The Olympic Games in London Tanayanc Svetlana Tsaturyan Larisa Drapchenko Vika School 21 London will become the first city to host the Olympic Games for the third time (previously they were held in the capital of England in 1908 and 1948.). In competitions will take part 10.5 thousand athletes and 4.2 thousand Paralympians from 205 countries of the world. For the sports event of this scale in the Eastern part of London is being built Олимпийскй Park, the main buildings of which will be the Olympic Stadium, Aqua, and, of course, the Olympic Village. Billions of pounds have been spent to make the place of the event more accessible and convenient, expand the transport network and infrastructure. Officially went on sale of 8.8 million tickets to the Olympic games for those wishing to personally to observe of a course of the competitions, but the latest estimates of the number of applications exceeds the number of tickets in more than 2 times (about 20 million), and this means that the tickets for the many sporting events will be distributed randomly . One of the most colourful events of the Olympic games will be the opening and closing ceremonies, an indispensable attribute of which will be the Olympic Flame the permanent symbol of Olympic Games, calling for peace, unity and friendship. ? The Olympic Flame and the Relay race were important elements of the rituals that accompanied the Games in Ancient Greece. During the competition the sacred flame is constantly supported in the temple of the goddess Hera. The heralds were sent to all corners of the state, to declare the beginning of the Games and to declare the sacred truce. Modern Olympic Games have always begin with the Olympic torch Relay, which is lit by the sun rays in the temple of the goddess Hera in Olympia in Greece, the birthplace of the ancient events. After a short relay in Greece Fire is transferred to the new capital of the Olympic Games at the stadium Panathinaikos in Athens, where the first modern Olympic Games. Then the Fire is delivered to the host country, where is transferred from one torchbearer to another, spreading appeal to the world, as well as combinations of culture and sports. Finishes its journey of the Olympic Flame at the opening ceremony, heralding the official start of the Olympic Games. The last факелоносец transmits the Fire from his hands to the place where he will continue to burn throughout the Olympics, after which it will be paid off at the closing ceremony The service is provided by bwin International Ltd., registered in Gibraltar with all necessary licenses, not related to London.ru and not falling under action of the law of the Russian Federation No. 244-FZ. Available for persons older than 18 years, you must be registered on the site bwin.com. As always, lighted during the traditional ceremony in Greece, the Olympic Flame will do a short baton in this country and will arrive to the United Kingdom on may 18, 2012. The Olympic torch relay in great Britain will last for 70 days, and the great honor of carrying the Olympic Flame will fall on the share of 8 000 torchbearers. This opportunity comes once in a lifetime, and this time the contest for participation in the relay will be opened in may, 2011, giving practically every resident of the United Kingdom of a chance to take part in the historical opening ceremony of XXX Olympic games. One of the prerequisites of the Olympic Games in London 2012г. is an attraction to a healthy lifestyle of the new generation, so more than half of the torchbearers will be young people. And then fireworks, music, dancing, stars of the world scene and the most famous athletes from all corners of the globe, United by the spectacular show, which will look up every third inhabitant of the planet. The main idea of the ceremonies will be the glorification of the Olympic and Paralympic values and the spirit of unity and friendship between different Nations. Well, to find out more - will have to come to London, after all all the details of the show are held in the strictest of confidence. Summer Olympic Games of 1908, took place in London (Great Britain) from April 27 to October 31, 1908. 110 sets of medals in 22 sports were played. 2008 athletes that is more, than for all previous Games, together taken took part in these Games. They represented 22 teams (athletes of New Zealand which didn't have the NOK, acted in common with athletes of Australia under the name Australasia). City choice. ? London had chances to hold at itself the very first summer Olympic Games 1896. However at the first session of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) the preference was given to Athens as it was decided that the first Games have to take place in Greece. ? At the 6th session, which took place in London from June 20 to June 22, 1904 (during summer Olympic Games 1904 in Saint Louis) the issue of carrying out the IV Olympic Games was resolved. Three cities applied for acceptance of competitions ? Berlin (Germany), Milan and Rome (both is Italy), and the choice fell on the capital of Italy. ? The president the IOC, baron Pierre de Coubertin, in a question of carrying out competitions was supported by Pope Pius X, the king of Italy Victor Emmanuil III and the mayor of Rome, however against prime minister Giovanni Dzholitti acted. Under pressure of Milan and Turin he declared need of the solution of many other state problems and lack of funds for preparation of Games. Besides, in 1906 there was a volcanic eruption Vesuvius from which the city of Naples strongly suffered that caused still heavy budgetary expenses. As a result of Dzholitti declared refusal of the organization of competitions. ? In two years the IOC had to find the suitable city urgently. Representatives of Committee met William Grenfell, the first chairman of the British Olympic Council, and king Edward VII on informal Olympic Games 1906 in Athens. It was offered to them to hold competitions in London, on what they agreed. Grenfell offered this idea to the British Olympic Council which accepted it, and on November 19, 1906 he sent the letter International Olympic to committee with a consent to carrying out Games. Organization of Games. ? Because of a small amount of time for preparation of Games (it is less than two years) organizers led by William Grenfell made the decision to hold competitions in parallel with the French-British exhibition in spite of the fact that Pierre de Coubertin was against carrying out the Olympic Games at the same time with other international actions. ? Organizers needed to construct stadium suitable for Games urgently. The organizing committee suggested management of the Exhibition to be engaged in construction in exchange for 75% of the income from tickets, and the agreement was signed on November 14, 1907. The total cost of construction of stadium White City on 66 000 places made 220 000 pounds sterling. ? By June, 1908 there was a new problem ? for some weeks prior to the main competitions the organizing committee didn't have 10 000 pounds sterling. He had to declare need of donations. Prince Welsh George, owners of the Daily Mail newspaper, a family of the American millionaire Cornelius Vanderbilt and even the French government responded to an appeal. As a result, in two weeks 16 000 pounds sterling were collected. ? In plans of organizers there was a participation about 2666 athletes, however there arrived only 2008 people. It was offered to hold golf, equestrian sport, cricket and bandy competitions, but they weren't included in the program. Boxing originally wasn't meant as one more Olympic sport, but tournaments on it nevertheless took place. The organizing committee also considered idea about inclusion of competitions on art ? architecture, painting, literature, a sculpture and music, but this idea was embodied only on the following Olympic Games in Stockholm. Opening of Games. ? Official opening ceremony of Games took place at stadium White City on July 13 though the first competitions began already on April 27 and by this moment 25 sets of medals were played. ? On ceremony arrived a great number of notable people both from all Great Britain, and from other part of Europe. At 15:49 on stadium there arrived king Edward VII together with the wife Aleksandra. After that fanfares sounded and William Grenfell asked the king: "Declares its majesty the IV Olympic Games open? ", on what the monarch told: "I declare Olympic Games of London open". Then the orchestra of grenadiers played the anthem of Great Britain, and 18 national teams which have gathered for ceremony, took part in parade round stadium, thus for the first time bearing national flags. The national teams of participants marched in alphabetical order the countries in English. The Finnish standard-bearer passed without a flag as in Russia forbade athletes to act under the flag of Finland, and to march under Russian they refused. ? Passing near a royal box, standard-bearers lifted flags in honor of Edward VII. Only who refused to make it, was delegation of the USA as organizers by mistake hung up banners of China and Japan which didn't take part in Games instead of the American and Swedish flags. Rewarding of prize-winners. ? The awards ceremony of prize-winners of Games took place on July 28. On it medals were handed over to winners of July competitions. King Edward VII has to award prizes, but he annoyed by behavior of the American athletes at opening ceremony, refused to participate. ? Instead of it gold medals Alexander's his wife gave to winners, silver awards ? the duchess of Rutland Cathleen Tennart, bronze ? Catharine Grosvernor, the duchess of Westminster. William Grenfell Ethel Feyn's wife presented diplomas and diplomas. Diploma of the winner of Olympic Games 1908. ? Besides, 12 cups had to be handed over to winners of separate disciplines, but this day nine were handed over only ? to Henry Taylor for a victory in swimming on 1500 m; the national team of Great Britain on the water polo, won tournament; to the French team which has become best in command competition on swords; To Charles Bartlett for a victory in 100-kilometer bicycle race; To Walter Ivingu, the winner in bench firing; To John Heyes who has run a marathon with a new Olympic record; To Alberto Bralya, the champion in personal championship in gymnastics; To Martin Sheridan who has protected the title in a throwing of a disk and Richard Veis, the heavyweight fighter of the GreekRoman style which has beaten all in the weight category. Cups in the boat racing, the best national team on soccer and the best team in sailing were given to the best crew of the eights later. ? Additional prizes were awarded to Italian Dorando Piyetri who didn't reach the marathon finish some meters, and to many officials for the organization of Games. Closing of Games. ? The closing ceremony as that wasn't. Instead of it, in day of the termination of the French-British exhibition on October 31, after a final on field hockey, the festive banquet in one of restaurants in the center of London was given. Officials and the athletes who have remained in the city gathered on it, all there were 450 ? 500 people. They acted with speeches, discussing results of Games. Marathon. One of participants of marathon running, the Italian confectioner Dorando Pyetri, decided to improve the result by means of brandy with strychnine which in small doses possesses stimulating effect. The Italian athlete secretly drank halfway, but, probably, didn't calculate a dose. Having run in the first on White City stadium where there was a finish, the athlete lost orientation and ran not to a finishing tape, and to the opposite side. To it specified the correct direction, but for 70 m to the line of the finish of Dorando Pyetri fell, having fainted. Two viewers lifted the athlete, revived and helped to reach a finishing tape. The rules forbidding application of a dope, at that time didn't exist yet. But the athlete didn't receive a medal as it was disqualified for assistance use. American Johnny Heys appeared the winner of running. Dorando Pyetri spent some days on a hospital bed and even caused sympathy of the British queen Aleksandra who on own initiative handed over to the athlete "consolation prize" ? the copy of the gold Olympic cup which has been handed over to the winner of a marathon in addition to a medal. Run. ? In running on 400 m British Wyndam Holsvel who in semifinal start established a world record ? 48,2 sec. was considered as the favourite. In the ending besides the British three members of the national team of the USA ran: John Carpenter, John Taylor and William Robbins. The most part of race Robbins was in the lead, after him John Carpenter ran, however for 100 m to the finish the British started escaping forward. That occurred further, the American and British sources still tell differently. According to the British version, John Carpenter widely placed elbows and Holsvela sideways (at that time the running sector wasn't marked on separate paths for each athlete) tried to push aside. According to the American version, Carpenter ran as it is necessary and disturbed nobody. Anyway, one of the British arbitrators placed along a running circle, shouted that noticed violation, the judge on the finish declared running invalid and tore a finishing tape. Scandal with mutual insults, threats and attempts of physical impact on opponents burst. The British judges disqualified John Carpenter and debarred him from the Olympic actions. New start was appointed, however the head coach of the national team of the USA James Sullivan forbade John Taylor and William Robbins to participate in running. The British athlete ran 400 m in proud loneliness and received a gold medal. After that incident the IOC entered an obligatory marking of a running circle and penalties for a spade on others path. Wyndam Holsvel. Sports ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rowing Field hockey Football Boxing Fight Figure skating Cycling Fencing Water polo Tennis Power boating Archery ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Jeu de Paume Shooting Lacrosse Gymnastics Athletics The Racket Sailing Rugby Tug of war Jumping into water Swimming Polo London 1948 ? The XIV Summer Olympic games were held in London in the UK. This is the first Olympic games after a 12year break, caused by the Second world war. The previous games were held in Berlin. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? City-organizer of London, United Kingdom Participating countries 59 The number of athletes 4099 (3714 men, 385 women) Awarding medals 136 sets in 17 kinds of sports The opening ceremony on July 29, 1948 Opened George VI The closing ceremony of the August 14, 1948 The Olympic flame of John mark The Olympic oath Donald Финлей Wembley Stadium ? Participants Took part in the games 59 countries, a record for the Olympic games. Participants were 4104 athlete: 3714 men and 390 women. Germany and Japan as the country, which had unleashed the Second world war, were excluded from the IOC and do not have the right to participate in the Olympics. The USSR received an invitation to the games, however, decided not to send its delegation and postponed its participation to 1952. For the first time participated teams from Venezuela, Lebanon, Myanmar (Burma), Syria, Puerto Rico, and Sri Lanka (Ceylon). The emblem of the XIV summer Olympic games Medal XIV summer Olympic games Stadium during the Olympic games, London, United Kingdom in 1948. Innovations For the first time in the history of the Olympic sprinters started running from the launch pad. ? For the first time the games have been broadcast on national television. ? For the first time was created volunteer program for assistance in the organization of the games. ? London 2012 The Olympic games 2012 The thirties summer Olympic games, held in London, capital of Britain, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. London was the first city, which took the Olympic games for the third time (before that they were there in 1908 and 1948). Opening ceremony The opening ceremony took place on 27 July at the new, specially built for the games, 80-seat Olympic stadium and was called ?Island of wonders? of the Game opened the Queen of great Britain Elizabeth II. Closing ceremony The closing ceremony of the Olympic games, which was called ?Symphony of British music?, took place on 12 August at the Olympic stadium. Emblem ? The image consists of four parts, in the form of an irregular polygon, which symbolize the digits of the year of the Olympiad- ?2?, ?0?, ?1?, ?2?. In one of the parts contain the word ?London?, and the other is a picture of the Olympic rings. The logo was developed for about a year the company Wolff Olins and cost 400 thousand pounds sterling. Talismans The mascots of the Games were announced on may 19, 2010. They are, according to the authors, two drops of steel from Bolton on behalf of Wenlock and Mandeville . They are named in honour of the city MAh-Wenlock , in which were the first competitions like the Olympic games, and the hospital of the Wenlock town of Stoke-Mandeville , where were held the first in the UK competitions like the Paralympic games. Mandeville Medals The diameter of the same coin will be about 85 mm and 7 mm in thickness. Weight of one award will be about 375400 grams. It is the largest medals in the history of the Games, informs Sky Sports. Just for the Olympics was released approximately 2,100 medals. Anthem The official hymn of the Olympic games in London became the song of the Survival of the group Muse. The song sounded at the opening of the Olympics, as well as in all the ceremonies of awarding athletes. The song became the main theme for international television screen savers Olympic games. The Olympic torch relay The Olympic torch relay summer Olympic games of 2012 was held from may 19 to 27 July 2012, until the opening of the Olympic games. Relay race was held on the territory of the United Kingdom, were also visited the crown lands of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of man and the Republic of Ireland. Sports ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Rowing ? Badminton ? Basketball ? Boxing ? Fight ? Cycling ? Track racing ? Road racing ? Mountain Bike ? BMX ? Water Polo ? Swimming ? Diving ? Synchronized swimming ? Volleyball ? Beach Volleyball ? Handball ? Canoeing and kayaking Whitewater slalom Gymnastics Rhythmic gymnastics Tramp lining Judo Equestrian sport Athletics Table tennis Sailing Modern pentathlon Shooting Archery Tennis Triathlon Taekwondo Weightlifting ? ? ? Fencing Football Field hockey Thank you for your attention!