases are sub­
ject to board of control action.
The association in the
state of Florida designates suspension for one semester or
not more than $50 in fines for each offense, while in Idaho
the penalty may be suspension or a fine subject to the board
of control.
Rhode Island and South Carolina seem more len­
ient in that only forfeiture of games is stated as a penalty
Texas is more drastic in its penalizing action, indicating
suspension of from one to three years.
West Virginia pr o ­
hibits participation in the state tourneys, and suspends for
one year.
In Ohio, cases of violation are subject to the
action of the Commissioner but may be appealed to the Board
of Control.
In Louisiana a member school of the association
may be suspended for a maximum of two years.
The rules of
the New Jersey association call for suspension and loss of
privilege of receiving championship ratings, while those of
the Pennsylvania association designate all the common penal­
ties, suspension, forfeiture and loss of championship rights
44
THE NATIONAL FEDERATION OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
As a consequence of the great success of state or ­
ganizations and a realization of all the benefits derived
from organized state control of interscholastic athletics,
it is not surprising to find that some of the leaders in the
state associations gave thought to the formation of a nation­
al federation which would have as its purpose the standardi­
zation of the rules and regulations governing high school
athletic activities and the protection of high school ath­
letes .
There were several influences that were harmful at
this time, which were problems that threatened to jeopardize
the educational ideal of high school athletics.
Some of the
factors were the tendency of colleges to sponsor high school
athletic contests, the attempts of groups to commercialize
high school athletics, and the fact that over-zealous city
chambers of commerce were sponsoring activities to advertise
localities, thus encroaching upon the amateurism and harmony
that existed in high school athletics.
These growing harmful
conditions stimulated school leaders to action, and as a
result of their foresight a meeting was called for the pur­
pose of organizing a national federation of interscholastic
athletic associations, whose purpose would be f,to protect and
regulate the interstate athletic interests of high schools
^5
belonging to the various associations and to promote pure
amateur sport.
A historical sketch of the National Federation of
State High School Athletic Associations is presented in
the written constitution of the organization.
The written
constitution and by-laws may be secured from C. W. Whitten,
Secretary-Treasurer, 11 South LaSalle Street, Chicago,
Illinois.
Table VII shows the names.of members and n o n ­
members of the Association.
SUMMARY
In all but three states the administration and control
of high school interscholastic athletics is in the hands of
state associations.
The state athletic associations of forty-
six states have written constitutions and by-laws embodying
rules and regulations required by member schools.
states have unified organizations.
Forty-six
The average number of
officers of the state organizations is three, and executive
control of the various organizations is vested in an execu­
tive committee.
The annual meetings of most of the state
organizations are held at the time of their respective
education association conferences.
The state associations
Constitution and B y -Laws of the National Federation
of State High School Athletic.Associations, 1939-4cT
(Privately printed under the direction of C. W. Whitten, SecretaryTreasurer, 11 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois.)
46
TABLE VII
MEMBERS AND NON-MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL FEDERATION
OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL FEDERATION
Alabama High School Athletic Association
Arizona Interscholastic Association
Arkansas Athletic Association
Colorado High School Athletic Conference
Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference
Florida High School Athletic Association
Georgia High School Association
Idaho High School Athletic Association
Illinois High School Association
Indiana High School Athletic Association
Iowa High School Athletic Association
Kansas State High School Activities Association
Louisiana High School Athletic Association
Maine Association of Principals of Secondary Schools
Michigan High School Athletic Association
Minnesota State High School League
Mississippi High School Literary and Athletic A s s !n
Missouri State High School Athletic Association
Montana High School Association
Nebraska High School Activities Association
Interscholastic League of Nevada
New Mexico State High School Athletic Association
New York State Public High School Athletic Association
North Dakota High School League
Ohio High School Athletic Association
Oklahoma High School Athletic Association
Oregon High School Athletic Association
Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association
South Dakota High School Athletic Association
Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association
46a
TABLE VII(continued)
MEMBERS AND NON-MEMBERS OP THE NATIONAL FEDERATION
OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL FEDERATION
Utah High School Athletic Association
Washington High School Athletic Association
West Virginia High School Athletic Association
Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association
Wyoming High School Athletic Association
NON-MEMBERS
California Interscholastic Federation
Delaware Interscholastic Association*
Kentucky High School Athletic Association
Public Schools of Maryland
Massachusetts High School Athletic Association
New Hampshire Headmasters Association
New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association
North Carolina High School Athletic Association
Rhode Island Secondary School Principals Association
South Carolina High School League
The University Interscholastic League of Texas
Headmaster*s Club of Vermont
Virginia High School Literary and Athletic League
* Organization disbanded in 1933*
47
of forty-one of the forty-eight states provide for district
organizations.
The associations of twenty-eight states p r o ­
vide for some form of classification for athletic competition
in their member schools.
Two types of dues required by the state associations
of the member schools are graduated membership fees b a s e d .
on enrollment and uniform membership fees.
Twenty-four state
associations have graduated fees based on enrollment, and
fourteen associations designate uniform fees.
The state associations specify certain penalties for
rule violations.
The most frequent unintentional violation
is the failure to pay membership dues.
For violation of
regulations other than the payment of dues, the common penal­
ty is suspension.
In most state associations provisions are
made for reinstatement.
Thirty-five state associations are members of the
National Federation of High School Athletic Associations.
CHAPTER III
REGULATIONS REGARDING ELIGIBILITY
AND COMPETITION
INTRODUCTION
Prior to the time of organized high school athletic
associations, there were no definite standards of eligibility
or rules regulating competition among the various high schools.
Realizing that an athletic program would never pay dividends
of an educational nature without leadership and regulations,
the associations have endeavored to rule wisely and justly
on such problems as pertain to athletic eligibility.
Accord­
ing to Thomas:
The primary function of a state high school ath­
letic association is to afford its member schools
the privilege of clean, wholesome athletic parti­
cipation; a guarantee of good faith in the matter of
eligibility and rules; and means of redress for vio­
lations. Our aim should be to formulate and super­
vise a program of athletic activities that will
promote good health, physical development, and good
sportsmanship among the participants and pleasant and
friendly relations among the school and communities
reflected.
Interschool athletics is one of the most important
activities among the High Schools of America and it
seems safe to state, that whether we desire it or
not, extensive competitive athletics will be carried
on by the high school students .of this country.
If
this is true, it is reasonable to presume that the
only agency which can control a program of inter­
scholastic athletics properly is one such as is repre­
sented by the various State High School Athletic
Assoc iations.
k9
Those who are acquainted with the high school
situation for the past twenty-five years appreciate
the steady improvement that has been made since
State Associations began to function with power and
authority. Formerly there was no regulation on
scholarship, age, physical condition, or length of
time in school, and consequently, there developed
antagonism that destroyed the possibility of friend­
ly feeling; but the presence of those undesirable
features did not prevent the spread of competition
for supremacy. Boys who were in school before the
time of athletic associations engaged in inter­
school contests.
It was a struggle to keep going,
but the boys persisted and they had a real battle,
as some of us know.
School administrators at first
ignored these contests, then tolerated them, and
finally conceived the idea of taking over the p r o ­
gram and providing the necessary safeguards to make
it meaningful and valuable to the school.^
If the academic, health, and character interests of
high school students as a whole are of paramount importance,
athletic activities and standards which fail to contribute
to these general interests must be changed in order to
effectively secure a condition in which the athletic program
becomes an essential educational program.
For the most part it appears that the high ideals, of
education are permeating this new concept in athletic ac­
tivity.
These principles are followed in rules of eligibility
of many hlgh'school athletic associations.
The ideal involved in this thought has been finally
developed in the minimum eligibility requirements recommended
E. A. Thomas, "Functions of a State High School
Athletic Association, f The Journal of Health and Physleal
Education, 5 s16-17* November, 193^*
50
by the National Federation of High School Athletic Associa­
tions, which are stated here:
RECOMMENDED MINIMUM
ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
At the meeting of the National Council of the
National Federation of State High School Athletic
Associations which was held at Cleveland, Ohio, on
Monday, February 25, 1929, the following list of
eligibility rules was recommended as a list of
minimum requirements for eligibility for inter­
scholastic athletics.
In publishing this list,
your attention is specifically called to two facts:
1. This is a recommended list only and is not
required for membership in the National Federation.
2 . These rules are recommended as minimum re­
quirements.
States having more restrictive rules
on any of these points are not advised to modify
them.
To represent a school in any interscholastic
contest, the following requirements must be met:
20 -YEAR RULE
1. A pupil shall not have reached his twentieth
birthday.
8 -SEMESTER RULE
2. He shall become ineligible after attending
a four-year high school eight semesters or a senior
high school six semesters. Graduates of these
schools are ineligible.
Attendance of 15 days of
any semester shall be regarded as a "semester 11
under this rule.
SCHOLARSHIP RULE AND CONSECUTIVE
SEMESTER ATTENDANCE RULE
5- (a) He shall be doing passing work in at
least fifteen periods or three full credit subjects
of high school work per week.
(b) To be eligible he must have passed at the
end of the immediately preceding semester in which
the contest occurs in fifteen periods or three full
credit subjects. The record at the end of the
semester shall be final. Scholastic deficiencies
can not be made up in any manner.
AMATEUR RULE
4. He shall not use his athletic skill for
personal gain, nor shall he play on teams where
one or more players are receiving money for their
service.
Should he lose his amateur standing he
may be reinstated by the Executive Body after the
lapse of one conplete year, provided he has not
persisted in breaking the amateur rule.
INDEPENDENT TEAM PARTICIPATION RULE
5* After he has become a member of a high
school squad, he shall not take part in an inde­
pendent contest where admission is charged.
TRANSFER RULE
6 . He shall be ineligible for one semester, if
he transfers from one school to another without a
corresponding change in his parents 1 residence.
RECRUITING RULE .
7* The use of undue influence by anyone in
causing a boy to transfer from one school to
another for athletic purposes shall render him
ineligible.
ENROLLMENT RULE
8 . He shall have been enrolled not later than
the beginning of the eleventh day of school of the
semester.
ATHLETIC AWARD RULE
9. If he accepts from any source a sweater, jer­
sey or any other awards exceeding one dollar in
value other than those usually given, such as
medals, trophies, fobs, letters and other athletic
insignia, he shall be ineligible.
GRADE RULE
10.
g r ade.
He must have been promoted to the ninth
52
PHYSICIANfS CERTIFICATE AND
PARENTAL CONSENT RULE
11. He shall present at least once a year a
physician’s certificate on a form prescribed by
his State Association that he is physically fit
for athletic competition. He shall likewise be
required to present in writing parental consent
for athletic participation.
COACHES 1 RULE
12. All coaches shall be certified teachers
regularly employed by the Board of Education and
their entire salary shall be paid by that body.
They shall not have less than three regular per­
iods of classes, gymnasium or study-hall duty
per d a y .2
AGE LIMIT
The earliest attempt toward classification of parti­
cipants by the athletic associations for the purpose of
equalizing competition was the practice of setting age
limits, and in the old days twenty-one years was considered
a suitable limit.
Perhaps the decision on this age was
reached through the supposition that, since the boy reaches
manhood at twenty-one, at which age there is a change in
physical powers in the transition from youth to manhood,
those under twenty-one could be classed equally as youth
against youth regardless of a difference of three or four
years in age.
2
The existence of this high age level was also
Constitution and B y -Laws of the National Federation
of State High School Athletic Associations, 1939-1940, o p .
c i t ., pp. lo-19.
53
due, in part, to the fact that opportunities for boys to
continue their education through high school were not as
great as they are to-day, and in many cases boys stopped
their schooling for a few years between eighth grade and
high school in order to work.
Then too, in many cases the
high school years were interrupted by withdrawals for the
purpose of seasonal work.
It was also rather a common prac­
tice to withhold children from starting school until they
were seven years old.
Different conditions with respect to the age of
children in school have been produced by the economic, social
and cultural changes in our country to-day.
Children now
start school at five and six years of age and often finish
high school at the age of sixteen or seventeen.
It can read­
ily be seen that the retention of the old age limit of
twenty-one produced a great hardship on the present-day high
school students.
For a long time educators failed to-see
the great physiological differences in the high school youth
and the lack of equality as far as strength and physical
fitness were concerned.
As a consequence they were slow in
reducing the age limit.
The trend of to-day is toward the reduction of the
age limit.
The majority of state associations have set twenty
years as the age limit, while a few have even reduced the
limit to nineteen years.
There appear to be evidences of a-
5*
movement toward setting the age limit at nineteen, but this
thought was interrupted during the years of depression when
many boys who had previously left school to work returned
to school.
It was thought, perhaps, that keeping the boys
in school and actively occupied in the athletic program
would help to reduce the amount of juvenile delinquency.
The motive may have been poor, but athletics served to
attract many of the older boys back to school and gave the
schools an opportunity of exposing them to worthwhile train­
ing in citizenship.
It seems that a more equitable method
of taking care of the older boys, in order that they may
derive benefits from the athletic program,, would be to use
the age-height-weight basis for classification.
The state
association of Georgia seems to meet this challenge by
stipulating three age limits:
twenty-one years for class A
competition, twenty years for classes B and C, and eighteen
years for class D.
Many state associations attempt to eliminate the
hardships upon students who reach the age limit shortly
after the sport season begins by allowing them to complete
the season.
The common practice, however, is to eliminate
the student from competition as soon as he reaches the age
limit, regardless of whether or not he is in the middle of
the season.
It does not seem to be a common practice■among the
55
state athletic associations to require birth certificates
as a proof of age.
This is probably due to the comparative­
ly recent establishment of bureaus of vital statistics.
However, a few associations do stipulate an order of bases
for determining age in questionable cases; for example,
first, the birth certificate; second, an affidavit of the
attending physician or nurse; third, original grade school
records; fourth, baptismal certificate; fifth, documentary
evidence such as the family record of birth on a Bible; and
sixth, the affidavits of the parents.
Table VIII shows the age limit requirement of each
of the states and whether or not the state association
requires a birth certificate.
The state associations of thirty states designate
twenty years as the age limit for athletic competition.
Twenty-one years is still retained as the limit of five
state organizations (Alabama, Arkansas, Missouri, North
Carolina and Oklahoma).
The state associations of eight
states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey,
New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Utah) have lowered their
age limit to nineteen years, while the Colorado association
is considering this move.
In Georgia, twenty-one is the age
limit for Class A; twenty for Classes B and C, and eighteen
for Class D.
The state of Texas stipulates eighteen years
as the age limit.
The New York association has set nineteen
56
TABLE VIII
THE AGE LIMIT REQUIREMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
STATE
AGE LIMIT
BIRTH CERTIFICATE REQUIRED-
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
21
20
21
Connect icut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
No
19a
(Organ! zation disbanded)
No
20a
No
l 8 -21e
No
20
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
20
20
20
20
20
No
No
No
No
Yes
Louis iana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
20a
20
20 Q
No
No
No *
\
No (recommended;
No
Minnesota
Mississ ippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
20*
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
20a
20
No
No
No
No
No
19
20
19
20
21-22
21
20
20
19b
20a
1^ *h
f
No
No
No (recommended)
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
56a
TABLE VIII (cont.)
THE AGE LIMIT REQUIREMENT OP HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
STATE
AGE LIMIT
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
21c
20a
20
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
19a
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
BIRTH CERTIFICATE REQUIRED'
21 h
19
.20
20
20
20°
No
No
No
No
No
No .
Yes1
Yes
NoJ
No
No
No
20
c Yes
20 years and six months No
20a
No
l8rl
19
20
20
20
No
No
No
a
Eligible in sport through season if birthday occurs after
start of season.
k
Eligible in sport through semester if birthday occurs
after start of semester.
Not eligible if birthday occurs on or before September 1.
0
d
Ineligible if birthday occurs before beginning of semes­
ter of sport.
e
Class D, 18; Classes B and 0, 20; Class A, 21.
f
Age limit of schools for the deaf.
^
Minimum age of 14 for cross country and ice hockey;
age 15 for football.
k
Must file statement from parents giving exact age.
^
Must file if born in another state.
^
Candidate for team.must sign statement giving day, month
and year of birth.
57
years as the maximum age limit, but also stipulates a minimum
age of fourteen years for students taking part in the sports
of ice hockey and cross country running, and a minimum age
of fifteen years for those engaging in football.
Virginia
states the age limit as twenty years and six months, while
in Mississippi twenty-one is the age limit except that in
the schools for the deaf the association stipulates an age
limit of twenty-two.
The state associations of thirty states rule a boy
ineligible on and after his birthday.
Eleven states allow
him to be eligible in the sport through the season if his
birthday occurs after the start of the season.
Two state
associations stipulate that a boy may be eligible in a sport
through the semester if his birthday occurs after the semes­
ter has started; three states declare a boy ineligible if
his birthday occurs on or before the first day of September,
and one state declares the boy ineligible if his birthday
occurs before the beginning of the semester in which the
sport is played.
Only three state associations (Kentucky, South Caro­
lina and Vermont) state in their written constitutions that
a birth certificate shall be filed as a proof of age.
The
Rhode Island association requires that those, born in other
states shall file a birth certificate; Massachusetts and
Missouri recommend that a birth certificate shall be filed.
58
Candidates for teams In the state of Mississippi must file
a statement from the parents giving the exact age, while
those boys engaging in sports in the state of South Dakota
are required to sign a statement giving the day, month and
year of their birth.
SCHOLARSHIP
Whether or not scholastic attainment should be a
part of the eligibility rules seems to be a debatable issue,
as there are two schools of thought in existence on this
question.
The older and more conservative viewpoint is
that scholarship is of major importance, and that the school
is, first of all, an institution of learning.
It is gener­
ally believed by this group that any movement toward lowering
or abolishing scholastic standards would have a demoralizing
effect on the student body as a whole.
If the students knew
that competition in athletics would not require any scholas­
tic attainment, an attitude of indifference toward their
studies would result and this Indifferent spirit might,
sooner or later, carry on to the whole student body.
On the other hand, there are those who think that the
students should not be denied the privilege of competing in
athletics because of failures in academic subjects.
They
contend that physical activity is a part of and contributes
to the educational program as a builder of citizenship and
that all students, regardless of the degree of attainment In
59
other subjects, should have an equal opportunity to take part
in such activity.
This group contends that there is a lack of consistency in the application of eligibility rules, for they be­
lieve it is common for students failing in several subjects
to take part in extra-curricular activities other than
athletics.
Such activities as school plays, school bands,
and live-stock judging teams
seldom require that a student
be making stipulated grades in a prescribed number of
courses.
Those of this thought hold that a student should
not be deprived of the privilege of participating in any
type of extra-curricular activity having educational value.
According to Rogers, who upholds this viewpoint:
Whether any scholarship qualifications should
be prerequisites to membership in representative
school teams' is a moot question. Stanford Uni­
versity believes they should not. Any student in
the University is assumed to be eligible to repre­
sent the University. The best defense of this
attitude is the observation that school debaters,
musicians, and dramatists are not required to be
*up 1 in athletics as a prerequisite to membership
on these teams.
Nor should they. Because he can­
not or will not learn mathematics is hardly a
proper reason for denying a pupil the privilege
of learning games and sports, unless the latter
are not educative. And if they are not they ought
to be discarded for all pupils! That an outside
organization should impose scholarship require­
ments on any school ought to be intolerable to its
principals and teachers.
Perhaps local administrators should not permit
pupils to represent their schools unless the
scholarship of the pupils is a credit to themselves
and the institution. But this is not a matter
which ought to be under the continuous surveillance
60
of an athletic association any more than the ath­
letic activities of prize scholars should be
reviewed by scholastic organizations. . . . if
only because scholarship rules foster a counter­
feit scholarship which no true scholar would care
to endorse.^
It seems to the investigator that both groups have
some points that have merit.
At any rate, most of the state
associations have set up scholastic requirements.
The scholastic requirements of various state high
school athletic associations are presented in Table IX, in
which the number of current semester hours and previous
semester hours required are shown, and an indication is made
as to whether or not a make-up of deficiencies of a previous
semester is allowed.
Fifteen semester hours of passing work, both for the
current semester and the previous semester, are required by
the high school associations in forty-one states.
Fifteen
hours designate fifteen hours of class work, or three solid
subjects counting toward graduation.
Two associations,
those of Colorado and Massachusetts, require fourteen semes­
ter hours of passing work for both the current and previous
semesters.
The association in Minnesota requires twenty
hours of satisfactory work for the current semester (four
subjects five times a week), and fifteen semester hours for
5 Frederick Rand Rogers, The Future of Interscholastic
Athletics (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University,
1929)/ pT 99.
TABLE IX
ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS OF THE VARIOUS
STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Current
Semester
Hours
Required
Make-up of
- Previous
"Previous SemesSemester Hours ter" Accepted
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
15
15
15
15
14
15
15
15
15
14
No
No
No
No
No
Connect icut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yesa
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
Yesa
Yes
Yesa
No
Yes
15
15
Not specified
15
15
20
15
15
15
15
15
15
Not specified
15
15
No
Yesa
Not specif i-ed
Yes
No
15
15
15
15
15
No
No
No
No
Yesb
15
15°
3
15,
15d
15
15
15
15
Louis iana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississ ippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Yes
Not specified
Not specified
Yesa
Not specified
6la
TABLE IX. (cont inued)
ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS OP THE VARIOUS
STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Current
Semester
Hours
Required
Make-up of
Prev ious
“Previous Semes­
Semester Hours ter” Accepted
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
Yes
Yesa
No
No
Yesa
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
Yes
Yesa
Yes
No
No
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
West Virginia
Wiscons in
Wyoming
15
20
15
15
20
15
No
No
No
a
Special provision in case of illness or any legitimate
caus e .
k
May make up five hours in summer school.
c
Scholarship requirements shall be determined by the
respective schools.
rk
Scholarship varies with schools and with boys 1 abilities.
the previous semester.
Twenty hours of passing work for
both the current and previous semesters are required by
Wisconsin.
In the state of New Jersey a student must have
passed fifteen semester hours the previous semester, but is
required to be carrying only three semester hours during the
current semester, the scholarship requirements of the current
semester being determined by the respective schools.
The
state high school athletic association of New York makes no
requirement of the hours passed for the previous semester
but requires that a student be taking fifteen semester hours
during the current semester, the scholarship varying with
the schools and with the boys* ability.
Maryland does not
state any semester hour requirement for the current or previous terms.
Twenty-four state associations do not allow deficien­
cies of the previous semester to be made up in any way.
Eight state associations allow make-up work in case of ill­
ness or any cause considered legitimate by the board of
control.
The associations of eleven states stipulate that
deficiencies may be made up; this is usually done during the
summer.
In Indiana the make-up must be completed by the
twenty-fifth of September.
Only five hours of make-up work
are allowed by the association in the state of Nebraska.
The written constitutions of four states (Maryland, New
Jersey, New Hampshire and New York) do not specify any pro­
visions for make-up of scholastic deficiencies.
63
RESIDENCE
It is generally believed today that the time of the
"tramp athlete" is past, and that he has been eliminated by
the rules and regulations of the state high school athletic
associations, but unfortunately this is not the case.
Ath­
letic associations have succeeded in reducing the tendency
for this type of athlete to roam from school to school, but
due to unethical practices of some over-zealous school
authorities it seems that he is still in existence.
Unfortunately, it appears that championship-minded
communities and ambitious supervisors of interscholastic
athletics have fallen to the temptation of attracting good
athletes to their particular schools.
The fault probably
lies with the authorities concerned; in some cases the parents
of the athlete are to blame.
Then, too, it is perhaps one of
the evil results of over-emphasis of the championship idea.
The changing economic status in the United States during the
"depression" years seems to have had a very definite influ­
ence in this condition.
Unemployment had forced thousands
of families to migrate from one section of the country to
another in search of work.
Many of the unfortunate families
having a big husky tackle or a potential full-back were
offered inducements of employment by over-zealous community
team supporters.
Also, the practice of adults in championship-
minded communities seeking guardianship of orphans blessed
64
with athletic ability seems to be an ever-present condition.
Due/ however, to the present war and the defense program be­
ing conducted in this country, these conditions may subside,
as unemployment is no longer such a grave problem and in
all probability many of the potential high school athletes
will be attracted by opportunities for work in the various
industrial fields.
Naturally, the high school athletic associations have
been aware of the problem created by the migrant student and
have taken measures to combat this evil.
As a result, there
are found included in the written constitutions of these
organ izations rules and regulations dealing with the tran­
sient student.
Constitutional provisions as to when and
under what conditions this type of student may take part in
athletic competition are common in high school association
rulings.
Most of the state organizations permit a transfer
student to compete at once, if his parents move under normal
conditions into the district where competition will take
place.
This provision is safeguarded by a related regulation
which calls for a penalty for undue influence in attracting
the student and the parents to a particular community.
Trans­
fer blanks and records are required by most state associa­
tions, and of course the student in question must meet all
other eligibility requirements.
In cases where the b o y fs
parents fail to move into the district where the boy
65
transferred, most associations require him to spend one year
in the school before competing.
Some associations specify
a period of one semesterfs residence before competition can
take place.
Table X indicates which state athletic associations
permit transfer students to become eligible at once, if
the parents move with the student, and after how long a
period
students may become eligible
change
residence at the same time.
when parents do not
In cases where the parents move with the student,
forty-three state associations allow the student to become
eligible at once.
If the parents do not change residence
with the student, forty-six state organizations do not per­
mit competition at once.
school
In Arkansas a student must attend
for one year before becoming
whether his parents
eligible, regardless of
change residence.
The association in
Maine allows the student to become eligible only after
special permission is granted.
Even if the studentfs p a r ­
ents move along with him, in the state of New York, the
association stipulates that he must attend school two weeks
before becoming eligible.
The North Carolina state high
school association does not allow a boy to become immediately
eligible for competition even though his parents do change
residence, but no stipulated length of residence is mentioned
whereby he may become eligible.
The state of Maryland does
not specify any regulation in regard to transfer students.
66
TABLE X
STATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION REGULATIONS
GOVERNING TRANSFERRED STUDENTS
State
If Parents Move
Eligible
At Once
After
If Parents Do Not Move
Eligible
At Once
After
No
No
No
No
No
1
2
1
1
1
Yes
Yes
Yes
‘ Yea
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
12
1
1
1
1
weeks
year
semester
year
semester
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
1
1
1
18
18
year
year
semester
weeks
a
or J>6 weeks
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Yes
No
Not specified
Yes
Yes
No
No
1 year
No
No
3 months
1 semester
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
1
1
1
1
1
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
1 year
2 weeks
year
semesters
year
semester
semester
Special provi
semester
year
semester
or 2 semest'
semester
Special provi
Not specified
20 weeks
Special provi
1 semester
66a
TABLE X (continued)
STATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION REGULATIONS
GOVERNING TRANSFERRED STUDENTS
State
If Parents Move
Eligible
At Once
After
If Parents Do Not Move
Eligible
At Once
After
North'Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No No
No
No
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
1
1
1
1
1
1
18
1
1
1
1
1
18
1
1
1
year
semester
year
year
year
37-ear
weeks
year
year
year
year
semester
weeks
semester ,1 yearc
year
year
Not specified
1 semester
a
In sport not maintained in the school from which the hoy
transfers, 18 weeks; in sport maintained,
weeks.
^
Subject to special action by the Board of Control
0
Two semesters when change occurs within the same district.
^
When student is unduly influenced, 1 year.
67
When the parents do not change residences with the
student, twenty state associations require an attendance
in school for a period of one year before granting eligibil­
ity.
Thirteen state organizations require a period of one ,
semester’s attendance.
Connecticut’s association requires
an attendance period of twelve weeks, while in Kansas and
Rhode Island a student must attend school for a period of
eighteen weeks before becoming eligible.
In the state of
Kentucky the association declares that any student who has
represented a secondary school in inter-school contests, and
who changes schools without a corresponding change in the
residence of his parents, shall be ineligible for eighteen
weeks of school in a sport which is not
maintained, and for
thirty-six weeks of school in a sport which is
in the school from which he transfers.
maintained,
The Massachusetts
association requires a school attendance of three months,
and New Jersey stipulates twenty weeks.
In the states of
Maine, Nevada and New Mexico, eligibility is granted only
after special permission from the board of control.
Montana
and Virginia in their written constitutions specify one or
two semesters of school attendance if the change of residence
occurs within the same district, while in Virginia the re ­
quired school attendance of one year is applicable to cases
where the student is unduly influenced in changing schools.
The Maryland rules and regulations do not include any state­
ment in regard to transfer students.
68
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND PARENTAL CONSENT
Most of the state high school athletic associations
require that a student have a physical examination before
permitting him to participate in athletics, and it is quite
difficult to understand why all such organizations do not
make this requirement.
It seems that, in the formulation
of state association rules and regulations, physical fitness
should be the primary basis for participation requirements.
Health is one of the aims of education and certainly
the primary objective of physical activity.
Williams
states s
The demands of interscholastic athletics 1 con­
test are so exacting that no one should participate
in them who has not received a medical examination
and been pronounced fit by a reputable physician.
When boys and girls are allowed to play in such
contests without a competent examination, the risks
of injury for pupils are too great and the profes­
sional reputation of administrators too much in
jeopardy.4
Perhaps the chief factor in the slow growth of this
requirement by the state high school athletic associations
may be the financial cost involved.
It seems that medical
contracts could be arranged with an interested local physician
for a nominal sum to make physical examinations available to
all students participating in athletics.
It is true that all
^ Jesse Feiring Williams and Clifford Lee Brownell,
The Administration of Health and Phvsical Education (Phila­
delphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1939) > P« 484.
69
communities do not have doctors who may be appealed to from
this angle, but with the aid of a little publicity program
such an arrangement may be promoted.
It would seem that the
ideal situation would be to provide a physical examination
before participation in each sport.
In many states, though
the physical examination is not required by written consti­
tutions and by-laws of the state athletic associations, the
local authorities have realized the responsibility for some
sort of physical examination, limited as it may be.
Closely related with- the requirement of physical
examinations is the parental consent requirement.
A com­
paratively small number of state athletic associations
require parental consent.
It appears that there are several
reasons why this requirement is not used more widely by
school administrators and coaches.
First, the parents re­
fuse to give their consent when the school refuses to bear
the expense of medical aid in case of injury.
This reason
is being slowly eliminated by some schools by the setting up
of benefit insurance plans.
Second, parents hesitate to give
their consent in cases where the schools do not provide for
proper physical examination of students before participation.
Third, failure on the part of the school to provide a whole­
some athletic atmosphere to which the sudents may be subjected
causes parents to hesitate.
The answer to this would be in
the schools 1 making a practice of hiring athletic coaches who
70
are specifically trained and approved for such work.
There
are too many instances of administrators hiring teachers
trained.only in the academic field to teach athletics,
merely to economize, to fill a sudden vacancy, or just be­
cause of their varsity participation in athletics.
The National Federation of High School Athletic
Associations recommends that its member schools require
both the physical examination and parental consent.
This
recommendation certainly should serve as a strong factor
in influencing more and more schools toward adopting these
requirements.
Table XI“ indicates which state associations require
the physical examination and parental consent before par­
ticipation in interscholastic athletics.
Table XI shows that thirty state high school athletic
associations require that member school provide for the
physical examination of students before participation in
athletics.
Fifteen state associations make no provision for
such a requirement.
Three state organizations (New Mexico,
West Virginia and Massachusetts) recommend that member
schools make provisions for physical examinations.
Only
fourteen state associations require parental consent, while
five states recommend such a requirement (Indiana, Kentucky,
Massachusetts, New Mexico and West Virginia).
Twenty-nine
state organizations do not require parental consent.
71
TABLE XI
THE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND PARENTAL
CONSENT OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Physical
Examinat ion
Required
Parental
Consent
Required
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Yes No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Connecticut
Delaware
PI or Ida
Georgia
Idaho
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kans as
Kentucky
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Recommended
Yes
No
Yes
Recommended
Yes
No
No
Recommended
Yes
Yes
No
No
Recommended
Yes
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Recommended
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Recommended
No
71a
TABLE XI (continued)
THE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND PARENTAL
CONSENT OP STATE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
Physical
Examinat ion
Required
Parent al
Consent
Required
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yea
No
No
Yes
No
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
State
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Recommended
Yes
No
Recommended
Yes
No
72
ELIGIBILITY LISTS REQUIRED
In addition to the statement of rules of eligibility
in their constitutions, the state high school associations
require eligibility lists as an additional agent to secure
uniformity and regularity of competition, and as a protec­
tion against rule violations and unfair participation.
These eligibility lists are usually issued in dupli­
cate or triplicate form, since they are, in most cases, sent
to the executive secretaries as well as to the schools
scheduled.
In some instances they are sent to the Commis­
sioner, the Board of Control, or the County Board of Educa­
tion.
By this system of exchange and filing, these lists
serve as a medium of promoting scholastic attainment among
the students.
They also serve as a background of information
needed when protests and charges are filed against a school.
These writings furnish proof of age, scholastic experience,
and standing of the student.
In general, the introductory
data required on these lists include the name of the school
sending the list, the name of the party to whom sent, the
sport in which the students are eligible under the rules of
of the designated state associations to present the school
during a specified time; the information concerning the listed
players includes their name, birth record (month, day, year,
county and state), age last birthday, date of enrollment,
number of seasons of participation in the particular sport
73
(in some cases where and when), the number of semesters
enrolled including the present semester, and the number of
units carried in>the current semester and the units com­
pleted the previous semester.
In special cases, in order
to comply with the requirements of the specific state
organizations, the lists call for a statement regarding
the name of the school attended the previous year, the
district in which the parents reside, the source of the
birth record, evidence that the student has passed a required
physical examination and has received parental consent for
participation, and a statement as to whether or not the
student is a migrant from another school.
At the close of the list there is usually found a
place for the date of sending and for signatures of the
certifying school officials.
On the reverse side of some
eligibility blanks are printed the by-laws of the associa­
tions and notes to the effect that all eligibility lists are
to be made in duplicate or triplicate, as the case may be,
and where they are to be sent or filed.
In some cases
interpretations on game participation are included.
Some
state associations are unusual in that they subject their
member schools to disciplinary measures for failure to ex­
change eligibility lists properly, and in some constitutions
it is definitely stated that a fine will be imposed for such
neglect.
7^
Table XII indicates whether or not eligibility lists
are required by the various state associations; whether or
not these lists are to be made in duplicate or triplicate
form; and to whom the lists are to be sent.
As is shown in Table VII, forty-three state associa­
tions require eligibility lists.
In three states (Arkansas,
New Hampshire and North Carolina) eligibility lists are not
required by the associations.
There is no mention of an
eligibility list in the by-laws of the New York organization.
With the exception of New Jersey, the states that require
an eligibility list also require original copies.
Thirty-
seven state associations stipulate that supplementary copies
of the list be made, while six state associations (Arizona,
Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, Washington and Wisconsin)
do not require any copies in addition to the original.
Concerning the recipients of the eligibility lists,
nineteen state associations designate that copies are to be
sent to the State Executive Secretary and to the schools
scheduled; five organizations require that they be sent only
to the schools scheduled; and two organizations require that
this list be sent to the district secretary and the schools
scheduled.
In Texas lists are to be sent to the district
secretary, the state secretary, and the scheduled schools.
The state of South Carolina requires that lists be sent to
the district secretary and to the state secretary.
In
TABLE XII
ELIGIBILITY LISTS REQUIRED BY STATE HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
List
Required
Original Supplementary
Alabama
Yes
Yes
Yes
Arizona
Yes
Yes
No
Arkansas
California
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Yes
Yes
Yes
Organization disbanded
Yes
Yes
Yes
Georgia
Yes
Yes
Idaho
Yes
Yes
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Kans as
Yes
Yes
Yes
Kentucky
Yes
Yes
No
Louisiana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Michigan
Yes
Yes
Yes
Minnesota
Yes
Yes
Yes
Mississippi
Missouri
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Montana
Yes
Yes
Yes
Nebraska
Yes
Yes
Yes
-
To Whom Sent
District Secretary
and scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
-
Federation Secretary
and scheduled schools
Scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
Yes District Secretary
and scheduled schools
Yes • State Secretary and
scheduled schools
Scheduled schools
Board of Control
Board of Control and
scheduled schools
Commissioner and
scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
Sec. of Association
and scheduled schools
Scheduled schools
County B d . of Education
Scheduled schools on
request
State Director and
scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
Regional and state secs.
Secretary and Treasurer
and scheduled schools
State Secretary and
scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
75a
TABLE XII (continued)
ELIGIBILITY LISTS REQUIRED BY STATE HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC ASSOCIATIONS
State
Eligibility
List
Original SuppleRequired
mentary
Nevada
Yes
New Hampshire
New Jersey
No
Yes
New Mexico
Yes
Yes
Yes
North Carolina
North Dakota
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Ohio
Yes
Yes
Yes
Oklahoma
Yes
Yes
Yes
Oregon
Yes
Yes
Yes
Pennsylvania
Yes
Yes
Yes
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
South Dakota
Yes
Yes
Yes
Tennessee
Yes
Yes
Yes
Texas
Yes
Yes
Yes
Utah
Yes
Yes
Yes
Vermont
Yes
Yes
Yes
Virginia
Yes
Yes
Yes
Washington
Yes
Yes
No
West Virginia
Yes
Yes
Yes
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
To Whom Sent
Secretary and Treasurer
and scheduled schools
On request of Execu­
tive Committee
State secretary and
scheduled schools
Secretary of League
and scheduled schools
Commissioner and
scheduled schools
State secretary and
scheduled schools
State secretary and
scheduled schools
District Committee and
scheduled schools
Executive Committee
District Secretary and
State Secretary
State Secretary and
scheduled schools
Divisional Secretary,
State Sec .-Treasurer
and scheduled schools
D i s t . and state secs ,
and scheduled schools
State Sec.-Treasurer
and scheduled schools
State Secretary and
scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
Scheduled schools
Executive Secretary
and scheduled schools
Scheduled schools
State Secretary and
scheduled schools
California lists are to be sent to the Federation secretary
and to the scheduled schools.
Colorado requires that lists
be sent to the secretary of the League and commissioner of
the Conference.
In Indiana lists must be sent to the Board
of Control and in Iowa they are sent to the Board of Control
and scheduled schools.
Kansas requires that lists be sent
to the Commissioner and the schools scheduled; while in
Maryland they are sent to the County Board of Education.
In Massachusetts lists are to be sent to the scheduled
schools on request, and in Mississippi they are to be sent
to the Regional and State Secretaries.
New Jersey requires
that lists be sent on the request of the Executive Committee.
In Ohio lists are to be sent to the Commissioner and the
scheduled schools; and in Pennsylvania they must be sent to
the District Committee and the scheduled schools.
Rhode
Island requires that lists be sent to the Executive Committee
and in Tennessee they are to be sent to the divisional secre­
tary, state secretary and treasurer and scheduled schools.
RULES GOVERNING POST-SEASON
GAMES,
LENGTH OF SCHEDULES AND SPRING PRACTICE
The present era seems to be characterized by two ten­
dencies.
The first is the problem of national defense.
The
second tendency, as far as athletic contests are concerned,
is to justify the promotion of more and more contests in the
77
name of charity.
Promoters are wise enough to know that it
is difficult for anyone to object to contests which are
promoted in thename of either.
In the one case, the objec­
tion labels the objector as unpatriotic and in these times
that is a stigma with which few care to gamble.
In the
other case he is uncharitable and hard-hearted.
The result
is that many crimes against the educational system are
camouflaged; the age-old fallacy is again dusted off:
The
end is worthy, therefore the means is justified.
It is generally conceded that, if school athletic
departments err in connection with the number of athletic
contests which are scheduled, it is on the side of having
too many rather than on the side of having too few.
Most of
those who have studied the problem of interscholastic foot­
ball have come to the conclusion that seven or eight strenuous
football games are a sufficient number for any high school
team.
According to a report of the Committee on Inter­
im
scholastic Standards for Boys/ the maximum number of games
permitted in football should be seven.
Yet, there are in­
numerable cases where a school has completed a schedule of
nine or ten games and is then forced by various pressure
groups into the playing of post-season games.
5
There are
Committee on Interscholastic Standards for Boys,
"interscholastic Standards for Boys," Journal of Health and
Physical Education. 10:371> September, 1939*
78
cases on record where a high school team has played as many
as twelve games during the football season and has been
forced to play a post-season game under the management of
a promoting group entirely outside the school system.
In
at least one such case, the high school team has then
decided to top off the season by traveling across the con­
tinent to play an intersectional game during the Christmas
holidays.
The football season is thus stretched from the
first day of September to the first day of January.
If this
were carried to the extreme and if it were assumed that what
is good for one school is good for all, it would soon result
in football being an all-year sport and there would be no
limit to the length of trips which might be taken, to the
time which might be devoted to practice, and to the time
which might be given by the athletic staff to the training
of a very small minority of the students while neglecting
those who need that time and attention.
To some extent the same thing applies to basketball.
Possibly a schedule of nineteen or twenty basketball games
can be justified, but there are many cases on record where
teams play as many as thirty-five games in a season and there
are a few cases where the schedule has included as many as
forty g a m e s .
Such schedules certainly include more games
than the number recommended by the Committee on Interscholastic Standards for Boys.
In some cases, the school has found
79
it necessary to extend its season because of demands for
charity games.
The customary practice is for a city organi­
zation to give wide publicity to some unfortunate group
which needs financial aid.
Having aroused sympathy in the
minds of the general public, the next step is to send the
committee to demand of the school administration that the
school assist in raising funds for the worthy cause.
Since
the school has built up a clientele that will support high
school athletics, the next logical step is to add an extra
game to the schedule, the proceeds to go to the charity.
The result is that the season is longer than it should be,
the school name has been exploited, most of the credit goes
to the organization which handles the funds, the school in­
terests have been divided in such a way that the public is
fed up on basketball games and the athletic budget suffers.
The school has contributed to a worthy charity, but in doing
it has curtailed the service which the athletic department
could otherwise have rendered to numbers of students who
need the use of athletic facilities.
It seems that in past years these things have been
only minor nuisances, but the situation is rapidly approach­
ing a stage where the welfare of the students and of the
school athletic departments is being seriously affected.
Many state high school associations have adopted hard and
fast rules to limit the number of games which may be
80
scheduled during a season, and more seem destined to follow.
The frequency with which the state high school ath­
letic associations mention such game regulations in their
constitutions is not great enough to warrant placing the
rules in a table.
In regard to post-season games, of the constitutions
studied only nine (those of Michigan, Illinois, Florida,
Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Alabama, Ohio and New Mexico)
definitely state that there shall be no post-season g a me s .
The states of New York, Utah, Missouri and Washington allow *
post-season games only after permission is granted by the
state association.
Tennessee stipulates that only one post­
season game with an out-of-state team may be played, while
Virginia disapproves of post-season g a m e s .
Concerning the number of scheduled football games,
the written constitutions of the states of Florida, Indiana
and Virginia limit the football schedules to ten games,
Alabama and Michigan allow nine football games to be played,
and the state association of New York permits member schools
to schedule only seven games of football.
Georgia allows
only one football game a week.
As for basketball, the schedule is limited to twenty
plus tournaments in the states of Florida and Virginia.
Indiana and Kansas permit basketball teams to play eighteen
games besides the tournament games.
The state association
81
of Missouri allows member schools using the outdoor season
to play sixteen games plus the tournaments, while the schools
using the indoor season are permitted to schedule sixteen
games and play in four tournaments, and if the school plays
both indoor and outdoor seasons twenty-four games and five
tournaments are allowed.
Michigan restricts the number of
basketball games scheduled to fourteen.
The state associa­
tions of Alabama and Georgia stipulate in their written
constitutions that not more than two basketball games can
be played in one week.
In regard to baseball, the Virginia state athletic
association limits the schedule to twelve games, while in
Alabama and Georgia the associations allow only two games
a week.
Another growing movement toward regulating athletic
contests has to do with the restriction and prohibition of
”spring practice” for football.
It is a well known fact
that many high schools, particularly large high schools
placing great emphasis upon winning football teams, have
conducted organized football practice during the entire
school year.
In many instances schools have arranged to
carry on practice in summer camps i n 'preparat ion for the
coming season of football.
Williams states that:
■ The tendency in high school athletics is to
work boys too hard and too long. Practice periods
are arranged daily, the schedule of games extends
over a period of many weeks, and the number of
contests played is, in most cases, entirely too
82
heavy. Those who are responsible for high school
athletics should remember that herein lies a
flagrant source of over-emphasis.
The local athletic council should adopt standards and policies governing practice periods and
schedule making compatible with the rules of the
state associations.'
Of course, as in most issues of this kind, there
seem to be two viewpoints concerning spring football.
There
are, those, including over-zealous principals and athletic
coaches with over-developed winning complexes, who refuse
to give up spring practice because it would mean yielding
an advantage to their opponents who also practice football
in the spring.
Then too, it appears to the investigator
that in some schools those in charge of athletics do every­
thing in their power to retain spring practice because their
'teams compete with teams of a neighboring state where the
policy of practicing football in the spring is still accepted.
Another argument, however, that seems to have some merit is
advanced by those who claim that the football program in the
spring affords a valuable physical activity for that certain
group of boys who have nothing else to do during that time
of the year.
These arguments all appear weak, however, when
face to face with arguments of that group of administrators
and coaches who are concerned with the welfare of the stu­
dents and are desirous of putting into effect a well-balanced
and well-integrated athletic program in which there are
friendly competition and wholesome rivalry.
83
A study of the constitutions and by-laws of the
state associations shows that ten states (Idaho, Kansas,
Michigan, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsyl­
vania, Virginia and West Virginia) allow no spring practice
in football.
Three state organizations (Ohio, California
and Texas) restrict spring football practice to one month.
Arkansas permits spring practice two consecutive weeks,
while the Alabama association stipulates three weeks.
OFFICIALS
In the opinion of the investigator, competent and
impartial officials are essential to a sound and sane ath­
letic program.
The question of securing competent officials
for interscholastic contests seems to have been a difficult
one in many states prior to the initiation of plans for the
registration and training of officials.
In studying the constitutions and by-laws of the
various state athletic associations, it was found that in
twenty states registered officials were required.
The asso­
ciations of -Illinois and Wisconsin, in their handbooks,
explain in detail their methods of classifying and training
offic ials.
ATHLETIC BENEFIT PLANS
Luring the last decade many of the state athletic
associations gave intensive consideration to the study of
84
athletic injuries, especially those resulting from football,
and to the question of providing state funds for the care of
those injured in athletic competition.
This period brought
into being athletic benefit plans in many of the states.
Twenty-six state associations are now operating benefit
plans based on that initiated and developed in Wisconsin,
the pioneer state in this field.
MISCELLANEOUS ELIGIBILITY RULINGS
Many different local conditions have caused deviation,
at times, from standards or general rulings.
Perhaps the
presence of these unusual rulings is due to the fact that a
great many of the associations are an outgrowth of leagues,
zones, and district organizations, which had over a period
of years a status of independence.
It seems that when the
minor organizations were incorporated into state associations,
some of their old customs and unusual rulings were carried
over as a part of the newer rules and regulations.
As may
be noted in this study, many rulings are progressive, while
others are conservative.
The progressive ones are most
likely a result of an attempt toward eradicating some of the
so-called changing conditions that affect the athletic asso­
ciations .
These miscellaneous rulings cannot be grouped into
any particular categories, so they are listed by the state
in which they are required.
85
Alabama.
No game may be held before two weeks of
practice are completed.
California. Whenever it is shown that a member of
any high school team is a member of a high school fraternity,
all games in which that student participated shall be for­
feited; further, the school may be debarred from participa­
tion in that sport for one year.
The scheduling of a game on Christmas and Memorial
Day is prohibited.
Colorado.
Nine semesters of competition are allowed,
provided the ninth semester immediately follows the eighth.
Connecticut.
It is recommended that scheduling be
made only with teams at a distance which will permit the
team returning home by midnight.
FIorida.
A student who shall strike an official during
any game or at any other time because of resentment over
occurrences or decisions during a game becomes ineligible to
compete in any interschool athletics for a period of one
semester, subject to appeal to the Executive Committee.
Georgia.
Private school students are permitted to
compete until they are twenty-one years of age.
Idaho.
A filing of transfer record blanks with the
Association Secretary is required.
A tie game is to count as one-half game won and onehalf game lost.
86
Illinois♦
A student does not become ineligible
through absence on account of military service to the state
or nation in time of war or in time of national or state
emergency.
A student becomes ineligible for a period of
one year immediately after having attended a regular coach­
ing school.
Indiana.
Married students are not eligible for com­
petition in interschool contests..
Any student who reflects
discredit upon his high school or upon the I.H.S.A.A. is
not eligible.
Each school is assessed an entrance fee for participa­
tion in the Basketball Tourney.
Fire marshall regulation governing capacity of g y m ­
nasium is binding.
Kansas.
No standing room is sold.
No team can participate in more than one
game per day in any basketball tournament.
No player may
participate in more than five quarters of basketball in one
day.
(This applies to players who take part in both first
and second team games the same d a y . )
Louisiana.
All changes in rules affecting eligibility
of players must be introduced at one meeting and voted on
one year later.
The state association selects.all-state team in three
classes .
Maryland.
All intra-county games are conducted under
the direction of the county superintendent.
87
It is recommended that all games be played upon a
guest-host basis with the home team acting as the host of
the visiting team.
Upon notification by the county superintendent,
medals are furnished by the State Department of Education
to each county in soccer and field ball.
Massachusetts.
In cases where a boy is ruled out of
a game twice during the year for unsportsmanlike conduct, he
is declared ineligible for a year.
Pupils in trade schools are eligible to play on high
school athletic teams when they are candidates for the regular
high school diploma.
Michigan.
Non-teaching coaches are allowed, but they
have no voice in the management of activities and confine
themselves to instruction in athletics only.
Minnesota.
On or before October first of each year
every school member of the League must file with the Secretary
of the Board of Control, a schedule of its football games
for the season.
A liquor and tobacco rule is specified.
*
Gold footballs and gold basketballs may be awarded
to players.
Missouri.
Private schools of secondary rank may be­
come members of the association.
A money guarantee must be made for each football or
basketball game.
88
Montana.
A boy may wrestle for money during the
school year without becoming ineligible, but some colleges
would bar him from college athletics on the ground that he
had lost his amateur standing.
.Nebraska.
Any boy who plays on a baseball team be­
longing to a league affiliated with the National Association
of Baseball Clubs will become ineligible for further partici­
pation in high school.
Students may be excluded from high
school contests because of bad habits or improper conduct.
Nevada.
High schools may accept C.C.C. boys as mem­
bers of their teams, provided the boys conply with the
League requirements of eligibility and are recommended by
the camp educational advisors.
New Hampshire.
Representation on the Board of Control
is determined by classification--one representative from
each class.
New Jersey.
Private schools and evening schools are
eligible for membership in the association.
Out-of-season practice for any sport is forbidden.
New Mexico.
Eighth grade students are allowed to
compete on high school teams.
New Y o r k .
Post-graduates are allowed to play, and
boys who attain the age of fifteen years while enrolled in
a grade below the ninth grade may also participate in high
school contests.
89
North Carolina.
Eighth grade students are allowed to
compete on high school teams.
North Dakota.
Every student participating in inter­
scholastic contests must abstain from the use of tobacco and
alcoholic beverages.
An accurate record of each contest and contestants
must be kept.
A student must
the opening of school
attend as many days as
before
hemissed from
being eligible forcompetition.
No student cancompete in any contest
after his eight
semesters unless he is under seventeen years of
age, nor
after his seventh semester is his seventh and eighth semes­
ters are not consecutive.
O hio.
Teachers are required to certify students
before each game; blanks are furnished for this purpose.
After a high school team has played its last basket­
ball game, no member of the first team squad may play
basketball on an independent team.
No high school may play basketball after the State
Finals.
Mid-week games may be played only with the consent of
the Commissioner.
Oklahoma.
Membership in high school fraternities
bars students from competition.
Game contracts are required.
90
Scholastic and eligibility transcripts of out-ofstate migrants must be presented to the Secretary for an
opinion before a student is considered eligible.
Oregon.
Any school where students, supporters,,
rooters, or partisans take part in riots, fights, pilfering,
painting or any unsportsmanlike conduct against any other
school in the association must forfeit all games played and
won, and becomes automatically suspended from the association
for an indefinite period.
Game contracts are required.
Twenty-five per cent of the gross gate receipts of
the post season games must be turned
over to theassociation
and in no case may be amount be less
than $50 .
The school must be considered
liable forall
acts of
the team while on a trip.
Pennsylvania.
In schools with an enrollment under
seventy-five, eighth grade students are allowed to partici­
pate.
All contracts must be written.
South Carolina.
Married students are not eligible
to compete in athletic contests.
South Dakota.
Each school must keep in the permanent
record book a complete record of the.participation of each
student.
Annual membership dues are based on not.more than
91
five cents per pupil enrolled in the school in the previous
year.
All football gridirons must be enclosed by a wire
fence with ample room between the side lines of the playing
field and the fence, and only players, officials and coaches
shall be permitted inside the enclosure.
Tennessee.
A student guilty of using profane language
or foul tactics is barred from competition in athletics.
Utah.
Defacement of school property and unsportsmanlike
conduct subject a student to suspension from eligibility for
one year.
Washington.
Request for post-season games must be made
a"year in advance .
West Virginia.
Coaches or other persons connected
with competing teams shall not officiate at contests unless
the consent of all competing schools is given.
First-team basketball players are prohibited from play­
ing on independent teams after the season.
Wisconsin.
Wo high school football championship is
allowed.
Wyoming.
The California Interscholastic Federation
plan of allowing five alternate downs to each team is used in
deciding tie games in football.
92
SUMMARY
The National Federation of State High School Athletic
Associations includes in its written constitution a list
of minimum eligibility requirements which are recommended
but not required for use by the member schools.
The majority (thirty) of the state associations set
the age limit for high school athletic participation at
twenty years.
The associations of eight states indicate
nineteen years as the limit.
One state association has
lowered the age limit to eighteen, and one state indicates
an age limit of twenty years and six months.
Twenty-one
years is still retained as the age limit in six states.
Only
three state organizations definitely state in their written
constitutions
and by-laws that a birth certificate is re ­
quired as proof of age.
In regard to scholastic attainment as a part of the
eligibility requirements, fifteen semester hours of passing
work, both for the current semester and- the previous semester,
are required by the majority or forty-one of the state ath­
letic associations.
Twenty-four state associations allow no
make-up of deficiencies, while twenty states permit make-ups
with reservations or special provisions.
Rules and regulations dealing with the transient stu­
dent are included in the constitutions of the state athletic
associations.
In cases where the parents move with the
93
student, forty-three state associations allow the student
to become eligible at once.
If the parents do not change
residence with the student, forty-six state associations do
not permit competition at once.
Twenty state associations
require a period of one year*s residence before the student
is permitted to participate in athletic contests.
In the
associations of thirteen states, the written constitutions
stipulate a required residence period of one semester before
competition is allowed.
Thirteen state associations require
various lengths of periods in their residence requirements.
In two states the constitutions do not specify any residence
requirements.
Thirty state associations require that member schools
provide for the physical examination of students before p a r ­
ticipation.
Fifteen state organizations make no provision
for such requirement, while three state associations recom­
ment such requirement.
As for parental consent, only fourteen
states require this, while in five states the associations
recommend that member schools require parental consent.
The
National Federation of High School Athletic Associations
recommends that its member schools require both the physical
examination and the parental consent.
Forty-three state associations require member schools
to issue eligibility lists.
Thirty-seven of these associations
stipulate that supplementary copies of these lists be made.
94
Most of the states require that these eligibility lists be
sent to the State Executive Secretary and to the scheduled
schools, while some associations designate that a copy be
sent to the District Secretary or Commissioner as well.
Nine states definitely stipulate in their written
constitutions and by-laws that there shall be no post-season
games, while five state associations allow such games to be
played only after special permission is granted.
Seven state
associations stipulate in their constitutions that only a
certain number of football games may be scheduled.
The n u m ­
ber of basketball games allowed in a schedule is mentioned
in the written constitutions of eight states, while three
state organizations limit the-schedules in baseball.
In
regard to spring practice in football, ten states definitely
state in their constitutions that spring practice is not
permitted, while five state organizations restrict such
practice to a definite number of weeks.
Twenty state associations stipulate in their constitu­
tions and by-laws that registered officials are required.
Twenty-six state associations are' now operating ath­
letic accident benefit plans.
Many state high school athletic associations have
unusual rulings, due to varying conditions in the localities.
Many of the rulings are progressive, while others are con­
servative .
CHAPTER IV
THE ARIZONA INTERSCHOLASTIC ASSOCIATION
INTRODUCTION
In view of the fact that Arizona is the youngest state
in the Union and consequently one of the later states to adopt
the state control of interscholastic athletics, it is interest­
ing to note the rapid growth and development of its state
interscholastic association.
This organization was founded
in 1918, and its membership has increased from a very small
number of schools to sixty-one at the present time.
Arizona1s
interscholastic association has made commendable progress in
spite of many obstacles.
The large area of the state, the
great distances between towns, a limited number of schools
(many of which have small enrollments), and the topography
of the land have indeed influenced the development of the
association.
The constitution and by-laws indicate that Arizona in
its control of high school athletic activities may be compared
very favorably with other state associations throughout the
United States.
At the present time the Arizona Interscholastic Asso­
ciation is a member of the National Federation of State High
School Athletic Associations, and has adopted most of the
requirements recommended by this national association.
96
THE ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL
OP INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS IN ARIZONA
Written Constitution.
The Constitution and By-Laws
of the Arizona Interscholastic Association are printed in
the form of a small handbook.
The latest edition is that of
July, 1937*
This constitution contains seven articles dealing
with the name of the association, the object of the organiza­
tion, its membership, government, meetings, amendments, and
quorum, respectively.
The by-laws are divided into six sec­
tions, concerning the duties of the officers, order of
business, dues, rules
(with interpretations by the Executive
Committee), non-members, and the standing of the schools.
There is also a division devoted to the general rules of the
association, which includes the plan of districting, the
selection of teams to compete in state championships, com­
petition in track and tennis, classification methods, limita­
tion of the number of team members for basketball tournaments,
suspension, regulations governing football practice, and
notification from state authorities to schools regarding
penalties on eligibility disputes.
At the close of the handbook is a statement of Stand­
ard 10 of the North Central Association which states that:
no accredited school shall participate in any national
or interstate athletic meet or tournament or meet
not approved by the state athletic association.
97
Accredited schools not eligible to membership in
the state athletic association are excepted
There is no definite provision
editing of this handbook.
made for an annual
It has been reprinted occasion­
ally, following numerous changes, at the discretion of the
Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee also sends
out mimeographed copies of newly adopted- rulings to all
member schools, and these are considered as part of the
rules and regulations in effect.
At the time of reprinting
the handbook, they are included in proper form.
The purpose of the Arizona Interscholastic Association
as stated in the Constitution is Hto regulate and control
inter-high school contests in the State of Arizona.
1,0
The Arizona Interscholastic Association seems to fol­
low the general make-up of other state associations as
regards its written constitution and by-laws.
However, due
to the fact that the handbook is not edited annually and
reprinted, practically all the other associations appear
to have superior handbooks.
It has already been mentioned
in this study that most of the recent handbooks of the
various associations include a wealth of valuable and in­
teresting information, such as the yearly calendar of
^ Constitution and By-Laws of the Arizona Interscholas­
tic Association Handbook, 1937 (privately printed under the
direction of E. A. Howe, Secretary-Treasurer, Principal of
Tempe High School, Tempe, Arizona;, p. 11.
2 I b i d ., p . 1.
98
activities/ minutes of the yearly meetings, listings of d i s ­
tricts and state championships, team photographs, records,
interpretations of the rules in question and answer form,
financial reports, etc.
Many state associations also publish
supplementary bulletins at intervals during the year.
Arizona*s failure in this regard is a matter of economy due
to limited finances.
Dues from such a small membership cer­
tainly have something to do with the restricted expenditures
of the Arizona organization.
State Organization.
The direction and government of
this organization are vested in an Executive Committee of
five members and a Permanent Secretary.
Each of the five
districts elects a director in accordance with its own provi­
sions, and together the directors form the Executive Committee.
The Permanent Secretary assists the Committee, but does not
have voting p o w e r .
The annual meeting of this organization is held at the
time and place, of the Arizona Education Association meeting.
At this meeting each school is entitled to one vote.
The duties of the Executive Committee are:
1.
To give interpretations of the constitution and b y ­
laws whenever called upon by the chief executive of the high
school.
2.
To receive and investigate protests involving
schools or individuals and to determine and assess penalties
in case of conviction.
99
3*
To arrange a schedule for district championships
in football and track or any other activities and to control
all tournaments held for the purpose of determining state
championships in the above named activities.
Such*control,
or part of such control, may be delegated to the authorities
of the school which entertains the contest.
4.
To make special rules wherever they are necessary
for carrying into effect the spirit of the rules of the
association.
The duties of the Permanent Secretary are:
1.
To have charge of all the records and property
of the association.
2.
To inform the various schools each month as to
what high schools are in good standing.
5.
To receive and account for all money taken in for
dues or from any other source.
4.
To perform other duties which the Executive Com­
mittee deems necessary for the welfare of the association.
5 . To attend all meetings of the Executive Committee.
When any matter comes before the Executive Committee
for decision which is of special interest to a school of
which a member of the committee is a representative, the
remaining members appoint another person to act in his place
in that matter.
Special committees may be appointed when
the Executive Committee deems it advisable.
100
In organization, Arizona1® Interscholastic Association
has a set-up similar to that of the majority of the state
associations.
However, It does not follow the lead taken by
so many of the highly organized state associations, in that
It does not have a commissioner.
The duties of such an
official are largely assumed by the Permanent Secretary.
District Organization.
The Interscholastic athletic
association of Arizona has divided the state Into five dis­
tricts on a geographical basis.
No provision Is made In the
constitution and by-laws for a definite method of governing
the districts.
Such form of government Is left to the dis­
cretion of each district.
The control of the district
organization in Arizona is in the hands of the district
director, who merely calls meetings for the purpose of
scheduling games and setting dates and regulations for dis­
trict basketball tournaments and track and tennis m e e t s .
Classification of Schools.
Like most other state
associations, Arizonafs organization provides for a method
of classification based upon school enrollment, the classes
being designated as Class A, Class B, and Class C.
Those
schools with an enrollment of seven hundred or more are in
Class A; those with an enrollment of from two hundred to six
hundred ninety-nine, inclusive, are in Class B; those with
an enrollment below two hundred are in Class C.
This classi­
fication does not prohibit schools of different classes from
101
competing with each other.
This classification applies to
football, track and tennis, but not to basketball or base­
ball competition.
Championships are declared in basketball
and baseball, all classes being thrown into one.
In tennis
and track, championships are declared in all three divisions,
A, B, and C.
No official state association championship is
declared in football.
Due s .
The system of graduated membership provided
for by the interscholastic association is like that of most
other state organizations.
Each high school belonging to
the association is required to pay annually, on or before
November first, dues based upon enrollment as of October
first.
The schedule is as follows:
Enrollment
Enrollment
Enrollment
Enrollment
to andincluding 100 . . $ 7*50
of 101 to 250
12.50
17*50
of 251 to 1000 .........
over 1000 ..............
25*00
There are four high schools that are required to pay
twenty-five dollars, and approximately fifteen schools pay
the fee of seventeen dollars and fifty cents, while the rest
of the schools fall into the graduated fee classes of twelve
dollars and fifty cents and seven dollars and fifty cents.
It can readily be seen that the annual income from membership
dues is limited, and
as a consequence the state association
must operate on an economy basis.
Arizona is not so fortunate
as many of the states with small areas and large populations
102
in regard to income derived from basketball tournaments.
Competing teams are paid on a basis of distance traveled to
the tournament, and teams are sometimes required to travel
over three hundred miles.
The association collects no in­
come from district tournaments.
District tournaments are
managed by the district committees and in most cases very
little profit is realized after expenses are paid.
Penalties for Violations.
The only reference made to
any penalty for non-payment of dues is that a school will no
longer be considered in good standing if it has not paid its
membership dues by November first.
In regard to penalties
for violations of other regulations, the following provisions
are made:
Any school failing to meet a contest schedule
without giving five d a y s r notice may be barred from
inter-school competition by the Executive Committee
for one year.-5
Any boy appearing on the card or at the time and
place of any professional or amateur boxing or
wrestling contest, except such contests as are spon­
sored by the high schools, as a participant, shall
be ineligible for inter-school athletic competition
for one year following his last appearance.
This
rule shall apply only from that time a boy begins
his high school course.
Participation while out of
school is to count the same as while in school.^
A boy who has been previously disqualified will
be automatically reinstated after he has been in­
eligible for one year.5
^ Ibid ., p . 5 •
^ Ibid ., p . 6.
5
L o c .c i t .
103
Any boy playing on any team other than his own
school team during the school season of the same
sport shall be barred from further interscholastic
participation in that same sport for the same season.
(When a student appears in the team uniform and
sits on the bench with the team, he will be con­
sidered to have played on that team.)^
The Executive Committee will consider as the
season for football, September, October and November;
for basketball, December, January, and February; for
baseball and track, March, April and May. '
Arizona, in its infliction of penalties, follows the
general rule of fairness, no drastic suspensions being speci­
fied, and suspension for one year being the maximum.
Auto­
matic reinstatement follows the period of suspension.
Theropgh investigation usually precedes all cases of suspen­
sion, at which time the accused school is given opportunity
to present its case.
REGULATIONS REGARDING ELIGIBILITY
AND COMPETITION
Age Limit.
In order to represent his high school in
any interscholastic contest, a student must be under twenty
years of age, and must be enrolled in the ninth, tenth,
eleventh or twelfth grade.
Arizonafs association has followed the lead of many
other state organizations in lowering its age limit from
6 Ibid■. p. 5 .
7 Loc.cit.
104
twenty-one to twenty years.
This change was supported by
the majority of those connected with high school athletics,
in the hope that it would result in a more equitable com­
petition.
This is also in accordance with the recommendation
on the age limit made by the National Federation of State
High School Athletic Associations.
Scholarship.
In order to be eligible for competition,
each contestant must have and be maintaining for the current
semester a passing grade in each of three or more units of
major studies, from the beginning of the semester to the date
of certification.
(A unit of major study is to be interpreted
as a unit which counts toward graduation.)
A contestant is not eligible to represent his school
in any interscholastic contest unless he shall have completed
one and one-half units of regular high school work the last
semester he was in high school, exclusive of summer school
work.
The work must have been completed on the last day of
the semester.
In regard to scholastic requirements for participation
in athletics, Arizona*s regulations are the same as those in
most states.
The requirement of fifteen semester hours of
passing work in both the current and previous semesters is
general in practice.
Weekly certification of those students
before game participation is required by most member schools
of the association in Arizona.
Some schools make use of the
105
standard form for the checking of scholastic eligibility of
individual students by teachers.
As a whole, the scholastic
requirements upheld by the Arizona association are legitimate
and far from strenuous.
As in the majority of states, the association in
Arizona allows no make-up of deficiencies after the close
of the particular semester in which the deficiencies occur.
Residence.
No contestant is qualified to represent
any high school in interscholastic contests during a semester
unless he has been enrolled as a member of the school from
the first day of the fourth week of the semester in which the
event takes place.
In case of transfer, a student who has
been in attendance at a school prior to the fourth Monday is
eligible in the school to which he goes if his parents or
guardians move into the district.
This rule applies to
students coming in from outside the state as well as to
students living within the stateIn case a student is transferred from another school,
he becomes ineligible for any contest work for two successive
semesters unless his parents are residents of the district
to which he was transferred.
Attendance in classes of one
day or more constitutes enrollment.
If during the two
semesters the parents move out of the district to which he
was transferred, the student becomes ineligible.
If a transfer occurs during a semester and the parents
106
have not moved into the new district, the remainder of that
semester constitutes a semester’s attendance in the new
school provided the student has not competed during the
semester in which he transferred.
If the student did com­
pete in the school from which he transferred, he is not
eligible in the new school for two whole semesters exclusive
of the partial one in the new school.
If a student has transferred from another school and
claims eligibility because his parents have moved into the
district, the school officials are held responsible for cer­
tification of his eligibility.
School officials must ascertain
that the change of residence of the parents is bona fide.
The State Athletic Association of Arizona has followed
the lead set by most other state organizations in regard to
adopting rules which serve to eliminate the evils incurred
by transient students.
Many state associations have passed ’undue influence”
rulings, but in Arizona the organization has not considered
such a rule necessary.
The Executive Committee usually in­
vestigates cases in which there have been indications of
undue influence used to attract talented athletes t-o certain
communities.
On the whole, however, the rules of the state
or Arizona seem adequate in handling the transient problem.
Phvsical Examinations and Parental Consent.
The writ­
ten constitution of the Arizona Interscholastic Association
107
does not stipulate any requirement for physical examinations
or parental consent.
In this respect Arizona has failed to
follow the lead of progressive state associations.
A very
few member schools, however, set up their own requirements
in regard to these two items.
Eligibilitv Lists Required.
As in most states, eligi­
bility lists are provided for and required by the state
association of Arizona.
At least five days before any inter­
school contest, the principals of the contesting schools
exchange lists of students who are eligible to compete under
the rules.
The state association requires that each member
school send to the Secretary a copy of its eligibility list
for each sport.
These are due for football not later than
October fifteenth, for basketball not later than January
fifteenth, and for track and baseball not later than May
first.
Supplementary lists may be sent in later as additions
are made to the squad.
Any information contained on an eligibility list is
considered as correct, and any changes which may be submitted
later must be authorized by the Executive Committee.
School
officials are held responsible for the first information sent
out concerning any student.
The state association of Arizona furnishes member
schools with eligibility blanks.
The data on these lists
include the date of contest, the name of the schools exchanging
108
lists, an alphabetical list of names of the participants,
the birth record (including the month, day, year, county
and state), date of enrollment of the particular year, the
number of seasons of participation in the particular sport,
including the present season, the semesters in attendance,
the number of subjects carried successfully during the pre­
sent and previous semesters.
Spaces are provided for the signatures of the prin­
cipal and the manager of the particular sport, and a statement
that the students listed are eligible for competition under
the regulations of the association.
The eligibility lists required by the Arizona asso­
ciation contain all the essential" data found in the eligibility
lists of the large majority of other state associations.
The written constitution of Arizona's association
stipulates that any information contained on the eligibility
lists is considered correct and may not be changed without
the consent of the Executive Committee.
This provision p e r ­
tains mainly to birth certification, on which point there are
frequent requests for change of record.
Post Season Games, Length of Schedules, and Spring
Practice..
In respect to rules and regulations governing post
season games, the length of schedules and spring practice in
football, Arizona's association has not been as progressive
as many other state organizations.
The written constitution
109
of the association of Arizona contains no restriction in
regard to these items.
Many member schools, however, have set up regulations
of their own pertaining to post season games, length of
schedules, and spring practice.
Officials.
The interscholastic athletic association
of Arizona does not require the use of registered officials.
However, there is an Arizona officials 1 organization, and
some schools restrict the use of officials to qualified m e m ­
bers of this organization.
Athletic Benefit Plans.
Arizona's athletic association
makes no provision in its constitution and by-laws for bene­
fits for athletic injuries.
There are, however, a few
schools that have taken out athletic insurance policies with
private insurance agencies.
Miscellaneous Rulings.
In the constitution and by-laws
of the Arizona Interscholastic Association, as in the rules
and regulations of other state organizations, are provisions
that cannot be put into any particular groups or headings of
rules.
Therefore, they are treated as miscellaneous and
have no connection between one another.
The number of men on a track team in a state or dis­
trict meet is limited to fifteen plus a relay team.
Twelve boys may be entered in the state basketball
110
tournament, and may appear in uniform on the bench.
Only
twelve boys may compete on any team, and the first ten to
play constitute the team.
Football practice may not begin before September
first, except that if a school opens before September first
practice may begin on the opening date.
This does not
affect spring football practice.
SUMMARY
Regardless of the fact that Arizona is the youngest
state in the Union and one of the later states to adopt state
control of interscholastic athletics, there has been a rapid
growth and development of its state interscholastic athletic
association.
The Constitution and By-Laws of the Arizona Inter­
scholastic Association are printed in the form of a small
handbook, the latest edition being that of July 1937*
The
association, as a whole, follows the general pattern of other
state organizations as regards the administration and control
of athletics and the eligibility rules governing them.
The direction and government of the organization is
vested in an Executive Committee of five members and a perma­
nent Secretary.
The annual meeting of Arizona1s Association
is held at the time and place of the Arizona Education Asso­
ciation meeting.
Ill
Arizona uses the geographical method of districting,
which is used by most other state organizations.
Like most other state associations, Arizona’s organi­
zation provides for a method of classification based on the
school enrollment.
There are three classes, designated as
A, B and C.
A system of graduated membership fees is provided for
by the association, as in the majority of other state organi­
zations.
The income from the collection of membership dues
is limited and as a consequence the state association must
operate on an economy basis.
The only reference made to any penalty for non-payment
of dues is that a school will no longer be considered in good
standing if it fails to pay its membership dues by November
first.
Arizona, in its infliction of penalties, follows the
general rule of fairness, no drastic suspensions being
specified, and one year's suspension being the limit.
Auto­
matic reinstatement follows the period of suspension.
The interscholastic association of Arizona has fol­
lowed the lead of many other state organizations in lowering
its age limit from twenty-one to twenty y e a r s .
In regard to scholastic requirements for participation
in athletics, Arizona's association stipulates in its con­
stitution and by-laws that each contestant must have and be
maintaining for the current semester a passing grade in each
112
of three or more units of major studies (a study that counts
toward graduation).
No pupil is eligible to participate in
interscholastic contests unless he shall have one and onehalf units of regular high school work the last semester he
was in high school, exclusive of summer school work.
No
deficiencies may be made up after the close of the particular
semester in which the deficiencies occur.
Arizonafs provision in regard to residence is as
follows :
No student is qualified to represent any high
school in inter-school contests during a semester unless he
shall have been enrolled as a member of the school from the
first day of the fourth week of the semester in which the
event takes place.
In case a student is transferred from
another school, he is not eligible for participation in ath­
letic contests for two successive semesters, unless his
parents are residents of the district to which he transferred.
The written constitution of the Arizona Interscholastic
Association does not provide for a physical examination for
all students participating in athletic contests, nor is there
any provision for the requirement of parental consent.
In
this respect Arizona1s organization has failed to follow the
lead of progressive state associations.
The Arizona association provides for and requires an
exchange of eligibility lists, as do most other state organi­
zations.
The list must be sent to the Executive Secretary as
well as to all scheduled schools.
113
The written'constitution of the association of Arizona
contains no restrictions in regard to
post season games,
the length of schedules, and spring practice in football, as
do the constitutions of many other progressive states.
Arizona!s association does not require the use of
registered officials, nor is any provision made for a bene­
fit plan to take care of athletic injuries.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY
In the foregoing chapters an effort has been made to
give the results of an investigation of the rules and regu­
lations governing interscholastic athletic competition as
provided by the state high school interscholastic athletic
associations in the United States, in order to answer the
following questions:
1.
To what extent do the rules and regulations of
the interscholastic athletic association of Arizona differ
from those of the athletic associations of other states?
2.
To what extent are the rules and regulations of
Arizona’s interscholastic athletic association similar to
those of other states?
. In what respects do the rules and regulations of
the interscholastic athletic association of Arizona need
changing?
Many state associations have been created without
benefit of precedents established in similar associations,
resulting In the necessity of change and even entire revision
of their methods of operation in order to take care of the
rapid increase in number and complexities of interscholastic
contests.
Inasmuch as Arizona is the youngest state in the
115
Union and consequently one of the later states to adopt the
state control of interscholastic athletics, it seems important
that the association officials of Arizona profit by the valu­
able experiences of the other states in the Union.
It is,
therefore, hoped that the material found in this study may
be of assistance to any groups of high school executives
engaged in making revisions of the rules and regulations now
functioning in the present organization.
The chief weakness of this study lies in the fact that
the investigator was unable to make an up-to-date study of
the problem, being limited to the analysis of the written
constitutions of the state interscholastic athletic associa­
tions, many of which undoubtedly fail to include the most
recent revisions.
A study was made of the administration of interschol­
astic athletics, regarding written constitutions, state
organizations, district organizations, classification of
schools, dues, penalties for various violations, and functions
of the National Federation of State High School Athletic
Assoc iations.
The administration and control of high school inter­
scholastic athletics are in the hands of the state associations
in all but two of the forty-eight states.
The written constitutions and by-laws of forty-six
state interscholastic athletic associations definitely provide
116
for both state executive organization and district organiza­
tion.
They also make provision for the classification of
their member schools, usually on the basis of school enroll­
ment .
Finances for interscholastic athletics administration
have become of increasing importance in recent years; there­
fore, membership dues are designated, both in the form of
annual uniform membership dues and graduated fees based on
enrollment, with minimum and maximum amounts stipulated.
The athletic associations of all states stipulate
legitimate and definite penalties for violations of their
rules and regulations; although the penalties are not drastic,
the associations in this way maintain the high standards for
which they stand.
At the present time thirty-five state high school
athletic associations are members of the National Federation
of High School Athletic Associations, which represents the
largest body of organized athletics in the world.
A study is made of the regulations regarding age limit,
scholarship, residence, physical examination and parental con­
sent, eligibility lists, post season games, schedules, spring
practice, officials, athletic benefit plans, and miscellaneous
rules.
The National Federation in its written constitution
includes a list of minimum and maximum eligibility require­
ments recommended for use by member schools, but not required
117
for membership.
In regard to age, there is a noticeable trend toward
reducing the age limit for athletic participation, since the
majority of state athletic associations have set this limit
at twenty yea rs.
A few states have gone so far as to set
the age limit at nineteen years, while one state has .reduced
the age limit for participation in athletic contests to
eighteen.
Since the rules of scholarship are fundamental and
the school is, first of all, an institution of learning, it
is not difficult to see why most state associations have set
up scholastic requirements for participation in athletic con­
tests .
Of the forty-six state constitutions studied, all
but two stipulated that definite scholastic requirements be
met before participation in athletics was allowed.
The great
majority of the state organizations required the satisfactory
carrying of fifteen hours of class work a week and the com­
pletion of fifteen hours the previous semester.
Most state
associations do not permit a make-up of deficiencies of the
previous semester.
Provisions are made by some organizations,
however, for the making up of deficiencies of the previous
semester, usually with specified reservations.
Because of the increased transiency of students in
recent years, all of the state athletic associations have
found it necessary to provide rules and regulations to govern
118
transfer students.
The general practice of these associa­
tions is to require attendance for two semesters before
permitting a transfer student whose parents do not move with
him to participate in athletic contests, while if his parents
move with him there is no attendance requirement.
Only thirty of the state interscholastic athletic
associations require a physical examination of all students
before allowing participation in athletics, and only four­
teen state organizations require parental consent before
permitting competition.
As a general practice, the state associations require
member schools to issue eligibility lists, usually in dupli­
cate or triplicate form, to be sent to the State Executive
Secretary and to scheduled schools.
Only a few state associations definitely stipulate
in their written constitutions and by-laws any requirements
in regard to post season games, the regulation of schedules,
and spring practice in football.
There seems to be, however,
a growing sentiment in favor of definite limitations for the
beginning and ending of each major sport season, -limiting
the number of games in the schedule and outlawing post
season games.
An attempt has been made to compare Arizona!s associa­
tion rules and regulations with those of the other state
organizations.
119
In view of the fact that Arizona is the youngest
state in the Union and consequently one of the later states
to adopt a state interscholastic athletic association, rapid
progress has been made in regard to rules and regulations
governing interscholastic contests.
Obstacles such as geo­
graphical conditions and lack of finances have greatly
handicapped this organization.
The constitution and by-laws of the association in
Arizona, as in most other states, are printed in the form of
a small handbook.
Most of the state associations, however,
have edited and revised their handbooks more recently than
Arizona.
This, however, is due to the fact that Arizona*s
finances are limited.
As regards the administration of inter­
scholastic athletics, the association of Arizona compares
very favorably with the majority of state organizations.
The
written constitution vests the government of the state organi­
zation in an Executive Committee of five members and a Perma­
nent Secretary.
The five districts of this state are deter­
mined on a geographical basis.
The classification of member
schools into three classes (A, B and C) is on a basis of
school enrollment.
The system of graduated fees is employed by the
Arizona Interscholastic Association, the membership dues
ranging from seven dollars and fifty cents a year for smaller
school to twenty-five dollars a year for larger schools.
The
120
income from the collection of these dues is limited and
prompts a program of economy in the state organization.
There are no drastic penalties for the violation of
rules.
The limit of suspension is one year and automatic
reinstatement is granted.
The age limit for participation
in athletic contests in Arizona is twenty years.
The
scholastic requirements in Arizona are the same as those
of most other states; however, in this state no privilege
is granted for making up deficiencies of the previous semes­
ter.
The usual regulations governing transfer students are
provided for in the Arizona constitution and by-laws.
The
Arizona association does not require a physical examination
or parental consent.
This association requires an official
filing of eligibility lists with the Executive Secretary and
scheduled schools.
There are no stipulations in the written
constitution of Arizona concerning post season games, length
of schedules, spring practice in football, or the required
use of registered officials.
Arizona’s association has also
failed to adopt an athletic benefit plan.
CONCLUSIONS
After making a study of the rules and regulations
governing interscholastic contests in the forty-eight states
of the Union, it may be reasonable to conclude that the fol­
lowing facts are evident.
121
1.
The majority of the state high school interschol­
astic athletic associations have well-formulated and unified
plans of state organization, and the control thereof rests
largely in the hands of the high school executives.
They
not only make the rules and regulations but supervise their
execution.
2.
The state of Michigan has an organization func­
tioning under the school code of the state with the State
Superintendent of Public Instruction as its official head.
In practice, however, the legislative, executive and judicial
functions are vested in a Board of Control, consisting of
high school executives and elected by member schools of the
association.
It seems that this organization has an advan­
tage over those of many other states in that it is financed
from the regular school funds of the state.
. The Indiana association seems to have the best
budget plan in its handbook.
4.
The rules and regulations governing eligibility
and competition in the various state associations are funda­
mentally uniform, differing only in minor details.
5.
Most of the state associations have added further
protection to the students 1 health and physical welfare by
lowering the age limit for participation.
6.
Not all of the state organizations have seen fit
to require physical examination and parental consent before
122
allowing participation in athletics.
Since health is a
prime objective of physical activity, it seems to the investigator that the first eligibility rule which scholastic
athletic associations should properly enforce is the presenta­
tion of a medical certificate of physical competence by each
player before he may participate in athletic contests.
It
may be assumed, however, that even though the state associa-.
tions do not definitely require such an examination, the
school authorities of member schools make such requirements
of their own initiative.
7*
There is apparently a national trend toward the
restriction of
practice.
post season games, long schedules, and spring
These actions seem to be in line with the policy
of keeping each sport in its proper place in the school pro­
gram.
8.
The National Federation of Interscholastic High
School Athletic Associations has a decidedly constructive
influence on the practices adhered to by the state inter­
scholastic associations.
9.
The Arizona Interscholastic Association compares
v e r y 'favorably with the other state associations, as evidenced
by the fact that in all respects
but two the rules and regu­
lations of Arizona's association are similar to those of the
majority of the other state organizations.
It is similar to
others in its organization, the method used for classifica­
tion, the plan of assessing dues, the imposing of penalties
123
for rule violations, the setting of age limits, the scholas­
tic requirements, the regulation of transfer students, the
absence of requirement for .parental consent, the requirement
of eligibility lists, the lack of restrictions regarding
post season games, long schedules, and spring practices, and
the membership in the National Federation of State High
School Athletic Associations.
Arizona's association differs from those of the
majority of other states in that the official handbook con­
taining the constitution and by-laws is not edited annually
or at any time specifically determined, nor does it contain as
much information as the handbooks of other state organiza­
tions.
Last, but not least in importance, is Arizona's
failure to require a physical examination of all students
before allowing them to participate in athletics.
RECOMMENDATIONS
In view of the facts disclosed by this study, the
investigator wishes to make the following recommendations for
the improvement of the Arizona Interscholastic Association:
1.
That the membership fees be increased or money
appropriated by the state for educational purposes be made
available, so as 1to permit a greater amount of service to the
member schools,' such as the annual printing of the handbook,
the issuing of an association bulletin, and providing an
increased salary for the Permanent Secretary.
124
2.
That the by-laws in the handbook be re-arranged
under specific headings and a table of contents be included.
3.
That an executive committee be created for each
district, whose duties would include the interpretation of
rules and the making of decisions on rule violations and
protests, in order to eliminate the expense of the State
Executive Committee traveling to meetings to rule on such
quest ions.
4.
That a physical examination be required of each
student before permitting participation in each sport.
5*
That post season games and spring practice be
abolished.
6.
That football schedules be limited to eight games
and basketball schedules be limited to eighteen games, ex­
clusive of tournament ga m e s .
7.
That a plan for the registration and training of
officials be initiated and registered officials be required.
8.
That a study be made of the possibilities of
initiating a benefit plan for athletic injuries.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
Almack, John C., Research and Thesis Writing.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.
3°3 P P •
Boston:
Crawford, Claude C., The Technique of Research in Education.
Los Angeles, California: University of Southern California, 1928 . 320 pp.
Good, Carter V., A. S. Barr and Douglas E. Gates, The
Methodology of Educational Research. New York:
D. Appleton-Century Company Inc., 1936.
865 pp.
Reeder, Ward G . , How to Write a The sis. Bloomington, Illinois
Public School Publishing Company, 1925*
216 pp.
Rogers, Frederick Rand, The Future of Interscholastic A t h ­
letics . New York: Teachers College, Columbia University,
1929 . 128 pp.
Wagenhorst, Lewis Hoch, The Administrat ion and Cost of High
School Interscholastic Athletics. New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1926. 112 pp.
Williams, Jesse Feiring and Clifford Lee Brownell, Health and
Physical Education. New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1931*
161 pp.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Davis, B. W., "Athletics in North Carolina High Schools,"
The High School Journal, 19^92-3, March, 1936.
Everts, E. W., "Are High School Athletics Overdone?"
of Educat ion. 110:235“237* September 30, 1929* '
Journal
Frederick, Orie I., and P. Roy Brammell, "The National Survey
of Secondary Education," The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 4:3 -6 , September, 1933* '
Geiges, Ellwood A., "Modification of Rules in Athletics for
Secondary Schools," Mind and B o d y , 41:100-4, September,
1934.
Giauque, C. D., "Shall Control of Athletic Sports be Placed
in Pupils* Hands?" The Nat ion*s Schools t 13:17~20,
April, 193^ •
Hair, Jesse William, "Comparison of the Rules and Regulations
of State High School Athletic Associations of the United
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fornia, " California Journal of Secondary Education,
15:89-91, February, 1940.
Jenne, Eldon I., "Athletics Up to Date," The Journal of Health
and Physical Blueat ion, 10:148, March, 1939*
LaPorte, W. R.. "The Changing Conception of College Physical
Education, 1 The Research Quarterly of the American Physical Education Association, 2:1-8, March, 1931Moehlman, Arthur B., "What is Ahead for Interscholastic
Athletics?" The Nat ion *s Schools, 5*92, February, 1930*
Rogers, Frederick Rand, "The Doctrine of Equality," American
Physical Education Association Publication, Supplement
to the Research Quarterly, March, 1933*
Thomas, E. A., "Functions of a State High School Athletic
Association," Journal of Health and Physical Education,
5:16-17, November, 193^Trester, Arthur L., "The Function of the Indiana High School
Athletic Association in the Extra-Curriculum Activities
of Indiana High Schools," Teachers * College Journal,
5:111-13, September, 1933Wagenhorst, L. H . , "Are Athletics Overdone?" Journal of
Education, 110:236, September, 1929*
Whitten, C. W., "The National Federation of State High School
Athletic Associations," The Journal of Health and Physi­
cal Education, 4:6-7, May, 1933C.
UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS
Beam, LeRoy Wesley, "a Survey of State Organizations for the
Supervision and Control of Secondary School Interscholas­
tic Athletic Contests." Unpublished Master's Thesis, The
University of Southern.California, Los Angeles, 1936.
127
D.
PAMPHLETS
HANDBOOKS OP THE STATES
National Federation of State High School Athletic Associa­
tions Constitution, By-Laws, Activities Policies,
C. W. Whitten, Secretary-Treasurer, 11 South LaSalle
Street, Chicago, Illinois, 1959“40.
Alabama: Handbook, Division of Health, Physical Education
and Recreation.
Montgomery,. Alabama: State Department
of Education, 1940-41.
Arizona: Constitution and By-Laws, the Arizona Interscholastic Association.
Principal E. A. Rowe, Secretary,
Treasurer, Tempe High School, Tempe, Arizona,' July, 1957*
Arkansas: Official Handbook, Arkansas Athletic Association
and Arkansas Inter-School Contest Association. L. M.
Goza, President, Arkadelphia, Arkansas, January 1, 1959*
California:
California Interscholastic Federation, Consti­
tution and General Rulings.
A. B. Ingham, SecretaryTreasurer, Pacific Grove, California, 1956.
Colorado:
Colorado High School Athletic Conference, Con­
stitution and By-Laws^ R. W. Truscott, Commissioner,
Loveland, Colorado, 1955*
Connecticut: The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Con­
ference, Constitution and By-Laws Including Eligibility
Rules. Principal Walter B. Spencer, Executive Secretary,
Commercial High School, New Haven, Connecticut, 1957*
Delaware:
State Department of Public Instruction, Eligibility
Rules for Interscholastic Athletics.
George W. Ayars,
State Director of Health and Physical Education, Depart­
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By-Laws, Literary and Athletic Events. Bulletin of the
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128
Idaho: Constitution and By-Laws, Idaho High School Athletic
Association. E. F. Grider, Executive-Secretary, 551
Sonna Building, Boise, Idaho, January 1, 1959*
Illinois: Handbook, Illinois High School Association.
C. H. Whitten, Manager, 11 South LaSalle Street, Chicago,
Illinois, 1941.
Indiana: The Indiana High School Athletic Association,
Thirty-Seventh Annual Handbook.
Arthur L. Trester, Com­
missioner, 812 Circle Tower, Indianapolis, Indiana, 1940.
Iowa:
Iowa High School Athletic Association, Constitution,
Rules and Regulations. George A. Brown, Executive
Secretary, 915 Valley Bank Building, DesMoines, Iowa, 1940.
Kansas: The Kansas State High School Activities Association
Rules and By-Laws.
E. A. Thomas, Commissioner, 204
National Reserve Building, Topeka, Kansas, 1941.
Kentucky: Kentucky High School Athletic Association, Consti­
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Secretary-Treasurer, Carrollton, Kentucky, 1940-41.
Louisiana: Louisiana High School Athletic Association,
Approved Rulings Governing High School Athletics in
Louisiana.
Grover C. Koffman, Secretary-Treasurer, Byrd
High School, Shreveport, Louisiana, January 14, 1939•
i
Maine: Maine Association of Principals of Secondary Schools,
Constitution and Eligibility Rules.
Harrison C. Lyseth,
Secretary-Treasurer, State Department of Education,
Augusta, Maine, January, 1958*
Maryland: The State of Maryland Department of Education,
Approved Soccer and Field Ball Rules.
Thomas C. Ferguson,
State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation,
111 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Maryland, 1940.
Massachusetts: Massachusetts High School Athletic Association,
Constitution and Rules of Eligibility. Wm. D. Sprague,
Secretary-Treasurer, Melrose High School, Melrose,
Massachusetts, April, 1959 —
Michigan: Handbook, The Michigan High School Athletic Asso­
ciation. Lansing, Michigan: The Superintendent of Public
Instruction, July, 1940.
Minnesota: -Eighteenth Annual Official Handbook, Minnesota
State High School League.
0. E. Smith, Executive-Secretary,
Anoka, Minnesota, 1940.
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Mississippi: Handbook, Mississippi High School Literary
and Athletic Association of the Mississippi Education
Association. W. B. Kenna, Secretary-Treasurer, Lexington,
Mississippi, 1940-41.
Missouri: Twelfth Annual Official Handbook, Missouri State
High School Athletic Association.
Carl Burris, Box C,
Clayton, Missouri, August, 1940.
Montana: Constitution and By-Laws, Montana High School Asso­
ciation. R. H. Wollin, Executive-Secretary, Miles City,
Montana, -November, 1939•
Nebraska: The Nebraska High School Activities Association,
Sixth Annual Year Book,
0. L. Webb, Secretary, Lincoln
Hotel, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1940.
Nevada: The Interscholastic League of Nevada, Constitution
and By-Laws. George E. McCracken, Secretary-Treasurer,
Fallon, Nevada, 1938-40.
New Hampshire: The New Hampshire Head Masters 1 Association,
Rules Governing Eligibility of Players and Control of
Athletic Contests.
Clarence C. Sanborn, SecretaryTreasurer, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1928.
New Jersey: New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Asso­
ciation, Constitution, Handbook and By-Laws. Walter E.
Short, Secretary, Treasurer, 123 Hanover Street, Trenton,
New Jersey, 1940.
New Mexico: Handbook, New Mexico High School Athletic Asso­
ciation. Charles E. Emery, Secretary-Treasurer, Gallup,
New Mexico, 1941.
New York:
New York State Public High School Athletic Asso­
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F. R. Wegner, Secretary-Treasurer, Roslyn Heights, New
York, 1941.
North Dakota:
Constitution and By-Laws, The North Dakota
High School League.
L. A. White, Secretary-Treasurer,
Minot, North Dakota, 1938.
Ohio: Ohio High School Athletic Association, Constitution
and Rules. H. W. Townsend, Commissioner, Fort Hayes
Hotel, Columbus, Ohio, 1940-41.
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Anderson, Secretary-Treasurer, 31k Key Building, Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma, 1940-41.
Oregon:
Constitution of the Oregon High School Athletic
Association with Rules and Their Interpretation. Troy
D. Walker, Executive-Secretary, 6 02 Studio Building,
Portland, Oregon, January 1 , 1940.
Pennsylvania:
Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association
Constitution and By-Laws.
Edmund Wicht, Secretary, 212
Worth Third Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, January 1,
1940.
Rhode Island:, Constitution and Eligibility Rules, Rhode Island
Secondary School Principals* Association.
C. Herbert
Taylor, Chairman of Committee on Athletics, Cranston,
Rhode Island, 1939*
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Governing Contests and Constitution.
C. M. Lockwood,
Secretary-Treasurer, Columbia, South Carolina, 1940-41.
South Dakota: South Dakota High School Athletic Association,
Rules and Regulations.
R. M. Walseth, Executive Secretary,
Pierre, South Dakota, July 1 , 1940.
Tennessee: Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association,
Constitution and By-Laws, Membership.
P. S. Elliot,
Secretary-Treasurer, Whitehaven, Tennessee, August, 1940.
Texas: Constitution and Rules, The University Interscholastic
League. University of Texas Bulletin Wo. 3^24, Austin,
Texas, University of Texas, 1940-41.
Utah:
Constitution and By-Laws, Utah High School Athletic
Association. D. R. Mitchel, Secretary-Treasurer, Lehi,
Utah, 1940.
Vermont: Constitution, By-Laws and Eligibility Rules, Head­
masters* Club of Vermont.
Robert W. Millet, SecretaryTreasurer, Springfield, Vermont, 1940-4 1 .
Virginia: The Virginia High School Literary and Athletic
League, Rules and Regulations. University of Virginia
Extension Series, Vol. XVIII, Wo. 1, September 1, 1940.
131
Washington: Washington High School Athletic Association,
Constitution and By-Laws:
Principal J. D. Meyers,
Secretary-Treasurer, John R. Rogers High School, Spokane,
Washington, 1939~^0*
West Virginia: West Virginia High School Athletic Associa­
tion, Constitution and By-laws.
I. E. Ewing, SecretaryTreasurer, Wheeling High School, Wheeling, West Virginia,
1937Wisconsin: Seventeenth Year Book, Wisconsin Interscholastic
Athletic Association, P. P. Neverman, Secretary, Marinette,
Wisconsin, 19^ 0 .
Wyoming: Wyoming High School Athletic Association Official
Handbook, Constitution and By-Laws. E. M. Thompson,
Executive-Secretary, Rock Springs, Wyoming, November,
1936.
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