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NANOMATERIALS AND
NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN BELARUS
Peter A. VITIAZ
National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
<vitiaz@presidium.bas-net.by>
…the one who gets control over nanotechnology
first is gonna to be the leader in the technoshere
of the future…
Edward Teller
CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Introduction
Mechanical alloying
Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP)
Fine films, nanowires & nanopowders
Fullerenes & Carbon nanotubes
Nanodiamonds – Production & Applications
Nanoobjects diagnostics
Conclusion
R&D of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in Belarus
OBJECTS
MATERIALS
TECHNIQUES
Diagnostics
Diagnostics
PRODUCTION
PROCESSING
Nanopowders
Mech. alloying
Standard P/M
methods
Nanowires
Detonation
synthesis
High
pressures &
temperatures
Fullerens
Chem.
precipitation
& pyrolysis
Nanotubes
Plasma
synthesis
Thin Films
Refractory
Superhard
Structural
Equal channel
angular press.
Electrotechnical
Impulse
compaction
Magnetic
Sol-gel synthesis
SPS
Nano &
mesastructures
Gas transport
reactions
Others
Others
Plasma & flame
spraying
Others
Optoelectronic
Special
Scheme of Equal
Channel Angular
Pressing (ECAP)
Microstructures
of low carbon steel
after ECA - Pressing
1st press
2nd
press
route A
2nd press
route C
Mechanical properties of metals & alloys
after ECA – pressing
Material Structure
Fe
99.88 %
Cu
99.98 %
Stainless
steel 18-8
Elinvar
Ni-44
nano
polycryst.
nano
polycryst.
nano
polycryst.
nano
polycryst.
Hardness
HV
300
90
155
55
640
200
360
120
σ0.2,
σb,
MPa
MPa
850
200
400
100
1370
210
1540
760
980
350
480
240
1550
560
1560
930
δ, %
Ψ, %
6
21
11
19
27
70
10
15
55
7
67
87
41
69
30
44
Atomic Force Microscope «NANOTOP-203»
500 nm
Morphology of diamond-like thin films
AFM image of organic dye nanocrystals
(50-70 nm) in polymer matrix
As deposited
Annealed
Scheme of
transformations
100 nm
100 nm
30
S
150
20
100
10
50
0
0
20
40
60
CuPc concentration, % mas.
0
0
25
50
75
100
CuPc concentration, % mas.
The dependence of gas sensor response (a) and photoconductivity (b)
Principle of localization of particles input into
arc plasma
arc pile
powder
localizer
without powder
with powder
Localisation of particles input into plasma
Comparative Data for SPR and PRL reactors
Parameters
SPR
PRL
150
45
1200
30
3000-5000
5000-10000
Energy consumption,
kJ / kg
270
6.5
Productivity, kg / hour
2
Consumed power, kW
Nitrogen flow rate,
l / min
Temperature, K
PRL Reactor
25
PLASMOTEG ENGINEERING CENTER
Equipment & Technology for Diamond Like Coating
(DLC)
Pulse Plasma
Source
PULSE PLASMA SOURCE
DLC for thermoprinting heads
Consumed power
30 Kwt
Discharge voltage 200…400 V
Discharge time
200…300 µs
Pulse frequency
0.5…12 Hz
Cathode diameter
30 mm
Cathode length
20…30 mm
Deposit rate / pulse
850 nm / s
Deposite rate at 10 Hz
2.5 µ / h
Weight
15 kg
Dimentions
200х300х400 mm
Exworks price
25 000 USD
Biocompatible DCL for artificial
heard valves
DLC for measuring gauges
AUTOMATIC COMPLEX FOR FULLERENES
SYNTHESIS & SEPARATION
Raw materials
preparation
Assembly
for fullerenes
synthesis
Diagnostics
Assembly for
extracting & separating
Software for technology monitoring
Packing assembly
PRINCIPAL PARAMETERS
Productivity, g/shift: 15-45 of fullerenes + 100-430 of carbon clusters (10-100 nm);
Fullerenes purity > 99.0% ; C60 / C80 ratio ~ 10 /1 ; Consumed power 7-15 KW;
Weight 450 kg ;
Flow space 20 m2;
Ex-works price, USD 120 000 - 220 000
(depends on productivity & complectation)
450
400
Volume wear, 10 -6 mm 3
350
300
250
200
150
0,000
0,125
0,250
0,375
0,500
0,625
0,750
0,875
1,000
Nanodiamonds content, % mass.
Volume wear of electrolytic nickel coating versus
nanodiamonds content into coating
Carbon nanotubes produced by
HVDAP technique
FUNCTIONAL SCHEME OF THE AUTOMATIC COMPLEX
OF JSC «SINTA» FOR DETONATION SYNTHESIS OF NANODIAMONDS
DETONATION
SYNTHESIS
DESIGN & TOOLING OF BLAST CHAMBER
CONDITIONS OF COOLING & EXTRACTIONS
CHEMICAL PURIFICATION
CONDITIONING
SURFACE MODIFICATION
CONTROL, TESTING
STANDARTIZATION
SERTIFICATION
CONTINIOUS PROCESS
WITH OXIDANT REGENERATION
PROPERTIES OPTIMIZATION
PARTICLES SPECIAL COATING
TESTING & ANALYSIS
HYGIENIC SERTIFICATION
ENGINEERING SUPPORT
DATA BANK
PROPERTIES OF NANODIAMOND POWDERS
Parameters
Units
Value
Diamond phase content
% mass.
40-99
Common carbon content
% mass.
65-95
Ash content
% mass.
0.1-10
Adsorbtion capacity
mg-ecv/g
0.1-3.5
Electrokinetic potential
Thermostability (air)
Electric resistance
mV
K
Ω / cm
from -100
to + 100
423-1573
102-1014
NANODIAMONDS APPLICATION
Cr, Ni, Cu, Cu, Au, Ag galvanic coatings
Solid and liquid antifrictional lubricants
Plastics modification
Additives to motor oils
Superfinish treatment of superconductor
and optical parts
AUTOMATIC COMPLEX «COMPOSIT» FOR PRODUCING
ELECTROLYTIC COMPOSITE COATINGS WITH NANODIAMONDS
MICROHARDNESS OF Ag COATINGS AT DIRECT CURRENT (x 105 N/m2)
Микротвердость Ag покрытий, полученных при постоянном токе
Концентрация
наноалмазов
После нанесения при ic, A/dm2
3-4 месяца спустя
1
2
3
4
5
3
4
UDD=0
7.2
8.9
9.5
10.2
9.6
5.7
5.8
UDD=1 gr/1
UDD=5 gr/1
8.7
9.2
9.8
10.6
10.6
11.3
11.0
11.4
10.4
11.0
8.4
9.3
8.7
9.8
UDD=10gr/l
UDD=15gr/l
10.1
10.6
11.2
12.0
11.8
12.4
12.3
12.8
11.7
12.4
9.3
9.4
9.8
9.8
PROPERTIES OF Ag COATINGS PRODUCED AT DIFFERENT CONDITIONS
Сравнительные свойства Ag покрытий, полученных при
различных режимах электролиза
Свойства
8
2
1. Микротвердость H, 10 N/m
2 Износостойкость, относит. единицы
3. Контактное сопротивлениеRc, 10-3 Ohm
d.c.
8.9
1.0
1.4
icav =2 A/dm2
UDD=15gr/l
UDD=0
p.c. r.c. p.r. d.c. p.c. r.c. p.r.
15.2 12.8 14.4 12.0 16.8 13.9 15.3
1.6 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.6 2.1 3.2
1.38 1.31 1.34 1.47 1.48 1.38 1.43
NANODIAMONDS AT BELARUS POWER STATIONS
2
1.
2.
3.
air
1
3
Antifriction Grey Iron - Brass Composit
Slide bearings of steam superheater
Combined flat bearing Ø 800 mm for hot
recuperator
Plastics modifications with
nanodiamonds
Bushing of electric pump
Metallic – plastic anticorrosion
gas-flame coatings with 0.5 % mass.
of nanodiamonds
MICROARC OXIDIZED COATINGS
WITH NANODIAMONDS
1
2
x 150
1,2 – microstrucures of Al-6Si-2Cu
alloy after coating without (left)
and with nanodiamonds (right)
3 – motorbike parts with microarc
oxidizing and nanodiamonds
3
1
2
Polycrystallic diamonds from
nanodiamonds
1,2 – polycrystallic powders
produced by thermo-vacuum
treatment;
3 – spalling of polycrystallic
compact produced by shock-wave consolidation.
3
…the only way to infiuence a technology is the
another technology…
Stanislaw Lem
CONCLUSION
1. Scientists of Belarus make certain input into nanomaterials
investigation and processing. Good results have been achieved
in nanodiamonds and their application in machinery.
2. Our main task is a consolidation of means and efforts for
development of nanomaterials and nanosystems vital for key
branches of Belarus economy – machinery, radio-electronics
and petro-chemistry.
3. International cooperation is very important in any aspects of
implementation of these XXI century materials: science,
technology, diagnostics, sertification, etc.
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