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Efim B. Galitskiy
Elena S. Petrenko
Elena G. Galitskaya
(The Public Opinion Foundation)
Report at the Theoretical and Practical Conference:
“International Marketing Strategies of Companies under Post-Crisis Conditions. Developed and
Emerging Markets, CIS and Russia”, December 9-10th, 2010.
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), Higher Institute of Foreign Trade of Dunkirk
(ISCID, France).
The Research Tasks
п‚— To learn the Structure of Modern Consumer Practices
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
of Russian Citizens
To reveal the groups of Russians for which these or
those styles of consumer behavior are typical
To study the characteristics of each group
To start learning the dynamics of their size and habits
To research the consumer strategies in population
groups having different resource levels
Innovative Analytical Strategy of the POF
(Sociography)
• Are sequentially applied:
• Principal Components Analysis
(classical or categorical)
• Cluster Analysis
•
•
•
Hierarchical
K – means
Classification Tree
• Some methods are used in a special manner
• E.g., factors are multiplied by special coefficients before Cluster
Analysis
The Information Basis
п‚— United data of six weekly All-Russian representative polls
of the POF (September – October 2010)
 General sample size – 12 000 respondents
п‚— The sample covers 205 centers of population, 64 regions of the
Russian Federation
 Megapoll in the network of the “Georating” project of the
POF (November 2010)
п‚— 68 regions of the Russian Federation are represented, on the
territory of which 91% of Russian adult population live
п‚— The sample covers 1954 centers of population, including 676 cities,
315 urban settlements and 963 villages
 Sample size in each region of the Russian Federation – 500
respondents
 Total sample size – 34 000 respondents
Question: “Could you tell in what activities were you
involved during the last two or three years?”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
getting bank credit
getting credit in shop
PC usage
Internet usage, maintaining email correspondence
going abroad
paying for goods and services with a plastic card
dealing with foreign currency
visiting beauty salons
travelling by air
buying sporting goods and / or tourist equipment
attending fitness center or sports club
using the service of home delivery of goods
getting supplementary education, upgrading professional skills
mobile phone usage
Smartphone usage
Structure of Modern Practices
(Revealed by the Principal Components Method)
Modern
Practices
High Level
Practices*
Practices aimed
at individual
development
Practices
connected with
going abroad
Basic Practices
Computer and
Communication
Practices
Credit Practices
* High Level Practices in the sense of Maslow’s Pyramid (need for self-actualization and knowledge).
Generalized Indicators of Consumer Behaviour
Generalized Indicator *
Modern Practices
High Level Practices
пЃ± Individual development
пЃ± Going abroad
•
•
•
•
•
Buying sporting goods and / or tourist equipment
Attending fitness center or sports club
Using the service of home delivery of goods
Getting supplementary education, upgrading professional
skills
Smartphone usage
•
•
•
Visiting foreign countries
Dealing with foreign currency
Travelling by air
Basic Practices
пЃ± Computer and
Communication
•
•
•
PC usage
Internet usage, maintaining email correspondence
Mobile phone usage
пЃ± Credit activity
•
•
Getting bank credit
Getting credit in shop
*Ratio of average number of options stated by respondents to the general number of options in an indicator.
10 Styles of Consumer Behaviour
2
4
18
Style 1. All modern practices (2%)
3
4
Style 2. Visiting foreign countries, Computer and
Communication and other practices in part (4%)
8
20%
Style 3. All modern practices except visiting foreign
countries (3%)
Style 4. Partly Computer and Communication, credit
practices and visiting foreign countries (4%)
Style 5. Computer and Communication practices,
individual development (8%)
14
Style 6. Computer and Communication practices only
(14%)
Style 7. Computer and Communication, credit
practices (9%)
28
Style 8. Credit practices and mobile phones (12%)
Style 9. Mobile phones only (28%)
9
Style 10. No modern practices (18%)
(20%
12
Styles 1-5 – users of high level practices
according to six weekly polls as well as the “Georating” data, November 2010)
Users of High Level Practices.
Rules of Segmentation
Number of options stated in each group of practices
Type
Individual
development
(5 practices)
Visiting foreign
countries
(3 practices)
Computer and
Communication
(3 practices)
Credit activity
(2 practices)
Other key features of the
groups
Style 1. All modern practices
1.1
1.2
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
2
2
2; 3
3; 4; 5
2; 3
2; 3
Style 2. Visiting foreign countries, Computer and Communication and other practices in part
2; 3
0; 1
0; 1
2
2; 3
0; 1; 2
3
2; 3
Style 3. All modern practices except visiting foreign countries
2; 3; 4; 5
0
0; 1
1; 2
2
0; 1
2; 3
2
2
0; 1
2; 3
0; 1
Beauty salons, Smartphone
3; 4; 5
0; 1
2; 3
Style 4. Partly Computer and Communication, credit practices and visiting foreign countries
1
0; 1
0; 1
1
2; 3
Style 5. Computer and Communication practices, individual development
2; 3; 4; 5
0
0; 1
0
0; 1
0
2; 3
0
2
0; 1
2; 3
0; 1
Beauty salons, no Smartphone
2
0; 1
2; 3
0; 1
No beauty salons
% of the
population
1,9
0,4
1,5
4,0
0,8
1,1
2,1
2,9
0,3
0,5
0,3
1,8
3,9
1,2
2,7
7,8
0,4
4,5
0,7
2,2
Non-users of High Level Practices.
Rules of Segmentation
Number of options stated in each group of practices
Individual
development
(5 practices)
Visiting foreign
countries
(3 practices)
Computer and
Communication
(3 practices)
Other key features of the
groups
Credit activity
(2 practices)
14,0
Style 6. Computer and Communication practices only
6.1
0; 1
0
2; 3
1; 2
6.2
0; 1
0
2; 3
0
Moscow
0; 1
0
2; 3
1; 2
8,7
Except Moscow
0; 1
0
0; 1
1; 2
11,7
27,8
Style 9. Mobile phones only
9.1
0; 1
0
1
0
9.2
0; 1
0
1
0
Secondary education or
higher
Lower than secondary
education, 18-42 years old
0; 1
0
10.2
0; 1
0
0
1
27,0
0,8
17,5
Style 10. No modern practices
10.1
8,7
11,7
Style 8. Credit practices and mobile phones
8.1
0,3
13,7
Style 7. Computer and Communication, credit practices
7.1
% of the
population
0
0
14,6
Lower than secondary
education, 43 years and older
2,9
е практики
Style 1. All modern practices (2%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Group
Russia
Younger than 36
71%
36%
Higher education
65%
20%
Income is higher than 20 000
rub. per month
39%
8%
Can afford large household
appliances
70%
19%
Managers and experts
66%
18%
Residents of Moscow
40%
7%
Style 2. Visiting foreign countries, Computer and Communication
and other practices in part (4%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
0.0
Group
Russia
Younger than 46
68%
53%
Higher education
50%
20%
Income higher than 20 000
rub. per month
28%
8%
Can afford large household
appliances
53%
19%
Managers , experts and
employees
62%
29%
Residents of megalopolises
47%
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
18%
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
Style 3. All modern practices except visiting foreign countries (3%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Group
Russia
Younger than 36
74%
36%
Higher education
40%
20%
Income higher than 10 000
rub. per month
44%
29%
Can afford large
household appliances
46%
19%
Experts
34%
13%
Students
17%
5%
Residents of cities with a
population from 50
thousand to 1 million
52%
36%
Style 4. Partly Computer and Communication, credit practices and
visiting foreign countries (4%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
Group
Russia
Younger than 46
68%
53%
1.0
Higher education
37%
20%
0.9
Income higher than 10 000
rub. per month
46%
29%
0.8
Can afford large household
appliances
38%
19%
Managers and experts
34%
18%
Residents of cities with a
population of more than 250
thousand
51%
36%
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
Style 5. Computer and Communication practices, individual
development (8%)
Group
Russia
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
Younger than 28
49%
22%
Higher education
38%
20%
1.0
Income higher than 10
thousand rub. per month
40%
29%
0.9
Can afford clothes
81%
58%
0.7
Experts
27%
13%
0.6
Students
16%
5%
0.5
Residents of cities with a
population of more than
50 thousand
72%
55%
0.4
0.8
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
Style 6. Computer and Communication practices only (14%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
Group
Russia
Younger than 28
41%
22%
0.7
Higher education
30%
20%
0.6
Had no income
19%
11%
0.5
Can afford clothes
67%
58%
0.4
Experts
19%
13%
0.3
Students
12%
5%
Residents of cities
81%
73%
0.9
0.8
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
Style 7. Computer and Communication, credit practices (9%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Group
Russia
Younger than 46
79%
53%
Higher or specialized
secondary education
75%
57%
Income higher than 10 000
rub. per month
41%
29%
Can afford clothes
68%
58%
Experts, employees and
workers
75%
49%
Industry, science, education
30%
19%
Residents of cities with a
population of less than 50
thousand, urban settlements
29%
18%
Style 8. Credit practices and mobile phones (12%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Group
Russia
36-58 years old
64%
41%
Specialized secondary
education
46%
37%
Not enough money to
buy clothes
50%
42%
Workers
45%
25%
Residents of cities with a
population of less than 50
thousand, urban
settlements and villages
58%
45%
Style 9. Mobile phones only (28%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
0.0
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Group
Russia
51-66 years old
35%
24%
Vocational school, general
or specialized secondary
education
86%
70%
Nonworking pensioners
34%
26%
Style 10. No modern practices (18%)
Individual development (High Level
Practices)
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Computer and Communication
(Basic Practices)
0.0
Group
Russia
60 years and older
70%
23%
No secondary education
44%
10%
Income around 5-10
thousand rub. per
month
60%
36%
Not enough money to
buy clothes
61%
42%
Nonworking
pensioners
74%
26%
Villagers
41%
27%
Credit activity (Basic Practices)
Going abroad (High Level Practices)
Average age of Russians possessing
different styles of consumption
64
Style 1. All modern practices (2%)
Style 2. Visiting foreign countries, Computer and
Communication and other practices in part (4%)
48
44
39
38
31
30
31
34
36
Style 3. All modern practices except visiting foreign countries
(3%)
Style 4. Partly Computer and Communication, credit practices
and visiting foreign countries (4%)
Style 5. Computer and Communication practices, individual
development (8%)
Style 6. Computer and Communication practices only (14%)
Style 7. Computer and Communication, credit practices (9%)
Style 8. Credit practices and mobile phones (12%)
Style 9. Mobile phones only (28%)
Style 10. No modern practices (18%)
Style 1 Style 2 Style 3 Style 4 Style 5 Style 6 Style 7 Style 8 Style 9 Style 10
Users of High Level Practices (Styles 1-5) by regions,
November 2010 (% of the population)
Users of High Level Practices (Styles 1-5) by groups of the
Resource Typology of the POF, % of the group
67
62
45
Six weekly polls, September–October 2010
41
“Georating”, November 2010
24
24
11
11
6
7
1
Type A.
(High resources)
Type B.
(Medium
resources)
Type C.
(Low resources)
Working and able to work
Type D.
(The least
resources)
Type E.
(Full resources
pensioners)
2
Type F.
(Not full resources
pensioners)
Off-the-job pensioners
Consumer Structure of groups of the Resource Typology of
the POF. “Georating”, November 2010 (% of the group)
100%
90%
80%
Style 10
70%
Style 9
60%
Style 8
Style 7
50%
Style 6
40%
Style 5
30%
Style 4
Style 3
20%
Style 2
Style 1
10%
0%
Type A
Type B
Type C
Working and able to work
Type D
Type E
Type F
Off-the-job pensioners
Appendix
Resource Typology of Russian Adult Population
Working and able to work
Off-the-job pensioners
There’s no higher
education in family
There’s higher education
in family
Graduates
Can afford
large
Can
household afford
appliances clothes
Nongraduates
Can’t
afford
clothes
A1 (4,8%) B1 (6,9%)
Cities with a
population of
more than
50 thousand
Cities with
Cities with
population
population
of less than
Moscow
of more
250
than 250
thousand
thousand
and villages
B2 (1,7%)
C4 (9,1%)
Cities with a
population of
less than 50
thousand and
villages
D3 (22,0%)
There’s higher
education
in family
There’s specialized
secondary education
in family
E1 (8,1%)
F2 (10,3%)
Cities with a
population of
more than
50 thousand
E2 (4,1%)
Specialized
secondary
education
in family
No specialized
sec. education
in family
Cities with a
population of
less than 50
thousand and
villages
F1 (4,0%)
No specialized
secondary
education
in family
D2 (5,0%)
Cities with
Cities with
population Can afford Can’t afford
population
large
large
of less than
of more
household
household
250
than 250
thousand appliances appliances
thousand
and villages
B3 (1,8%)
C1 (2,1%)
B4 (1,5%)
Can
afford
clothes
Can’t
afford
clothes
A – High resources* (4,8%)
B – Medium resources* (11,9%)
C3 (8,7%)
C – Low resources* (28,3%)
C2 (4,7%)
Persons with
specialized
secondary
education
C5 (3,7%)
Persons without
specialized
secondary
education
D1 (1,6%)
D – The least resources* (28,6%)
E – Full resources pensioners (12,2%)
F – Not full resources pensioners (14,3%)
*Off-the-job pensioners are excluded from this group
Question: “Do you read newspapers at least
monthly? If so, what carriers do you prefer?”
Style 1. All modern practices (2%)
71
65
70
68
66
Style 2. Visiting foreign countries, Computer and
Communication and other practices in part (4%)
64
63
55
50
49
44
46
Style 4. Partly Computer and Communication, credit practices
and visiting foreign countries (4%)
29
23
16
Style 3. All modern practices except visiting foreign countries
(3%)
14
20
34
31
24
23
18
Style 5. Computer and Communication practices, individual
development (8%)
28
25
Style 6. Computer and Communication practices only (14%)
16
12
Style 7. Computer and Communication, credit practices (9%)
10
1
1
0
Style 1 Style 2 Style 3 Style 4 Style 5 Style 6 Style 7 Style 8 Style 9 Style
10
In print
In the Internet
Don't read
Style 8. Credit practices and mobile phones (12%)
Style 9. Mobile phones only (28%)
Style 10. No modern practices (18%)
Question: “Do you read magazines at least
monthly? If so, what carriers do you prefer?”
73
70
64
Style 2. Visiting foreign countries, Computer and
Communication and other practices in part (4%)
64
59
56
58
54
49
Style 3. All modern practices except visiting foreign countries
(3%)
48
43
38
34
36
Style 4. Partly Computer and Communication, credit practices
and visiting foreign countries (4%)
36
Style 5. Computer and Communication practices, individual
development (8%)
30
28
22
Style 1. All modern practices (2%)
25
23
Style 6. Computer and Communication practices only (14%)
17
16
11
8
Style 7. Computer and Communication, credit practices (9%)
8
8
Style 8. Credit practices and mobile phones (12%)
4
0
0
0
Style 1 Style 2 Style 3 Style 4 Style 5 Style 6 Style 7 Style 8 Style 9 Style
10
Style 9. Mobile phones only (28%)
Style 10. No modern practices (18%)
In print
In the Internet
Don't read
The Conclusion
п‚— The following Structure of Modern Consumer Practices is
revealed:
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Practices aimed at individual development
Practices connected with going abroad
Computer and Communication Practices
Credit Practices
п‚— Four Generalized Indicators of the development of these
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
п‚—
Practices are elaborated
10 Styles of Consumption are discovered
Only 20% of Russians use the Modern Practices of High
Level (in the sense of Maslow’s Pyramid)
This rate is accurate within a tenth of a percent according
to the data of different polls
Connection between the Styles of Consumption and
availability of different resources is demonstrated
Thank you for your attention!
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