close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Презентация PowerPoint - Convention on Biological Diversity

код для вставкиСкачать
CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN REGIONAL EXPERT
WORKSHOP ON SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL
DIVERSITY
Moscow, 30 May - 2 June 2005
Valuations of Ecosystem
Services: Russian
Experience
Dr., professor Fomenko G.A.
Dr., Fomenko M.A.
1
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
Practical principle 13: The costs of management and
conservation of biological diversity should be
internalized within the area of management and
reflected in the distribution of the benefits from the
use
The management and conservation of natural resources incurs costs. If these
costs are not adequately covered then management will decline and the
amount and value of the natural resources may also decline. It is
necessary to ensure that some of the benefits from use flow to the local
natural resource management authorities so that essential management to
sustain the resources is maintained. Such benefits may be direct, such as
entrance fees from visitors to a national park paid directly to, and retained
by, the park management authority or indirect, such as stumpage tax
revenue from timber harvesting paid by loggers that flows through a
national treasury to a local forest service. In some cases licence fees for
fishing rights are paid directly to the management authority, or to the
national treasury.
2
Topicality
The worldwide tendency of the budgetary
financing reducing of the specially conservated
natural territories (the last 10 years
approximately 50%)
It is necessary to find extra finance
resources for preserves and national parks
maintenance
3
The main points
? Every natural object provides the ecosystem
services and that makes it economically
valuable.
? The ecosystem services can be valued at the
money equivalent.
? The property of the national park is an
amount of the ecosystem services
represented by its natural resources and
objects.
4
The national park
?Kurshskaya Kosa?
5
Description
6
The necessity of Kurshskaya Kosa
and its landscape conservation
7
Present-day Condition
The comfortable buildings considerably change the
structure of the populated localities and landscape
8
Present-day Condition
The transit high-way to Lithuania through the
territory of the national park
9
Value Structure of
the Ecosystem Services
9682
(6%)
6172
(4%)
Recreation Services
14430
(10%)
Fishing
18711
(12%)
Consumption of the non- timber
resources (for household needs)
Carbon Absorption
103954
(68%)
Consumption of the timber
( for household needs)
ths.ruble/year
10
Recreation
1769 person/year
3%
7368 person/year
13%
13755 person/year
24%
33609 person/year
60%
The structure of Kurshskaya Kosa attendance:
Zelenograd and in and around it populated localities
Kaliningrad and the other cities of its region and Lithuania
Moscow and the other cities of Central Russia
The foreign cities (Geramny)
11
Recreation
Economic valuation of the Recreational Services
?
zo ne
Z o ne B o rd ers
1
Z eleno grad and
in and aro und it
p o p ulated
lo calities
2
T he
average
attend ance,
trip /year
T he average
travel co sts,
rub le/
p erso n
C o nsum er?s
surp lus,
rub le/
p erso n
26
240
67
1769
3 0 8 1 ,6
K aliningrad and
the o ther cities o f
its regio n and
L ithuania
7
307
118
33609
27761
3
M o sco w and the
o ther cities o f
C entral R ussia
4
425
2 7 7 5 ,4
7368
8 1 7 9 6 ,6
4
T he fo reign cities
(G eram ny)
1
3 2 0 0 ,4
TO TAL:
C alculated
visito rs
q uantity,
p erso n/year
T he to tal
co nsum er?s
surp lus, ths.
rub le/year
13755
56501
1 1 2 6 3 9 ,2
12
Fishing
The fishing dynamics in Kurshski Bay on the
territories of Russia and Lithuania
2500
ths. t/year
2000
Russia
1500
Lithuania
1000
500
0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
13
Fishing
Annual Fishing Income
Fishing Type
Trade
Amateur
TOTAL::
Current Income
ths.ruble/ year
18450
261
18711
%
99
1
100
14
Mushrooms and Berries Gathering
The valuation results of the non-timber
resources of Kurshskaya Kosa
The Final Use
Value, ruble/year
per person
Expenditures
on Gathering
ruble/year per
person
Valuation of nontimber resources
ruble/year per
person
By inhabitants
434
67,4
366,6
By visitors
564
242
322
Всего:
The common
valuation of nontimber resources,
ths. ruble/year
584
13846
14430
15
Value of Existence
Willingness to pay for the perseverance of Kurshskaya
Kosa as a unique natural object according to the answers
of various groups
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Inhabitants
Visitors
yes
Kaliningrad
Inhabitants
no
16
Value of Existence
Complex valuation Results of Ecosystem Services
of Kurshskaya Kosa
Population
Groups
Inhabitants
Visitors of
Kurshskaya
Kosa
Kaliningrad
Inhabitants
Всего
Willingness Willingness to Pay according
to expenditure of labor
to Pay
ths. ruble/
Man-hour /
ths. ruble./
year
year
year
Total Willingness
to Pay, ths.
ruble./year
9,4
3306
38,4
47,8
3182,9
68350
1237,1
4420,0
5214,2
?
?
5214,2
8406,5
?
1275,5
9682,0
17
Ways to Rise the National Park
Income
? Payment for transit
? The Park Entrance Fee
? Nature-conservative Dues from Extractive Industry
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
(Fishery, Oil Production etc.)
Tourist?s agency Dues
Taxation of staying in hotels
Airport Taxes
Taxation of Fishing Equipment
Incomes from lottery, tobacco taxes, stamps with
Kurshskaya Kosa images etc.
Fines on pollution, illegal logging etc.
International cooperation: Russia ? Lithuania
18
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
Practical principle 12: The needs of indigenous and
local communities who live with and are affected by
the use and conservation of biological diversity, along
with their contributions to its conservation and
sustainable use, should be reflected in the equitable
distribution of the benefits from the use of those
resources
Indigenous and local communities and local stakeholders often shoulder
significant costs or forgo benefits of potential use of biological diversity, in order
to ensure or enhance benefits accruing to others. Many resources (e.g., timber,
fisheries) are over-exploited because regulations are ignored and not enforced.
When local people are involved as stakeholders such violations are generally
reduced. Management regimes are enhanced when constructive programmes
that benefit local communities are implemented, such as capacity training that
can provide income alternatives, or assistance in diversifying their
management capacities.
19
Ob-Тоmsk interfluve
(Тomsk region)
Economic basis for
preventive
measures against
conflicts in natural
management
Waterfence
Tomsk City
Border
protection zone
20
Arrangement of Ecosystem Services in
Ob-Tomsk interfluve
Ecosystem Services
Consumption of the timber
resources of the forest
Consumption of the nontimber resources of the forest
Consumption of the
fishing resources
Consumption of hunting
resources
Total:
Inhabitants of Ob?Tomsk interfluve
ths. ruble/year (part in the total amount)
15889,4
(98%)
Tomsk Inhabitants, ths. ruble/
year (part in the total amount)
391,3*
(2%)
5658,3
(7%)
75509,8
(93%)
110,4
(2%)
6504,5
(98%)
474,6
(22%)
1688,1
(78%)
22132,7
(21%)
84093,7
(79%)
21
Consumption Structure of Ecosystem Services
in Ob-Tomsk interfluve
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Timber
resources of the
forest
Non-timber
resources of the
forest
Fishing resources
Hunting resources
Inhabitants consumption:
Ob ?Tomsk interfluve
Tomsk City
22
Документ
Категория
Презентации по английскому языку
Просмотров
22
Размер файла
944 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа