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CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH IN CBRN DEFENSE
AT THE IAP NAS OF UKRAINE
V. Yu. Storizhko
Round-table on WMD and Dual-use Expertise/Knowledge
Redirection and Prevention
17-18 April, 2012, Kyiv, Ukraine
Accelerator based nano-analytical facilities
for material characterization
2
2 MeV electrostatic accelerator with analytical end stations
(RBS, PIXE, uPIXE, PIGE, ERDA)
3
Scanning Nuclear Microprobe
Beams: H+, He+ with energy 0.2…2 MeV
Resolution: 2 μm with current ≈100 pA
Analytical techniques: ОјPIXE, ОјRBS, IBIC
4
Detection limits and lateral resolution of
some resonant nuclear reactions
Element
Nuclear
reaction
Resonance
energy
(keV)
Resonance
width
(eV)
Resolution
(nm)
Detection limits
ppm
Hydrogen
1H(15N,О±Оі)15C
1H(19F,О±Оі)16O
6385
6421
6000
45000
4
23
30
100
Lithium
7Li(p,Оі)8Be
441
12200
220
0.15
Boron
10B(О±.p)13C
11B(p,О±)8Be
1507
163
660
18000
5200
300000
30
130
50
5000
50
100
Nitrogen
14N(О±,Оі)18F
1531
600
2
Oxygen
18O(p,Оі)15N
898
633
2200
2100
5
20
5
Fluorine
19F(p,Оі)16O
340
2300
25
0.1
Magnesium
24Mg(p,Оі)25Al
223
<32
0,6
Aluminium
27Al(p,Оі)28Si
405
992
87
105
1,1
10
100
Phosphorus
31P(p,Оі)28Si
1018
1147
<300
<160
10
31P(p,Оі)32S
100
50
Рўitanium
48Ti(p,Оі)49V
1361
50
10
20
Chrome
52Cr(p,Оі)53Mn
1005
9
100
11B(p,Оі)12C
5
Accelerator based isotope mass-spectrometer В«TandetronВ» by HVEE
6
(The Netherlands)
Some applications of AMS В«TandetronВ»
Ratio
Sensitivity
Error
14C/12C
3 x 10-15
п‚Ј 0.5 %
13C/12C
1 x 10-14
п‚Ј 0.3 %
10Be/9Be
3x
10-14
п‚Ј3%
26Al/27Al
5 x 10-14
п‚Ј3%
129I/127I
1 x 10-12
п‚Ј5%
•
•
•
•
•
Isotopes 14C
Isotopes to define: 10Be, 26Al, 129I
Possible fields of investigations
Nuclear power engineering and nuclear safety
environment monitoring 14C, 129I
Archeology and geology objects dating 14C
Radiation ecology Chornobyl accident – detection
of late radiative effects in the organisms, water
circulation 14C, 10Be, 129I
Nuclear fuel-processing waste (85Kr, 99Tc, 129I)
Half-life measurement (32Si, 41Ca, 44Ti, 60Fe, 79Se, 126Sn)
Fusion plasma temperature measurement (26Al)
Neutron flux of Hiroshima bomb (36Cl, 41Ca, 63Ni (100 a))
Nuclear safety (233U(1.59 x 105 a), 236U, 237Np (2.14 x 106 a), 239Pu
(2.41 x 104 a), 240Pu (6.56 x 103 a), 242Pu (3.73 x 105 a), 244Pu)
7
Complementary analytical techniques:
• X-ray diffractometers and X-ray devices for
phase structural characteristics;
• Scanning electron microscope with electron
probe microanalysis;
• Laser mass-spectrometers;
• ICP mass-spectrometer;
• ICP emission spectrometer;
• Atomic absorption spectrometers for the
determination of the ppm/ppb content of minor
metal impurities in samples.
8
Results of collaboration between the IAP NAS
of Ukraine CERN under the CLIC Programme
Optical spectra from DC-sparc
CLIC setup
Sample Cu 9(7)
Strong optical line Рќ2 (462.9 nm)
9
Laser isotope mass-spectrometer with
coordinate-sensitive detector
10
Current Research in Nuclear Forensics Field
IAP NASU
SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY CENTER
IN UKRAINE
•
•
•
P464 “Development of
identification techniques of
uranium ores in Ukrainian
deposits and their concentrates
by consistent phase-chemical
and radioactive balance data”
P465 “Study of Attribution
Signatures of Various Uranium
Bearing Materials”
5728 “Development of single-ion
and X-ray microbeams using an
electrostatic accelerator to
investigate radiation damage in
cells”
•
•
•
RER 0/0/34 “Enhancing the
Characterization, Preservation and
Protection of Cultural Heritage
Artefacts”
CRP 17089 “Heavy Metal
Transformation Dynamics in
Biochemical Complexes in Trophic
Chains”
CRP 17240 “In Situ Study of
Materials for Energy Applications
by Means of Real-Time Ion Beams
Analysis”
11
Investigation of final products of
chemical enrichment of uranium ore
Final products of chemical enrichment of uranium ore have been
studied with the scanning electron microscopy. The product is
uranium oxide crystals of prismatic form. Monoclinic system of
crystals is the most probable. X-ray investigation of samples with
Debye technique and their elemental analysis show that crystals are
identical to oxidated uraninite U4O9
Debyegram of fine uranium oxide crystals mixture
SEM image of uranium
oxide crystals
12
A Study of Uraninite by пЃ­PIXE Technique
Ој-PIXE measurements were carried out at the Scanning Nuclear Microprobe facility
of the Institute of Applied Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Sumy. Scanning of sections of all seven fragments of characteristic size of
100…200 μm was performed by proton beam with energy E=1.5 MeV with scan
region of 50Г—50 pixels, step of scanning of 2 Ојm and 4 Ојm.
The composition of Uraninite
Ој-PIXE
Element
The collective PIXE spectra (in
logarithmical scale) of uraninite
fragment
РЎ, mass %
error, %
Na
0.057
0.01
Al
0.94
0.16
Si
3.74
0.55
P
0.99
0.26
S
0.32
0.07
Ca
9.41
0.74
V
1.08
0.1
Fe
0.08
0.03
Pb
1.27
0.11
U
63.87
0.99
Cu
0.1
0.03
Mg
0.17
0.05
The maps of different elements
distribution on the same area of
uraninite obtained by пЃ­PIXE.
13
Efforts in Monitoring of Trace Amounts of
Transuranium Elements Isotopes
• The isotopes of transuranium elements are the most
toxic and is usually the most long-lived component of the
emissions of the Chernobyl accident and other
radioactive waste storage facilities in Ukraine and
neighboring countries of former Soviet Union.
• Of all the methods for determining the main doseforming radionuclides (238,239,240 Pu, 241,243 Am)
radiochemical separation of plutonium and, especially,
americium is technically the most difficult, timeconsuming and expensive task.
• In this regard, radioecological studies of pollution by
isotopes of transuranium elements in Ukraine were
carried out in a very limited scale: both in localisation
and on isotopes content.
14
Map of Ukraine pollution americium (241Am)
2008
15
We can solve this problem!
The Institute of Applied Physics of the National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine has unique (for countries of former
USSR) high-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometer
AMS-1MV В«TandetronВ» (by HVEE , the Netherlands) with
isotopic sensitivity of 10-15.The AMS allows determining
the content of all transuranium elements in any samples.
This device enables us to define all known isotopes of
plutonium and other actinides (238, 239, 240Pu, 241, 243Am, 237Np)
that are in the samples, to determine their contents, ratio,
and, hence, to clarify their origin.
16
Relevance of Establishment of Laboratory
Transuranium Elements in Ukraine
• Establishment of Center for collective use for
determination of Trace Amounts of Transuranium
Elements on the basis of accelerator mass spectrometry
laboratory in Institute of Applied Physics NAS of Ukraine
will permit:
• to promote prevention of nuclear terrorism, illicit traffic
and/or use of nuclear materials in Ukraine (Nuclear
Forensics Program, CBRN Defense);
• to identify nuclear materials through the isotopic
composition and concomitant elements;
• to study the harmful effects of the Chernobyl disaster
and to provide pollution monitoring of transuranium
elements in Ukraine and neighboring countries.
17
The Method of Project Implementation
• Use of accelerator mass spectrometry allows simplifying
the sample preparation procedure without preconcentration and separation of isotopes of transuranium
elements.
• Using AMS for studies of environmental pollution permits
reaching detection limit of 1.3 ppq for 240Pu (Reports of
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLL) and other
literature sources).
Project provides:
• Training specialists of the IAP at LLL for 6 months.
• Collaboration of specialists LLL and IAP in the
optimization of the analytical mode of the accelerator
mass spectrometer and improving of analytical
techniques in the IAP.
The proposed term of the project - 2 years.
18
Expected results and perspective
• Laboratory of transuranium elements will allow reliably
identify nuclear materials, will improve the radioisotope
researches. The Laboratory will be a deterrent for illicit
traffic of any potentially dangerous nuclear materials in
the territory of Ukraine and neighboring countries.
• The project provides the adaptation of existing
techniques and development of new methods for
determination of the isotopes concentrations of
transuranium elements in the IAP NASU in collaboration
with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA).
19
Thank you for your attention
V.Yu. Storizhko
Director of the Institute of Applied Physics NAS of Ukraine,
Academician NAS of Ukraine, Professor, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics,
Tel. +380 (542) 222-794, Fax: +380 (542) 223-760
E-mail: ipfmail@ipfcentr.sumy.ua
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