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Единый государственный экзамен
по английскому языку
Раздел «Письмо»
Подготовка учащихся
к написанию личного письма
и сочинения с элементами рассуждения
Структура и содержание
раздела «Письмо»
Задание
Тип
задания
Проверяемые умения
С1
Письмо
- Дать развернутое
личного
сообщение
Базовый уро- характера - Запросить
вень
информацию
- Использовать
неофициальный
стиль
- Соблюдать формат
неофициального
письма
Требуемый
объем
Время
выполнения
100 –
140
слов
20
минут
Написание личного
письма
Письмо личного характера (С1)
оценивается (max 6 баллов):
организация текста (max 2
балла)
содержание (max 2 балла)
языковое оформление текста
(max 2 балла)
ИТОГО: max 6 баллов
1. Адрес
(полный) Flat 10
12 Gagarin Street
Samara
443299
Russia
(краткий)
Moscow
Russia
2. Дата
April 23, 2013
19 October 2013
07/05/2013
3. Обращение
Dear Ann,
Dear David,
Dear Uncle Jerry,
4. Начало письма
Thank you for your letter. It was great to
hear from you again.
Thanks so much for your last letter. I’m
sorry I didn’t have the time to answer
sooner.
Thanks for your letter. Sorry I haven’t been
in touch for a while but I’ve been really
busy.
Thanks for your recent letter. It was good
to hear from you, and I couldn’t wait to tell
you all my news in reply.
I was really sorry to hear that you’re so
unhappy at the moment and thought I’d
drop you a line to cheer you up and give
some advice.
I’ve got some information and ideas for
you.
I have a few suggestions that I hope
you’ll like.
I thought I’d write back straight away
with a few suggestions I’ve thought of.
5. Основная часть письма
We also have a dress code at school. But I think
wearing school uniforms is not a good idea. Many teachers
think if students wear uniforms they will behave better and
follow rules, but I disagree. Everybody has his own
character and students want to show their individuality.
Nevertheless, it is not bad to have uniforms for special
days like a graduation ceremony at the end of school.
It's great that you are doing a project about Russia. What
issues did you include in your project? Where did you get
information from? Did your classmates find your project
interesting?
Средства логической связи
Anyway,
By the way,
I wonder…
Actually,
Most of all…
I hope…
Why don’t you…?
If I were you, I’d...
Have you thought about...?
It would be a good idea to…
What you should do is...
I think you should…
The best advice I can give you is...
Another good idea is to…
6. Конец письма
Well, that’s all for now. Write back and
let me know how you get on.
That’s all my news. I’d better go and
do some work now.
Anyway, I hope this helps. If you want
to know anything else, just drop me a
line.
If you follow my advice, I’m sure you’ll
feel much better soon. Anyway, let me
know how it goes.
I hope these suggestions are helpful.
Hope to hear from you soon.
Write back soon.
Looking forward to seeing you soon.
7. Завершающая фраза и
подпись
Lots of love,
Mary
Take care,
Alex
Best wishes,
Sasha
All the best,
Irene
C1
You have 20 minutes to do this task.
You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen
friend Jane who writes:
We're doing a project at school called "How can we
make our planet a safer place?" Could you give me some
information about your country? What are the most serious
ecological problems in your country? Could you tell me what
measures young people in your country take to save the
environment?
I'm very happy because I'm going to visit Italy in August.
Write a letter to Jane.
In your letter
- answer her questions
- ask 3 questions about her trip to Italy.
Write 100 – 140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Samara
Russia
6 June 2013
Dear Jane,
Thanks for your letter. I was very happy to get it. Sorry I haven’t been in touch for a
while but I’ve been really busy.
I'll do my best to answer your questions. There are lots of ecological problems in Russia:
too much traffic, factories polluting the air and too much rubbish. We need to take steps
before it's too late. Young people in our city often organize a ‘Cleanup’ campaign. Firstly,
they clean our town’s streets and parks because they are full of litter. Secondly, young
people organize collecting paper for recycling. Also we clean parks in the city centre.
It's great news that you are going to Italy! How long are you going to stay there? Are
you going alone or with your family? What cities are you going to visit?
That's all for now. Got to go. Write soon.
Best wishes,
Kate
Ошибки учащихся при
написании письма
нарушения в объеме письма;
неполное выполнение коммуникативной задачи
или, напротив, сообщение нерелевантной
информации;
несоблюдение принятых норм этикета;
несоблюдение принятых норм оформления
письма;
использование языковых средств, не
соответствующих неофициальному стилю,
принятому в данном типе письменных
сообщений.
Письменное
высказывание с
элементами
рассуждения
"Ваше мнение"
Зада Тип
Проверяемые умения
-ние задания
С2
Высокий
уровень
Письменнное
высказывание с
элементами
рассуждения
Требуемый
объем
- Высказать свое мнение и 200-250
привести аргументы,
слов
доказательства, примеры
- Сделать вывод.
Последовательно и
логически правильно
строить высказывание
- Использовать соответствующие средства
логической связи
- Правильно оформить
стилистически в
соответствии с
поставленной задачей
Время
выпол
нения
40
минут
Письменное высказывание
с элементами рассуждения
(С2) оценивается (max 14 баллов)
содержание (max 3 балла)
организация текста (max 3 балла)
лексика (max 3 балла)
грамматика (max 3 балла)
орфография (max 2 балла)
ИТОГО: max 14 баллов
Задание для учащегося
(opinion composition)
C2. You have 40 minutes to do this task.
Comment on the following statement:
Some people say that computers have made our life easier and more
convenient. Other people say that computers have made life more
complex and stressful. What is your opinion?
Write 200-250 words.
Use the following plan:
make an introduction (state the problem)
express your personal opinion and give 2 – 3 reasons for it
express an opposing opinion and give 1 – 2 reasons for this opposing opinion
explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion
make a conclusion restating your position
Can you imagine life without computers? Whether in the office, school or at home, computers
have become an indispensable part of our everyday existence. Yet some people have doubts
whether the changes they have brought about are really for the better?
In my opinion, the benefits of computers cannot be denied. To begin with, they save valuable
time and space. Time-consuming tasks, such as checking bank accounts, can now be done in a
matter of minutes and large amounts of information are easily stored on small disks. In addition,
with immediate access to the Internet, they allow us to explore the world from the comfort of our
homes. As a result, we can always keep up-to-date with global and current issues. Finally,
computers provide entertainment: we can watch films, listen to music, or play games.
Still some people have a different point of view. They claim that computer technology may
progress rapidly, but machines still make mistakes. It is not uncommon for computers to suddenly
crash, deleting whole files of essential information. Another negative effect of computers is that
people become easily dependent on them. A lot of young people spend all their free time in front
of the computer, isolating themselves from other people their age.
But I do not agree with this point of view. Most computers are quite reliable. If we have any
problems with them, we can easily get help. Besides, computers are no more addictive than
watching TV.
In conclusion, I strongly believe that computers have improved the quality of our life. Computer is
the future of our culture. But despite of all great influence of computers on our life, we should not
overuse them.
1. Вступление
Nowadays, we are often told..
It is common knowledge that…
Over the past few years,...
It is popularly believed that...
It is often suggested...
People often claim that..
In today`s world so many new products,
cosmetics and medicines are coming out
every day. Many people believe that
they should be tested on animals. Other
people claim to stop animal
experiments once and for all.
2. Выражение своего мнения
In my opinion...
I strongly believe that...
It seems to me...
To my mind...
As far as I am concerned…
Перечисление аргументов
Firstly/In the first place,
To start/begin with,
Secondly/In addition,
Furthermore/Moreover/What is more,
Thirdly/Finally,
Above all,
Not to mention the fact that…
In my opinion, animal testing is necessary. Firstly,
animal testing allows scientists to test and create
new drugs. Without animal testing, the cure for
polio would not exist and diabetics would suffer or
die from their disease. Secondly, animal testing is
cheap. There is a large supply of animals for
medical research. Animals are easily bred, and
maintained safely in controlled labs. The costs of
testing in humans would be extremely high.
Moreover, some research about animals involves
only natural behavior or pure observation.
3. Мнение других людей
However, some people have a
different point of view.
Nevertheless, some people argue
that...
Opponents of this view say...
There are people who oppose...
Contrary to what most people
believe...
However, some people claim that animal testing is
cruel. They are sure that it is inhumane to use
animals in experiments. Opponents of animal
testing also claim that the results are not applicable
to humans. They do not believe that every new
drug needs to be tested on animals, especially with
the huge database of knowledge and modern
computer models. They also are worried that many
animal tests are ineffective, pointing out that some
drugs have to be withdrawn from the market
despite extensive testing.
4. Контраргументы
Personally, I cannot agree with this point
of view because…
As for me, I disagree with this opinion…
However, I do not share their opinion…
Nevertheless, I do not think these people
are right because…
Actually, these opinions are not convincing
because…
However, I think these arguments are not
convincing because we simply do not have
alternative methods of testing. Computer
models are not advanced enough, and testing
on plants is much less applicable to humans
than tests on animals such as monkeys. Until
we have a better system, we must use animal
testing.
5. Вывод
To sum up...
All in all...
All things considered...
On the whole...
In conclusion...
Taking everything into account...
In conclusion, I strongly believe that
animal testing may be unavoidable at
present. But we need to make sure that these
animals are treated with the minimum of
suffering. Until we have a better system, we
must use animal testing.
Примеры подготовительных
упражнений для учащихся
Put the parts of this letter in the
correct order
A. Anyway, I've got to go now. Loads of homework (unfortunately!)
B. I'm sorry to hear you've had an argument with your best friend and that you're not
speaking at the moment. Yes, it has happened to me too, and it's awful, isn't it?
C. Carol
D. Dear Sally,
E. Write back soon!
F. Thanks for your letter. It was great to hear from you! Well done on passing your
exams!
G. I think you need to ask yourself one question: what's more important- that argument or
your friendship? I remember when I asked myself that it all became clear. I realized
my friendship with Chris was far more important. I called him immediately and told
him. We became friends again immediately. Maybe you should do the same thing.
Let me know what happens! Good luck!
H. 23 Portland Street
Manchester
MN3 6YL
24th September
Key: HDFBGAEC
Read the sentences and decide which
are from introductions and which are
from conclusions
Please let me know as soon as possible.
I'm writing to invite you to my birthday party on
6th May.
I'm sure it will be fun, and I hope you'll be able
to come.
Looking forward to seeing you then.
We’re organising a fancy-dress party and it
would be great if you could come.
We'd love it if you could come to our housewarming party on 27th January.
Put these jumbled sentences in the
correct order
Package holidays: Good or Bad?
A However, there are disadvantages to going on a package holiday.
В То start with, package holidays are cheaper than travelling on your own, as the
price includes the air fare and hotel accommodation.
С Another negative aspect is that as you have paid for your accommodation in
advance, you often feel obliged to stay in that place rather than move around and
explore.
D Furthermore, the brochures from which most people select a package holiday
usually give you a good idea of what the resort offers, therefore reducing the
chances of disappointment.
E Package holidays have several advantages.
F In the first place, as package holidays are less expensive, the hotel is unlikely to
be top-class.
G Last but not least, when visiting a new place it is often much easier to have all the
details arranged in advance as it can be rather confusing to plan everything by
yourself.
H Also package holiday destinations are usually popular tourist resorts, thus there is
little opportunity to experience the true culture of the country you are visiting
Key: 1E,2B,3D,4G,5A,6F,7H,8C
Which of these sentences express the opinion given
in the heading, and which express the opposing
point of view?
Having a pet is good for you.
1
2
3
4
5
6
In my opinion, owning a pet teaches children to
become responsible adults.
In addition, a pet can be amusing.
However, pets need a lot of care and attention.
What is more, certain pets can be useful if you
train them properly.
On the other hand, pets can be a nuisance.
Firstly, a pet can be good company.
Key: 1,2,4,6-opinion given in the heading
3,5-opposing point of view
GOOD LUCK!
Thank you!
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