close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Презентация

код для вставкиСкачать
SEARCH FOR SUSY IN SPACE
Dmitri Kazakov
JINR-Dubna
Outline
• Dark Matter in the Universe
• Brief guide to the MSSM
• Constrained MSSM and Dark Matter
• Positron spectrum at high energies
• SUSY contribution to positron spectrum
• SUSY search in space experiments
• Conclusions
EVIDENCE FOR THE DARK MATTER
THE FLAT ROTATION CURVES OF SPIRAL
GALAXIES PROVIDE THE MOST DIRECT
EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF LARGE
AMOUNT OF THE DARK MATTER.
SPIRAL GALAXIES CONSIST OF
A CENTRAL BULGE AND A VERY
THIN DISC, AND SURROUNDED BY
AN APPROXIMATELY SPHERICAL
HALO OF DARK MATTER
ROTATION CURVES IN SOLAR SYSTEM
AND OF THE GALAXIES
DARK MATTER
HALO ALONE
DISC ALONE
• NOWDAYS, THOUSANDS OF GALACTIC ROTATION CURVES ARE KNOWN,
AND ALL SUGGEST THE EXISTENCE OF ABOUT TEN TIMES MORE MASS IN THE
HALOS THAN IN THE STARS OF THE DISC
• THE ROTATION CURVE OF THE MILKY WAY HAS BEEN MEASURED AND
CONFIRMS THE USUAL PICTURE
AMOUNT OF THE DARK MATTER
FROM SUPERNOVA DATA
THE BEST FIT CONFIDENCE
REGIONS (68% -99%) IN THE
пЃ—M ,пЃ—пЃЊ PLANE FOR THE
SUPERNOVA RESULTS
пЃ— M пЂЅ 0.28
пЃ— пЃЊ пЂЅ 0.72
пЂ« 0.09
пЂ­ 0.08
пЂ« 0.08
пЂ­ 0.09
пЂ« 0.05
пЂ­ 0.04
пЂ« 0.04
пЂ­ 0.05
AMOUNT OF THE DARK MATTER
FROM THE AGE OF THE UNIVERSE
THE ISOCHRONES OF THE
AGE OF THE UNIVERSE IN
THE
пЃ—M ,пЃ—пЃЊ PLANE.
THE BEST FIT GIVES FOR
THE AGE OF THE
UNIVERSE
14.4 пЂ­ 1.1 пЂЁ 0.65 h
пЂ« 1.4
пЂ­1
пЂ© G yr
MATTER AND ENERGY CONTENT
OF THE UNIVERSE
HEAVY ELEMENTS
0.03 %
MASSIVE NEUTRINOS
0.3 %
STARS
0.5 %
H AND He
4
DARK MATTER
23 %
DARK ENERGY
72 %
%
WHAT THE DARK MATTER IS MADE OF ?
POSSIBLE CANDIDATES FOR MACHOs
- NORMAL STARS NO, SINCE THEY WOULD BE LUMINOUS
- HOT GAS
NO, SINCE IT WOULD SHINE
- BURNT-OUT STELLAR REMNANTS SEEMS IMPLAUSIBLE ,
SINCE THEY WOULD ARISE FROM A POPULATION OF NORMAL STARS OF
WHICH THERE IS NO TRACE IN THE HALO
- NEUTRON STARS NO , SINCE THEY WOULD ARISE FROM SUPERNOVA
EXPLOSIONS AND THUS EJECT HEAVY ELEMENTS INTO THE GALAXY
- WHITE DWARFS (STARS WITH A MASS WHICH IS NOT ENOUGH TO
REACH THE SUPERNOVA PHASE) POSSIBLE, COULD BE PLENTIFUL ENOUGH
TO EXPLAIN THE DARK MATTER IF YOUNG GALAXIES PRODUCED WHITE
DWARFS. BUT THE PRODUCTION OF LARGE NUMBERS OF WHITE DWARFS
IMPLIES THE PRODUCTION OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF HELIUM, WHICH IS NOT
OBSERVED
- BROWN DWARFS (STARS TEN TIMES LIGHTER THAN THE SUN)
POSSIBLE, HOWEVER,THERE IS AS YET NO EVIDENCE
THAT BROWN DWARFS ARE ANYWHERE NEAR AS ABUNDANT AS THEY
WOULD HAVE TO BE TO ACCOUNT FOR THE DARK MATTER IN OUR
GALAXY
- PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLES CREATED IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE
POSSIBLE, THOUGH NO ENOUGH EVIDENCE
SUSY PROVIDES THE BEST CANDIDATES FOR WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE
PARTICLES -- NEUTRALINOS ,COMING FROM SUPERSYMMETRIC EXTENSIONS OF
THE STANDARD MODEL
WIMPS COULD HAVE BEEN PRODUCED IN THE BIG BANG ORIGIN OF THE
UNIVERSE IN THE RIGHT AMOUNTS AND WITH THE RIGHT PROPERTIES TO EXPLAIN
THE DARK MATTER
PARTICLE CONTENT OF THE MSSM
S u p erfield
B o so n s
F erm io n s
S U c (3)
SU L (2)
U Y (1)
8
0
0
ino
zino
wwin
o , ,zin
o ww( w( w, z,)z )
1
3
0
binob inbo(пЃ§ b) ( пЃ§ )
1
1
0
G auge
Ga
V
k
Vп‚ў
g lu o n
W ea k
g
a
a
gluino
go g a
g lu in
п‚±
k
W (W , Z )
H yp erch a r g e B ( пЃ§ )
M a tter
k k
п‚± п‚±
L i пЂЅ (пЃ® , e ) L
1
2
пЂ­1
E i sleptons
L i пЂЅ (пЃ® , e ) L
L i пЂЅ (пЃ® , e ) L
EEi пЂЅпЂЅ eeR
Ei пЂЅ eR
1
1
2
Qi
Q
Qii пЂЅ
пЂЅ ((uu ,, dd ))LL
Qi пЂЅ (u , d ) L
3
2
1/3
U i squarks U i пЂЅ uuRR
U i пЂЅ uR
3
*
1
пЂ­4 / 3
D i пЂЅпЂЅ ddR
D
i
R
Di пЂЅ d R
3
*
1
2/3
H
H 11
1
2
пЂ­1
H
H 22
1
2
1
Li
Di
i
R
H ig g s
H1
H1
H2
H2
higgsinos
{
SUSY associates known bosons with new fermions
and known fermions with new bosons
SUSY DARK MATTER
Neutralino = SUSY candidate for the cold Dark Matter
Neutralino = the Lightest Superparticle (LSP) = WIMP
0
0
пЃЈ пЂЅ N 1пЃ§ пЂ« N 2 z пЂ« N 3 H 1 пЂ« N 4 H
photino
zino
M
M
R-parity:
R пЂЅ ( пЂ­ 1)
th eo r
пЃЈ
3( B пЂ­ L )пЂ« 2 S
R p пЂЅ пЂ« 1, R p пЂЅ пЂ­ 1
ex p
пЃЈ
higgsino
0
2
higgsino
п‚і 4 0 G eV
пЂЅ 4 0 п‚ё 4 0 0 G eV
• Superparticles are created in pairs
• The lightest superparticle is stable
THE CONSTRAINED MSSM
Requirements:
• Unification of the gauge couplings
• Radiative EW Symmetry Breaking
• Heavy quark and lepton masses
• Rare decays (b -> sγ)
• Anomalous magnetic moment of muon
• LSP is neutral
• Amount of the Dark Matter
• Experimental limits from direct search
Allowed region
in the parameter
space of the MSSM
A0 , m 0 , M 1 / 2 , пЃ­ , tan пЃў
100 G ev пЂј m 0 , M 1 / 2 , пЃ­ пЂј 2 Tev
Parameter space:
пЂ­ 3 m 0 пЂј A0 пЂј 3 m 0 ,1 пЂј tan пЃў пЂј 70
CMSSM FIT PROCEDURE
пЃЈ
2
3
пЂЅ

пЂ­1
пЂ­1
(пЃЎ i ( M
Z
) пЂ­ пЃЎ M SSM i ( M
пЂ«
пЂ«
(M
пЂ­ 9 1 .1 8 )
Z
пЃі
(M
пЂ«
пЂ«
пЂ«
2
пЂ«
2
Z
пЂ­ 4 .9 4 )
b
пЃі b2
2
пЂ«
(M
t
2
пЂ­ 174)
M inimize пЃЈ
( M пЃґ пЂ­ 1 .7 7 7 1)
2
)
2
пЃі 2 (b п‚® sпЃ§ )
(a пЃ­
-4 2 0 п‚ґ 1 0
пЃі
(пЃ— h
2
пЃі
пЂ­ 1)
(M -M
пЃі
exp
)
2
2
(fo r пЃ— h
)
2
пЂѕ 1)
2
(fo r M < M
2
)
exp
2
LSP
пЃЈ
)
2
(fo r m L S P c h a rg e d )
Fit Parameters
low tanпЃў high tanпЃў
пЃЎ 1 ,пЃЎ 2 ,пЃЎ 3
mt
M GUT ,пЃЎ GUT
M GUT ,пЃЎ GUT
mb
Yt , Y пЂЅ YпЃґ
Yt пЂЅ Yb пЂЅ YпЃґ
mпЃґ
m 0 , m1 / 2
m 0 , m1 / 2
tan пЃў
tan пЃў
пЃ­
пЃ­
( A0 )
A0
M
0
Z
b п‚® sпЃ§
aпЃ­
M
(m L S P -m
пЃі
-1 4
2
aпЃ­
2
пЃ—
Exp.input
data
пЃі пЃґ2
-4
2
2
пЃі t2
(B r(b п‚® s пЃ§ )-3 .1 4 п‚ґ 1 0
SUSY
пЂ«
))
пЃі i2
i пЂЅ1
пЂ«
Z
пЃґ U niverse
0
b
0
0
0
0
ALLOWED REGIONS OF PARAMETER SPACE
п‚· tan пЃў пЂѕ 4
From the Higgs searches
п‚· пЃ­ > 0
Fit to all constraints
From a пЃ­ measurement
tan пЃў пЂЅ 35
Fit to Dark Matter constraint
tan пЃў пЂЅ 50
POSITRONS FROM THE DARK MATTER
ANNIHILATION
neutralino density
• The Flux
dF
пЃІ0
2
пЂЅпЂј пЃі v пЂѕ
dE
пѓІ dпЃҐ
2
mпЃЈ
thermal averaging
G ( E ,  )  B i f i ( )
i
propagator
branching
spectrum
• The propagator
G ( E , пЃҐ ) пЂЅ 10 [10
25
2
a log E пЂ« b log E пЂ« c
• The Spectrum
fW (пЃҐ ) пЂЅ
пЃҐп‚± пЂЅ
1
2
mпЃЈ пЃўW
пЃ± ( E пЂ­ пЃҐ )]
The пЃґ three body decay (for p=50 GeV)
Two body decay (boosted)
1
пЃ± ( пЃҐ пЂ­ E ) пЂ« 10
2
w log E пЂ« x log E пЂ« y
пЃ± ( пЃҐ пЂ­ пЃҐ пЂ­ )пЃ± ( пЃҐ пЂ­ пЃҐ пЂ« )
m пЃЈ (1 п‚± пЃў W ), пЃў W п‚»
2
1пЂ­
MW
2
mпЃЈ
NEUTRALINO ANNIHILATION X-SECTIONS
THERMALLY AVERAGED X-SECTIONS
п‚Ґ
пЂј пЃі v пЂѕпЂЅ
tan пЃў пЂЅ 1.6
пѓІ dpp
2
2
2
4 p пЂ« 4 mпЃЈ
4 p 4 p пЂ« 4mпЃЈ K1(
2
2
T
)пЃі ( p )
0
4
m пЃЈ T [ K 2 ( Tm )]
tan пЃў пЂЅ 5
2
tan пЃў пЂЅ 35
POSITRON SPECTRUM AT HIGH ENERGIES
Excess
tan пЃў пЂЅ 1.6
Extra contributions
due to neutralino
annihilation
tan пЃў пЂЅ 50
HEAT and AMS-01 balloon experiments show some excess of data
at E > 7 GeV, which may indicate at extra source of positrons
The dark matter profiles are fitted to the rotation curves
пЂ­3
пЃІ 0 0.4 G eV cm = 1 neutralino per coffee cup
PREFERED REGION IN PARAMETER SPACE
The prefered region
mпЃЈ0
250 GeV
mпЃЈ0
50 GeV
The
пЃЈ
2
distribution
In allowed region one fulfills all the constraints simultaneously
and has the suitable amount of the dark matter
ANTIMATTER SEARCH IN SPACE
at ISS: AMS-02
tan пЃў пЂЅ 50
background
background
m 0 пЂЅ 300, m1 / 2 пЂЅ 500
m 0 пЂЅ 1000, m1 / 2 пЂЅ 1000
Expected statistics
The
пЃЈ
2
distribution
NEUTRALINO MASS FROM THE POSITRON
SPECTRUM AFTER ONE YEAR OF AMS-02
m пЃЈ 0 пЂЅ 200 G eV
tan пЃў пЂЅ 50
m пЃЈ 0 пЂЅ 400 G eV
COMBINED FIT FOR EXCESS OF POSITRONS,
ANTIPROTONS AND GAMMA RAYS
SUMMARY
The General statements
• The MSSM is not only reasonable, but is the subject of tests
• The Constrained MSSM satisfies all the requirements simultaneously
and provides the allowed region in parameter space
• Non-observations of SUSY at colliders puts forward non-accelerator
and astrophysics experiments
• SUSY provides a promising candidate for dark matter – neutralino –
the LSP
• Manifestation of the neutralino can be found in cosmic experiments
The Future perspectives
• If the neutralino mass is within the region 50  300 GeV it may be
indirectly observed by precise measurement of the positron
spectrum at high energies:
PAMELA – Russian satellite – 2004
AMS-02 – International Space Station - 2006
THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT
THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT IS A TERM IN THE EINSTEIN
EQUATIONS THAT CORRESPONDS TO THEENERGY DENSITY OF THE
VACUUM OF THE QUANTUM FIELD THEORY
R пЃ­пЃ® пЂ­
1
2
g пЃ­пЃ® R пЂ« пЃЊ g пЃ­пЃ® пЂЅ 8пЃ° G T пЃ­пЃ®
пЃЊ п‚є 8пЃ° G пЃІ v
THEORY PREDICTS A VALUE OF ORDER
пЃІv
4
M Pl
5 п‚ґ 10
93
g/cm
3
123 ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE LARGER THAN THE CRITICAL DENSITY !
THIS DISCREPANSY IS ONE OF THE BIGGEST PROBLEMS OF
THEORETICAL PHYSICS
THE MOST NATURAL EXPLANATION FOR THIS IS THE PRESENCE OF
A COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT, A DIFFUSE VACUUM ENERGY THAT
PERMITS ALL THE SPACE, AND GIVES THE UNIVERSE ACCELERATION
THAT TENDS TO SEPARATE GRAVITATIONALLY BOUND SYSTEMS
FROM EACH OTHER
THE BEST FIT RESULTS FROM
THE SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY PROJECT
GIVES FOR THE FLAT UNIVERSE
пЃ— M пЂЅ 0.28
пЃ— пЃЊ пЂЅ 0.72
пЂ« 0.09
пЂ­ 0.08
пЂ« 0.08
пЂ­ 0.09
STATISTICAL ERROR
пЂ« 0.05
пЂ­ 0.04
пЂ« 0.04
пЂ­ 0.05
SYSTEMATICAL ERROR
CONCLUSIONS. THE NEW COSMOLOGY
WE HAVE BRIEFLY DISCUSSED THE MAIN INGREDIENTS OF THE
STANDARD COSMOLOGICAL MODEL (THE BIG BANG MODEL)
THE BIG BANG MODEL APPEARS TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN DESCRIBING
THE UNIVERSE AFTER THE INFLATION
THE MODEL IS TESTABLE EXPERIMENTALLY (п‚єOBSERVATIONS)
IN RECENT YEARS THERE IS A LOT OF NEW OBSERVATIONS
WHICH HAVE CHANGED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE
THE NEW STANDARD COSMOLOGY IS CHARACTERIZED BY
- FLAT ACCELERATING UNIVERSE
- EARLY PERIOD OF RAPID EXPANSION
- DENSITY INHOMOGENEITIES PRODUCED FROM QUANTUM
FLUCTUATIONS DURING INFLATION
- COMPOSITION
2 / 3rds
DARK ENERGY
1 / 3rd
DARK MATTER
1/ 200th
BRIGHT STARS
THERE ARE INDEPENDENT LINES OF EVIDENCE THAT THE
UNIVERSE IS ACCELERATING
- HIGH RED-SHIFT
SUPERNOVA
EXPERIMENTS
- MEASUREMENTS OF
THE COMPOSITION
OF THE UNIVERSE
USING OTHER METHODS
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
15
Размер файла
1 752 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа