«Climate change» ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ Задания 1-2 ( Brainstorming) помогают в общих чертах понять, что из себя представляет процесс глобального потепления, чем он вызван и каковы могут быть его последствия. После выполнения задания 2 учитель организовывает обсуждение тезисов учащихся всем классом, где выбираются наиболее удачные. Если учащиеся затрудняются, то можно организовать эту работу как парную, групповую или с помощью наводящих вопросов. Project Climate change Global warming and climate change are very hot topics today on TV. Lots of scientists, media people and even businessmen express their concern about possible consequences of climate change. Is it just a buzzword or could it really affect our life? Let's look into the issue. 1. Brainstorming Brainstorm for factors that can cause global warming and for its possible consequences. factors factors global warming consequences 2. Write down what you understand by global warming and compare your vision with your partner's. Задание 3 ( Categorising) Позволяет учащимся проанализировать, что из той информации, которую они получают по данной теме, является действительно возможным проявлением глобального потепления, а что - реакцией людей на эти явления. Данное задание способствует развитию умения анализировать информацию, отделять первичные факты от последствий. Задание также направлено на то, чтобы сделать тему исследования более личностной; показать, как процесс потепления уже повсеместно затрагивает жизни людей. 3. Read the statements and put them in the appropriate column below. Ice-covered territories of the Earth are shrinking in size. The level of the ocean is rising constantly. The number of environmental projects on TV is increasing. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is increasing. The temperatures are rising all over the world. Scientists of different countries are working on clean energy projects. The ozone layer is getting thinner and ultraviolet radiation gets through it more easily than it used to. The word "desertification" has been used a lot in media recently. People are getting more environment-conscious than they used to be. A new reason for migration has been registered in immigration laws of some countries. Now they recognise "climate migrants". Evidence of global warming in the natural world Peoples response to the effects of global warming Задание 4 Перемещает глобальную проблему в бытовую плоскость, делая ее более доступной для "учащихся. Цель задания - развивать умение анализировать и обобщать информацию. При его выполнении учащиеся должны найти 4 фактора: People travel too much People don't save energy at homes People drive powerful cars People buy too much Work in pairs. Read through the opinions. Fill in the bubbles below with the factors which, according to the speakers, may contribute to global warming. I know - that every time people fly somewhere, they contribute to the global warming effect. A plane emits carbon dioxide and other harmful gases. And the number of planes, their capacity and speed are growing all over the world. Obviously, it's not very good for the environment. 2. People don't often pay attention to minor energy consumptions. For example, they can leave the bathroom light burning all through the night, or don't close the fridge door. They can boil some water and forget to make tea. Then they boil it again. They may let hot water running in the kitchen for no reason at all. One person's еnergy waste may not be very important for nature, but.. .there are lots of people in the world. 3. Lots of people buy big off-road vehicles. Those cars are designed for driving over rough ground — across the mountains or roadless countryside. However, people often use them for city driving. It's silly and irresponsible to drive fuel-consuming cars when it's not necessary. 4. People burn huge amounts of coal and oil in order to produce various goods and nice packaging for them. People often buy things they don't really need, they just want to replace an older model with a more prestigious brand. They buy more than they are able to consume, and throw away a lot too. Isn't it silly to use energy to produce unnecessary things and then use it again to 1. Задание 5 Учащимся предлагается написать абзац, отражающий их точку зрения,- является ли человек тем фактором, который запустил механизм глобального потепления. Точки зрения представляются классу. 5. Do you personally think that it's people who are responsible for global warming? Choose one of the statements below and write a paragraph about it. It's evident that the global warming process has been triggered by human activity. I see global warming as a natural process which can't be affected by human beings. I think that people's activity accelerates the natural process of global warming, which could be much slower and less harmful without our contribution Guidelines for the project: Read the hipotheses and split into three groups according to the area you are going to research Q how global warming affects land and vegetation I 1 how global warming affects animals 1 how global warming affects people Step 1: Read the text and answer the questions to be sure that you have understood it. Then choose the most appropriate conclusion at the end of the text. Step 2: Give some other examples of how human activity contributes to global warming and environment pollution. Step 3: Make some research to find out if people around you are environment-conscious or not and how they feel about global warming. Use the form and do a survey and find out people's opinions. Write a report on the results of your research. Step 4: Confirm / reject the hypothesis. Make up a presentation "Global warming and its effect on land and vegetation / animals / humans". Use any other additional material (statistics, newspapers, photos or articles from the internet, etc) if possible. 2. ВЫДВИЖЕНИЕ ГИПОТЕЗЫ Учащимся предлагается план работы над проектом и уже готовые гипотезы, которые им предстоит опровергнуть или подтвердить. Учитель разъясняет задачу исследования и комментирует все этапы работы ( Steps 1 - 4). Учащиеся делятся на группы и занимаются своим аспектом проблемы, следуя всем шагам, предложенным в проекте. PROJECT Global warming and how it can change life on the Earth Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: Global warming can Global warming can сhange the make lots of animals geographical profile of extinct, which will the Earth and its upset the balance of vegetation cover. the environment Hypothesis 3: I Global warming can affect peoples health, lifestyle and welleing dramatically З.ПРОВЕДЕНИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ (Работа по группам) Steps 1-3 показывают несколько возможных видов исследования: Step 1- работа с текстом, как источником информации Step 1 Study the text below and consider the following questions. How vulnerable is polar caps ice to temperature rising? Has it been affected by global warming yet? If the ocean rises by about one meter, will it be visible on geographical maps? What is desertification and deforestation? What is global warming and why do people talk about it so much? As scientists report, the average temperatures have risen by about one degree in the last 150 years. Do we really need to worry about such a little bit? Isn't it good news to those who doesn't like long cold winters and would prefer to live in a warmer climate? However, most researchers insist that even a one-degree rise can start a chain of irreversible damage to the environment. And it's not all about the future, it's happening now. Unbelievable, but the ice cover of the Earth is very vulnerable to the slightest temperature rise. Most of the planet's ice supply (which is also fresh water supply) is in the polar ice caps. The ice caps of the Arctic and Antarctica are melting. Ice shelves break into pieces and the current brings them to warmer waters where they melt swiftly. The permanent ice cover based on land is shrinking very rapidly too. What consequences can it lead to? Antarctic ice cap covers the territory of more than twelve million square kilometres and in some places it's about five kilometres thick. If this huge amount of ice melts, the level of the ocean will rise tremendously. And we also have the Arctic region, which is melting too. The level of the ocean is gradually rising. It has risen by 15-20 centimetres already since the beginning of the twentieth century and tends to go higher. Using computer models, scientists predict that the level of the ocean will rise up to one metre during this century. Some islands and coastal territories are already suffering from floods. If the process of global warming accelerates, maps of all continents will change dramatically. Coastal territories and lowlands will go underwater. Global warming is not only about dry land reduction. The image of the Earth may change out of recognition because of climate change. Global warming also reveals itself in the increasing number of droughts. Africa, Australia and some territories of Europe and Asia have experienced most severe and long-running droughts since the beginning of this century. Droughts stimulate the process of desertification, i.e. they destroy the soil level and make it unsuitable for vegetation growing. Rising temperatures also affect vegetation via animals and birds. If animals that eat fruits of the trees move to other territories in response to climate change, the forest can't spread and wiH eventually die out. Even insects like beetles, bugs, and caterpillars can add to the problem. For instance, due to climate change in Alaska the insects are booming! They breed much faster in a warmer climate and literally can chew up all vegetation of the northern territories. Thousands of square kilometres of the forest in Alaska can be damaged or completely destroyed by insects by 2015. Step 2 - приведение реальных фактов для иллюстрации этой информации Give some other examples of how human activity contributes to global warming environment pollution. Use some local examples if possible. Write about: what kind of activity it is (farming / construction / making water reservoirs, etc) where it takes place if it affects the land, rivers, forests, marshes, prairie, and the vegetation of the places ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Step 3 - анализ предложенных фактов и самостоятельный поиск релевантных фактов; проведение опроса (средства получения дополнительной информации). Find out how people feel about the global warming effect on land and vegetation. Conduct a survey using the questionnaire below. Take the following steps: Ask 6-10 people of any age to fill in the questionnaire form. Analyse the responses. Write a report on the results (see the layout below). Use statistics to support your statements. Questions Answers 1 Do you believe global warming can change the Earth profile significantly? □ Yes. □No. □ I don't know. I don't care □ 2 Do you believe that dry land territory will shrink and some islands, cities, countries may disappear? □ Yes. □No. □ I don't know. I don't care □ 3. Do we risk losing lots of farming land and forests because of desertification or floods? □ Yes. □No. □ I don't know. I don't care □ 4 Do you think that it may happen during □ Yes. □No. □ I don't know. your lifetime? I don't care □ □ Yes. □No. □ I don't know. I don't care □ 5 Do you think people need to do something to stop or to slow down the process of global warming? 6 What should people do to improve the □consume less energy situation? Tick the options or / and suggest □reduce carbon hydrogen emission something yourself. □develop new clean technologies □lessen the pollution □_________ 7 What should every person do? Tick the options or /and suggest something yourself. □ travel by air less □ use public transport instead of a car □avoid buying high-powered cars if not necessary, buy smaller cars □avoid using plastic packaging if not necessary □sort one's waste and carry it to the recycling centres □pay more for environment friendly products 8 What are you, personally, ready to do to □travel by air less improve the situation? Tick the options or / □ use public transport instead of a car and suggest something yourself. □avoid buying high-powered cars if not necessary, buy smaller cars □avoid using plastic packaging if not necessary □sort your waste and carry it to the recycling centres □pay more for environment friendly products 4.1 ОФОРМЛЕНИЕ РЕЗУЛЬТАТОВ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ Step 4.1 - работа учащихся по составлению полного текста презентации, подбор и размещение плакатов, фотографий, других иллюстраций, возможное оформление части материала в программе Power Point. (Работа в группах). Report on the results of the survey Use the questions as guidelines for your report. Who took part in the survey? Are people aware of the problem? Do people care and believe that some measures need to be taken? Are they ready to do something themselves? Do you think people want and are able to do something to slow down global warming or not? Useful language To collect the data about / to study the question of how aware people are of the problem, we conducted a survey. .. .people took part in the survey their ages range from... to... The analysis of the results proves that most / almost half/ very few people... Only two people out often... A very small percent, only ten percent of the total, think that... In contrast, younger respondents say that... We've studied the results and have come to the conclusion that... 4. 2 ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ РЕЗУЛЬТАТОВ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ Step 4. 2 - проведение презентаций каждой группой. Read all the information you've got and decide if it confirms the hypothesis or not. Make up a presentation according to the plan. Your hypothesis: confirmed or rejected. Some evidence (local or global) that global warming, if not stopped, will seriously affect the geography and the vegetation cover of the planet. Results of the research on how people around you feel about the problem. Your conclusion. 5.ФОРМУЛИРОВКА ОБЩЕГО ВЫВОДА И ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ НОВЫХ ЗАДА Ч ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ (Проводится всем классом). По результатам презентаций учащимся предлагается выбрать один из выводов о том, насколько опасным для человека может быть процесс глобального потепления, и стоит ли человечеству предпринимать какие-либо шаги, чтобы противодействовать ему. Учитель подводит учеников к мысли, что людям стоит задуматься о своем воздействии на природу, и принять меры, чтобы сделать это воздействие минимальным. Важно закончить работу над проектом на оптимистической ноте, предлагая всевозможные идеи, которые могут помочь справиться с проблемой.