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OECD EDU – September 18, 2012
RUSSIA STRATEGY 2020:
NEW SCHOOL AND TERTIARY EDUCATION
Yaroslav Kuzminov, Rector of the Higher School of Economics, co-chair of the
Expert Group “Labor market, Professional Education, and Migration
Policy”
Isak Froumin, Director of the HSE Institute of Education, co-chair of the
Expert Group “New school”
STRATEGY 2020:
EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION FOR
CHILDREN
There is no catastrophe in education
• one of the biggest coverage of general education in the
world;
• leading positions in quality of education in primary
school;
• good positions in quality of education in areas of
mathematics and natural sciences;
• high level of teachers’ formal education;
• increasing quality of infrastructure;
• commitment and persistence of educated parents;
Alarming signs of problems in education
• high rate of pupils, who do not achieve satisfactory
level of functional literacy;
• considerable gap between the least successful and
the most successful groups of learners;
• growing gap in quality of education throughout
different schools and regions;
• insufficient development of social competence and
positive social attitude among school graduates;
• constantly low PISA results (ability to apply received
knowledge and skills);
• decline of motivation to study among pupils
Problems: Outdated quality of Russian
education
Percentage of students who have not
achieved the second level of PISA
reading literacy
OECD
ОЭСР
34.3%
Percentage of students who have scored
highest in three competence fields
Россия
Russia
34.3%
Лидеры
Leaders
27.0%
27.0%
22.0%
20.1%
18.0%
19.0%
2003
2006
4.1%
ОЭСР
OECD
Russia
Россия
2000
14.0%
1.4%
2009
One fifth of Russian students
constantly score below the
threshold level of reading literacy
Percentage of “advanced” pupils
is lower than the OECD average
and much lower than in leading
countries
Problems: Educational inequality –
“weak schools”
Resource limitations and educational
technologies
Groups of students
“weak schools”
"Слабые"
школы
Children
Дети изfrom
неполных
incomplete
families
семей
Дети безработных
Children
of
родителей
unemployed
parents
Дети сwhose
неродным
Children
русским
языком
native
language
is
not Russian
30%
12%
5%
Personnel
Кадры
18%
13%
5%
9%
2%
Организация
Organization of
обучения
education
Дети
из многодетных
Children
from large
familiesсемей
“weak schools”
"Слабые"
школы
Other schools
Другие
школы
other schools
Другие
школы
Percentage
of с
Доля учителей
teachersкатегорией
with the
высшей
highest category
Schools,Школы,
where there
обеспеченные
are special
(correctional)
коррекционными
teachers
педагогами
Percentage
of pupils,
Доля школьников,
studying
within the
обучающихся
по
framework
of
профильным
specialized
programs
программам
34%
55%
6%
36%
19%
71%
PISA. Reading literacy.
Uneducated children. Level – below 1.
13.6
13
9
8
6
2000
Россия
ОЭСР
Russia
OECD
2003
Linear (Россия)
Linear (Russia)
7.4
2006
Linear (ОЭСР)
Linear (OECD)
Problems: educational inequality –
selective schools
Quantity of selective schools in
Russia, by year
Gymnasiums
Lyceums
Quantity of countries
The position of Russia (considering
measurement errors)
Average score in Russia
Comparison of PISA member states
Quantity of countries where the
results are higher than the
Russian ones
Quantity of countries where the
results are comparable with the
ones in Russia
PISA results of Russian
students, by year
Problems: migrants’ children
Migrants’ children who moved to Russia after
the age of 7 show considerably lower academic
progress than their coevals
Number of schools
Poll’s results in six municipal
districts in Moscow region and
Saint Petersburg:
Ethnic majority
Ethnic minority
% migrants at school
born in St.
Petersburg
Март 2012 г.
came before
the age of 7
came after the
age of 7
Problems: Access to pre-school education
80%
70%
63%
64%
66%
66%
66%
67%
67%
68%
62%
67%
56%
57%
57%
58%
59%
59%
52%
55%
60%
54%
37%
37%
39%
41%
33%
36%
41%
35%
40%
34%
Educational institutions for
children aged 5-7 get most
attention and financial
support.
фото
Preschool education coverage for
children of ages 1 till 3 is only
32.5%.
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Всего
Total
Город
urban aria
Село
фото
rural area
80
78.2
70
Preschool education coverage for
children aged 1-6 is steadily
growing, but is still lower than in
1991, when it was 63%.
71.8
60
50
40
30
32.5
фото
20
10
0
от 1 до 3
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
от 3 до 5
старше 5
Causes of aggravating problems:
General
Management
Limited offer of services for
Limited management capacity on
preschool education
regional, municipal and school
Degradation of teaching staff
levels
Network of educational
Institutional reforms are not
establishments does not correspond
complete (quality assurance system
to changing patterns of settlement
is not established)
Scale and quality of extracurricular
activities is declining
Outdated educational content and
methods
Causes: teaching staff
Salary correlation for
teachers and other workers
USA
США
UK
Великобритания
Russia
Россия
140%
120%
100%
85%
80%
60%
57%
40%
20%
0%
1960
1970
1980
41.3%
1990
2000
39.5%
Teaching staff is aging:
percentage of teachers with less
than 10 years of work
experience is constantly
declining.
19.1%
early 1990s
late 1990s
late 2000s
Начало 1990-х Конец 1990-х Конец 2000-х
2009-10*
Causes: Outdated educational content
Number of school subjects (7th grade)
16
14
The structure
of basic
curriculum
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
USA
США
France
Франция
Japan
Япония
Финлянд
Finland
ия
Russia
Россия
Количество
Quantity
изучаемых
of school
subjects
предметов
(minimum
(минимум)
7
8
9
9
12
Количество
Quantity
изучаемых
of school
subjects
предметов
(maximum
(максимум)
9
9
10
10
15
Causes: Declining extracurricular
activities
Percentage of pupils not involved in
extracurricular activities (types of
activities)
Large cities
rural areas
sport
never
arts never
Percentage of pupils not involved in
extracurricular activities (age groups)
medium and small
towns
Foreign
languages
never
scientific
hobby groups
Large cities
medium and small
towns
rural areas
were not involved
in extracurricular
activities in
elementary school
in secondary and
high school
have never been
involved in
extracurricular
activities
never
Percentage of children aged 5-18 involved in supplementary education is 49.1%. On average,
only 52% of families in Russia have never paid for supplementary education.
Purposes of the new development stage in education
should be formulated as follows:
• Ensuring positive socialization and
educational successfulness for each child;
• Children have to acquire modern skills.
• Thus it is necessary
• to stop negative trends;
• to modernize the sphere of education in
accordance with challenges of changing
cultural, social and technical environment.
The object of educational policy should be
perceived not simply as the system of
schools and preschool educational
establishments, but as the complex sphere
of education and socialization for the
young generation.
New development resources:
• Interest and energy of families.
• Creativity of some schools and innovative
networks.
• Potential of higher education for high school
students.
• Out-of-school forms: supplementary education,
“industries for children”, internet.
• Timing (overall educational time in Russia is
25% lower than in OECD).
17
Major areas for changes:
•
•
•
•
Access to preschool education.
Ensuring equal opportunities for all students.
Renewal of teaching staff.
New quality of content and methods of
teaching (breakthrough in spheres of
potential leadership and catching up with
the backlogs).
• Out-of-school education and socialization.
• New network of schools
• Data collection and evidence-based
management
Raising access to preschool education:
• Federal support to building nursery schools in regions
with significant deficit of preschool institutions (deficit
of places not less than 10%, where the coverage of
children is lower than 70%).
• Stimulating the sector of non-government flexible
services for young kids through the system of tax
remissions and deductions.
• Elaborating mechanisms for establishing separate
groups of preschool education as independent
organizations in specially suited premises; creating
external centralized system of management and
outsourcing services for childcare.
Ensuring success of each child
• Creating revealing and record keeping systems for special groups of
children in sphere of education (children in difficult situations,
migrants’ children, children with disabilities, gifted and talented
children).
• Support to educational institutions working with the most difficult
groups of students and implementation of programs of integration
of social and educational integration.
• Support to inclusive educational programs for children with
disabilities and gifted children in an educational institution and
municipal network; preserving and developing special educational
organizations.
• Support to educational programs of sociocultural integration for
migrants’ children (including learning Russian).
Renewing teaching staff
and teachers’ skills
• Raising salaries for teachers in exchange to new
contractual duties (effective contract).
• Modernization of professional development
system.
• Modernization of pension system for teachers.
• Incentives for young teachers.
• Qualification exam for graduates of pedagogical
universities and specialists without pedagogical
education willing to work in an educational
organization.
Modernization of pedagogical
education
• Introducing minimal Unified State Exam score
limitations to enter a university with major in
pedagogics.
• Federal support and delegating a part of
functions of professional retraining to nongovernment and non-specialized institutions of
higher education, employing new programs,
models of training, and utilizing modern
educational technologies, forms, etc.
• Introducing compulsory year-long internship in
the graduate school, based on results of which
educational license should be issued.
Modernization of content and methods of
teaching
• New flexible mechanism for renewing the content of education.
• Development of educational content and methods in the
following areas: “Technology”, “Social sciences” and “Foreign
languages”, aimed at achieving new level of learning
achievements.
• Support to projects of forming new technological environment in
the system of education (“digital school”, web 3.0, digital
hypertext textbooks), including providing schools with high-speed
wireless network access.
• Moving Russian mathematical education into leading positions in
the world.
Developing the sphere of out-of-school
education and socialization:
• Implementing the mechanism of competition-based
financing for programs of supplementary education,
summer leisure, and improvement of children’s and
young people’s health.
• Support to development of municipal social
infrastructure and cultural environment for children
and young people (exploratoriums, outdoor play sets,
playgrounds, social networks, etc.).
• Support to integrated media-social projects (TV;
Internet; play, documentary, and animated films)
aimed at formation of social competences and targets;
gaining experience of positive social attitudes and civic
values.
Modernization stages:
• 2012-2015
Centralized promotion of basic standards and new regulatory
framework, their implementation (including “new contact”).
Support to leading regions’ pilot projects of implementing
federal policies through catalytic subsidies.
Launching Federal projects of open education and
socialization.
• 2016-2020
Educational policy decentralization, support to regional
initiatives.
Development of non-government sector of socialization and
education.
STRATEGY 2020:
TERTIARY EDUCATION
Key Labor Market Challenges in
2020
• Up to 25% of the able-bodied population cannot
“find their place on the market” due to the gap
between their ambitions, competences and the job
offers available
• Creative workforce and highly-qualified employees
are flowing out of the country (the new generation
of workers are more mobile and have modern
language skills)
• The migrant workers coming from the Far East and
Asian republics tend to seek permanent residence at
a new place rather than work temporarily (just like in
the European countries during the 80s and 90s)
Structural maneuvering and internal economizing are plausible
in the field of education
Russian demographic data: historical data and the forecasts
3000
фото
2603
2575
2554
2559
2470
2484
2399
2295 2324
2223
2073
Number of people, thousand
2500
2000
1500
2071
1839
1719
1712 1738174217421729
1686
1726
1703
1675
16381670 1700
1625
1839
149414741521
1494
1676
15991598
1557
1462 1455
1467144514901465
139914551450
1410
1405
1379
1308 12981276132612961347
1278 130812801333
1286 1257
фото
2012год
2010
2020
2020год
1000
Growth in the number of children of
school age:
by 22%
500
Decrease in the number of people aged
17-20:
almost by 30%
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Age
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
фото
фото
28
University Enrollees and Graduates Structured Flows in
2009 (mln. of people)
0.04
1.07
0.29
0.24
Pre-school age
children
Grade
1 to 4
Grades 5 to
9
0.34
Not catered to
by the daycare
centers
0.02
Prim.educ
0.76
0.08
Grades 10,11,
(12) (Complete
sec. school
education)
1.29
0.95
0.03
0.01
0.21
ation
0.54
0.02
3
фото0.22
Sec.educa
tion
0.63
0.63
0.49
High
er
educ
ation
1.41
0.14
0.42
0.17
1.37
0.64
фот
Labor market, military service, other countries
Further education opportunities for adults
фото
29
Funds Allocated for Financing Secondary and Higher Education in Russia
and Other Countries of the World
(Per Capita Expenses)
30000
Sec.&Higher
Education
in
Россия
- третичное,
2009
Sec.&Higher
Education2020
in
Россия
- третичное,
Russia, 2009
Education
Russia, 2020
25000
20000
15000
10000
Brazil
Mexico
Czech Republic
Poland
Germany
France
Finland
Australia
Spain
The Neather.
Japan
UK
Sweden
0
South Korea
5000
USA
US Dollar (Purchsing Power Parity) 2007
Третичное,
Sec.&Higher2007
Structural Changes in Learner Cohorts (During the Last 2
Decades)
66%
37.9%
Higher
education
Higher education
(tuition fee paid by
parents/student)
высшее
- по
37.2%
Sudden growth in the number
фото
of university students
in 20002010*
договорам
Higher education
(tuition fee
covered
высшее
- за
счет
by the public funds)
бюджетных
средств
Secondary
education (tuition
32.7%
Secondary
education
28.5%
среднее
fee paid -byпо
договорам
parents/student)
7.1%
Secondary
среднее
- за счет
education (tuition
бюджетных
fee covered by
средств
the public funds)
15.7%
29.4%
Primary
education
31%
25% 23% 25%
15%
9%
начальное
Primary
education
11.4%
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
фото
1989
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
2008
*Sample data provided by the Federal
State Statistics Service
31
Educational Program Participants
Student cohort structure in the US publicly-funded
HEIs in 2009
2-year
2-летние
programs
Student cohort structure in Russia
Primary
НПО
4-year programs
4-летние
education
фото Higher
Secondary
СПО
ВПО
education
Applied skills and
competences
obtained
education
37.9%
65.7%
фот
32.7%
47.5%
52.5%
22.6%
29.4%
34.4%
11.8%
2008
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
62.1%
фото
1989
32
Psychological Aspect
in Obtaining a University Degree
How important is it for you today to obtain a
university degree?
Undoubtedly
безусловно
important
68%
63%
важно
Somewhat
скорее важно
important
If the post-secondary school
graduates could have got a better
salary than or the same salary as
the HEI graduates, what фото
degree
would you have recommended your
child to obtain, that of a HEI or that
22%
25%
2010
15%
5%
7%
Somewhat
скорее
не важно
unimportant
2007
A post-secondary
колледж
фотВschool
degree
2009
безусловно
Undoubtedly
notне
important
важно
затрудняюсь
There
is no exact
answer
ответить
2%
3%
3%
2%
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
23%
HEI degree
В Aвуз
62%
There is no
exact answer
Затрудняюсь
ответить
фото
33
The Value of Higher Education and the University
Graduates’ Qualifications
The share of employers who think
the educational establishments’
graduates need further training
(as at 2006)
Young people who obtained a degree from a HEI
89.5%
68.4%
фото
50.1%
Needed further on-the-job
Почти
сразу начинали
training
полноценно работать
2000
2005
2010 (оценка)
Number of educational establishments’
graduates at the labor market, mln. of people
Школа
School
НПО
Primary
education
2.5
СПО
Secondary
education
ВПО
31.8%
Higher
education
mln. Of people
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.68
0.43
0.61
1.11
68.2%
1.2
0.42
0.59
0.19
2001
2005
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
26.5%
фот
73.5%
1.37
0.46
0.24
Became full-fledged
employees
Нуждались
в дополнительном
right
at
the
start
обучении на рабочем месте
1.15
0.49
0.23
0.23
0.19
0.14
2009
2015
2021
Исполнители
Highly-qualified
junior высшей
rank-and-file
employees
квалификации
Salaried
men, office
Служащие,
фото
personnel
офисные
работники
Up to 25% of the First-Year Students Do Not Possess Even the
Basic Competences for Continuing Their Education Successfully
Number of HEIs requiring the number of USE points
Кол-во вузов с соответствующими баллами по
ЕГЭ
than 40
<40 Less
баллов
points
40 to 75 points
40-75 баллов
600
500
More than 75 points
>75 баллов
Enrollees’ minimal USE
points (incl. only the
фото whose
competing students
tuition fee is covered by the
public funds)
400
фот
300
200
100
фото
0
15
20
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
25
30
35
40
45 50 55 60 65 70 75
ЕГЭrequirements
Minimal UnifiedМинимальные
State Examinationsбаллы
(USE) point
80
85
90
95
35
Graduates entering the labor market, including the introduction
of applied baccalaureate degree programs, millions of people
Higher education
Applied baccalaureate degree
programmes
фото
Secondary-level vocational
education
Vocational training
programmes (primary-level
vocational education)
School
фот
In 2021, the share of
applied bachelordegree programme
graduates is
expected to amount
to 28.4% of the
фото market.
employment
Высшая школа экономики, Москва, 2011
36
Performance-based contracting for
teachers
Secondary vocational education
Actual average level of
wages
Higher education
According to HSE
“Monitoring of education
markets and organizations
(MEMO)”: December 2010
Level of wages needed
to attract a target
profile teacher (“dream
teacher”)
Level of wages needed
to attract young
promising teachers
Level of wages
required to ensure that
teachers can stay
focused on their main
professional activity
in thousands of rubbles
37
Inertia scenario issues
Low level of wages and unsatisfactory quality of the teaching faculty body
Low prestige of the primary- and secondary-level vocational education
Education programmes lag behind their international counterparts;
“provincialism”
Poor level of the student body education profile, low motivation to study
Low quality of fee-based education programmes = higher education
“underprivileged trap”
Insufficient transparency of the higher education system for customers and for the
government
Low level of adults involvement in further education programmes
38
Key measures:
tertiary education
Additional financial support
required
No additional financial support required from the budget
APPLIED BACCALAUREATE DEGREE PROGRAMS
PERFORMANCE-BASED
CONTRACTING FOR TEACHERS
SHORT-TERM PROGRAMMES TO DEVELOP QUALIFIED SKILLS IN APPLIED
AREAS
SUPPORT AND DEVELOPMENT OF
INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONALLEVEL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS
INTRODUCTION OF THE MINIMUM EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THOSE
ENTERING STATE-SUBSIDIZED PROGRAMMES
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITIES
VOLUNTARY PROFESSIONAL CERTIFYING EXAMINATION
INDEPENDENT STATE CERTIFYING EXAMINATION
«MONEY FOLLOWS THE STUDENT» APPROACH
STUDENT LOANS FOR EDUCATION
MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCES FOR
UNDERPRIVILEGED STUDENTS AND
STUDENTS LIVING AWAY FROM
HOME, TO THE AMOUNT OF THE
MINIMUM MONTHLY WAGE
THE COST SET FOR FEE-BASED EDUCATION PROGRAMMES CANNOT BE
LOWER THAN THE REGULATORY STANDARDS FOR PROGRAMMES FUNDED
FROM THE STATE/PUBLIC BUDGET(S)
ENSURE TRANSPARENCY OF EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS AND PROGRAMMES
MONITORING OF ALUMNI CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND INCOME
MODERNIZATIONS OF THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS NETWORK IN THE
REGIONS
Bridging the labor market and tertiary
education
To develop regulatory documents to enable implementation of education programmes for adult students by for-profit
organisations to provide officially-certified advanced/further professional training; also, to enact regulations that
enable these organisations to compete with educational institutions for public contracts.
To develop mass entrepreneurial education/training programmes for small- and medium-sized businesses (including
voucher co-funded educational and training courses for new entrepreneurs in high-priority industries, such as
telecommunications, biotechnology, power production etc.)
To establish an educational/training centres network in the countries supplying the labour force to Russia (NIS
countries), to ensure their integration into the Russian vocational education system in order to improve the skills and
qualifications of migrant workers.
To establish a voucher co-funded professional education and training system for disadvantaged populations, including
the unemployed, retired, and ethnic minorities (including, alongside with migrant workers, indigenous populations of
the Russian North and Far East).
To allocate state subsidies to provide retraining for the unemployed youth (representatives of the “excessive higher
education” generation)
To enable foreign educational providers to have a limited regulated access to the adult education system in
technological fields where Russia notably lags behind.
40
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