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Academic Ranking of World Universities
Prof. Nian Cai LIU
Director, Center for World-Class Universities
Dean, Graduate School of Education
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
18 October 2012
Let a Thousand Flowers Blossom
• UNESCO Global Forum “Rankings and Accountability
in Higher Education”, 16-17 May 2011, Paris.
• Although there are many limitations and problems,
ranking is useful to a variety of stakeholders in many
different ways and is becoming one of the major
quality assurance tools.
• Whether universities and other stakeholders agree
with rankings or not, they are clearly here to stay.
The key issue then becomes how to improve
rankings and wisely use rankings.
Outline
• The History
• The Methodology
• The Results
• The Future
HISTORY
Chinese Dream of WCU
• World-Class University (WCU) is a dream for generations
of Chinese. It’s not only for pride, but also for the future
of China.
• Since 1990s, Chinese government has launched several
initiatives for research universities. The best-known one
is specially designed to build WCU (985 Project).
• Many top Chinese universities have setup their strategic
goals as WCU. Most of them have also set time tables for
reaching the goals.
Questions About WCU
• What is the definition and criteria for a WCU?
• How many WCU should be there in the world?
• What are the positions of top Chinese
universities in the world?
• How can Chinese universities improve
themselves to reach the goal of WCU?
(From benchmarking to ranking)
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU)
пѓј 2003
пѓј 2004
пѓј 2005
пѓј 2006
пѓј 2007
пѓј 2008
пѓј 2009
пѓј 2010
пѓј 2011
пѓј 2012
Find out the positions of top
Chinese Universities in the world
higher education system
Provide one source of
information for the global
comparison of universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities by
Broad Subject Fields (ARWU-FIELD)
2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
Five Broad Subject Fields
• Natural Sciences and Mathematics (SCI)
• Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences (ENG)
• Life and Agriculture Sciences (LIFE)
• Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy (MED)
• Social Sciences (SOC)
Academic Ranking of World Universities by
Subject Fields (ARWU-SUBJECT)
2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
Five Subject Fields
• Mathematics
• Physics
• Chemistry
• Computer Sciences
• Economics / Business
METHODOLOGY
Selection of Universities
• Any university that has any Nobel Laureates, Fields Medals,
Highly Cited Researchers, or papers in Nature or Science
• Universities with significant amount of papers indexed by
Citation Indexes of Thomson
Number of
universities
scanned
Number of
universities
actually
ranked
> 2000
1200
Number of
universities
published
Top 500
Top 200
Top 200
ARWU
ARWU-FIELD
ARWU-SUBJECT
Criteria and Weights of ARWU
Criteria
Indicator
Code
Weight
Alumni
10%
Quality of
Education
Alumni of an institution winning Nobel
Prizes and Fields Medals
Quality of
Faculty
Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes
Award
and Fields Medals
Highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject
HiCi
categories
Research
Output
Papers published in Nature and Science*
Papers indexed in Science Citation Indexexpanded and Social Science Citation Index
Per Capita Per capita academic performance of an
Performance institution
20%
20%
N&S*
20%
PUB
20%
PCP
10%
*: For institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences such as London School of
Economics, N&S is not considered and the weight of N&S is relocated to other indicators
Definition of Indicator: Alumni
• The total number of the alumni of an institution winning
Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals.
• Alumni are defined as those who obtain bachelor,
Master's or doctoral degrees from the institution.
• Different weights are set according to the periods of
obtaining degrees. The weight is 100% for alumni
obtaining degrees in 2001-2010, 90% for alumni
obtaining degrees in 1991-2000, and so on, and finally
10% for alumni obtaining degrees in 1911-1920.
• If a person obtains more than one degrees from an
institution, the institution is considered once only.
Criteria and Weights of ARWU-FIELD
Alumni Award
HiCi
PUB
TOP
Fund
SCI
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
/
ENG
/
/
25%
25%
25%
25%
LIFE
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
/
MED
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
/
SOC
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
/
Criteria and Weights of ARWU-SUBJECT
Alumni
Award
HiCi
PUB
TOP
Mathematics
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
Physics
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
Chemistry
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
Computer
Science
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
Economics /
Business
10%
15%
25%
25%
25%
Main Sources of Data
пѓ� Nobel laureates:
http://www.nobelprize.org
пѓ� Fields Medals:
http://www.mathunion.org/medals/
пѓ� Highly Cited Researchers:
http://www.highlycited.com
пѓ� Papers published in Nature and Science:
http://www.webofknowledge.com
пѓ� Papers indexed in SCIE and SSCI:
http://www.webofknowledge.com
16
RESULTS
Average Performance by ARWU Indicators
Indicator
Alumni
Award
HiCi
N&S
PUB
Top 100
3.02
1.35
29.9
57.6
4300
101-200
0.44
0.11
7.2
14.2
2700
201-300
0.21
0.02
3.3
7.3
1900
301-400
0.13
0.01
2.3
3.8
1400
401-500
0.10
0.01
0.8
2.7
1200
Top 100 Universities by Region
100%
80%
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
7
5
6
6
6
7
35
34
34
34
32
33
34
31
Oceania
60%
Asia
Europe
40%
57
58
58
58
2005
2006
2007
2008
59
58
57
57
2009
2010
2011
2012
20%
0%
Americas
Top 500 Universities by Region
100%
80%
205
207
208
210
208
204
204
202
Europe
60%
Americas
Asia
40%
198
196
197
190
184
187
184
182
Oceania
Africa
20%
0%
74
71
78
80
84
84
89
88
19
21
22
20
22
22
19
24
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Top 500 Universities by Country (43)
7 7
7
10
11
11
13
6
5
65
43
150
19
20
42
20
21
22
38
37
United States
United Kingdom
Canada
France
Australia
Sweden
South Korea
Belgium
Israel
Finland
Denmark
Ireland
South Africa
Russia
Greece
Hungary
Argentina
Czech
Iran
Egypt
Serbia
Turkey
China
Germany
Japan
Italy
Netherlands
Spain
Switzerland
Austria
Brazil
New Zealand
Norway
Saudi Arabia
Portugal
Singapore
Poland
Chile
Mexico
India
Croatia
Malaysia
Slovenia
ARWU Features
ARWU Impact
FUTURE
Updating ARWU
пѓ� ARWU Top 500 annually
пѓ� ARWU-FIELD Top 200 annually
пѓ� ARWU-SUBJECT Top 200 annually
Improving ARWU
пѓ� Including more international scientific awards
- possibly one from each subject area
пѓ� Including more internationally renowned scholars
- plenary speakers etc.
пѓ� Including more internationally renowned alumni
- executives in top companies and intl. organizations
пѓ� Including more types of research outputs for social
sciences
- books, etc.
Diversifying ARWU
пѓ� Ranking of specialized universities
- medicine, engineering, etc. (classification)
пѓ� Ranking by regions of special interests
- Eastern Europe, South America, South Asia, etc.
пѓ� Ranking emphasizing per capita performance
- comparable definition and data of academic staff
пѓ� Ranking considering history, budget, size, etc.
Profiling Research Universities
пѓ� Building databases of world research universities
with as many indicators as possible (GRUP)
пѓ� Profiling and interactive analysis of world
research universities at institutional level
пѓ� Benchmarking with peer research universities in
the world at faculty/departmental level
пѓ� Annual report of world-class universities
Contributing to Ranking Community
пѓ�Theoretical research on ranking to better
understand the phenomenon of ranking
пѓ�Professional services through IREG
involvement and conference organization
�IREG Stakeholders’ Guidelines on Academic
Rankings
http://www.ShanghaiRanking.com/
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