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Презентация PowerPoint - the Linguistics of Temperature

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Lexical Typology:
Sounds
Ekaterina Rakhilina
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
rakhilina@gmail.com
Stockholm 2010
Types of sounds
Human beings (including �tramp’ or �patter’,
�grinding of teeth’, �handclap’, etc.)
пЃ® Musical instruments
 Animals (including �thud of hoofs’)
пЃ® Natural objects (water, stones, pieces of
wood, thunder, leaves, wind, forest, etc.)
пЃ® Artifacts (iron + glass: vessels, transport, etc.)
пЃ®
Stockholm 2010
2
SOUNDS
It is well known that animal sounds can be
applied to people metaphorically
MY QUESTION:
What “human” sounds are conceptualized as
those of animals, birds or insects?
A SIMPLE ANSWER:
INARTICULATE
Stockholm 2010
3
INARTICULATE SOUNDS
I.
NON-SPEECH:
пЃ®
II.
SPEECH
пЃ®
I.1.
UNCONTROLLED
пЃ®
I.2.
CONTROLLED
пЃ®
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4
I.1. NON-SPEECH, UNCONTROLLED
пЃ®
A.
PHYSIOLOGICAL
To groan,
to sneeze,
to wheeze,
to snore…
пЃ®
B.
SPONTANIOUS
REACTIONS
пЃ® Negative
(= В«cryingВ»)
пЃ® Positive
(= В«laughingВ»)
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I.1.A. PHYSIOLOGICAL
Russ.: určat’ (stomach rumbles)
= Engl. growl (dogs & bears, *wolves)
пЃ® Czech: hrochtat - pigs
пѓ groan (raising something heavy)
= “to hippopotamus”: hroch – hippopotamus
пЃ®
NB! Frogs & ducks in Czech and Norwegian
Arm.: �grunt’ = to wheeze before dying
Kalmyk.: �grunt’ = to snore [=to purr (about cats)]
Komi: furskyny �to spit (about horses)’ = �to slurp’ +
�to sniff’
ONOMATOPOEIA
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I.1.B. В«CRYINGВ» & В«LAUGHINGВ»
пЃ®
В«CryingВ»
Rus.: bear, dog, wolf, chicken / mice; Arm. cow
пЃ®
В«LaughingВ»
Rus.: horse, goose [Engl. honk – about cars]
Arm.: cicada пѓ to laugh; sheep пѓ + abrupt
Engl.: hoot (owl) пѓ to laugh loudly that was a real hoot
пЃ®
BOTH
Rus.: vizžat’ (pain, happiness)
NB! Engl.: to squeal on smb. – to inform against smb.
Engl.: howl (wolf) пѓ to cry / laugh very loudly
roar (only lion) пѓ a lot of pain / laugh;
cf. Rus. revet’ (subject:
adult
Stockholm
2010 or group of people)
7
I. NON-SPEECH
I.2. Controlled:
пЃ® I.1. Uncontrolled
пѓј
singing without words
пЃ® Physiological
Rus.: murlykat’
пЃ® Spontaneous reactions
пѓј
without music
(В«cryingВ» & В«laughingВ»)
пѓј
talking to oneself
(cf. Rus. bormotat’
Engl. mutter)
пЃ®
Stockholm 2010
8
I.2. MURMURING & MUTTERING
Norw.: a special verb (nynne) �to sing for himself’
Engl.: hum (mosquito, fly, *bee) пѓ the way Winnie-the-Pooh
sang (the mouth being closed) + hummingbird
French: bourdonner (+ fly, bug);
similarly in German
пЃ®
+ words only
Engl.: cluck (hen) пѓ вЂ�mutter’
Norw.: klukke (hen) пѓ вЂ�to laugh silently, to chuckle’
Germ.: (bear) пѓ вЂ�mutter’
пЃ®
+ without music
Arm. вЂ�meow’ пѓ bad singing (high-pitched voice)
Engl.: squeak (mice, doors, brakes) пѓ a bad violin
пЃ®
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II. SPEECH
Inarticulate speech
(babies or adults) – II.1
 Approving / disapproving – II.2
 “Speaking groups” – II.3
пЃ® Special meaning II.4
пЃ®
Stockholm 2010
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II. 1. Inarticulate speech
Babies (cf. Rus. gulit’):
Engl.: coo (pigeons)
пЃ® Adults: incomprehensible confused speech
(1) Slowly / interrupted / disconnectedly
Rus.: sheep, goat, cow
пЃ®
Nor. breke (sheep) пѓ unpleasant masculine voice
(2) Quickly and disconnectedly
(jabber – about women)
Rus.: strekotat’ �chirr’ (cicada + sewing machine / typewriter)
Engl.: yap пѓ much, quickly, disconnectedly:
they were just yapping away the whole night
Komi �chirr’: voshkyny (magpie + frog + sandpiper)
NB!: bargyny (sheep, goat)
Crimean Tatar:
2010 frame’ пѓ вЂ�jabber’
�Knock / acute sound (zurna) / Stockholm
counting
11
II.2. Disapproval
пЃ®
Very weak resistance:
(1) Rus.: fyrkat’ snort (dogs, horses), veresčat’ (pigs)
Engl.: grunt (only with the sound)
(2) Rus.: šipet’  hiss (being in a fume);
Czech: syДЌet (snake)
Norw.: frese (lemming пЃѕmouse; without tail, yellow,
angry, does not bite, migrates) пѓ в‰€ angry, but cannot do nothing
Arm.: вЂ�whirr’ (cat) пѓ mutter, being angry
�to overcome [over-whirr] our melancholy’
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II.2. Dog-like reactions
Rus.: vjakat’, ogryzat’sja, rychat’
Engl.: growl & snarl
I told him we need to leave and he just growled at me
If they snarl at each other they are really fighting
Nor.:
knurre (dog, wolf, *bear)
snerre more aggressively:
if I propose and the interlocutor knurre, we’ll do it (though he’s
not willing), but if the interlocutor snerre, it’s impossible
Stockholm 2010
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II.2. Reactions
 approval = Rus.: krjakat’ (ducks), mychat’ (cows
krjakat’ )
Speech reactions:
We don’t know the content, but we know how it was said
(and can guess the content)
пЃ® Not only the sound is important but also the animal
пѓ it’s not simply ONOMATOPOEIA
пЃ®
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14
II.3. Multiple subject
пЃ®
lovers and enemies: Rus. vorkovat’ VS. lajat’sja
mindless women
Rus.: sДЌebetat’, Engl.: tweet пѓ women’s talk and giggling
Norw.: kakle вЂ�cackle’ пѓ loud, meaningless talk or laugh of women
пЃ® crowd
Rus.: galdet’, revet’, gudet’
Engl.: buzz (bee, mosquitos) пѓ people discuss ideas
пЃ®
collective disapproval
Engl.: hiss пѓ a big group of people express their indignation
– e.g. in the theater or on the stands, cf. Rus.: šikat’
пЃ®
Stockholm 2010
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II.4. Semiotically relevant speech
Rus.: zudet’ (mosquito), Hindi: (вЂ�fly’) пѓ bother
Rus.: brexat’ вЂ�bark’ пѓ tell a lie
Rus.: karkat’ (crow), Arm. вЂ�frog’ пѓ put a whammy on
Hindi: вЂ�crow’ пѓ repeat the same things
Hindi: вЂ�horse’ пѓ affected pathos (cf. declaim, perorate)
Hindi: вЂ�sheep’ пѓ to ask plaintively, to cajole
Engl.: cackle пѓ take care of
Germ.: вЂ�turkey’ пѓ to speak angrily
Engl.: bark пѓ to bark commands
+ you are barking up the wrong tree
NB! Rus.: rjavkat’, not * lajat’
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Sound quantum
Food quantum: ne mog s”est’ ni kroški (lit. a crumb);
cf.: He couldn’t eat another mouthful
пЃ®
Liquid quantum: ne prolil ni kapli – lit.: didn’t spill a drop
(cf. a bit)
 [emotions = liquids]: �drops’ – ne bojalsja / ne ljubil ni kapli lit.:
was not frightened / did not fall in love + not a bit (lit. for a drop)
пЃ®
Didn’t make a sound – which sound?
Rus.: ne piknul (electronic device / chicken)
Engl.: she didn’t make a peep (chicken)
Norw.: han sa ikke et kvekk (quack = duck) did not say a word
пЃ®
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LINGUISTICALLY IMPORTANT
sounds can be structured differently (iteratives VS.
singulatives)
пЃ® different languages cluster sounds (В«humanВ», В«animalВ»
and В«inanimateВ») differently
– against lexical typology
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
languages tend to lexicalize similar “sound situations” or
their parameters – with the help of «animal» sounds, or in
some other way
such situations / parameters are relevant for speakers of
any languages and cultures ~universal
– for lexical typology
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