On the question about energy 229 of 3.5 eV state of Th S.L. Sakharov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia The 229Th level scheme Left side: the level scheme (8 excited states, 15 transitions) from ref. . Right side: the levels introduced in the present work using the transition energies from ref. . Energies are given in keV. The energy of the first isomeric state in 229Th was determined to be пЃ„=3.5п‚±1.0 eV, using the following combinations of level energies from the level scheme: пЃ„= 97-25-71 пЃ„= [148-146]-[118-117] пЃ„= 97-69-29 пЃ„= [148-146]-[76-74] where пЃ„ is the isomer energy and in square brackets the differences of transitions energies (not the energies themselves, as in the first two relationships) are taken. Placement of some transitions in 229Th level scheme Placement of transition, to 3.5 eV isomer or to the g.s. Energy of transition, keV Reference, year of publication 1994  1999  Helmer Firestone 2002  Gulda 2003  Barci 2005  Helene 2006  Ruchowska 2007  Beck 29 isomer isomer isomer g.s., isomer g.s., isomer isomer g.s., isomer 71 isomer isomer isomer g.s., isomer g.s., isomer isomer g.s., isomer 146 isomer isomer g.s. isomer g.s., isomer g.s. The energy of the isomeric transition пЃ„ depending on the energy of the transition excluded from the 229Th level scheme from ref.. Fig.2. Lower part: dashed line is for the level scheme ( 8 excited states and 15 transitions), each point is for the same scheme but with 14 transitions, with each transition in turn being removed from the scheme. Upper part: dashed line is for the enlarged level scheme ( 14 excited states and 31 transitions), each point is for the same scheme but with 30 transitions, with each transition in turn being removed from the scheme. The close level spacing between the two bandheads raises the question of determining the correct intensities of the transitions between the lower states. Fig. 6 The low energy multiplets. 229 90Th139 Fig 1. Level scheme and g-ray transitions of 229Th from ref.. (Continuous arrows) Undisputed gray transitions; (dashed and dotted lines) not well-established g -ray transitions; (spins and parity) left side, Ref.  Barci; right side, Ref.  Gulda Table I. Different hypotheses about some g вЂ“ ray transitions in 229Th g-ray Initial level energy (keV) (keV) 29 29 Final level (keV) Ref.[Beck] 92% 8% 3.5 eV 7.6(5)eV Ref.[Barci] 3 71 пЂ« 49% 3 G.S.25% 51% 2 2 164 146 164 пЂ« 9.3 (6)eV 14.3 (10)eV 2 пЂ« 60% G.S.40% 146 Ref.[Gulda] 75% 3 71 Ref.[Helene] 3 2 41% 3 пЂ« 2 пЂ« G.S. 2 3 59% пЂ« 3 2 пЂ« 88% G.S. 12% Partial level scheme ref.  of 229Th with Eg in keV. Fig. 1. The two rotational bands are displaced relative to each other for clarity, and labeled by the Nilsson asymptotic quantum numbers. The gamma rays of the  band are distinguished by green coloring. XRS spectra in 29 and 42 keV energy regions. ref. Fig. 2. Data illustrated for the 29 keV doublet (пЃ„E29) is the sum of 11 data sets and 25 pixels (a), and data illustrated for the 42 keV doublet (пЃ„ E42) represents the sum of 11 data sets only for pixel 0 (b). Black lines represent the data; red lines represent the least-square fitting results. Full-energy peaks are labeled by Jp of the corresponding 229Th transition. In ref. the 29185.6 eV, 29391.1 eV, 42434.9 eV and 42633.3 eV transitions were taken with the resolution of 26 - 30 eV. The energy of the first isomeric state E(229mTh) was determined from relationship E(229mTh) = пЃ„E29 пЂ пЃ„E42 = 205.48 п‚± 0.50 eV пЂ 198.44 п‚± 0.22 eV = 7.0 п‚± 0.5 eV, where пЃ„E29 = (29.39 пЂ 29.19) keV = 205.48 п‚± 0.50 eV, which means the error of the 29.39 keV transition is 0.50 eV or larger (intensity of the 29.19 keV transition пЂЇintensity of the 29.39 keV transition п‚» 40). However judging from fig. 2a of ref. the intensity of the 29.39 keV transition within 26 eV FWHM is about 300 counts. So the minimal achievable error is 26пЂЇ3000.5 = 1.5 eV. Even if one takes the intensity of the 29.39 keV transition п‚» 0.5 per day per pixel, its total intensity (not within FWHM) is 2 п‚ґ 11 days п‚ґ 25 pixels = 550. Within FWHM the intensity is about 400, so the resulting error is 26пЂЇ4000.5 =1.3 eV. So the accuracy of the energy error of the 29.39 keV transition and hence of пЃ„E29 is overestimated, which possibly result in poor fit (3пЃі) of the 29.39 keV transition in the level scheme of Helmer ref.. The value of 7.0 п‚± 0.5 eV was corrected by branching b = 1пЂЇ13 from the 29.19 keV level to the g.s., which gives 7.6 п‚± 0.5 eV. However branching 25% from  results in the value of 9.3 eV. Energy calibration in the range 0 -33 keV was done using a 4th order polynomial with zero-energy offset. Conclusions Therefore in reality the energy of the 3.5 eV state lies in the range 0 п‚®15 eV and it is not clear whether this state does exist. One may propose two ways to determine its energy: 1. The direct measurement of the energy of the transition from the 3.5 eV state. However, the attempts to find such a transition failed Richardson , S.B.Utter et al . The task is very difficult because the possible range of the transition energies is very wide, 2. The direct measurement of the energies of the strongest 42 and/or 97 keV transitions to calculate the 3.5 eV state energy. A double crystal spectrometer similar to that from Gavrikov  with the resolution of the order of 1 eV is very suitable for this aim. For the source of 100 cm2 area containing 20 g of 233U one can expect to register 3 g/h for the 97 keV transition and 14 g/h for the 42 keV transition (assuming 100 % effectiveness of registration and a solid angle of 10-9). References 1. 2. 3. R.G. Helmer and C.W. Reich, Phys. Rev. C49 (4), 1845 (1994). V. Barci et al., Phys. Rev. C68, 034329 (2003). Z.O. Guimaraes-Filho, O. Helene and P.R. Pascholati, Contributions to Conference on Nuclear Physics, Santa Fe, 2005, p.257; 4. Z.O. Guimaraes-Filho and O. Helene, Phys. Rev. C71, 044303 (2005). 5. B.R. Beck, J.A. Becker, Beiersdorfer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 142501 (2007) 6. J. Tuli. http://www.nndc.bnl.gov./nndc/ensdfpgm/ 7. E. Ruchowska et al., Phys. Rev. C73, 044326 (2006) 8. R.B. Firestone, S.Y.F. Chu, and C.M. Baglin, Table of Isotopes CD-ROM, 8th ed. (Wiley- Interscience, New York, 1999) 9. K. Gulda et al., W. Kurcewicz, A.J. Aas et al., Nucl. Phys. A703, 45, (2002). 10. D.S.Richardson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. V.80, 3206 (1998). 11. S.B.Utter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. V.82, 505, (1999) 12. Yu.A. Gavrikov et al., Preprint NP-24-2367, Gatchina, 2000, p.42. A portion of the low-energy level scheme of 229Th showing the g rays that are used in this determination of the energy пЃ„ of the first excited level. The energy, пЃ„, of the first excited level is given by each of the four combinations of gвЂ“ray energies: пЃ„= 97.1 - 25.3 - 71.8 пЃ„= 97.1 - 67.9 - 29.1 пЃ„= 148.1 -118.9 +117.1-146.3 пЃ„= 148.1 -76.4 + 74.6 -146.3 An excited state of Table VII aThe bThe 229Th at 3.5 eV The energy, пЃ„, of the first excited level energies for Eg (25) and Eg (29) are from Table V. energies for Eg (25) and Eg (29) are derived in the text from the computed 217-187 and 164-135 differences for the 29 line and from the measured 29-25 (Table III) difference for 25 line. Comparison of (d, t) strengths for rotational band members in 229Th and 231Th. Table 1. aThis upper limit for the strength is obtained assuming the full cross section of the unresolved doublet is for this level. bUpper limit only. Peak is obscured by a larger one for a nearby level. Cross section (Ојb / sr) Angular distribution for (d, t) cross section of some 229Th levels. Fig. 2 Angle (deg) The solid curves are DWBA calculations for the l values appropriate for the states indicated, adjusted in the vertical direction to give the best visual fit to the data points.