British Religion I. Objectives II. Focal Questions III. Procedures IV. Teaching Hours V. Contents I. Objectives Students are supposed to acquire a good knowledge of: · The history of British religion; · Churches, especially the Church of England, and the Church of Scotland; · British religion and politics & British religion and education; · Notable places of worship. II. Focal Questions · What has British religious history been characterized by ? · What do you know about the structure of the Church of England ? · What does it mean by saying that the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian in policy ? III. Procedures · Presentation by students — Focal Questions; · Lectures by the teacher; · Class discussion — Exploitation Activities; · Assignment for this chapter and the next chapter. V. Contents 1. Related Names · Presbyterian: a member of a branch of the Christian Protestant Church that is the national Church of Scotland. · Episcopal: (of a Christian Church) that is governed by bishops. · Anglican: a member of the Church of England or of a Church connected with it in another country. · Kirk: a name often used for the official Church of Scotland. · diocese: a district for which a bishop is responsible. V. Contents 2. A Brief Introduction of the British Religious History 3. Introduction of Churches 1) The Church of England The Church of England The Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of York 2) The Church of Scotland V. Contents 4. Religion and History 5. Religion and Education 6. Notable Places of Worship 1) Cathedrals in the UK Canterbury Cathedral, Mother church of the Province of Canterbury and of the Anglican Communion worldwide 2) Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey Unit 1：People I. Objectives • In this chapter we will learn about the ethnic composition of British people and its demographic features, the evolutionary process of English as a language, and the makeup of British society. II. Focal Questions • Why are the British people regarded as "mixed people"? • What are the three main periods of English Language? • How many classes are there in British society according to objective approach? Procedures • Presentation by Students – Focal questions • Lectures by the teacher • Class discussion – Exploitation Activities • Assignment for the next chapter IV. Teaching Hours V. Contents 1.Ethnic composition 1)Before the Norman Conquest • • • • • • • Iberians Celts Angles Saxons Jutes Scandinavians French Normans 2) After the Norman Conquest • • • • • • Jewish Lombard Dutch Flemish Gypsies Refugees from Europe 3) In the 20th century • • • • • Refugees from Nazi occupied Europe and white immigrants from old Commonwealth countries people from non-white New Commonwealth nations groups of Americans, Australians, and Chinese Europeans Immigration from the South Asian 2. Demographic composition • the 1086 Doomsday Book (最终税册) Census • the Black Death pandemic (黑死病大流行) 3.English language 1)Old English Period • The period of Old English is from the year of 450 to the year of 1150 • four dialects in Old English times: Northumbrian (诺森伯兰方言), Mercian (莫西亚 方言), West Saxon, and Kentish (肯特方言) • In general, the differences that one notices between Old English and Modern English concern spelling and pronunciation, the lexicon, and the grammar. 2)Middle English Period • • after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The dialect of English spoken in London had been the Standard English, which gave birth to (产生) the official language. • French language also influenced the use of English. • The main change from Old English to Middle English was in both its grammar and its vocabulary. • The most distinctive change from Old English to Middle English was the decay (衰退) of inflectional renderings. 3)Modern English Period • • • • • • By the end of the 15th century, the English spoken in London had been accepted as a standard language in most parts of the country. In the year of 1755, Samuel Johnson compiled the first English dictionary The great shift from Middle English to Modern English was the shift of the vowel The quality of the English language was greatly improved by extensive borrowing The expansion of the British Empire helped facilitate (促进) the spread of English into many countries and places all over the world It is also likely that pidgin (洋泾浜的) and creole (克里奥语的 ) varieties of English will be increasingly widespread in those areas where English is not a first language 4.Class structure • family background, main source of income, place of residence, cultural tastes and political affiliations (关系) were closely associated • Traditionally, the British class system was divided into upper, middle and working classes • According to an “objective” approach, British society is divided into occupational groups arranged in a class hierarchy 5.British identity • • • • • before the 18th century,four different nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) and their peoples Concepts of Britishness were more widely used in the 19th century In actual effect, the British identification was often equated with English norms because of England’s historical role and its preponderance within Britain. with Britain’s decline in modern times, the old concepts of England-centered Britishness have weakened. the contemporary British are a very diverse people with varying identities. Way of life I. Objectives • In this chapter we will look at the British way of life, including leisure activities, sporting activities, arts, mass media, social manners and etiquettes. II. Focal Questions • What are the common characters of the women’s magazines? • What are the differences between broadsheets and tabloids? • What is the origin of the Oxford-Cambridge University Boat Race? • What are Shakespeare’s famous plays? • What is the difference between Rugby League and Rugby Union? III. Procedures IV. Teaching Hours V. Contents Leisure Activities Tourism and Recreation • They love the outdoors. • They flock to seaside resorts on vacation. • Several million vacationers visit Spain, France, and other countries. • Some enjoy automobile or bicycle trips through the country. • Spend much time in their gardens. • 50% of the families in UK have a garden. Festivals and Holidays Holidays and Customs and their origins tell us what is important in a culture. Most holidays throughout the world provide opportunities for families and friends to get together to visit, eat, exchange good wishes and enjoy each other’s company and hospitality. Religious Holidays • Britain remains mainly a Christian nation, however many do not go to church to worship • Many other religions • Christian festivals are observed but adapted to fit needs of a secular society • Non-Christians and Christians participate in activities for Christmas and Easter CHRISTMAS • • • • December 25 Biggest and best loved holiday Schools, businesses, and offices close Celebration of birth of Jesus ChristChristmas mass-worship service. Son of God to save the world from sin CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION • • • • • Exchange gifts and cards Holiday foods Decorating homes/workplace Christmas trees Christmas lights/ornaments SPECIAL BRITISH CHRISTMAS TRADITIONS • Christmas Pantomime-Panto a comical musical play based on traditional children’s story, with main character the “principal boy” played by a young woman • Queen’s Christmas message/past year & hopes • Boxing Day-day after Christmas/old custom for servants-now sales, food etc. most people don’t know why NATIONAL HOLIDAYS • • • • • Queen’s birthday Known as “Trooping the Colour” Second Saturday in June Buckingham Palace in London Like a National Day SAINT PATRICKS DAY • • • • • Northern Ireland Catholics Patron Saint of Ireland-St Patrick March 17 Tradition-drove out snakes or evil and used three leaf clover/shamrock to explain Christian Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) to Pagans Irish HALLOWEEN • • • • • • Halloween – Oct. 31 Great feast of Pagan Celts Arrival of winter Some believe can commune with the dead Mischief Fortune-telling & masquerades Food and Drinks • British meals mean different things at different times to different people. • The first meal of the day is breakfast which is now often hurried and informal. • Traditionally it is a hearty meal eaten in many homes throughout the country, particularly at weekend. • The traditional English breakfast is a fried or grilled dish consisting of bacon, eggs and sausage， mushrooms, tomatoes, black pudding, and fried bread or potatoes. • In recent years a light breakfast , usually called continental breakfast has become popular in Britain. • A light breakfast has no cooked dish and consists of fruit juice or cereal [`siәriә]谷类食品, and marmalade [`ma:mәleid]果酱 and coffee. Light breakfast • Lunch is a midday meal, usually eaten between 12:00 and 2:00pm. • For those who have supper in the evening, it will usually be the main meal of the day. • Dinner for lunch consists of meat, potatoes and other vegetables. Dinner for lunch lunch Fish and Chips • The evening meal varies from family to family. • If the dinner is taken in the evening, it is usually sumptuous. 丰盛 • Supper means a light meal taken in the evening. • It is less grand and usually cold. Supper • Between lunch and evening dinner, there is a light meal of afternoon tea in Britain, which is taken between 4 or 5 o’clock in the afternoon. • The light meal of afternoon tea is known as high tea, which is actually a mixture of tea and supper. • High tea is prepared with a cooked dish or sandwiches, and accompanied by a pot of tea. • Now tea is a working class name given to the evening meal. Tea time Evening Meals • Drinks are various and may be taken at different times. If you are invited to a drinks party, the party will probably be before dinner, 6:00---8:00 pm. • Besides, Britons are also known as tea drinkers. • It is said that Britons drink a quarter of all the tea grown in the world each year. Many of them drink it on at least eight different occasions during the day. Sporting Activities • Enthusiastic sports fans. • The most popular sport is soccer, which the British also call football. • Thousands of fans jam the stadiums every Saturday. • Cricket has been popular in England for hundreds of years. • Other popular sports include archery, bowls ( a sport similar to bowling), golf, hockey, horseback riding, horse racing, rugby football, sailing and tennis. Arts • The largest collections are owned by about 20 national museums and art galleries, most of which are in London. • British Museum is noted for its outstanding collections in archaeology and other fields. • The public library system serves people throughout the country. • The Royal National Theatre performs in London’s South Bank. British Media Division of media Media Television Radio Newspapers, magazines The UK Television • The five national networks (excluding satellite) • Cable and digital • Five national networks in the UK. The main channels • BBC 1 - since 1936, general interest programmes. • BBC 2 - minority and specialist interests. • ITV - broadcasting is approximately 33% informative and 66% light entertainment. • Channel 4 - since 1982, 15% educational programmes, encourages innovation and experiment. Television viewing in Britain • • • • • • The most popular leisure pasttime Average viewing time is over 25 hours a week TV productions continue to win international awards Half of the programmes are bought abroad Children’s TV has been very active( Blue Peter on BBC 1) “Youth TV” has been started recently The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) • Six national stations. • Broadcasts: BBC 1, 2, 4, BBC News 24, BBC Choice, BBC Parliament. • Radio Channels. • No advertising. • Worldwide television services (BBC World, BBC Prime) The division of programmes • Light entertainment (variety shows, soap operas, situation comedies, game shows) • News/current affairs • Documentaries • Children’s TV • Music • Sport • Films/TV movies • Drama/plays British favourite TV shows • • • • • • • • “Are you being served?” “Bless me father” “Fawlty Towers” “Mulberry” “Yes, Prime Minister” “Blackadder” “Chef” “Holmes” The brief history of British radio • 1922: BBC started daily broadcasting on 2LO on 14 Nov. The first voice was Arthur Burrows, reading the news. • 1922: 15 Nov: 5IT and 2ZY became first BBC stations outside London. • 1967: On 30th September, BBC radio reorganisation launched Radio's 1,2,3 and 4. • 1967: "Third Programme“ and"National Programme" replaced 2LO. The "Regional Programme", an alternative service, started later this year. The brief history of British radio • 1973: Birth of independent (commercial) radio, with LBC and Capital Radio in London. • 1988: First commercial station 'split' frequencies. • 1990: IBA split into ITC 1991: Radio 1 goes 24 hours on 1 May. • 1992: Launch of Classic FM, Britain's first national commercial radio station. • 1993: Launch of Virgin 1215. • 1995: Talk Radio began broadcasting on 14 Feb. • 1996: New rules on cross-media ownership heralds further change in the radio industry. The most popular British radio stations • • • • • • • Clare FM Anna Livia Live 95 Welsh Radio International Imperial College radio Capital FM BBC Radio 2 The division of newspapers British newspapers Daily Regional National Morning Evening Sunday "The Sunday Times" Tabloids "Daily Mirror" The circulation of national newspapers 18 17.5 17 On weekdays On Sundays 16.5 16 15.5 15 14.5 Copies The most important newspapers • • • • • • • • • Belfast Telegraph The British Media Review The Electronic Telegraph The Guardian/The Observer The Independent The Mirror North Wales Newspapers Online The Scotsman The Times Some of British tabloids • Anorak an irreverent tabloid • The Daily Mail light-weight daily • The Mirror • The Daily Star Not exactly high brow! • The Telegraph hard to hold, easy to read Periodicals in Britain • 7,000 different periodicals • Classified as “ consumer general interest” , “special interest”, “ business to business” Marriage • According to English law , no child can get married below the age of 16. If they are between 16 and 18 the parents’ consent 同意 ，准许to the marriage is necessary, but over the age of 18 the parents’ consent is unnecessary. • Most girls and nearly all men are over 18 when they get married. • Marriage marks the beginning of a new and independent family. • Now British society is considered to be permissive, which allows a considerable amount of freedom. • In terms of marriage the young people do not like to have control placed on them by other family members. • It is quite normal for a girls of 16 to go out with a boyfriend. • If they are together for a long time and know each other well, the girl would invite her boyfriend to her house to meet her parents. • If they had made private promise to marry, the boy will buy an engagement ring 订婚戒指 for the girl. • The engagement ring is placed on the third finger of the girl’s left hand. • If the girl changes her mind, she usually returns the ring. • If they continue getting along well, the engagement ring will be replaced by the wedding ring of plain gold. • For the wedding, most British couples, whether religious or not, will go to church to have the ceremony. • Other couples may go to a registry 登记office to have the ceremony 典礼, where the ceremony is usually less formal and more purely legal. • For the church ceremony the bride dressed in a long white dress and attended by her close friends and relatives. • A churchman will ask whether they are willing to marry each other and they have to make promises of loyalty to each other. • Ironically, Britain is one of the countries with highest divorce rate in the developed country. Social Contact • Much social contact in Britain takes place in people’s homes. • On Sunday afternoons often families have friends or relations in for tea, and there is some entertainment in private houses in the evening, too. • Some people may like to visit a pub regularly and may talk with the same people there week after week. • Middle and upper class people tend to favor dinner parties and cocktail parties. • Among the middle classes, people who have children often fill their houses with children’s parties. • Games are organized for 20 or 30 children before and after the Tea, which is called by that name although there is no tea to drink, only fruit drinks, sandwiches, ice-cream and innumerable cakes. • Many parents dislike such parties for they cause much confusion in their houses. Conservatism and Temperament • The British people are usually considered rather conservative. • Their conservative attitude usually includes two aspects: an acceptance of things that are familiar, and an inclination to be suspicious of anything that is strange or foreign.陌生的 • In much the same way most English people have been slow to adopt rational 合理 reforms such as the metric system.公制 • They suffered inconvenience from adhering to old ways. • English people tend to be hostile when they hear any suggestion that some modification of their habits, or the introduction of something new and unknown into their lives, might be to their advantage. • Modern methods of cooking , by electricity or gas, were accepted long ago, and few people would now favor the old type of coal-fired grate.炉架 • Modern methods of cooking, by electricity or gas, were accepted long ago, and few people would now favor the old type of coal-fired grate. • Self-control, the quality of not being excited, not losing one’s temper, is extraordinarily highly valued in Britain. • Quarrelsomeness, violence, truculence,野蛮 [`trʌkju:lәns] trouble-making are profoundly taboo. • The quiet queue for buses is usually cited 引 用 to show the English spirit of control and patience. • The English people had a reputation for being cold and reserved. • The English hardly greeted each other though they might know one another. • There is little gossip in public places. You would find most people sat reading newspapers when you took on train. • English people rarely shake hands except when being introduced to someone for the first time. Privacy • The English people are very strict about privacy. If you ask an Englishman “Where are you going?” or “ Have you eaten?” he might think you are very rude. • It is impolite to be curious about the private affairs of others, even your friend. • It is exceedingly improper to read their letters or papers. Customs Connected with the King or Queen • Now there is a Queen in Britain. If you attend important public occasions, you will commonly hear the solemn song “ God Save the Queen”. • When this national anthem is played, still most English people stand up. • If you were at an important banquet, when you drink wine, the first toast [toust] is always to the Queen. • In America one can criticize or joke about the President, but In Britain people are never allowed to joke about the King or Queen. • However, we must see clearly that the social changes have taken place in Britain during the past forty years. • The pop revolution of the 1960s, greatly changed the pattern of English life. • Four Liverpool boys joined together in a group and called themselves “the Beatles”. • They represented anger and bitterness of youth struggling for freedom against authority, and for this reason they were regarded by some people as the personification 象征 of the permissive 自由的 society. Who's who I. Objectives • In this chapter we will learn about some famous British figures II. Focal Questions • Who was the Prime Minister of Britain during WWII? • Who was the author of David Copperfield? • Who earned the nickname "The Iron Lady"? Procedures • Presentation by Students – Focal questions • Lectures by the teacher • Class discussion – Exploitation Activities • Assignment for the next chapter IV. Teaching Hours V. Contents 1. Politicians 2. Natural scientists and social scientists 3. Celebrities in social life 1.Politicians • • • • • • • Alfred the Great Oliver Cromwell Winston Churchill Edward VIII Elizabeth II Margaret Thatcher Tony Blair 1)Alfred the Great • Alfred the Great was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex • Alfred is noted for his defence of the kingdom against the Danish Vikings • Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself “King of the English” 2)Oliver Cromwell • Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector (护国 公) of England for much of the 1650s • By 1653, Parliamentary squabbling (争吵) led Cromwell to take control as head of state 3)Winston Churchill • He led Great Britain to victory in World War II • One of the 20th century’s most quotable wits, Churchill wrote a plethora of histories, biographies and memoirs • In 1953 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature 4)Edward VIII • Edward VIII gave up his throne to marry an American divorcee in 1936 • He served as Governor of the Bahamas from 1940 to 1945 5)Elizabeth II • Elizabeth II is the Queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland • Her coronation, on 2 June, 1953, was the first to be televised • In 1992 Elizabeth, the wealthiest woman in England agreed to pay income tax for the first time 6)Margaret Thatcher • Margaret Thatcher was the United Kingdom’s first woman Prime Minister • She held the office of PM for 11 years — longer than anyone in the 20th century • She led the country through the Falklands War with Argentina • She earned the nickname “The Iron Lady” 7)Tony Blair • Tony Blair became the youngest British Prime Minister of the 20th century • Blair was soon a rising star of what became known as the “New Labor” movement • He became leader of the Labor Party in 1994 2.Natural scientists and social scientists • • • • • • Isaac Newton Charles Dickens James Watt Alexander Graham Bell Ian Fleming Peter Cook Isaac Newton • • • • • Early life Newton and Optics Physics Newton’s Legacy Writings by Newton Early life • In 1661 he joined Trinity College, Cambridge • In 1665 he discovered the binomial theorem • Newton became a fellow of Trinity College in 1667 • In the same year he circulated his findings in Newton and Optics • From 1670 to 1672 he lectured on optics • During this period, he investigated the refraction of light • He invented the reflecting telescope • Newton argued that light is composed of particles Physics • In 1679, Newton returned to his work on gravitation • He published his results in De Motu Corporum (1684) • Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for the next 300 years Newton’s Legacy • Newton’s laws of motion and gravity provided a basis for different scientific or engineering situations • His calculus proved vital to the development of further scientific theory • Finally, he unified many of the isolated physics facts into a satisfying system of laws Writings by Newton • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) De Motu Corporum (1684) Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) • Opticks (1704) • Arithmetica Universalis (1707) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) 2)Charles Dickens • Lifetime • Novels Lifetime • Charles was born in Portsmouth, England • His early years were an idyllic time for him • In his early 20s, he made a name for himself with his first novel, The Pickwick Papers • On June 9, 1870, he died. He was buried in the Poets’ Corner of Westminster Abbey Novels • Dickens’ writing style is florid and poetic, with a strong comic touch • Among his best-known works are Great Expectations, David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, and A Christmas Carol • At least 180 movies and TV adaptations have been based on Dickens’ works 3)James Watt • Engineering Achievements • Legacy • Remembrance 4)Alexander Graham Bell • Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847August 2, 1922) was a scientist, inventor, and founder of the Bell Telephone Company • In 2004, Alexander Graham Bell was nominated as one of the top 10 “Greatest Canadians” by viewers of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 5)Ian Fleming • Biography • James Bond Novels • Children’s Story Biography • He worked as a journalist and stockbroker before the Second World War • Besides the 12 novels and nine short stories he wrote,Fleming is also known for the children’s story, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang • Fleming worked in UK Naval Intelligence during World War II James Bond Novels • Casino Royale (1953; first U.S. publication title: You Asked for It) • Live and Let Die (1954) • Diamonds Are Forever (1956) • From Russia with Love (1957) • For Your Eyes Only (a collection of short stories, 1960) • The Spy Who Loved Me (1962) • On Her Majesty’s Secret Service (1963) • You Only Live Twice (1964) • The Man With The Golden Gun (1965; allegedly finished by Kingsley Amis) Children’s Story • Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (1964) 6)Peter Cook • Peter Edward Cook was a British satirist, writer and comedian • He is widely regarded as the father of the British satire boom of the 1960s • Peter Cook’s first regular television spot was on Granada Television’s Braden Beat with Bernard Braden 3.Celebrities in social life • • • • Film and Television Music Sports Others 1)Film and Television • • • • Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) Eric Morecambe (1926-1984) Julie Andrews (1935- ) Michael Crawford (1942- ) Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) • Charlie Chaplin was an Academy Awardwinning English comedic actor and filmmaker • Chaplin became one of the most famous actors as well as a notable filmmaker, composer and musician in the early to mid “Classical Hollywood” era of American cinema Eric Morecambe (1926-1984) • Eric Morecambe was an English comedian who together with Ernie Wise formed the award-winning double act Morecambe and Wise • He is best remembered for the television series The Morecambe & Wise Show Julie Andrews (1935- ) • He is an award-winning English actress, singer, author and icon • She is the recipient of Golden Globe, Emmy, Grammy, BAFTA, People’s Choice Award, Theatre World Award, Screen Actors Guild and Academy Award honors Michael Crawford (1942- ) • Michael Crawford, is an English actor and singer • He has won critical acclaim and numerous awards during his career, which includes radio, television and stage 2)Music • • • • • • • • Edward Elgar (1857-1934) John Peel (1939-2004) John Lennon (1940-1980) Paul McCartney (1942- ) George Harrison (1943-2001) Bob Geldof (1951- ) Bono (1960- ) Robbie Williams (1974- ) Edward Elgar (1857-1934) • Sir Edward William Elgar, first Baronet, OM, GCVO was an English romantic composer • Several of his first major orchestral works, including the Enigma Variations and the Pomp and Circumstance Marches, were greeted with acclaim • He was appointed Master of the King’s Music in 1924 John Peel (1939-2004) • He was an English disc jockey, radio presenter and journalist • Known for his eclectic taste in music and his honest and warm broadcasting style, John Peel was a popular and respected DJ and broadcaster • He was one of the first to play American psychedelic rock, reggae and punk on British radio John Lennon (1940-1980) • John Winston Ono Lennon was an English rock musician, singer, writer, songwriter, artist, actor and peace activist who gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles • Lennon won the 1982 Grammy Award for Album of the Year • One month later Lennon was murdered in New York City on 8 December 1980 Paul McCartney (1942- ) • He is a multiple Grammy Award-winning English singer-songwriter, poet, composer, multi-instrumentalist, entrepreneur, record producer, film producer and animal rights activist • He gained worldwide fame as a member of The Beatles • His song Yesterday is listed as the most covered song in history George Harrison (1943-2001) • He was an English rock guitarist, singersongwriter and film producer • He achieved international fame as a lead guitarist in The Beatles • Often referred to as “the quiet Beatle”, Harrison embraced Indian mysticism, and helped broaden the horizons of the other Beatles as well as their Western audience Bob Geldof (1951- ) • Robert Frederick Zenon Geldof, KBE known as Bob Geldof, is an Irish singer, songwriter, actor and political activist who became famous as a member of the rock band The Boomtown Rats • Geldof’s most notable compositions include Rat Trap and I Don’t Like Mondays Bono (1960- ) • Paul David Hewson also known by his stage name Bono, is the main vocalist of the Irish rock band U2 • Bono writes almost all U2 lyrics, often using political, social and religious themes • Bono has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize Robbie Williams (1974- ) • Robbie Williams is a Grammy Award-nominated and 10 time BRIT Award-winning English singersongwriter • Robbie Williams as a solo artist has sold more albums in the UK than any other British solo artist in history and has won more BRIT Awards than any other artist to date • His album sales stand at over 55 million worldwide 3)Sports • Donald Campbell (1921-1967) • David Beckham (1975- ) Donald Campbell (1921-1967) • Donald Malcolm Campbell, CBE was a British car and motorboat racer who broke 8 world speed records in the 1950s and 1960s. • He remains the only person to set both land and water speed records in the same year (1964) David Beckham (1975- ) • wice runner-up for FIFA World Player of the Year and in 2004 was the world’s highest-paid footballer, Beckham is the first British footballer to play 100 Champions League matches • He was Google’s most searched of all sports topics in both 2003 and 2004 • Beckham was captain of England from 15 November 2000 until the 2006 FIFA World Cup finals, during which he played 58 times 4)Others • Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) • Diana (1961-1997) Florence Nightingale • Florence Nightingale came to be known as “The Lady with the Lamp”, was a pioneering nurse, writer, and noted statistician • In 1853. Later, the Crimean War began, Nightingale oversee a team of nurses in the military hospitals in Turkey,With her nurses, she greatly improved the conditions and substantially reduced the mortality rate • In 1860 she established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at St Thomas’ Hospital in London Diana • A public figure from the announcement of her engagement to Prince Charles, Diana remained the focus of near-constant media scrutiny in the UK and around the world • Her sudden death in a car crash was followed by a spontaneous and prolonged show of public mourning. Religion I. Objectives • In this unit we will explore the major religions, the religious diversity and the characteristics of US religious belief. • We will do research in the trend of secularization. Prospects in the US. re lig iou s b e lie f w ill b e d isc u s s e d . II. Focal Questions • What are the major religious groups in the US? • How has religion influenced the American society? • What is the significance of the Separation of Church and State in American politics and religion? III. Procedures • • • • Presentation by Students – Focal questions Lectures by the teacher Class discussion – Exploitation Activities Assignment for the next chapter IV. Teaching Hours V. Contents Major groups Christian churches Religion in the United States has a history of diversity, due in large part to the nation’s multicultural demographic makeup. The largest religion in the U.S. is Christianity, practiced by the majority of the population (nearly 76.5% in 2001). Christian churches • Protestants • Americans are largely protestant and belong to a few major denominations —Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Episcopalian. Christian churches • Roman Catholics • Roman Catholicism is by far the largest unified religious body. More than 50 million Americans are of the Roman Catholic faith. Christian churches • Eastern Orthodox churches • There are more than five million members of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the United States, mainly descendants of people who migrated from Russia, or Greece or from other parts of Orthodox Eastern Europe. Non-Christian churches • Judaism • After Christianity and no-religion, Judaism is the third-largest religious preference in the U.S. Jews have been present in the U.S. since the 17th century, though large scale immigration did not take place until the 19th century, largely as a result of persecutions in parts of Eastern Europe. Non-Christian churches • Islam • Over 2.5 million members of the Islamic religion live in America, including a large community of black Americans who have converted to Islam. Non-Christian churches • Buddhism • Buddhism entered the US during the 19th century with the arrival of the first immigrants from Eastern Asia. Furthermore, US intellectuals started to take interest in Buddhism. Non-Christian churches • Hinduism • Many Hindu groups have also begun to rise with the large number of immigrants from India. Distinctive characteristics • Freedom and toleration • It is a popular notion that each dissenting group that came to colonial America wanted religious freedom for itself. Freedom and toleration were only very gradually established in the face of the rival imperialism of sectarian groups, each holding staunchly to its own cherished version of the true faith, and, in most cases, utterly impatient of dissent. Distinctive characteristics • Pluralism and diversity • The American traditions of individual freedom and tolerance have accommodated a remarkable variety of religious practices and beliefs. Although about four of five Americans identify themselves as Christian, even this majority encompasses many denominations, among them Catholic, Baptist and Lutheran — some of which have further divided into subgroups even as movements like fundamentalism and evangelicalism transcend denominational differences. Prospects • The Fundamentalist revival • Fundamentalism refers to a belief in, and strict adherence to, a set of basic principles. It was originally coined to describe a narrowly defined set of beliefs that developed into a movement within the Protestant community of the United States in the early part of the 20th century. Prospects • The Popularity of the Cyber Church • New telecommunication technologies and general trends towards the privatization of religion would boost cyber churches as well in the 21st century — especially among professionals, baby boomers, and perhaps large segments of the elderly in the U.S. Prospects • The Rise of Islam • Islam in the U.S. has considerably more adherents than most people guess. The number is estimated to be anywhere between three million and six million. Muslims are one of the fastest-growing religious groups in the U.S. Slightly over half of all Muslims are immigrants, a number that has doubled in the past two decades. Prospects • The Secularization of Religion • Secularization of religion refers to the replacement of spiritual concerns with concerns about this world. American culture has been secularized, that is, the influence of religion on public affairs has greatly lessened. Who's who I. Objectives • In this chapter we will learn about some famous American figures II. Focal Questions • Who was the only US president that has served more than two terms? • Who was the youngest man elected to president and the youngest to die? • Who is the author of The Old Man and the Sea? Procedures • Presentation by Students – Focal questions • Lectures by the teacher • Class discussion – Exploitation Activities • Assignment for the next chapter IV. Teaching Hours V. Contents 1. Politicians 2. Writers and Scientists 3. Celebrities in Social Life 1.Politicians • • • • • • • • • George Washington Abraham Lincoln Franklin Delano Roosevelt John Fitzgerald Kennedy Richard Milhous Nixon George Walker Bush Barack Hussein Obama Benjamin Franklin Martin Luther King 1)George Washington • He was the first President of the United States of America • When the Revolutionary War began, the Continental Congress asked George Washington to be the commander in chief of the Continental army. • He was elected to a second term, but refused to run for a third term as president 2)Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln is a perfect example of a self-made man • Through natural ability, determination, and study at home, he became one of the most learned men in the world of his time • In 1860,He won the election, and was the first member of the young Republican Partyto become President of the United States • Lincoln became President of the United States at the moment of the nation’s greatest crisis since 1776 • Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation (解放奴隶 宣言) which freed all black persons from slavery. • On April 14, 1865, he was shot by an assassin 3)Franklin Delano Roosevelt • He was the 32nd President of the United States • He served from 1933 to 1945 and is the only U.S. President to have served more than two terms • During the Great Depression (大萧条) of the 1930s, Roosevelt created the New Deal • Roosevelt led the United States as it became the “Arsenal of Democracy” in WWII • As the Allies neared victory, Roosevelt played a critical role in shaping the post-war world 4)John Fitzgerald Kennedy • Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was also the youngest to die • Winning by a narrow margin in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic (天主教会的) President in 1960 • His Inaugural Address offered the memorable injunction, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” 5)Richard Milhous Nixon • During his Presidency, Nixon succeeded in ending American fight in Viet Nam and improving relations with the U.S.S.R. and China • But the Watergate scandal brought fresh divisions to the country and ultimately led to his resignation • In 1950, he won a Senate seat. Two years later, General Eisenhower selected Nixon, aged 39, to be his running mate 6)George Walker Bush • He was 43rd President of the United States,re-elected on November 2, 2004 • On the morning of September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked the United States. • President Bush believed the strength of America lies in the hearts and souls of their citizens, 7)Barack Hussein Obama • Barack H. Obama (1961- ) is the 44th President of the United States • His story is the American story — values from the heartland, a middle-class upbringing in a strong family, hard work and education as the means of getting ahead, and the conviction that a life so blessed should be lived in service to others. • President Obama’s years of public service are based around his unwavering (坚定的) belief in the ability to unite people around political purposes 8)Benjamin Franklin • Franklin’s careers included printer, moralist, essayist, civic leader, scientist, inventor, statesman, diplomat and philosopher. • At the age of 70, he signed the Declaration of Independence • He read treatises on electricity which led to his flying a kite with a wire attached to a key 9)Martin Luther King • Congress declared a national holiday in January to remember his life • It was on August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King give his speech, “I Have a Dream” • In 1965, the Voting Rights Act was approved. The success of King’s work toward equality was finally written into law • The legacy of Martin Luther King lies in his success to bring equality to black Americans through non-violent means 2.Writers and Scientists • • • • • • • • • • • Washington Irving Walt Whitman Emily Dickinson Mark Twain Ernest Miller Hemingway Edgar Parks Snow Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ford Wilbur and Orville Wright Albert Einstein Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin 1)Washington Irving • Washington Irving (1783-1859) was America’s first man of letters, devoting much of his career to literature • He was the first American writer of imaginative literature to gain international fame • The short story as a genre in American literature probably began with Irving’s The Sketch Book 2)Walt Whitman • Whitman (1819-1892) was one of the great innovators in American literature • In the cluster of poems he called Leaves of Grass (1855) he gave America its first genuine epic poem • The poetic style he devised is now called free verse. 3)Emily Dickinson • Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) wrote her whimsical, darting verse with sublime indifference to any notion of being a democratic or popular poet • Her work, far different from that of either Whitman or Longfellow, illustrated the fact that one could take a single household and an inactive life, and make enchanting poetry out of it 4)Mark Twain • Mark Twain (1835-1910) is the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, who the writer H. L. Mencken called “the true father of our national literature” • Twain made a more extensive combination of American folk humour and serious literature than previous writers had done • Twain’s work does not suffer from being over genteel (上流社会的), and his satirical writing is a sharp attack on society 5)Ernest Miller Hemingway • His subjects were often war and its effects on people, or contests, such as hunting or bullfighting, which demand stamina (毅力) and courage. • Hemingway’s style of writing is striking. His sentences are short, his words simple, yet they are often filled with emotion • The Old Man and the Sea (1952) helps toward restoring his literary image, so that he wins the Nobel Prize in 1954 6)Edgar Parks Snow • The publication in 1937 of his book Red Star Over China quickly earned Snow the reputation of the Western world’s expert on Communists in China 7)Thomas Alva Edison • In his lifetime of 84 years, Edison shared in the excitement of America’s growth into a modern nation • The story of his life takes us back to that “heroic age of invention” as the last of the 19th century has been called • No one but Edison knew how hard and long he had worked to achieve his great victory with the light bulb • The whole United States turned off its electric lights for one minute, in honour of him after his death 8)Henry Ford • Henry Ford (1863-1947) was the American founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production • Henry’s greatest task was to produce a gasoline engine that would be the power for his cars. He finally produced one in the kitchen sink in his house. He worked so many hours each day that his friends called him crazy Henry 9)Wilbur and Orville Wright • The Wright brothers, Orville (1871-1948) and Wilbur (1867-1912), were two Americans who are generally credited with inventing and building the world’s first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavierthan-air human flight on December 17, 1903 10)Albert Einstein • Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them • His special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile (使一致) the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field (电磁场) • Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities 11)Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin • On July 16, 1969, the Apollo 11 spacecraft was sent into the sky by powerful rockets. Three astronauts were inside: Neil Armstrong (1930- ), Edwin Aldrin (1930- ) and Michael Collins (1930- ). • Neil and Edwin stepped on the moon. Neil looked at the camera and said, “That is one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” 3.Celebrities in Social Life • • • • • • • • • John Davison Rockefeller and Family Ray Kroc Walt Disney Marilyn Monroe Elvis Aaron Presley Steven Allan Spielberg William Henry Bill Gates Michael Jeffrey Jordan Michael Fred Phelps 1)John Davison Rockefeller • John made his money in the oil business in Cleveland, Ohio. He founded a business in 1870 which was called the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. It became the world’s largest oil company in the last part of the 19th century. • Due to his great personal wealth, he decided to give one half of his money away to various organizations which caused him to start the Rockefeller Foundation and the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research 2)Ray Kroc • Ray Kroc opened his first McDonald’s in 1955 in Des Plaines, Illinois • In 1965 McDonald’s went public and Ray Kroc’s wealth shot up into the hundreds of millions — making the earlier deal with the McDonald’s stand out as one of the great business deals of the century • By 1967 McDonald’s decided to branch out — first to Canada, then to Europe, then to Asia and the rest of the world 3)Walt Disney • Walt Disney (1901-1966) was a multiple Academy Award winning American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, entrepreneur and philanthropist • In 1932, the production entitled Flowers and Trees (the first colour cartoon) won Walt the first of his studio’s Academy Awards. • Walt Disney’s dream of a clean and organized amusement park came true, as Disneyland Park opened in 1955. 4)Marilyn Monroe • Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962), Hollywood legend, famous even among the famous, began life as plain or not so plain Norma Jean Baker • Her first big break came alongside Jane Russell in Gentleman Prefer Blondes. It was enough of a success for her to join the stars whose hand-prints are set in concrete on Sunset Boulevard. • Suddenly in August 1962 she died, apparently from an overdose of barbiturates (安眠药). 5)Elvis Aaron Presley • Elvis A. Presley (1935-1977) was an American singer, actor, and musician. A cultural icon, he is commonly known simply as “Elvis”, and is also sometimes referred to as “the King of Rock and Roll” or “the King” • Elvis began a singing career that led him to a performance on “The Grand Old Opry”, probably the best country music radio program. • Elvis’ greatest hits were “Hound Dog”, “Do not Be Cruel”, “Love Me Tender” and “All Shook Up”. He could sing softly with great compassion or wildly with great energy. He truly became a teenage idol. 6)Steven Allan Spielberg • Steven A. Spielberg (1946- ) is one of the most critically acclaimed, successful and influential film directors in international filmdom. • Despite numerous critics’ attacks on his directing style and several of his films, he has 24 films under his belt, including some major blockbuster hits • He has accumulated six Academy Award nominations for Best Director, and won two for Schindler’s List and Saving Private Ryan 7)William Henry Bill Gates • William Henry Bill Gates (1955- ) is an American business magnate (商业巨头), philanthropist, author, the world’s third richest person (as of February 8, 2008) and chairman of Microsoft • Gates was the richest person in the world for 15 consecutive years 8)Michael Jeffrey Jordan • Michael Jeffrey Jordan (1963- ) is a retired American professional basketball player and active businessman • Michael Jordan is the greatest basketball player of all time. Jordan was one of the most effectively marketed athletes of his generation 9)Michael Fred Phelps • Michael F. Phelps (1985- ) is an American swimmer • He has won 14 career Olympic gold medals, the most by any Olympian • By the end of 2008, he held seven world records in swimming. Chapter 3 SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN THE UNITED STATES Racial Problems • Unlike most other peoples, Americans are primarily a nation of immigrants. The citizens or their ancestors immigrated from many parts of the globe. Though people all share a common American culture, the nation contains many racial and ethnic subcultures with their own distinctive characteristics. These differences might seem trivial or irrelevant to outside observers, but they have contributed to racial conflicts that have been a persistent social problem to American society. • The United States was founded on the principle of human equality, but in practice the nation has fallen far short of that ideal. Particularly since the civil rights demonstrations, ghetto riots, and other unrest in the 1960s, race and ethnic relations have been a major preoccupation of social scientists, politicians and the general public. Racial Problems • The 1960s saw the great civil rights movement whose goals were to end segregation laws completely and fight for the equal rights for the colored people. • The current status of black Americans presents a mixed picture. The elimination of legal barriers to their advancement has been a major gain, but institutionalized discrimination is still rife. • Race relations between black and white still leave much to be desired, although there is unmistakable evidence of some improvements in attitudes. the Watts Riot in 1965 The Slave Auction Poverty • By many standards the United States is the most favorably wealthy society in history. Yet over 24 million people, more than 1 American in 10, are living at or below the official poverty line, on incomes that the federal government considers insufficient to meet basic requirement of food, clothing, and shelter. Further more, the affluent majority sometimes seems indifferent to the problems of the poorest section of the population. • Poverty in the United States does not simply mean that the poor do not live quite as well as other citizens. Poverty can also mean low self-esteem, despair, and stunting of human potential. Poverty • The problem of poverty in the United States is aggravated because it occurs in a society in which the overall distribution of wealth and income is very unequal. • The continued existence of poverty in a generally affluent American society raises serious moral questions—and inevitably creates fierce confliction of interest and many political controversies. Drug Abuse • Drug abuse in the United States has come to be regarded as one of the most challenging social problems facing the nation. • Drug abuse in the United States is a social problem because it has a wide range of social costs, or dysfunctions. • 1.Crime. There is a strong association between forms of drug use and crime. • 2.Automobile accidents. Alcohol use is directly responsible for tens of thousands of highway accidents and injuries; the drug is blamed for half of the annual total of road traffic fatalities. Drug Abuse • 3. Effects on individuals. Drug dependence takes a significant toll in terms of personal health and safety. • 4. Economic losses. The cost of alcohol abuse alone takes over $43 billion a year in accidents, medical bill, lost production, and so on. Crime • Crime is one of the most serious problems facing the nation. • It is generally agreed that serious, violent crime has reached alarming proportions in the United States. • Those arrested for crimes are disproportionately likely to be male, young, a member of a racial minority, and a city resident. • It must be noticed that the Serious Crime Index of UCR focuses on crimes which are more apt to be committed by persons of lower social and economic status. The Abuse of Power by Government and Corporation • A crucial problem of government and corporations concerns power—and the abuse of it. • Government and corporations are widely distrusted in the United States. • The scandal provoked congressional investigations of the FBI and the CIA that turned up literally thousands of illegal acts in the executive branch of government. The Abuse of Power by Government and Corporation • As for corporations, they are widely believed to be more concerned with their own profits than with social responsibility, and the quality or price of their products, or the truth of their advertising. Questions for Thought • 1.The author says that the United states was founded on the principle of human equality, but in practice the nation has fallen far short of that ideal. Illustrate this point with what you have learned from this book. • 2.Discuss the origins, development and current situation of the black-white relations in the United States. • 3.Why does the drug issue always excite the strong emotion among Americans? Why is it perceived as a major threat to American society? • 4.Pick up some examples from the text to show how the government and corporations have abused power in the United States?