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Презентация PowerPoint - Road traffic research

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INFLUENCE OF HUMAN FACTOR
ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY
IN LATVIA
Aldis LДЃma
пѓ�
Accident database expert of Road Traffic Safety Directorate,
пѓ�
Road safety expert of Road Traffic Research,
пѓ�
Member of „CARE & RSPI national experts group” from Latvia in
European Commission,
пѓ�
Road Safety PIN panelist from Latvia in European Transport
Safety Council.
1
The objectives of the presentation
To give an overview of road traffic safety level in
Latvia;
To compare the road safety level of Latvia with
that in the countries of EU;
To analyse the main causes of road accidents and
impact of human factor;
To reveal the impact of implemented measures on
road traffic safety;
To analyse different excuses of road users to
blanch over own behaviour in traffic.
2
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
Vehicles
Drivers
Injury accidents
Killed
1995
%
Road traffic safety indices in Latvia
During the last eleven years number of vehicles has increased
2,2 times and that of drivers 1,5 times;
As road infrastructure remains practically the same the traffic
has become more intensive;
Number of injury accidents and number of injured persons
went up 1,1 times in the last ten years, but number of killed
decreased 1,6 times.
3
-34,3%
Luxemburg
4
Lietuva
Malta
Kúттрoς (Kypros)
MagyarorszГЎg
-1,6%
-3,2%
Ireland
Polska
-3,6%
-6,8%
Slovenija
ДЊeskГЎ republika
-7,3%
-8,8%
-12,5%
United Kingdom
Slovensko
Suomi (Finland)
-14,1%
-15,6%
Eesti
EО»О»ГЎОґa (EllГЎda)
-15,9%
Italia
-18,5%
-19,5%
EspaГ±a
Norge
-19,8%
-20,8%
Г–sterreich
Latvija_2005
-23,2%
-24,5%
Nederland
Deutschland
-24,5%
Sverige
-23,2%
-24,8%
Suisse
Danmark
-25,4%
-26,7%
-27,1%
Portugal
Belgique (BelgiГ«)
Latvija_2006
-34,8%
France
7,6%
6,3%
4,1%
3,1%
Decreasing of killed from 2001 till
2005 in EU countries
104
104
Slovensko
Belgique (BelgiГ«)
143
146
Slovenija
Kúттрoς (Kypros)
Polska
EО»О»ГЎОґa (EllГЎda)
Eesti (2006)
Lietuva (2006)
Latvija (2006)
130
136
152
127
126
MagyarorszГЎg
ДЊeskГЎ republika
118
103
EspaГ±a
Portugal
101
Luxemburg
97
Ireland
Suomi (Finland)
94
Deutschland
Г–sterreich
Danmark
93
United Kingdom
Italia
Sverige
88
Nederland
France
72
56
65
46
49
61
42
Malta
178
224
Killed per 1 million inhabitants in
European Union
5
177
185
France
Г–sterreich
Latvija (2006)
Lietuva (2006)
Polska
384
EО»О»ГЎОґa (EllГЎda)
325
297
368
240
224
Eesti (2006)
ДЊeskГЎ republika
Portugal
Ireland
Belgique (BelgiГ«)
219
169
Danmark
EspaГ±a
157
116
Deutschland
Suomi (Finland)
112
United Kingdom
157
106
Sverige
Italia
103
Nederland
495
476
441
Killed per 1 million cars in European
Union
6
The system “Road user-VehicleEnvironment”
The system “Road user-Vehicle-Environment
(condition of roads and weather)” sets
specific problems of road traffic. Causes of the
occurrence of road accidents can be divided in
three main groups:
Action of road users;
Technical condition of vehicles;
Impact of environment (condition of roads and
weather).
7
Action of road users
According to statistics the occurrence of road
accidents is mainly related with road users’
actions.
The increase of the level of road traffic safety
mainly depends on human factor.
The behavior of road users is one of the most
important and most sophisticated factors in road
safety.
It must be in the centre of attention of all society
as well as in the centre of attention of particular
sciences.
8
The target of European Union
The EU has set itself a target of halving the
yearly number of road death between 2001
and 2010;
The ETSC set down three key areas of road
users behavior to improve overall road
safety:
пѓ�
пѓ�
пѓ�
speed;
alcohol;
use of seat belt and other protective systems.
9
Important causes of serious road
traffic accidents in Latvia
Speeding - 22,6% of all fatalities registered
in 2006;
Driving under the influence of alcohol 20,6% of all fatalities registered in 2006;
Manoeuvring and aggressive driving - 7,6%
of all fatalities registered in 2006.
Reducing the consequences of crashes
Not using of a seat belt – only 77% of drivers
and passengers in front seat used a seat belt
in 2006.
10
How to affect the road users?
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
To educate and to train the road users
to behave safe;
To create public opinion about safe
behavior;
To enforce the road users to behave
safe;
To improve the infrastructure of road
network;
To improve passive safety of vehicle.
11
Penalty point system – a powerful
tool!
The aim of the penalty point system is to
separate the malicious and regular violators from
those who are driving according to the road traffic
rules.
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
In 01.07.2004 Penalty point system entered into
force in Latvia.
It means that drivers for committed violations are
punished both by fines and by receiving penalty
points.
The penalty point system besides punishment
includes also information, rehabilitation and relicensing.
12
A verage per year
(+/-) per year
(% ) per year
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 4 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 5
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 5 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 6
5343
4430
-913
-17,1%
5128
5557
4811
4049
503
562
533
-81
-15,2%
491
452
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 4 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 5
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 5 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 6
412
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 3 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 4
A fter
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 2 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 3
B efore
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 5 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 6
Injury accidents
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 4 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 5
A fter
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 3 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 4
B efore
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 2 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 3
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 3 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 4
N um ber
0 1 .0 7 .2 0 0 2 -3 0 .0 6 .2 0 0 3
Indicates before and after the
implementation the penalty point system
K illed
Injured
B efore
A fter
6336
6843
6104
5086
6590
5595
-995
-15,1%
13
Injury accidents
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
1986
1985
Road traffic safety indicates
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
Killed
14
Driver’s skills improvement course
If the number of received penalty points have
come to 8 penalty points – a notification about the
amount of received penalty points and the obligation to
attend courses about road traffic safety “Driver’s skills
improvement course” is sent to the violator.
„Driver’s skills improvement courses” are split into
two parts (each part is a three hours long lecture 3 x 45
min):
„Behaviour of road traffic participants and factors that can have an
impact on it”;
„Assured behaviour of a driver in different road traffic situations”.
Proposal to improve contents of courses with issue about
psychologically correct attitude of road users towards safe
moving in road traffic for offenders of Traffic regulations.
15
Speed and road traffic safety
There is an increased risk to be involved in an accident both for vehicles
driving slower or driving faster than the average traffic flow;
Higher speed increases risk of occurrence of an accident because it
shortens the period of time for drivers to take decision in critical
situation and to perform manoeuvre of escape;
Higher speed increases the damages of vehicles and severity of injuries
of drivers;
In its turn, the severity of the consequences of the accidents doesn’t
increase straight proportionally to the increase of speed, but much
faster;
In the accident with pedestrians the possibility that the pedestrian will
be killed increases rapidly if the speed at the moment of crash is higher.
For example, if the speed of the vehicle at the moment of crash is
50km/h instead of 40km/h the risk that the pedestrian will be killed
increases 2,5 times;
Although speed limits are increasing the level of road traffic safety they
are the most unpopular measures by the view of drivers.
16
Accidents under the influence of
alcohol
110%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
1999
2000
2001
Injury accidents
2002
2003
Killed
2004
2005
2006
Injured
17
Injury accidents in Midsummer day
The three holidays of Midsummer Day (from 23rd to
25th of June) in 2000 were named “Bloody
Midsummer days” when 26 people were killed.
Injury accidents
180%
Casualties
160%
140%
120%
100%
80%
60%
2006.06.24
2005.06.24
24.06.2004
24.06.2003
24.06.2002
24.06.2001
24.06.2000
24.06.1999
24.06.1998
24.06.1997
24.06.1996
24.06.1995
40%
18
Our excuses for not using seat belts
"Seat belts are
useless for short
journeys..."
As 80% of lethal traffic accidents occur 30 - 35 km from
home and at a speed below 55-60 km/h, short journeys
at such distance and speeds require the usage of seat
belts the most.
"Seat belt is useless 70% of the injured people who have not been wearing
seat belts have been injured when traveling at a speed
when traveling
below 50 km/h. A crash at a speed of 50 km/h is equal
slowly..."
to falling down from the 4th floor!
"I do not have
accidents - I am a
good driver..."
Being a good driver can prevent you from having
accidents, but you can’t be sure that a bad driver will
not crash your car.
"Seat belt is
uncomfortable..."
The reason that seat belts are found uncomfortable is
that we are not using them. Once wearing seat belts
becomes a habitual action, people do not think that it is
uncomfortable. Even though the seat belt is
uncomfortable, this can never be compared with the
situation of someone who has become disabled after a
traffic accident.
19
Our excuses for not using seat belts
"I do not need a
seat belt - I have
an airbag..."
Airbag is an additional protector only against severe
crashes from the front. Airbag increases the
effectiveness of the seat belt by 40 % and is placed in
the car to assist the seat belt. Airbags can never take
the place of seat belts in crashes from the sides and to
prevent being thrown away.
"I do not think this
will happen to me it happens to
others."
This is our point of view of life. It makes us feel better
to think that accidents happen only to others. There
are facts that should not be ignored. For instance, one
out of three people is injured during a car crash that
occurs at any time of their lives. We can not predict
when this can happen to us.
"Seat belt is my
problem - it is none
of anybody's
business..."
Traffic accidents cost trillions of money to a society.
How can the damage and loss of a life for a feeling of
freedom which is personally deceptive be accepted?
Can staying at the hospital for months or being
doomed to a wheelchair all of a lifetime be compared
to this simple feeling of freedom?
20
Main conclusions
The road safety in Latvia is improved
during last years;
Despite of achievements the level of road
safety in Latvia is worse than the average
level of European Union;
The road safety mainly depends on actions
of road users;
It is necessary to build up psychologically
correct attitude of road users towards safe
moving in road traffic.
21
All information is collected from
following home pages:
www.csdd.lv
www.csizpete.lv
www.etsc.be
www.erso.eu
Thank you for
attention!
22
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