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(1) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
(2) Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academia of Science, Kosice, Slovakia
1. Main tasks
2. CORONAS-F and “Tatiana” satellites
3. Experimental data 2001-2006 years
4. Statistical studies
5. Summary
Solar protons penetration in the polar caps during the main phase of magnetic
storms is one of the important sources of radiation danger in the near-Earth
space, especially for low-altitude satellites. Low-altitude polar satellites
demonstrate that for the estimation of possible SEP damage both the intensity of
energetic solar particles and data concerning the boundaries of solar particle
penetration in the Earth's magnetosphere are very important.
The size of the energetic particle penetration area depends on proton energy
and on geomagnetic conditions.
Main goal of presented studies was to find the possibility to estimate the
extreme (the most low latitude) solar proton penetration boundary location
during the strong magnetic storms using such geomagnetic indexes like Dst
and Kp.
SEP penetration boundaries into the Earth’s
magnetosphere 27/10/2003 and 29/10/2003
пЃЊ - invariant
latitude (L =
1/cos**2 пЃЊ).
View to
Poles
28-30 /10/03
01-05/11/03
Complex ORbital Observations in Near-Earth
space of the Activity of the Sun
• operated from August , 2001 to December 2005 till 12,
December, 2005
• circular orbit with altitude in 2005
~ 500-350 km
• inclination ~ 82.5
We used data obtained by SCR (Solar Cosmic
Rays) with the help of three detector types in
the following energy ranges
• protons 1 - 5 MeV (semiconductor telescope)
• protons 50-90 MeV (plastic scintillator +
semiconductor detector)
В«Universitetskiy-TatyanaВ» supersmall satellite Space Scientific and Education project of the
Lomonosov Moscow State University was
operated from
January 20th, 2005 till March 8th, 2007
Scientific goals of MSUcircular orbit with altitude ~ 1000 km
inclination ~ 83п‚°
250 project
This satellite is intended for monitoring of radiation
1. SEP fluxes dyinamics.
conditions near the Earth. In this work we used
2. SEP penetration boundaries
data about protons with the energies 15-40 and
variations during magnetic
400-100 MeV, obtained with the help of BD
storms
instruments, which consist of semiconductor
3. Radiation belt dynamics
detector (1000 mkm Si) and scintillation detector
during magnetic storms.
(CsJ(Tl) 15Г—20 mm).
The most intensive SEP were measured during Solar Extreme Events periods of 2003
and 2005 years and besides that during August, September and November 2001, April and August
2002, May and July 2003, November 2004, May 2005. Some of these SEP event were
accompanied by the powerful geomagnetic storms (e.g. November 6, 2001 (Dst=-292 nT),
November 24, 2001 (Dst=-221 nT), October 29-30, 2003 (Dst=-400 nT), November 2004, (Dst
=-374 nT)) and during the main phase on these storms energetic solar particles have penetrate
extremely deep in the Earth’s magnetosphere. As it is known that penetration SCR is maximal in
evening and night sectors MLT due to weaker intensity of the geomagnetic field from the night
side, so we used only the data received in evening and night sector for the estimations of extreme
SCR penetration boundaries.
Aug-Sep 01
M+X Flares =79
Oct-Dec 01
M+X Flares =135
Jan-Mar 02
M+X Flares=55
Apr-Jun 02
M+X flares=45
Jul-Sep 02
M+X Flares=95
Apr-Jun 03
M+X Flares=70
Oct-Dec 03
M+X Flares=98
Jul-Sep 04
M+X Flares=71
Oct-Dec 04
M+X Flares=34
Jan-Mar 05
M+X Flares=28
Apr-Jun 05
M+X Flares=17
We take into account the strong storms – ones in which the
maximum amplitude of a Dst-index exceeded 100 nРў.
During operating time CORONAS-F has occurred 48 such storms.
During 22 ones in experiment on CORONAS-F in polar caps solar
protons 1-5 MeV were observed and during 14 - protons with energy
of 50-90 MeV.
For this data file factors of correlation of values пЃЊ with Dst have
made 0.9 (1-5 MeV) and 0.84 (50-90 MeV) in evening and night
sectors of magnetic local time MLT.
The obtained R corr пЃЊ and Kp were ave made from 0.58-0.64.
Application of multiple regression for estimation пЃЊ on values of both
indexes simultaneously (Dst and Kp) has shown that at the moment of
a maximum of a Dst-variation the Dst allows to estimate boundaries
of penetration пЃЊ without Kp.
SEP penetration boundaries variations into the Earth’s magnetosphere
during the 4-9 of November, 2001 and SEE2004 – “one year after 2003”
Boundaries of SEP
penetration for 50-90
MeV protons (4-8
November, 2001) for
morning and evening
MLT sectors and Dstvariations.
Boundaries of SEP
penetration for 1-5 MeV
protons (5-9 November,
2004) for morning and
evening MLT sectors and
Dst-variations.
SEP during 2005-2006 years
1. 20 – 26/01/05
2. 05 – 20/ 05/05
3. 16-19 /06/05
4. 13-21 /07/05
5. 26/07– 6/08/05
6. 22/08/– 3/09/05
7. 07-20/05
8. 05 – 17/12/06
СЂ 40-100
РњeV
СЂ 2-14
РњeV
Solar protons 2005, May
A C E 1 .9 1 -4 .7 5 M e V
1E+5
C O R O N A S -F 1 -5 M e V
T a tia n a 2 -1 4 M e V
S o la r p ro to n flu x ,1 /(sm **2 -s -sr)
1E+4
T a tia n a 7 -1 6 M e V
C O R O N A S -F 5 0 -9 0 M e V
1E+3
T a tia n a 4 0 -1 0 0 M e V
G O ES > 30 M eV
1E+2
1E+1
1E+0
1 E -1
1 E -2
4
6
8
10
12
14
D ay of M ay, 2005
16
18
20
p 2 -1 4 (o p e n - m o rn in ig M L T 3 -6 h , c lo s e d e v e n in g 1 5 -1 7 h )
p 4 0 -1 0 0 (o p e n - m o rn in ig M L T 3 -6 h , c lo s e d e v e n in g 1 5 -1 7 h )
C O R O N A S -F p 1 -5 (c lo s e d - n ig h t 1 :3 0 -4 :0 0 h )
8
40
20
7
0
-2 0
-4 0
6
D st, n T
-6 0
-8 0
5
-1 0 0
-1 2 0
-1 4 0
4
-1 6 0
-1 8 0
-2 0 0
3
-2 2 0
-2 4 0
2
-2 6 0
6
8
10
12
14
D ay of M ay, 2005
16
18
20
CORONAS-F
1-5 MeV
В«UniversitetskiyTatyanaВ» p 2-14
and 40-100 MeV
- SEP penetration
boundaries
variations
L
60
Solar protons 2005, August and September
100
7
6,5
50
6
0
-50
5
L
�ндекс Dst
5,5
4,5
-100
4
-150
3,5
-200
-250
23.08.2005 0:00
3
23.08.2005 12:00
24.08.2005 0:00
24.08.2005 12:00
25.08.2005 0:00
25.08.2005 12:00
2,5
26.08.2005 0:00
Дата
DST
p 40-100 РњСЌР’ MLT = 15.00-3.00
p 2-14 РњСЌР’ MLT = 15.00-3.00
p 40-100 РњСЌР’ MLT = 3.00-15.00
p 2-14 РњСЌР’ MLT = 3.00-15.00
2006, December, Solar Protons (polar caps)
Solar protons 40-100 MeV penetration boundaries
•
•
•
Experiments on board CORONAS-F and В«UniversitetskiyTatyana В» satellites permits us to to measure SEP penetration
boundary variations during strong magnetic storms.
Variations of extreme positions of protons SCR (with the
energy 1-100 MeV) penetration boundaries in the Earth’s
magnetosphere, measured near the geomagnetic storm a
maximum in evening and night sectors MLT, are described by
of geomagnetic indexes Dst and Kp with sufficient reliability.
The maximal amplitude of Dst-variation is suffisient for
preliminary estimations of extreme position (most lowlatitude) SEP penetration boundaries observed duting the strong
storms in night- evening MLT sector.
The authors would like to acknowledge the
other members of CORONAS-F and “Tatiana”
teams, Slovak Research and Development
Agency (Slovakia, contract APVV-51-053805)
and Russian Fond of Fundamental Researches
(grant 08-02-08600-z)
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