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Zair Sadygov, JINR, Dubna
Igor Zheleznykh, INR, Moscow
“Novel Micro-pixel Avalanche PhotoDiodes (M-APDs)
and their possible application in physical/astrophysical
ARENA Conference,
Newcastle, 28-30 June, 2006
1978: First discussions in INR and Lebedev Institute on use of
APDs as solid state analogs of the PMTs in DUMAND-type
80th: Development of a new type of APDs with negative local
feedback – the metal-resistive layer-semiconductor (MRS) APDs –
in INR by Z. Sadygov et al. in the frameworks of the Soviet
DUMAND program led by M.A. Markov.
III Since 90th: Development of new kinds of the Microchannel/pixel APDs (M-APDs) in INR and JINR.
IV Characteristics of the novel M-APDs which were
constructed, produced and tested by “Dubna APD”
collaboration (JINR – INR – PSI – IP AZ - “Micron”
- high signal gain,
- high photon detection efficiency,
- very good single electron resolution
V Conclusion: Prospects for using the M-APDs in different
fields of Physics, Astrophysics, Medicine etc.
1977: Neutrino Conference in Baksan (USSR)
A. Pomansky, A. Chudakov, P. Budini, A. Tavkhelidze, M. Markov,
F. Reines, G. Zatsepin
• During Neutrino-77 (in Baksan) and after it (in Moscow) some
discussions on DUMAND project took place (F.Reines, A.
Roberts, J. Learned, V. Berezinsky, A. Petrukhin …) .
• I asked M. Markov: “You suggested idea of deep underwater
neutrino detection in 1960 and we discussed it in that period. Why
not to continue discussions again to take part in realization of
• Markov asked: “What do you suggest?”
• “To try to use avalanche photodiodes with optical traps in
• Markov approved such initiative.
Suggestion to use APDs for DUMAND.
This paper was also presented at DUMAND-1978, La-Jolla
1978: DUMAND Workshop in La-Jolla. Fred Reines was not interested much in using
APDs but he liked an idea to use the Soviet Research Ships in DUMAND.
• APDs were successfully used in optical communication
since 70th. Those APDs had usually a sensitive diameter of
d=100 micron and a signal gain of G~10-50.
• Development of large area APDs for other applications (as
well as for DUMAND!) had serious problems because of
micro heterogeneities inside of semiconductor lattice.
• Since 1981, when Markov organized in INR the department
of deep underwater neutrino detection, we began to
collaborate with the group of Vitaly Shubin (Lebedev
Institute) which developed MDS (Metal-DielectricSemiconductor) photo receivers. However MDS-structures
had some disadvantages (instability etc).
Main problems of semiconductor avalanche devices
There were a few problems that didn’t allow an appearance of
large area APDs with high gain (~1000 and more) . Here are
these problems.
• Very sharp dependence of the multiplication factor M (gain) on
applied voltage Vap.;
• Micro-plasma breakdown phenomena which limit the
maximum value of applied voltage, consequently the
maximum gain.
Micro-plasma phenomena are connected with an appearance
of local non-controlled avalanche processes in p-n junctions
where the breakdown voltage is lowered because of
Main problems of semiconductor avalanche devices
The mentioned above problems clear seen from the expression of
multiplication factor (Miller’s formula):
here n – an empirical parameter and usually n ~1 for most of
silicon APDs; DVb – a spatial variation of the breakdown
voltage overall sensitive area.
Main problems of semiconductor avalanche devices
Micro-plasma breakdown in p-n junctions with small-area
Conclusion: large spatial variation of breakdown voltage (Vb)
don’t allow to get a high gain in conventional p-n junctions.
Two different approaches
In the beginning of our activity there were two main
approaches to development of new APD’s:
• Improving purity of semiconductor wafers and using hightechnology for production. However this may results in
high APD cost;
• investigation of avalanche process in various multi-layer
silicon structure with local suppression effect in order to
answer the question:
“Is it possible to develop a low- cost APD device on basis of
Russian technology?”
The second approach has been chosen by our APD-group
about 20 years ago.
The MRS (metal-resistive layer-silicon) structure has been
chosen as a main object of investigation.
Two different approaches to development of
new APDs
• Joint APD group included collaborators from INR
(A.Gasanov, Z.Sadygov, et al.) and MELZ
(V.Golovin, N.Yusipov).
• In that time an idea of local feedback in APDs had
been discussed at Lebedev Institute (V.Shubin,
A.Kravchenko et al.).
Main problems of semiconductor avalanche devices
The way to micro-pixel APDs was not easy. This
development took about 20 years.
Different generations of silicon avalanche
structures produced in 1983-2005.
type APDs.
type APDs.
CCD and MW
type APDs.
2002- present
A planar Metal -Resistive layer-Semiconductor
structure. The first MRS APD
1.Simple technology and low cost.
1. Low yield because of short circuit
effect through SiC layer.
2. Limited gain because of charge
carriers spreading along Si surface.
The first publications on “MRS” type APDs:
1. A.Gasanov, V.Golovin, Z.Sadygov, N.Yusipov. – Technical Physics
Letters, v.14, No.8, p.706, (1988).
2. A.Gasanov, V.Golovin, Z.Sadygov, N.Yusipov. – Microelectronics,
v.18, No.1, p.88, (1989).
3. Z.Sadygov et al. – IEEE Trans.Nucl.Sci. 43, 3, p.1009, (1996).
An AMPD with individual vertical resistors.
Basic version.
The main result. Localization of the avalanche micro-regions
results in the unique device properties: high and uniform gain;
abnormal behavior of the excess noise factor that may be reduced
up to 1 at high gain!
The first publications:
1. A.Gasanov, V.Golovin, Z.Sadygov and N.Yusipov.- Russian
patent #1702831, application from 09/11/1989.
2. Z.Sadygov et. al. – SPIE Proc., v.1621, p.158, (1991).
A new AMPD with individual surface resistors.
Version #1. ( Some people call this version as GMPD, SiPM)
• relatively simple technology;
• high yield of working sample (~50%).
• high signal gain (~106 );
• very good single photo electron resolution.
The first publication: Z. Sadygov. “Avalanche detector”.- Russian
patent # 2102820, application from 10.10.1996.
Disadvantages of the AMPD of version # 1.
• Low geometrical transparency (max. ~ 50%);
• Limited pixel density (max.~1000 pixel/;
• high capacitance (~60 pF/
• technology of micro-resistors with so high values (~1MW) are not
accepted in standard microelectronics.
Conclusion. An adequate alternative is necessary
An AMPD with individual surface drift channels.
Version # 2
• Standard CMOS technology and high yield of working samples.
• High signal gain and very good single photoelectron resolution.
• Relatively low geometrical transparency (`max ~55-60%).
• Limited pixel density (max.~ 1000 - 1500 pixel/
Conclusion. The next (inverse) type AMPD design is needed.
Publication: Z. Sadygov. “Avalanche photo detector”.- Russian
patent # 2086047, application from 05/30/1996.
An AMPD with deep micro-wells. Version # 3.
This version of AMPDs demonstrates the unique parameters:
• Geometrical transparency/active area ---------- 100%;
• Quantum efficiency ---------------------------------- 80%;
• Max. gain (today)--------------------------------------- 20 000
• Equivalent density of pixels ----------------------- 10 000 per mm sq.
• Excess noise factor ---------------------------------- 1
Publication: A patent application # 2005108324 dated 24.03.2005
The three advanced versions of AMPDs
Some copies of our AMPD design.
Our design of the AMPD
(version 1)
The SiPM sample
Some copies of our AMPD design.
Our design of the AMPD
(version 1)
The MRS APD sample
(CPTA, Russia)
Some copies of our AMPD design.
Our design of the AMPD
(version 1)
The DPPD samples
Today available AMPD samples for visible
and UV light
The AMPD parameters you may find in our site:
Possibilities of mass production of the AMPDs
of different versions.
In February 2005 we agreed with “Mikron” enterprise on
joint development and production of the AMPDs of various
Now three versions of AMPDs are produced in “Mikron”
enterprise. Experimental samples are under testing in
scientific and commercial institutions as JINR, INR RAS, PSI,
Siemens Medical Solution Inc. USA.
Some results with AMPD samples (v.2) produced
by “Mikron” enterprise
Parameters of AMPD samples: wafer – n and p-Si; S=1mm*1mm.
The AMPD samples are tested in LNP JINR and PSI.
Some results with an AMPD produced by “Mikron”
Photon counting efficiency (PDE) versus on the photon
wavelength (measured by Y.Musienko)
The Dubna AMPD of version #3 have been tested in PSI and CERN
(D.Renker, R. Scheuermann, Y.Musienko, A.Stoykov)
The latest results (Eg=511keV)
Energy spectra obtained with AMPD-LYSO based detectors. The
dashed lines show two-gaussian fits to the 511 keV photopeaks in
the spectra.
Development of scintillation detectors, based on avalanche
microchannel photodiodes (I. Britvitch et al.)
Future plans :
• improve working parameters of single element
M-APDs for use in visible and UV spectrum;
• develop matrix M-APDs for application in High
Energy Physics and Nuclear medicine;
• investigate possibilities of creation a
supersensitive CCD type matrix on the basis of
the M-APD with charge drift channels.
We are very interested in collaboration with other
Institutions for joint development and application of
M-APD devices mentioned above.
For more detail information:
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