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GosNIIAS
STATE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
OF AVIATION SYSTEMS
Edward Falkov
Overview of Russian
ADS-B Activities
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
1
RADAR COVERAGE IN RUSSIA
PSR
SSR
Рќ=10 000 m
H = 10 000m
93%
provided
radar coverage
10%
90%
7%
Рќ=6 000 m
Рќ=6 000 m
not provided
radar coverage
77%
8%
23%
92%
Рќ=3 000 m
Рќ=3 000m
64%
7%
93%
36%
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
2
ADS-B in Russia: what has been done
• Using friendly loaned Swedish/Danish STDMA equipment,
demo and experimental flights were executed in Russia,
Sweden, Italy and France in 1999-2000 to get experience
and participate in joint programs
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
3
Demo flights
with use of ADS-B
Stockholm-Copenhagen-Stockholm
21 February 1999
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
4
Participated aircraft
equipped with ADS-B&VDL-4
Fokker-28
Fokker-28
Ilyushin-18
Beech Aircraft
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
SAS6790
SAS6792
14141414
GOT908
5
Eurocontrol ADS-B Trial
BrГ©tigny, 6-12/10/1999
• Two Aircraft
– Ilyushin-18D (GosNIIAS, Russia)
– Cessna 550 Citation (NLR, The Netherlands)
• Equipped with
– 1090 Ext. Squitter (Honeywell - Dassault)
– UAT (UPS-AT)
– VDL-4 (SAAB Dynamics)
• Ground Station at EEC, Brétigny
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
6
Eurocontrol ADS-B Trial (1/3)
1090 Ext. Squitter Success Rate, Paris
100%
S u c c e s s R a te , %
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0
30
60
90
120
150
d is ta n c e , n m i
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
7
Eurocontrol ADS-B Trial (2/3)
VDL Mode 4 Success Rate
110%
100%
S u c c e s s R a te , %
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
D is ta n c e , n m i
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
8
Eurocontrol ADS-B Trial (3/3)
UAT Success Rate
U AT S ucess R ate ver sus D istance
90%
S u cce ss R a te , %
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
D ista nce , nm i
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
9
Eurocontrol ADS-B Trial
Observations
•
Reliability: (Success Rate)
–
VDL-4:
conformed to SCAA results
– UAT:
was less than expected
– 1090:
was lower than in Toulouse
– In all cases , improvement seemed feasible
•
Update Rate and Coverage:
–
Air-ground capabilities differed
– air-air was not measured
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
10
In July 2002 FAA (USA) announced decision
for ADS-B data link technology in the U.S.:
• 1090 ext. squitter for commercial aircraft
• UAT for general aviation.
It is noted that “if 1090ES cannot meet the long
term needs, the FAA will participate with ICAO
community to select a suitable long-term ADS-B
link”.
Eurocontrol is intended to adopt for Europe
(VDL-4 + 1090ES) solution as ADS-B data link
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
11
It looks like that for the most part of
Russia under non-intensive air traffic
flows conditions VDL-4 is enough to
solve any issues concerning ADS-B
and other applications.
It should be confirmed by tests.
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
12
COMPARATIVE TESTS
OF VHF FM BROADCAST SIGNALS
IMMUNITY FOR VDL MODE 4
in the aeronautical NAV-band 108 to 118 MHz
PERFORMED BY
Dr. Armin Schlereth, DFS (Germany),
Dr. Evgeny Kononov (GosNIIAS, Russia).
April 16-19, 2002
Laboratories of DFS (Germany)
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
13
Methods:
1) DFS by A.Schlereth, AMCP WS-M/5 WP10
2) Russian, based on ITU-R IS.1009-1 and
ITU-R IS.1140 recommendations.
Methods are rather close and differ in the type
of interfering broadcast signals modulation.
Main results:
• the obtained values of actual threshold
are rather similar
• the tested VDL Mode 4 receiver has not
passed the tests under both procedures applied
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
14
ADS-B in Russia: what has been done
• Using friendly loaned Swedish/Danish STDMA equipment,
experimental and demo flights were executed in Russia,
Sweden, Italy and France in 1999-2000 to get experience
and participate in joint programs
• Simulations for some Russian ATC areas were performed
• Some normative documents for ADS-B implementation
are developed and approved by Russian CAA
• Attention and interests of Russian aviation community
are firmly turned to ADS-B application
• VDL-4 equipment is being developed and interfaced with
existing and perspective avionics and ATC means
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
15
ADS-B&VDL-4 implementation
near-term plans in Russia
пЂї Where:
• Tyumen region (5 airports and 2 airlines)
• “Gaspromavia” airline and North Project
• Moscow (helicopter flights over the city)
• S&R operations (emergency situations)
? When: 2002 - 2004
! ! ! GPS/GLONASS capability and manufacturing
VDL-4 transponders in Russia are planned
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
16
GPS
GPS/
GPS
Receiver
GLONASS
Receiver
GPS
Receiver
Receiver
Communication
Communicatio
Communication
Communication
processor
processor
n
processor
Communication
processor
processor
VHF
VHF
VHF
VHF
Radio
Radio
VHF
Radio
Radio4
Mode
Mode
Radio
Mode
Mode44 4
Mode 4
ARINC
429
ARINC
429
ARINC 429
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
17
Why GPS&GLONASS instead of only GPS?
In average nearly 14 satellites against 8-10
As results:
• Integrity, availability, accuracy are better
• RAIM is better
• Solving of phase ambiguity is better (for n>12
probability P→1)
• Due to GLONASS FDMA it is more stable to
interference
ICAO considers GPS+GLONASS for GNSS
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
18
There is an obstinate government
recommendation to use GPS/GLONASS
receivers for all SatNav applications
in Russia
Interface of airborne and ground
transponders (GP&C EFR 200/300) with
“Compass” and “Navis” GPS/GLONASS
receivers has been done in summer 2001 and
used in Tyumen project in 2001-2002
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
19
Russian FAA’s order on ADS-B
# 80 dated 14 November 1999
• 2000: to install equipment on-board and in the
Tyumen region ATC centres, acceptance
inspection tests
• 2001: preoperational exploitation, certification,
technology and procedures assessment
• 2002-2005: implementation in other airlines
and ATC centres
• from 1 October 2005 ADS-B is ATC means
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
20
Tyumen region
Air routes
S = 1,4 mln.sq.km
(8,4% area of Russia)
S Germany + S Italy +
S France + S UK <
< S Tyumen region
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
21
ADS-B implementation
in Tyumen region
Stage I
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
22
ADS-B implementation
in Tyumen region
Stage II
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
23
ADS-B tests in “Gaspromavia” airline
(fleet contains more than 100 aircraft,
70 helicopters including)
Location – “Astafievo” aeroport, Jan.-March 2001
Objects - Kamov-26 helicopter, car
STDMA EFR transponders from GP&C (Denmark)
Results and Conclusions:
• Resolute surveillance in terminal zone
• Accuracy to land is better than 2 m
• Some experience to locate GPS and VHF antennas
• “Gaspromavia” is ready to install and use ADS-B
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
24
Mi-8 helicopter surveillance, flight from Chkalovsky
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
25
Flights over Moscow
• GosNIIAeronavigatsia and GosNIIAS have
developed the concept of ATC for flights
directly over the city of Moscow (mainly police,
emergency, ambulancy, fire-brigade and other
helicopters) based on ADS-B&VDL-4
• Moscow government approved the concept
• Launching the project in 2002
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
26
Program of ADS-B implementation in Russia
adopted by Russian CAA in 2000 contains the next three stages:
Phase 0 (2001-2002)
Realization of ADS-B project in Tyumen region
To acquire a comprehensive estimation of ADS-B system under
operational conditions and to execute all kinds of tests and trials:
- to install 5 ADS-B ground stations in Tyumen region
airports: Roschino (Tyumen city), Tobolsk, Salekhard,
Khanty-Mansyisk, and Mys Kamenny;
- Gaspromavia and Yamal airlrines are to install ADS-B
equipment on their aircraft
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
27
Phase 0
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
28
Phase 1 (2003-2005)
Realization of the international air routes equipping project
To increase the quality and reliability of air controllers’ servicing
of international flights and to establish necessary conditions for
future replacement of a part of traditional navaids:
- to install 81 ADS-B ground stations providing full ASD-B
coverage of international air routes in the continental part of
Russian airspace
- Russian airlines are to equip about 30% of their fleet by
ADS-B systems
- to apply ADS-B as a means of air traffic monitoring
- in case it is necessary due to the previous stage, to install
the equipment using FANS-1/A and CNS/ATM Package 1,2
technology in western oceanic area of Murmansk regional center
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
29
Phase 1
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
30
Phase 2 (2006-2010 and future period)
Realization of the project of the establishment of a seamless
ADS-B field in the continental airspace in Russia
To provide the transition of Russian ATM to the use of ADS-B
as the sole means of surveillance data and also applying ADS-B
equipment for navigation (DGNSS with integrity monitoring) and
communication (ATIS-B, METAR-B, CPDLC) tasks:
- to install additional 33 ADS-B ground stations
- to complete in general the equipping of ADS-B systems
at Russian fleet performed by airlines
(to be continued)
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
31
(Phase 2 – continued)
- to restrict the access of aircraft without ADS-B systems
to certain routes and certain parts of Russian airspace
- to provide the transfer of ADS-B messages to the centers
of united regions by ground-to-ground datalinks
- to provide the precision approach Cat 1 using
multifunctional ADS-B station and GNSS receivers,
integrated into ADS-B airborne equipment, at main
Russian airports
- to start the phasing out of some radar means due to
the depletion of their life cycle in order to establish
an efficient and reasonable surveillance area in Russian
airspace
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
32
Phase 2
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
33
Main transit air traffic flows in Russian airspace
Daily intensity of flights:
More 700 A/C
81- 120 A/РЎ
241- 700 A/РЎ
41- 80 A/РЎ
201- 240 A/РЎ
10- 40 A/РЎ
Мыс Шмидта
Анадырь
161 - 200 A/РЎ
Певек
121- 160 A/РЎ
Черский
Мурманск
С.Петербург
Калининград
Вел.Луки
Трансполярный поток
7136 РїРѕР». - 7,8% (+25%)
Печора
РњРѕСЃРєРІР°
Пенза
Ростов Волгоград
Азиатский поток
26619 РїРѕР». - 28,0% (+7,8%)
Астрахань
Батагай
Мыс Каменный
Норильск
Березово
Жиганск
Сеймчан
Магадан
Петропавловск
Якутск
Туруханск
Ханты-Мансийск
Екатеринбург
Самара
РўРёРєСЃРё
Хатанга
Салехард
Сыктывкар
РљРёСЂРѕРІ
Казань Пермь
Воркута
Трансвосточный поток
8348 РїРѕР». - 9,1% (+2%)
Чайбуха
Амдерма
Архангельск
Вологда
Чокурдах
Тюмень
Уфа
Челябинск
Курган
Оренбург
РЎСѓСЂРіСѓС‚
РћРјСЃРє
Мирный
Транссибирский поток
11098 РїРѕР». - 12,2% (-11,3%)
Колпашево
РћС…Р°
Чульман
Николаевск
Енисейск
Красноярск
Трансазиатский поток
Братск
37934 РїРѕР». - 41,5% (+8,5%)РќРѕРІРѕСЃРёР±РёСЂСЃРє
Барнаул
Охотск
Киренск
�ркутск
Магдагачи
Благовещенск
Южно-Сахалинск
Хабаровск
Чита
Владивосток
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
34
STRUCTURE OF MAIN INTERNATIONAL ROUTES
Рќ СЊ СЋ -Р™ РѕСЂ Рє
Р§ Рё РєР° РіРѕ
Л о с-А н дж ел е с
С ан -Ф р а н ц и ск о
Лондон
А м стерд ам
Ф р ан кф у рт
Рђ РЅРєРѕСЂРёРґР¶
М у рм ан ск
Рќ Рѕ СЂ Рё Р» СЊ СЃРє
Рў Рё РєСЃРё
М а гад а н
Х аб ар ов ск
К а р ач и
Д ел и
РЎ ey Р»
РўРѕРє Рё Рѕ
Го н ко н г
С и н гап ур
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
35
Cross-polar routes, Russian airspace
Oceanic area:
Using of existing means and procedures
or/and transition to ADS-C + ADS-B
Continental area:
Just after entering it aircraft will be
suggested to be served mainly
with ADS-B based on VDL-4
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
36
ADS IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
ADS-C
(ADS-C + ADS-B)
ADS-B
(ADS-B + ADS-C)
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
37
The task is to create seamless ATS
providing ADS-B as well
FIS-B, TIS-B, CPDLC, AOC, …
based on VDL-4 in the airspace
from Arctic Ocean
to south-east Asia
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
38
GRAS ground facility distribution
Мыс Шмидта
Анадырь
Певек
Черский
Мурманск
Чокурдах
Калининград
Чайбуха
С.Петербург
Архангельск
Вел.Луки
Амдерма
Воркута
Вологда
РњРѕСЃРєРІР°
Пенза
Ростов
Мыс Каменный
Сеймчан
Батагай
Норильск
Магадан
Жиганск
Петропавловск
Салехард
РљРёСЂРѕРІ
Казань
Самара
Волгоград
РўРёРєСЃРё
Хатанга
Астрахань
Березово
Пермь
Ханты-Мансийск
Екатеринбург
Тюмень
Челябинск
Курган
Оренбург
Охотск
Мирный
РћС…Р°
РЎСѓСЂРіСѓС‚
Чульман
РћРјСЃРє
Колпашево
РќРѕРІРѕСЃРёР±РёСЂСЃРє
Граница зоны действия GEO
системы EGNOS
Якутск
Туруханск
Барнаул
Николаевск
Енисейск
Красноярск
Братск
�ркутск
Южно-Сахалинск
Магдагачи
Киренск
Благовещенск
Хабаровск
Чита
Владивосток
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
39
Russian “ADS” LLC (2002)
ADS-B equipment:
Q development,
certification and
manufacturing
Q installation and
implementation
Q support service
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
40
56
ADS-B implementation
Out of Russia:
ICAO regions
2006
Russia
21 August 2002
2007
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
41
Potential ADS-B users:
• general
21 August 2002
aviation
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
42
Potential ADS-B users:
• unmanned aerial vehicles
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
43
After tragic events of 11 September
How to increase the safety and security?
Issues to discuss
1. What is expedient to do with surveillance
avionics existing now? What is necessary to change?
2. Means for surveillance.
Compare possible solutions and find out
a “cost-effective” one.
3. Possible role of mandatory ADS-B. What is
necessary to do? The consequences for ATC
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
44
1. What is expedient to do with surveillance avionics
existing now? What is necessary to change?
Existing avionics providing surveillance like
squawk, SSR transponder, etc. should function all
the time.
Nobody is able to switch it off both before taking
off and during the flight like engines.
Aircraft developers (Boeing, Airbus, Tupolev, …)
should reconsider circuits and together with
manufacturers make changes for new and
existing fleet.
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
45
2. Type of surveillance
• Radar type (primary, secondary)
• Requires remarkable initial and
operational expenses
• The lower altitude the more much
expensive radar network
• Not so accurate
• Ecological problem
• ADS-B
• Accurate & not expensive
• Complete set of information
• No ecological problem
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
46
3. Possible role of mandatory ADS-B
?
Would Tu-154M and
Boeing 757 come across
1 July 2002 over Germany
if pilots had in front of them
pictures like that?
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
47
Would Tu-154 and Boeing come across
if pilots had in front of them pictures like that?
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
48
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
49
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
50
The point is not that there is difference in SOP
(standard operating procedure)
for Western and Russian pilots.
In accordance with interviewing a group of
Western pilots by Flight International
they notified that in similar case
after repeated ATC instruction
all of them would execute this instruction
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
51
The problem is that a pilot should have
accurate, complete and impartial information
(sometimes not depending on ATC people),
which technology usage a pilot has learned
in the training process and repeatedly used it
in simple situations
and will give credence to it.
ADS-B provides such automatic
without fail information
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
52
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
53
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
54
Conflict detection
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
55
Conflict resolving
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
56
3. Possible role of mandatory ADS-B
Tasks:
• to install transponder on every flying vehicle
and cars entering a runway
transponder options
• every flying vehicles should be provided with
a non-switch-controlled ADS-B transponder
and everybody will know about that
• to develop ADS-B network
The consequences: ATC will become much better
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
57
To increase safety, security and surveillance
capability, like AIS for maritime applications
To make decision on ADS-B to be
mandatory for all aircraft in Russia
To suggest Russia to appeal to ICAO
to make decision on ADS-B to be
mandatory for all aircraft
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
58
To perfect technology
and procedures
of mandatory ADS-B
in the course of Moscow project
using ADS-B
to manage helicopter flights
over the city
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
59
Conclusions
• Russia is forced to develop and implement
the key CNS/ATM technology application
- ADS-B - that looks very promising and
advantageous for use in Russian ATC and
airlines
• First ADS-B projects have been launched
for pre-operational implementation
• Some ideas are suggested to discuss how to use
ADS-B to increase safety, security and
surveillance capability
21 August 2002
Russian ADS-B activities
(IAATC, Anchorage)
60
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