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British Symbols Лингвострановедение

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Лингвострановедение США и Великобритании
Направление подготовки 031100 «Лингвистика", квалификация:
бакалавр (вечерняя форма обучения)
ИИЯ МКП
Беркович Т.А.
British Symbols
CONTENT
1.Ключевые понятия:
Британские острова, Соединенное королевство, завоевание
англосаксов, Британская монархия, Парламент, национальный
характер, коренное население Америки, первые европейские
поселенцы в Америке, формирование США и война за независимость,
государственное устройство США.
2. Вопросы для самопроверки:
1. Describe the location of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
2. 2. Are there any differences in the climate of some parts of Great
Britain?
3. 3. What can you say about the capital of Great Britain?
4. 4. Speak on early invasions.
5. 5. The rise and fall of British Empire. Why did they happen?
2
6. Geographical position of the USA.
7. The discovery of America and early Americans.
8. Struggle for independence.
9. The US Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
10. What were the reasons of the Civil War?
3. Список рекомендуемой литературы:
1. Лингвострановедение США= American Culture Studies: учебное пособие/
Михайлов Н.Н., Михайлов М.Н. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2008.
2. Англия и Англичане / Павловская А.В. – М.: МГУ им. Ломоносова, 2008.
3. Все о Великобритании/ Коробов А.И. – Харьков: Фолио, 2007.
4. Великобритания: монархия, история, культура. Книга по страноведению на
английском языке. / В. М. Павлоцкий – СПб.: КАРО, 2006.
5. Страноведение. Англия. Н.М. Нестерова. Ростов-на-Дону,
2006.
3
The United Kingdom of Great Britain
4
Union Jack
5
THE BRITISH FLAG, KNOWN AS THE UNION
JACK, IS A COMBINATION OF THREE FLAGS:
THE SAINT ANDREW’S CROSS, THE SAINT
PATRICK’S CROSS AND THE SAINT GEORGE’S
CROSS. THE RED UPRIGHT CROSS ON THE
WHITE FIELD IS ST. GEORGE’S CROSS –THE
PATRON SAINT OF ENGLAND. THE DIAGONAL
WHITE CROSS ON THE BLUE FIELD IS ST.
ANDREW’S CROSS – THE PATRON SAINT OF
SCOTLAND. THE RED DIAGONAL CROSS ON
THE WHITE FIELD IS ST. PATRICK’S CROSS –
THE PATRON SAINT OF IRELAND. IT WAS SET
UP IN 1801 AFTER THE LAST OF THE THREE
ACTS OF UNION. UNION JACK PRESENTS THE
COMBINATION OF COLOURS AND CROSSES
REFLECTING THE PECULIARITIES OF THE
EXISTING AT THAT TIME NATIONAL FLAGS OF
ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND IRELAND. THE
NAME,
THE
COLOURS
AND
CROSSES
SYMBOLIZE THE UNION OF THE UNITED PARTS
OF THE COUNTRY.
Flags and Saints
THE SAINT PATRICK’S CROSS IS THE
FORMER FLAG OF IRELAND. SAINT
PATRICK IS THE PATRON SAINT OF
IRELAND. HE WAS BORN ABOUT AD 390.
HE
CONVERTED
THE
IRISH
TO
CHRISTIANITY AND IS SUPPOSED TO
HAVE GOT RID OF ALL THE SNAKES IN
IRELAND. SAINT PATRICK’S DAY IS
CELEBRATED ON 17 MARCH.
6
Flags and Saints
7
Flags and Saints
THE SAINT ANDREW’S CROSS IS THE
SCOTTISH FLAG. SAINT ANDREW, A
FISHERMAN, WAS ONE OF THE 12
APOSTLES WHO FOLLOWED JESUS
CHRIST. PAINTINGS OF SAINT ANDREW
OFTEN SHOW HIM BEING KILLED ON
AN
X-SHAPED CROSS. SAINT
ANDREW’S DAY IS CELEBRATED ON 30
NOVEMBER. HE IS THE PATRON SAINT
OF BOTH SCOTLAND AND RUSSIA.
8
Flags and Saints
9
IRELAND HAS THE RED
HAND AS ONE OF ITS
SYMBOLS TODAY. THIS IS
THE BANNER OF ULSTER
IRELAND. THE RED HAND
WAS TAKEN AS THE SYMBOL
IN 1600 BC.
10
Royal Family
11
History of "God Save The Queen"
Though usually attributed to Arne, there is good ground for believing it is really the work of
Henry Carey, a singer and composer. It is said to have been written sometime between 1736
and 1740, but was first heard in public at a dinner in 1740 to celebrate the taking of Portobello
by Admiral Vernon. Carey sang it as his own composition. The oldest copy is in "Harmonia
Anglicana" of 1743 to which Carey was one of the chief contributors.
Several similar earlier airs exist in a manuscript of 1619 attributed to Dr. John Bull, an organist
in the Chapel Royal during the reign of James I. In the same book is a song called "God Save
the King", but the music is different.
The Scots claim it is based on an old carol of 1611 called "Remember O thou man" or
"Franklyn is fled away" of 1669. It has also been traced to Purcell in 1696.
As a phrase from the Coverdale Bible of 1535, "God Save the King" was used as a naval
watchword to which the countersign was "Long to reign over us".
For a long time the song was used as an expression of personal loyalty to the king and in
translation it was used in Prussia, Denmark, and in Russia until 1833 when Czar Nicholas
commissioned a new version. The tune has also been used in Sweden, Switzerland,
Liechtenstein and the United States.
GOD SAVE THE QUEEN is sung in the United Kingdom as a matter of tradition. It has never
been proclaimed the national anthem by an Act of Parliament or a Royal Proclamation.
12
God Save The Queen
13
God save our gracious Queen
Long live our noble Queen,
God save the Queen:
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us:
God save the Queen.
O Lord, our God, arise,
Scatter thine enemies,
And make them fall:
Confound their politics,
Frustrate their knavish tricks,
On thee our hopes we fix:
God save us all.
Thy choicest gifts in store,
On her be pleased to pour;
Long may she reign:
May she defend our laws,
And ever give us cause
To sing with heart and voice
God save the Queen.
Emblems
A BRITISH LION IS ACTUALLY A
“LION PASSANT GARDANT” – A
WALKING LION, LOOKING OUT AT
YOU FULL FACE, AND WAS FIRST
USED BY ROLLO, DUKE OF
NORMANDY
(FATHER
OF
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR). THE
LION
PASSANT
GARDANT
STANDS FOR “ RESOLUTION AND
PRUDENCE”.
14
Emblems
THE SCOTS ALSO HAVE A LION AS
THEIR
HERALDIC
EMBLEM:
THEIRS IS A RED LION RAMPANT
(STANDING ON ITS HIND LEGS,
LOOKING STRAIGHT FORWARD).
THE SCOTS MADE THEIR RED
LION STAND UP: READY TO FIGHT.
15
Emblems
DAVID’S HARP”ERIN GO BRAGH” =
“IRELAND FOREVER” WAS THE
NATIONAL BANNER OF IRELAND
FOR MANY CENTURES. THE ARMS
OF NORTH IRELAND TODAY ALSO
HAVE A RED LION STANDING UP.
16
Emblems
THE ROYAL BANNER OF ENGLAND.
THE LION IS THE EMBLEM OF
ENGLAND, IT WAS FIRST USED BY
ROLLO, DUKE OF NORMANDY(
FATHER
OF
WILLIAM
THE
CONQUEROR, WHO ADDED THE
SECOND LION). THE THIRD WAS
ADDED BY HENRY II, AND HENRY
VIII ADED A CROWN TO THE LION. IN
HERALDY, THE LION STANDS FOR
‘DEATHLESS COURAGE’.
17
Emblems
ROYAL BANNER OF THE KING OR
QUEEN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
OF
GREAT
BRITAIN
AND
NORTHERN IRELAND TODAY
18
The Royal Seal
IN THE ROYAL SEAL WE SEE THE
LIONS, AND THE UNICORN, THE HARP
OF DAVID, AND THE STANDING RED
LION. LIONS ARE WITH ROYAL
CROWNS. THE WORDS:’DIEU ET MON
DROIT’ WHICH MEAN ‘GOD AND MY
RIGHT’ ARE LATIN.
‘HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE’
MEANS:” EVIL BE TO HIM WHO EVIL
THINKS’
19
Icons and Symbols
20
Icons and Symbols
21
BRITANNIA IS THE PERSONIFICATION OF BRITISH NATIONALISM. SHE
IS PORTRAYED AS A YOUNG WOMAN IN A GOWN AND HELMET,
SEATED BY THE SEA (“BRITANNIA RULES THE WAVES”). SHE IS
HOLDING A TRIDENT IN ONE HAND AND A SHIELD, DECORATED WITH
THE UNION FLAG, IN THE OTHER.
THE ROMANS CALLED THEIR NEWLY-CONQUERED PROVINCE, JUST
ACROSS THE SEA, BRITANNIA, AND THE COINAGE OF THE DAY
FEATURED THE IMAGE OF A WOMAN IN ARMOUR. THIS IMAGE WAS
NOT USED ON COINS AGAIN UNTIL THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES II,
AND BRITANNIA BECAME A POPULAR FIGURE IN 1707 WHEN
SCOTLAND, WALES AND ENGLAND WERE FINALLY UNITED TO FORM
GREAT BRITAIN/ SHE WAS IMMORTALISED IN 1740 WHEN JAMES
THOMPSOM WROTE THE WORDS OF “RULE BRITANNIA” AND SET IT
TO MUSIC BY THOMAS ARNE.
THE SONG “RULE BRITANNIA” IS STILL SUNG EVERY YEAR ON THE
LAST NIGHT OF THE “PROMS” –THE PROMENADE CONCERTS HELD
IN THE ROYAL ALBERT HALL IN LONDON – WHEN THE WHOLE
AUDIENCE JOINS IN A BURST OF NATIONALISTIC FERVOUR AND
FLAG-WAVING, INVARIABLY DROWNING OUT THE SOLOIST WHO IS
SUPPOSED TO BE DOING THE SINGING!
BRITANNIA HAS CONTINUED TO FEATURE ON BRITISH COINS,
MOSTLY ON COPPER (PENNY AND HALFPENNY) COINS BUT
OCCASIONALLY ON SILVER, AND AT PRESENT IS TO BE SEEN ON THE
50P COIN.
Icons and Symbols
When Britain first, at heaven's command,
Arose from out the azure main,
Arose, arose, arose from out the a-azure main,
This was the charter, the charter of the land,
And guardian angels sang this strain:
Rule Britania!
Britannia rule the waves.
Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.
The nations, not so blest as thee,
Must in their turn, to tyrants fall,
Must in ,must in, must in their turn, to tyrants fall,
While thou shalt flourish, shalt flourish great and free,
The dread and envy of them all.
Rule Britannia!
Britannia rule the waves.
Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.
22
Icons and Symbols
THE BRITISH HAVE JOHN BULL. HE IS A
FICTIONAL CHARACTER,USED TO PERSONIFY
THE BRITISH NATION, AND IS ALWAYS DEPICTED
AS AN ELDERLY GENTLEMAN,RATHER PORTLY IN
BUILD,WEARING FULL RIDING KIT COMPLETE
WITH BREECHES AND BOOTS, AND A UNION JACK
WAISTCOAT. HE WAS CREATED BY JOHN
ARBUTHNOT (1667-1735) A SCOTTISH AUTHOR,
SCIENTIST, AND PHYSICIAN WHO WROTE FIVE
SATIRICAL PAMPHLETS IN 1712 ON THE POLITICS
OF THE DAY, USING JOHN BULL AS THE TYPICAL
ENGLISHMAN. THE CHARACTER OBVIOUSLY
STRUCK A CHORD AND HE HAS PERSISTED EVER
SINCE: THE PICTURE COMES FROM A 1916
BRITISH ARMY RECRUITING POSTER.
23
Icons and Symbols
THE BULLDOG SYMBOLISES THE
VERY ESSENCE OF BRITISHNESS.
HE
IS
SOLID,
RELIABLE,
UNSHAKEABLY
LOYAL,
VERY
INDIVIDUAL, VERY NICE WHEN
YOU GET TO KNOW HIM.
HE ALSO BEARS A STARTLING
RESEMBLANCE
TO
WINSTON
CHURCHILL, BRITAIN’S GREAT
WARTIME
LEADER
WHOSE
MEMORY IS STILL HELD IN GREAT
ESTEEM BY THE MAJORITY OF
THE BRITISH.
24
Icons and Symbols
THE ROBIN IS EVERYONE’S FAVOURITE BIRD : WHEN
A NATIONAL NEWSPAPER CONDUCTED A POLL TO
DECIDE BRITAIN’S NATIONAL BIRD MILLIONS VOTED,
AND THE ROBIN WON BY A LANDSLIDE.
THE ROBIN IS IMMEDIATELY RECOGNISABLE – NO
OTHER BRITISH BIRD HAS THE SAME RED BREAST,
WHISH IS PRESENT IN BOTH SEXES, AND IT IS THE
ONE BIRD EVERYONE CAN IDENTIFY EVEN IF THEY
CAN NAME NO OTHER BIRD!
ROBINS ARE SO FAMILIA BECAUSE THEY ARE SO
TAME : THIS SEEMS A CHARACTERISTIC OF BRITISH
ROBINS, WHICH ELSEWHERE IN THEIR RANGE ARE
SHY WOODLAND BIRDS. THEY KNOW THAT
EVERYONE LOVES THEM!
25
Emblems
THE RED ROSE BECAME THE EMBLEM OF
ENGLAND AFTER THE WARS OF ROSES (14551485) WHICH WAS THE WAR OF THE
DYNASTIES FOR THE ENGLISH THRONE. ALL
RIVALRY BETWEEN THE ROSES ENDEDBY
THE MARRIAGE OF HENRY VII TUDOR (THE
LANCASTRIAN WHOSE EMBLEM WAS THE
RED ROSE) WITH PRINCESS ELIZABETH, THE
DAUGHTER OF EDWARD IV (THE YORKIST
WHOSE EMBLEM WAS THE WHITE ROSE ).
THE RED ROSE HAS SINCE BECOME THE
NATIONAL EMBLEM OF ENGLAND.
26
Icons and Symbols
THE BOWLER HAT CONJURES UP AN INSTANT IMAGE
OF BRITISHNESS. ORIGINALLY DESIGNED IN 1850 BY
LOCK’S THE HATTERS FOR WILLIAM COKE II, LATER
THE EARLOF LEICESTER, IT WAS ACTUALLY MADE BY
THE HAT MAKER WILLIAM BOWLER. IT WAS FIRST
CALLED THE ‘COKE’ BUT SOON BECAME KNOWN AS A
‘BOWLER’,PARTLY BECAUSE OF ITS MAKER BUT ALSO
BECAUSE OF ITS BOWL-LIKE SHAPE.
THE BOWLER HAT BECAME THE TRADEMARK OF
SEVERAL WELL-KNOWN ENGLISHMEN : CHARLIE
CHAPLIN (BORN IN LONDON) AND MORE RECENTLY
JOHN STEED, THE ARCHETYPAL GENTLEMAN SPY.
YOU WILL STILL SEE BOWLER HATS BEING WORN ON
THE STREETS OF LONDON TODAY AS THEY FORM
PART OF THE UNOFFICIAL ‘UNIFORM’ OF THE CITY
GENT, ALWAYS ACCESSORISED WITH A ROLLED
BLACK UMBRELLA.
27
Icons and Symbols
THE BRITISH BOBBY IS ONE OF THE
MOST CHERISHED ICONS, CALLED
AFTER THE FOUNDER OF THE MODERN
POLICE FORCE, SIR ROBERT PEEL.
THE BRITISH POLICEMEN ARE NOT
ROUTINELY ARMED AND THERE IS
CONSIDERABLE PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR
IT REMAINING THAT WAY; THE BRITISH
HAVE A NATURAL AVERSION TO THE
EVERYDAY USE OF GUNS, AND STILL
YEARN FOR THE DAES WHEN THE
LOCAL BOBBY COULD DISPENSE
SUMMARY JUSTICE TO MISBEHAVING
JUVENILES WITH A SWIFT CLOUT AS
SOON AS HE CAUGHT THEM.
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