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Слайд 1 - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

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Subject: Problems
in Supplying Energy and Ways of
Developing Renewable Energy in Tajikistan
Kurbondzhon Kabutov
Center for Research and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources
(Ц��В�Э)
Part of the Physics-Technical Institute of S.U. Umarova
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan
International Seminar:
В«Renewable Energy in Central Asia: Enhancing Food
Security and Improving Social and Economic Conditions
in Remote LocationsВ»
10-12 November 2008 , Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Contents of Presentation
• The presentation includes an analysis of energy resources
(both renewable and nonrenewable), and the possibilities
and prospects for using renewable energy sources.
• Experiences in research and utilization of renewable energy
sources in Tajikistan (installation and devices that use
renewable energy sources).
• Strategy and Priority- the direction of policy towards
renewable energy use in the Republic of Tajikistan.
• To state the principal objectives of the government program
“On approval of a comprehensive program to target the
widespread use of renewable energy sources, such as the
energy of small-rivers, solar, wind, biomass, and
underground sources for 2007-2015”
• Conclusion and Recommendations
Traditional Energy Sources of
Tajikistan
Fuel Resources
• Coal. Predicted coal reserves in Tajikistan are estimated to be 4-5
billion tonnes, and industrial and prospective reserves for coal
deposits are 1 billion tonnes. It is necessary to use the latest
extraction and raw material processing technology in order to avoid
harming the local ecology.
• Oil and Gas. Of the energy resources of Tajikistan, oil and gas
makes up around 3%. Assumed depths of deposits of productive oil
beds are 6000 meters or more.
Hydro resources:
• Potential resources of Tajikistan make up more
than 500 billion kWh, currently 5% is realized.
Tajikistan’s Energy Resources
Energy Resources
mill. t.f.e. (tonnes
of fuel equivalent)
• Oil 37.0
• Gas
15
• Hydro 64.7 (per year)
• Coal 867.3
• Renewable Energy
Sources - ???
Map of Tajikistan’s power supply
system
• ГЭС=
hydroelectric
station
• ТЭЦ=
thermal
power plant
Problems with supplying energy and
ecology
Problems.
• A critical shortage of organic fuel, difficulty in delivering it
to the mountainous regions of Tajikistan, continuous
increase in price for electric power, and lack of electric
power in many places that are far from main power lines,
all force inhabitants of mountainous regions to use wood
for fuel. This causes the destruction of otherwise scant
woodland, whose area has already decreased 5-10
times, and in certain parts of the wooded areas have
completely disappeared. The stripping of mountainous
slopes leads to an increase in mudslides, soil washing
away on slopes, and as a concluding consequence
desertification, essentially causing a double greenhouse
effect.
Renewable Energy Source Potential (1)
1. Potential for small hydropower
• The potential of small and mid-size rivers of the Tajik
Republic is greater than 30 million kW and their annual
electricity output is about 100 billion kWh per year.
• On the inflow of the river, in the mountainous region of
the Republic, it is technically possible and economically
appropriate to build more than 1000 small hydropower
stations with a power capacity ranging from 10 to 3000
kW.
• The technical assessments and cost estimates for 14
prospective small hydropower stations show that their
average annual output can be 348 million kWh with a
total capital investment of $44 million.
Renewable Energy Source Potential (2)
2. Solar Energy
• The average total length of sunlight per year is 25003000 hours. The places that see a minimum amount of
sunlight are- the mountain station of Dekhavz (2097
hours) located in the upper reaches of the Zarafshan
River at a height of 2500 meters and on the Fedchenko
Glacier that has a height of 4169 meters and gets 2217
hours. The maximum length of sunlight (more than 3000
hours) is found in the southern part of the Republic
(meteorological station Pyanj- 3029 hours), and also in
Eastern Pamir (meteorological station Karakul’- 3166
hours).
Renewable Energy Source Potential (3)
2. Solar Energy
• The total solar radiation on a clear day reaches
7500-8000 РњJ/ sq. m.
• Assessments show that solar energy can meet
60-80% of the needs of the country’s population
for 10 months of a year. Converting this to its
fuel equivalency brings this number to equal
about 400,000 tonnes of fuel equivalent, which
would equal 460 million cubic meters of gas or
528,000 tonnes of fuel oil.
Renewable Energy Source Potential (4)
Wind Energy
• The strongest winds are in the highland areas with open
forms of reliefs (Fedchenko Glacier, Anzobskiy Pass,
and others) and in those areas where orographic factors
have served conducive to increased pressure gradients
(Khudzhand, Fayzabad, Shuroobod).
• The average annual wind speed in these areas reaches
5-6 meters/second. In open plains and in wide valleys,
wind speeds are somewhat slower- 3-4 meters/second.
• In closed basins and in lowlands in the southern regions
wind speeds do not exceed 1-2 meters/second.
Renewable Energy Source Potential (5)
Biomass
• From the total amount of biomass available only 0.5% is
consumed by humans in the form of food.
• The use of biofuel in the form of firewood, manure, and
leafy tops of rooted vegetables are of paramount
importance to about 50% of domestic households
around the planet, supplying energy from these sources
and creating in total around 300 GW.
• Biogas generator (methane tank) with a volume of 2 – 3
РјВі that uses about 8 kg of manure daily (from four cows)
makes up to 2 РјВі of biogas per day. This is equivalent to
a continuous output of 300 W of thermal energy.
Appraisal of renewable energy sources and
possibilities for their use
•
•
•
•
•
Small rivers
Solar
Biomass
Wind
Geothermal
Sources
Laboratories and experience for researching
and using renewable energy sources in
Tajikistan (1)
• Since 1980 in the laboratory of the Solar Radiation
Engineering department of the Physics-Technical Institute
of S. U. Umarova Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
Tajikistan, there has been ongoing scientific research and
experimental designs for creating cells and devices that
use solar energy.
• From 01.01.2008 the laboratory was converted
into the “Center for Research and Use of
Renewable Energy Sources” as a part of the
Physics-Technical Institute of S.U. Umarova
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Experience in researching and using
renewable energy sources in Tajikistan
(2)
• There have been technological developments for
producing solar water heaters that can make from 0.1 to
1 tonne of hot water (50-70 degrees Celsius) in the
course of one daylight day. Production with a 1 sq. meter
solar collector per unit is 80 to 100 liters of hot water
Some samples of these devices have been created and
tested.
• Developed and produced solar kitchens, created to
prepare food using solar energy. The product allows a
family to prepare food twice a day. The temperature
inside the device is 100-130 degrees Celsius.
• There is currently ongoing research on solar panels that
are used for converting solar radiation into electricity.
Experience in researching and using
renewable energy sources in Tajikistan
(3)
Devices for using renewable energy sources
• Water heaters on testing sites (Dushnabe)
• Water heater on federal radioactive waste storage site
(Faizabad)
• Water heater with an aluminum collector
• Diagram and construction of aluminum collector
• Solar kitchen: Photo and diagram
• Windmills: on a testing site that is on a mountain
(Siyakukh)
• Photovoltaic cells and solar photovoltaic stations
• Biogas installations
Water Heater
• Water heater
150 liters
Aluminum collector
Water Heater
• Solar bath
that holds РЅР°
300 liters
• Steel
collector that
is made in
Bratsk,
Russia
(testing site)
Water Heater
• Solar water
heater with two
panels that
holds 500 liters
• Steel collector
that is produced
in Bratsk,
Russia
(testing site)
Water Heater
Solar water heater for
350 liters (federal
radioactive waste
storage site,
Faizabad)
Water Heater
• Solar water heater
for 30 liters
• Aluminum collector
(demonstrational)
Water Heaters
• Solar water heater
with two panels.
Tank holds 120 liters
• Is placed on top of a
cafeteria of the
Presidium Academy
of Sciences of the
Republic of
Tajikistan
Solar Kitchen
• Students prepare
food in a solar
kitchen.
• Effective volume is
6 liters.
• In the background
is the solar
photovoltaic panel.
• 1992
Solar Kitchen
• Diagram
Solar kitchen for 6
liters.
(2 soldier’s pots
are shown in the
inside drawer)
Temperature =
130 degrees
Celsius
1992
Solar Kitchen
• Solar Kitchen
with an
effective
volume of 3
liters.
• Temperature =
120 degrees
Celsius
Solar Kitchen
• Same
one
Solar Kitchen
• Same
one
Solar Kitchen
• Solar kitchen with
a flat concentrator
and polyethylene
walls.
• Temperature = 100
degrees Celsius
Solar Kitchen
• Diagram, project
Photovoltaic Cells and Solar Power
Stations
• Photovoltaic
cells (in its
casing)
• Si & GaAs
Photovoltaic Cells and Solar Power
Stations
• Photovoltaic cells
with a concentrator
(Fresnel Lens)
Photovoltaic Cells and Solar Power
Stations
• Solar module
(130 W
Monocrystalline
silicon)
Photovoltaic Cells and Solar Power
Stations
Diagram (experimental device)
Module
Reflector
N
S
(b)
Fig 8 Three Cornered Prismatic Stand
Wind Energy
• symbol
Windmills
• Windmill 4 kW.
testing site
Siyakukh (height of
2500 Рј)
Biogas
• A family’s 5
tonne biogas
plant
(Vakhdat
region)
At the bottom is the
generator.
Electrical Energy
for 500 W which
works to produce
biogas.
Micro
Hydropower
station
• Portable micro
hydropower
station
150 W
Weighs 25 kg
Experience in researching and using
renewable energy sources in Tajikistan
(4)
International Cooperation
• In partnership with the Academy of Sciences of
the Republic of Tajikistan, the representatives of
the European Commission in Tajikistan, obtained
and installed in varying locations of Dushanbe
and Kurgan Tube several solar water heaters
that are meant to produce hot water as well as
several solar photovoltaic modules for receiving
electricity. This was done as part of the “Use of
Solar Energy in Tajikistan” project.
Strategy and Priority- the direction
of policy towards renewable energy
use in the Republic of Tajikistan.
• The government of the Republic of Tajikistan, February 2, 2007, no. 41,
approved, “Comprehensive program to target the widespread use
of renewable energy sources, such as the energy of smallrivers, solar, wind, biomass, and underground sources for 20072015.”
• Executing Program: Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan,
institution of higher learning, Ministry of Energy and Industry of the Republic
of Tajikistan, Ministry of Agriculture, and Committee on Environmental
Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan.
• Stages and the deadlines for realizing the Program: 20072015
• stage 1 – 2007-2009;
• stage 2 – 2010-2012;
• stage 3 – 2013-2015.
Realizing the PROGRAM (1)
Goals and Objectives of the PROGRAM:
• Creation, developing, and widely using
prospective technology for producing electrical
and thermal energy that comes from renewable
energy sources.
• Implantation of modern technology that uses
renewable energy sources into the country’s
energy balance.
• To train engineers and highly-skilled specialists in
the field of renewable energy sources.
Realizing the PROGRAM (2)
Creating Infrastructure
• For successful realization of the PROGRAM it is
necessary:
- to organize a design bureau for developing, producing, and
distributing components and renewable energy sources
devices;
- to create a construction and assembly
organization;
- to create a Scientific and manufacturing
department.
Realizing the PROGRAM (3)
Legislative Base
• In the Republic of Tajikistan it is necessary to adopt the
law “On Alternative Sources of Energy,” which together
with the current Program will form the necessary
normative-legal, economic, and organizational
foundation for widespread use of renewable energy.
• It is necessary to offer incentives to both consumers and
producers of renewable energy.
• Should permit imports on preferential terms of equipment
and the corresponding components that are needed for
renewable energy use.
• Should make favorable conditions for the creation of joint
ventures for progressive production technology,
producing modern cells and solar energy plants as well
as other forms of renewable energy.
Preparation of Specialists
Preparation of engineers and highly-skilled specialists in the field of renewable
energy.
•
Physics-Technical Institute of S.U. Umarova Academy of Sciences of
the Republic of Tajikistan
1. Post-graduate, Internships.
2. Seminars and training on renewable energy with the Tajik general
population and students.
(with support and participation of the Aga Khana Fund (University of Central
Asia),
NGO “Radi Zemli” (Timur Idrisov), “Molodezhnyi EkoTsentr” (Yuriy Skochilov),
Fund to support inistiatives, “Dastgiri” (Muazama Burkhanova), and others.
Technical University of Tajikistan- Academy of M. Osimi
1. Students in the Energy Department are taking courses on renewable energy.
2. Through a European Union project, laboratories for researching renewable
energy sources are available and an educational program has been
developed that aims to train Master degree holders and engineers.
Conclusions and Recommendations (1)
• 1. Tajikistan has an immense reserve of
energy resources. At the same time, it is
impermissible to have a careless attitude
towards them and to use these gifts of nature
in a wasteful manner.
• 2. The long-term politics of the supply of energy
to the country must include a maximum and
rational use of all forms of energy resources,
while also making sure to consider using high
performance technology to convert energy,
supply energy, conserve energy, and protect the
surrounding habitat.
Conclusions and Recommendations (2)
• 3. It is necessary to efficiently provide energy to the
country’s population. Renewable energy sources present
in the regions should be used first.
• 4. At the same time, there exists a number of problems
with the wide-spread expansion of renewable energy. In
order to overcome these challenges the government and
the international organizations assisting in the
introduction of alternative sources of energy, must
increase efforts to transfer modern technology as well as
provide financial and legal support.
• 5. This will enable not only to preserve the ecology of a
mountainous country, but it will also improve the living
conditions of the population and decrease the level of
poverty.
Literature
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1. Гидроэнергетические ресурсы Таджикской ССР. Лениенград (С-П), Недра. -1965.
2. Мухабатов Х.М., Природно-ресурсный потенциал горных регионов Таджикистана, Москва,
Граница, 1999, -335с
3. Твайделл Дж., Уэйр А. Возобновляемые источники энергии. -Москва, Энергоатомиздат,
1990.
4. Кабутов К., Каримов Х.С., Каримов У.Х., Ахмедов Х.М. Возможности использования
экологически чистых видов энергии в Таджикистане. Межд. Симпоз. Рацион. �спольз. и
охрана природ. ресурсов горных территорий, Душанбе,1997, с100-101.
5. Каримов Х.С., Кабутов К. - Солнечная кухня (на англ. яз.). – Ж. Гэлиотехника, 1995, N
1-3, -С. 81-86, Ташкент (Узбекистан).
6. X. С. Каримов, Кабутов К., Дж. А. Чаттха, М. Ахмед, М. Али, М. 3. Акрам, А. М. Тахир, А.
�дрис, С. Т. Али. �сследование параметров и характеристик модулей солнечной
фотоэлектрической станции при различных условиях. ДАН РТ, Душанбе, 2002, т. XLV, № 9,
СЃ. 75-83.
7.Х.С.Каримов, К.Кабутов, Х.М.Ахмедов и др. Высокоэффективная солнечная
фотоэлектрическая станция. Душанбе: ДАН РТ, 2006, Т.49, № 3, стр. 289-293.
8.Кабутов К. Об использовании возобновляемых источников энергии в борьбе с
опустынивением. Бюллетень- Центральная Азия: проблемы опустынивания, 1998. стр.
9.Кабутов К., Ахмедов Х.М., Каримов Х.С. Возможности использования возобновляемых
источников энергии в горных районах. Международ. Конф. Горные регионы Центральной
Азии, Душанбе, 1999, с.209-211.
10.Кабутов К., Ботуров К. Социально-экологическое значение использования энергии
малых рек. Матер.Науч-практич. Конфер. «Памир-источник пресной воды ЦА», стр.60-61,
28-29, июня 2003, Хорог, ГБАО, Таджикистан.
11.Абдурасулов А.А., Кабутов К., Ахмедов Х.М. Некоторые аспекты использования малой
энергетики и проблемы устойчивого развития. Ж. Таджикистан и современный мир. 2005, №
5 (9), стр. 28-36.
12.Солнечная энергетика. Состояние, возможности использования и перспективы развития.
Составители: Х.М.Ахмедов, Сакис Галигалис, А. Элназаров. –Душанбе: Дониш, 2007. 114 с.,
илл. 40.
Thank you for your
attention
•
Kurbondzhon Kabutov, candidate in Technical Sciences, director of Center
for Research and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources at the Physics-
Technical Institute of S.U. Umarova Academy of Sciences of the
Republic of Tajikistan
---------------------------------------------------------------------------• Address: 734063, Physics-Technical Institute of S.U. Umarova
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan,
Tajikistan, Dushnabe. 299/1 Ayni Street
Tel.. (992372) 225017,
Fax (992372) 2257916
E-mail:kabutov@tascampus.eastera.net
kurbon47@mail.ru
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