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St. Petersburg - case study
The City of Growth
Nina Oding
EWW WG1
Riga, 23-24, April 2008
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
117,7
104,5
108,5
107,1
108,3
1097
108,3
130
120
10,0
109,7 110
811,7
100
666,4
90
542,4
275
367,2
9,6
80
409,6
70
60
9,2
50
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
(forecast)
GRP output, bln. Rbls.
Change in GRP output (in comparable prices; in % to the previous year)
Gross regional product of St. Petersburg
4,2
4,1
4
3,9
3,8
3,7
Share of population with incomes below living level, %
4,1
4
3,9
3,7
3,6
3,5
GNP
Shipped product
Retail turnover
Investments into
capital asset
Specific weight of St. Petersburg economy in the RF
2
Foreign Trade of St.Petersburg in 2000-2007 (millions of US dollars)
16
14,3
14
12,9
12,3
12
9,17
10
8
4,92
6
3,96
4
6,92
5,79
2,53 2,49
2
3,99
6,9
4,88
2,75
1,91
1,75
01
20
02
20
0
00
20
03
20
Exports
04
20
05
20
Imports
y
ar
nu
Ja
Denmark
1%
Estonia
4%
Lithunia
5%
Denmark
Estonia 3%
Germany
36%
Poland
7%
Sweden
6%
Poland
27%
Finland
17%
Latvia Lithuania
1%
1%
1%
Norw ay
4%
Sw eden
6%
Norway
1%
-
07
20
er
b
em
pt
Se
Imports to St.Petersburg from the Baltic Sea Region
in January - September 2007
Exports from St.Petersburg to the Baltic Sea Region
in January - September 2007
Latvia
3%
06
20
Germany
47%
Finland
30%
3
Russian Investments in the Baltic Sea
Region
• Russian investments into the Baltic countries are growing. Significant
•
portion of them is going through third countries
The biggest and at the same time the most controversial investments
project Nord Stream pipeline across the Baltic Sea
• Estonia : Sillamae port, railways operator Westgate Transport. Terminals
in Tallinn and Muuga ports
• Latvia:1100 firms with Russian capital registered: Latvijas Gaze, Ferrus,
Electric Machine-making Plant, Jsc Latvijas Balzams, Latvijas Biznesa
banka, Latvijas Tirdzniecibas banka, Latvijas Krajbanka
• Lithuania :Lifosa. Kaunas Heat and Electricity Center, “Lukoil — Baltija”,
metalware-making plant “Nemunas “
4
Culture and Education
• 249 festivals, including 98 music festivals, 18 dance festivals,
22 ethnic culture festivals, 24 theater festivals, 20 movie festivals,
27 arts festivals, as well as numerous others.
• 1127 cultural institutions and over 31000 people were employed in
the sector
• 7783 historical and cultural monuments under the protection of the
state
• 61 ethnic cultural centers, 20 foreign cultural centers, 19 creative
unions , 52 theaters, 182 museums, 133 art galleries and
exhibition venues, 37 concert halls , 190 libraries
• 93 institutions of higher education, including 48 state universities
and 45 private universities.
5
SOCIO-ECONOMIC PLANNING
URBAN PLANNING AND CONTROL
STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
FORECAST OF DEVELOPMENT OF SAINT
PETERSBURG TILL 2025.
CONCEPT OF GENERAL WORK PLAN OF
SAINT PETERSBURG DEVELOPMENT
TILL 2025.
CONCEPT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF SAINT PETERSBURG
TILL 2025.
Description of desirable position of the city
including different scripts of environment
development.
Defining strategic directions of operations
GENERAL WORK PLAN OF SAINT
PETERSBURG TILL 2025.
Plan of developing the territory and main objects
of infrastructure
PROGRAM OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT OF SAINT PETERSBURG
FOR THREE YEARS=PLAN OF
ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES ON
REALIZING THE CONCEPT
IT IS RENEWED SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH
THREE-YEAR BUDGET
RULES OF BUILDING
(Urban-building regulations of territorial
working areas)
SCHEMES OF ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION, OF CITY
INFRASTRUCTURES DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT PLANS,
PROJECTS OF BUILDING LINES
FINANCIAL PLANNING
FINANCIAL PLAN-FORECAST– THREE-YEAR BUDGET
6
The Concept of socio-economic
development
• "St. Petersburg is the world city"
• St. Petersburg is the commercial and
traffic center"
• "St. Petersburg is the center of
innovations and administration
2007 - Concept of innovative development,
Program for administration’s activity
7
Foreign investments in St.Petersburg
• Over the last 3 years the volume of investments in SPb economy
has been increasing by about 40% p.a.
• The investment amounts are allocated primarily to processing
industries and infrastructure development
Priorities to secure attractiveness for investors:
•
•
•
•
To
To
To
To
create the investment concessions system
ensure political stability, financial and tender transparency
be prepare to provide clearly defined city development strategy
continue dialogue with business
8
Legislative framework
• Guarantees for investors
• Investment agreement as the basis fixing the rights and
•
•
•
•
liabilities of the state, subjects of RF and investors
Introduction of the new categories of investors e.g.
strategic investors
Provision of real estate objects for designated purposes as
an exception from general auction principle
Flexibility of application-based and approval –based
methods (in tax incentive sphere)
Special Economic Zones
9
Interview of foreign companies:
conditions for Business
Broad market – that is the main reason of our appearance in the Russian Federation.
In St. Petersburg we organized our production due to favorable geographical
position and progressive minded management of the city at the beginning –
middle of nineties. We also considered other options.
• №1: “In general- normal, we don’t see particular difficulties for our business”.
• №2: Company No 2: “Business climate in St. Petersburg becomes better, demand
•
•
•
•
•
is growing. The Company is planning to invest into new production facilities,
including construction of new shops from the very beginning”.
№ 3: “Before we got serious problems, now situation is changed in better
direction”.
№ 4: “Too many inspections of different bodies with rent extraction”. “Very slow
and greedy bureaucracy”
№ 5: “High administrative barriers, a lot of inspections, non – coordination's in its
requirements (sanitary body, militia, guarding, technical supervision”.
“Juridical nihilism, low production , professional culture”.
№3.”There are barriers but situation is changing to the better.
One can feel the grows of competence of bureaucrats”.
“No real signs of the state protectionism”
10
Interview of foreign companies:
Access to information and Labor Force
• Company№ 1: «in some cases we receive information through personal contacts,
private links etc. However we cant say that there is no access to the official
information. Some committees organize seminars, exhibitions about investment
policy , also Internet-portalВ».
• № 3: «Information is available. Luck of explanatory materials from the control
bodies, monopolies about the procedures and rules of agreements with examples
of solving the problems.
• № 4: «Information about administration activity is rather fragmenting. It would be
a great problem with it if it would be no contacts inside administrationВ».
•
“There is a problem with blue collar workers, low skills workers. We attract
workers from CIS countries through recruiting firms. There is no luck of white-collar
workers”.
• “Luck of skilled labor force, low labor motivation and low production culture,
exaggerated expectations of salaries “.
• “It is very serious for us. We start to feel of deficit of labor force even in 90th. Now
we can say the deficit is growing 5-10% in a year. We have training centre in SPb,
we send our staff abroad, cooperate with some Russian high educational institutes,
manage internships for students.”
11
New investors 2005-2009
• ElcoteqElectronic
manufacturing, $ 120 mln.
• Alcan packagingTobacco packaging, $ 35 mln.
• Bosch und SiemensHome appliances factory, $ 55 mln.
• ToyotaAutomobile factory, $ 150 mln.
• Izora pipe plant , $
560 mln.
• Shanghai investment industrial company, $ 1500 mln.
• General Motors Automobile factory, $ 300 mln.
• NissanAutomobile factory, $ 200 mln.
• SuzukiAutomobile factory, $ 115 mln.
• HyundaiAutomobile factory, $ 400 mln
• FoksoconElectronic manufacturing, $ 50 mln.
12
Key industrial
The city covers an area of 1,439 kРј2
Pepsi-Cola
Baltika
Sea port
The Gulf of Finland
Sea port
Ford Motor
St. Petersburg
JTI
Wrigley
Ring Road
Severstal
Bosch-Siemens (BSH)
Elcoteq
Coca-Cola
Toyota
13
St. Petersburg is industrial centre
• Industry is the leading branch of the city economy: it takes more than 25%
of Gross Regional Product and a little bit less than 25% of city workforce.
There are more than 640 large and medium industrial enterprises.
Food;
34%
Mechanical
engineering
and metal
working
32%
Others;
9%
Light;
Construction Metallurgy;
1%
materials
11%
industry; 3%
Electro
energetic; 11%
14
Attitudes to the West
• Respondents believe that West European countries are partners for Russia,
•
•
•
•
and some view them as a model for our country
Entery to EU : “They will not accept us;” “Russia’s entry into the EC would
put this organization out of balance;” “Russia is too large for the EC to
swallow.” , “Russia does not need the EC with all its bureaucracy.”
Belong to Europe ?: “I am living in a different environment with different
values.” “Both the living conditions and the values are different. We, living
in the Northwest, are closer to them [than the rest of the Russians
a model for Russia: Seven respondents voted for the U.S.A, two
respondents selected Germany and two Scandinavian countries, one
respondent voted for the Czech Republic
Entry to the WTO: Nine respondents welcome it, with seven of them noting
positive prospects for their own businesses. But bio-chemical company :
“This is very unfortunate. The prices on analog drugs will go down, while
their drugs are of a better quality than ours.” The transport company :
“Things will go worse, because our trucks are worse. “This is just another
scheme of our bureaucrats. The issue is deeply political and has nothing to
do with our interests.”
One should take into account that an adherence to market liberalism shown by
our respondents may be to a significant degree influenced by a megalopolis
where the modernization pace is at its highest. On the one hand,
entrepreneurs of a large city located on the EC border demonstrate
adherence to a market ideology, pragmatism and sober analyses of the
situation without nostalgic feelings about the past. On the other hand, they
are convinced that Russia should go its own, special way.
15
Advantages and Disadvantages
of outsourcing of St. Pete
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Proximity to the EU border and thus low logistics costs
Professional employees
High rate of industrial growth and innovation
Huge local market potential
Low cost levels
High interest in obtaining orders and motivation to work
Free production capacities
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
Growing salary and other costs
Requirements for high volumes
Lack of experience in international co-operation
Complicated logistics and difficulties with the organization of technical
control
16
Telecommunication
St. Petersburg is a fast-growing IT and telecommunications hub, unrivalled in
north-western Russia. The city’s telecommunications services industry is
currently valued at US $1,2 billion annually. At this growth rate, a prosperous
future and more investment opportunities seem assured for
telecommunications market players.
•
Subscribers of stationary phones – 2 000 000
•
Subscribers of Room phones – 1 600 000
•
Active Internet users – 846 000
•
Cellular communication use – 4 100 000 ( 75 % of the
population)
17
Research & Development
• 320 research institutions,
• 49 of them affiliated with the Russian Academy
of Sciences
• 172,000 research staff, 5,400 Doctors,
18,300 Pre-Doctors of Science
• More than 1,200 small and medium-sized innovative
businesses employing approximately 100,000
• 6 Technological Innovation Centers
18
R&D potential: Russia - North-West - SPb
650
627
4200
170000
606
600
1100000
1061044
162271
4099
4037
4100
160000
590
578
4000
552
3906
550
536
1000000
150000
887729
885568
141399
3900
870878
3797
900000
858470
140000
839338
813207
3800
500
800000
130000
469
3700
3656
449
450
432
120000
3566
424
397
400
381
3500
2001
Северо-Западный ФО
2002
2003
г. Санкт-Петербург
2004
3300
90000
3200
80000
2005
700000
110738
107928
96734
94352
92715
90011
2000
2001
Северо-Западный ФО
Organizations of R&D
2002
2003
г. Санкт-Петербург
2004
35000
230785
250000
30988
196039
26172
26329
200000
169862
25000
23465
21717
20000
18108
105260
14693
15000
76697
10757
10000
150000
135004
18357
14372
100000
11988
8780
50000
12149
17731416
0
0
1995
2000
Северо-Западный ФО
2001
2002
2003
г. Санкт-Петербург
500000
2004
2005
Российская Федерация
Expentitures for R&D (mln.Rbl.)
2005
Российская Федерация
Personal of R&D
30000
87861
600000
400000
1995
Российская Федерация
5000
112478
104752
98371
100000
350
2000
115017
110000
3400
300
116812
3600
High-tech companies in St.Petersburg
20
Indicators of innovative development
Index of innovation development- Russia– № 54 in 2006 ( INSEAD, World
Business)
Share of Russia on the world market of scientific production 0,3 %
(Source: Ministry of Economic Development and Trade)
Russia
Р•U
Investments in R&D, % of GDP
1.2
2.75
Investments in R&D in total volume of
investments, %
10
>50
Innovative products in total volume of
production, %
3
>10
Source: EuroStat, 2006
21
Infrastructure for Innovations
Innovative-tech centres
Venture investment support for SE foundation
SEZ
Business incubator for SE
Naukograd –research area
IT park (Telecommunication University)
22
Special economic zone (SEZ)
• The SEZ – the part of the territory of Saint-Petersburg (by
means of Federal Government regulation) with the special
entrepreneurship regime.
• Saint-Petersburg is the winner of the competition for
establishing of the special economic zone (SEZ) in Russia.
• Project timing: 2006 – 2026
• Production of software, communications facilities and
electronics; automatic pilots for engineering process,
military and civil avionics, medical electronics, development
and production of analytical instrumentation is planned to
develop on the territory of the SEZ.
23
Special economic zone
Total area of the SEZ: 200 hectares
Engineering preparation of the territory will be made due to the
budgets of
the RF and Saint-Petersburg within 5 years
Novoorlovsky
park
Neudorf
24
From interviews
• Russian companies are significantly behind in digital and communication
technologies; production of equipment for communications; biotechnologies;
microelectronics, production of alternative energy sources.
• There are some opportunities in space and laser engineering and here
Russian companies have leading positions in number of cases. There are
certain opportunities in nanotechnologies development.
• There are two possible alternatives of successful strategy – to produce
cheaper and offer less qualitative analogues of leading foreign companies or
to occupy market segments, which are not interesting to leading foreign
companies.
• Managers of innovative companies stressed that their business is rather
dependable on institutional environment – especially on guarantees of
ownership and intellectual rights, quality of judicial system. Industrial parks
and business incubators are the business for bureaucracy.
25
Challenges for innovative economy
 Low demand for innovations and low level of



innovative activity of companies
Scientific and research potentials are underused
Innovative circle is broken
Lack of links with international innovations
Policy oriented to the supply side, not to
demand !
26
Thank you !
27
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