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The report includes materials of three papers:
Performance of 170 GHz high-power gyrotron for CW operation
A. Kasugai, Japan gyrotron team
Development of Steady-State 2-MW 170-GHz Gyrotrons for ITER
B. Pioszuk, EU gyrotron team
New Results in Development of MW Output Power Gyrotrons
for Fusion Systems
A.G. Litvak, Russia gyrotron team
Outline of the talk
I.
Main problems in development of MW gyrotrons
II.
Conventional gyrotrons for ITER
III.
Study of advanced gyrotrons concepts
IV.
Gyrotrons for running and near future installations
V.
Summary
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
output radiation
Retarding
voltage
Worked
Operating mode
oil
cavity
mirrors
anode
Cathode voltage
Water cooling under
retarding potential
Beam acceelerating voltage
Output
wave beam
TE31.8, TE 25.10
� ≈ 20 λ
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
During last 10 years principal steps were made in development of MW
gyrotrons:
•Efficient gyrotron operation was demonstrated at very high volume cavity modes.
This solves the problem of thermal loading of the cavity walls. Very efficient QO
converters with low diffraction losses inside the tube were developed.
•Advanced gyrotrons were equipped with depressed collectors providing energy
recovery from the worked-out e- beam. Typical gyrotron efficiency is now about 50%.
•Gyrotron windows based on CVD diamond disks with a very low absorption and very
high heat conductivity were developed.
•These years gave experience of testing and use of megawatt power level gyrotrons.
Important auxiliaries and measurement methods were developed.
•Principal solutions for 1 MW power gyrotron have been found. This point allows one
to make prospects for more advanced gyrotrons.
Developments of multi-megawatt gyrotrons and gyrotrons with frequency tunability
are in progress.
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
High–order operating mode
TE15.4
TE25.10
TE31.17
Cavity wall
Electron beam
О»/2
XXL e - beam size
XXL cavity size
High power
The specific power is limited for gyrotron cavity configuration as
пЃ„P/пЃ„S < 2-3 kW/cm2 and power enhancement is linked with cavity size increase.
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
GYCOM’s 170 GHz Gyrotron. New mode converter
•Pre-shaping
•Slightly conical launcher
Field amplitude distribution
at the gyrotron window
Hz field component distribution
at the converter wall
пЃЄ
Gaussian mode content: пЃЁ=99,49 %
(Ax=14.9РјРј, Ay=14.68РјРј)
Diffraction losses: пЃ„P < 2%
z
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Diamond window mounted in 170 GHz ITER gyrotron
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
I. Conventional gyrotrons for ITER
Specification: 1MW/170GHz/1000sec
Results achieved:
Japan team
0.5MW/ 100sec; 0.75MW/17 sec;
Limitations:
overheating of the insulator, current decrease
Russian team
0.5MW/ 80sec;
Limitations:
0.9MW/9sec
0.7 MW/40 sec;
0.85MW/19sec
load; overheating of relief window
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Conventional gyrotrons for ITER (JAERI)
Photograph of 170GHz gyrotron.
Height is ~3m and weight is ~800kg
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Long pulse operation at 0.5MW (170GHz)
JAERI
Stable Operation of 100sec at ~0.5MW
Pa
150
Tпј€в„ѓпј‰
Good vacuum :
<10-5
90
Collector
~0.5MW
Stray
RF
(~10%)
0.07kW
О”Tпј€в„ѓпј‰
30
30
20
Fluorinert
(Si3N4)
10
Tпј€в„ѓпј‰
0
1.8kW
(SiC)
90
50
10
Window Center
0
50
100
Time(sec)
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
170-GHz GYROTRON (GYCOM, Russia)
All inner surfaces
are fabricated of copper and have
adequate water cooling for CW operation.
Retarding voltage insulator пѓ† 220mm
- is provided by flexible cuffs for welding
and outside ceramic supports to remove
mechanical stress;
- is protected by inner shield to prevent
ceramic overheating due to scattered RF
rays.
2.7 m;
300 kg;
160 mm magnet bore
0.5 MW/80 s; 0.7 MW/40 s; 0.85 MW/19 s
45% efficiency
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Tests of the 170 GHz
gyrotron (GYCOM)
0,5
30
0,45
25
0,4
20
0,35
Eff.int
Eff
15
Ibody
0,3
10
0,25
5
0,2
0
20
25
30
Ibody, mA
Efficiency
Efficiency & body current vs. retarding voltage for the
gyrotron with modified electron gun (1MW/79kV/44A)
Main parameters of the gyrotron
operating in the regime with energy
recovery of the electron beam.
Small value of the current to the
insulated body ( < 5 mA) shows a
proper operation of the electron gun
35
Urec, kV
Frequency monitoring during 540kW/10s pulse
170
169.99
169.98
Drift of gyrotron frequency due to
the thermal expansion of the
cavity. Very small relative change
of the frequency confirms a proper
operation of cavity cooling system.
169.97
30 MHz ≈ (2 10-4)
169.96
169.95
169.94
169.93
169.92
169.91
169.9
0
1
2
3
4
5
Time, s
6
7
8
9
10
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Next steps in development of conventional gyrotrons for ITER
(in 2004-2005)
Japan team
• Improvement of the mode converter
• Pre-programming control of beam current,
magnetic field and cathode-anode voltage
Russia team
• High voltage (85 kV) electron gun => power increase to 1.2 MW
• High-efficiency mode converter => pulse extension
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
II. Study of advanced gyrotrons concepts
• 1.5-2MW coaxial gyrotron
mainly EU,
also Russia
• increased power per unit
• power/cost? (much more complicated design)
• Multi-frequency gyrotron
Russia, EU
• multi-purpose microwave source
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
FZK – CRPP – HUT
THALES
3D cut : Gun – coaxial insert – Beam tunnel – Cavity - Launcher
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
FZK – CRPP – HUT
THALES
geometry of the TE34,19 coaxial cavity
p a ra b o lic sm o o th in g
4 mm
0
s < пЃ¬ /2
2 9 .5 5 m m
l
d
c o rru g a tio n s
0
7 .8 6 m m
1
16 m m
22 m m
frequency:
170 GHz
Q-value (cold):
1640
30 m m
im p e d a n c e c o rru g a tio n
7 5 g ro o ve s (re c ta n g u la r)
wid th l = 0 .3 5 m m
d e p th d = 0 .4 4 m m
Ohmic losses (ideal copper at 273 K; PRF = 2.2 MW):
peak losses at outer wall
1 kW/cm2
Q-value (self consistent): ~2000
peak losses at coaxial insert
0.06 kW/cm2
electron beam radius:
total losses at outer wall
27 kW
total losses at the insert
0.4 kW
10.0 mm
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
FZK – CRPP – HUT
THALES
microwave generation
165 GHz
- RF-output power:
Pout пЃЂ 2.2 MW
with Uc
пЃЂ 94.6 kV,
Ib пЃЂ 84 A
- efficiency (with SDC):
пЃЁout пЃЂ 30 (48) %
with Uc
пЃЂ 90.4 kV,
Ib пЃЂ 56 A at Pout пЃЂ 1.5 MW
2,5
50
2 ,0
P o u t ; пЃЁ o u t ; exp .
;
2,0
P
rf
;
50
40
calc.
пЃЁ out
1,0
пЃЁ out / %
30
P out / M W
1,5
пЃЁ /%
P out / M W
1 ,5
1 ,0
R F -o u tp u t p o w e r
20
25
R F -o u tp u t e fficie n cy
P out
0,5
10
0,0
0
0
20
40
Ib / A
Pout vs. Ib
60
80
0 ,5
0 ,0
0
0
10
20
30
co llecto r vo ltag e / kV
operation with SDC
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
FZK – CRPP – HUT
THALES
frame and goal
п‚· based on results obtained in the last years, the manufacturing phase of an industrial
prototype of a
2 MW, CW, 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron
started recently in cooperation between European research centres
- FZK Karlsruhe, HUT Helsinki, CRPP Lausanne with European tube industry (Thales ED, France)
п‚· delivery of a first prototype is expected for beginning of 2006
п‚·a
gyrotron test facility is under preparation at CRPP Lausanne
п‚· the design of main components (electron gun, cavity, quasi optical RF output system)
of the 2 MW, CW prototype gyrotron is under verification at short pulse operation at FZK
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Frequency tuning in 1 MW gyrotrons
• Series of operating modes
e.g. TE19.6 – TE25.10
• Electron gun operating in wide range of
magnetic fields
4.5 - 7 T
• Mode converter for all operating modes
93-95 %
• E-beam collector operating in varying
magnetic field
• Broad band or tunable window
Brewster / double disk
•General design
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Two-frequency Industrial Gyrotron (IAP, GYCOM):
diamond window, depressed collector
Optimal regimes at varying frequencies
F osc.
GHz
Pout
kW
Pgauss
kW
Ubeam
kV
Urec
kV
Ibeam
A
Int. eff.
%
Eff.
%
105
672
622
59.5
19
40
28.2
41.5
108
783
692
72.4
22
37.2
29
41.8
140
985
912
76.4
25.6
36.4
35.4
53.3
Gyrotron 140-GHz 10-s pulse. Monitored signals
Ibeam
Ucath
Urec
Irec
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Double disc output window with fixed adjustable gap:
movable unit design
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Conventional output window
with first CVD disc
Adjustable unit with second
CVD disc
Air-vacuum separator cuff
Water input/output pipes
Stationary unit with guide
cylinder
Hard disk spring – spacer
Set of soft disk springs
Gasket
Sensors of second disc
position
Shielding bellows
MOU
Channel for pumping
1
3
12
8
5
2
9
6
7
10
11
4
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
III. Gyrotrons for running and near future installations
Some remarkable results since 2002
Developed in
Developed for
W7-X
140 GHz / 0.9MW / 180 sec
140 GHz / 0.54 MW / 937 sec
EU
JT-60U
110 GHz / 1.2MW/ 4sec
Japan
LHD
SST-1
84 GHz / 0.2 MW / 1000sec
82.7 GHz /0.2 MW / 1000sec
Russia
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
FUSION
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
FZK - EURATOM ASSOCIATION
Gyrotron and Testbed
Gyrotron W 7 - X
collector @ ground pot.
AC & DC
norm alconducting coils
3 rd m irror @ ground pot.
CVD - diam ond w indow
ga ussian RF - beam
1 st& 2 nd m irror @ + 3 0 kV
resonator @ + 3 0 kV
superconducting coils
electron gun @ - 5 0 kV
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
FUSION
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe
in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
FZK - EURATOM ASSOCIATION
World Record Results of W7-X Prototype Gyrotron
922 kW ; 55 s
892 kW ; 180 s
e ffic ie n cy (S D C )
4 2 .2 %
e ffic ie n cy (S D C )
4 0 .9 %
P o w e r / kW
Power / %
P o w e r / kW
Power / %
972 В± 48
100
941 В± 47
100
O hm ic lo sse s
37 В± 5
3 .8
37 В± 5
4 .0
In te rn a l S tra y R a d ia tio n
13 В± 4
1 .3
12 В± 4
1 .2
0 .4
0 .0 4
0 .4
0 .0 4
922 В± 46
9 5 .2
892 В± 45
9 5 .0
16 В± 4
1 .7
16 В± 4
1 .6
907 В± 45
9 3 .5
876 В± 44
9 3 .3
G en erated P ow er
W ind o w L o sses
O utp ut P o w e r
E xte rn a l S tra y R a d ia to n
D ire c te d P o w e r
Within less than п‚± 5%: Generated Power + Collector Power = Electrical Input Power
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
110GHz Gyrotron for JT-60U
JAERI
1800
Max.
100
1.56MW
90
Beam Volt.=84.5kV
(1) No difference between
short & long pulse operation
80
1400
1.3MW
with 1.5s
1200
70
60
1000
with CPD
50
800
40
600
30
Oscillation Eff.
400
20
current limit of 50A
for long pulse
200
10
0
Efficiency (%)
Power (kW)
1600
(2) No saturation of power with
beam current up to 60A
Experimental Results
1.56MW/short pulse
1.3MW/1.5s/46%
0
0
20
40
60
Beam Current (A)
short pulse
long pulse
80
limited by capacity of power
supply of gyrotron test stand
1MW/5sec, 1.2MW/4sec
on JT-60U
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
IAP RAS
GYCOM
High power test of the 200 kW/CW gyrotron/transmission line system
F = 82.7 GHz , Pgyrotron = 200 kW, Pulse duration: t = 1500 sec.
PLosses MOU = 11 % , PLosses Tr.Line = 4 %
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
Gyrotron performance. Main results since 2000.
1.5
ITER
Power, MW
1.0
2004
140 GHz, 0.9 MW, 180 сек
0.5 MW, 900 сек
170 GHz, 0.5 MW, 80 sec
0.85 MW, 19 sec
140 GHz 0.8 MW, 10 sec
0.5
2000
0
170 GHz, 0.9 MW, 9 sec
0.5MW, 100 sec
110 GHz, 1.2 MW, 4 sec
110 GHz, 1.0 MW, 5 сек
140 GHz, 0.5MW, 700 sec
10
100
1000
Pulse duration, sec
Fusion Energy Conference 2004, Vilamoura, Portugal
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