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Teacher Education and Research

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Teacher Education and
Research:
a Swedish perspective in an
international context
Inger Erixon Arreman, UmeГҐ University, Sweden
Per-Olof Erixon, UmeГҐ University, Sweden
�Professionalism’ & ’professional development’
to reflect and theorize on practice
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2003 extension of Bologna agreement, 45 countries
Different research strategies
i) teacher education a research-based field (Finland,
Sweden, Portugal)
ii) raised professionalism of teacher educators,
government led measures, �evidence-based’ or
�brute data’ research (UK)
iii) promotion of democratic values, equity &
multiculturalism (Austria, Spain)
iv) variety; policy studies, lifelong learning, learning
processes, use of ICT etc (Norway, Netherlands,
US)
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Different political patterns
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Neo-liberal, government-led, evidence based
research policies:
- control
- de-professionalisation
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Social-democratic, �universification’ &
establishment of stronger research base:
- influence teacher education
- support school practices
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’Seminar’/normal school vs
Academic teacher education tradition
’Seminar tradition’
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Elementary and intermediate
school teachers ( 7- 12 year
olds)
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Subject teachers (13-19 year
olds)
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Teacher Training College (50s1977)
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Research-based through
academic disciplines
’Practical subject’ teachers
(art, home-economics, music,
physical education, crafts)
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Preschool teachers
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Teacher Training College (50s1977)
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Academic tradition
Weak research-base & weak
links to research
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Swedish postwar educational
research
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Policy making & reforms: psychologically orientated
& instrumental to enhance teaching and learning
(60s-70s)
Social & critical perspectives (70s)
Historical studies with gender & social perspectives
(80s)
Variety: eg. �Phenomenography’ , �Didaktik’,
Teachers’ work, �Teacher thinking (80s-90s)
Educational restructuring, socio-cultural influences,
�professionalisation’ (90s-2000s)
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University reforms and
teacher education (TE)
National reforms
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1950s-60s. Teacher
education colleges
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1977. University/higher
education reform;
journalism, social work,
nursing. Formal inclusion of
TE
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1980s-1990s. Academisation
of ’seminar’ TE tradition.
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1993. University reform. New
research areas (engineering,
media, IT, project
management & design)
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2000. National TE reform
research & undergraduate
studies (from 2001).
Discipline Educational Work
established
Local reforms, UmeГҐ
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1990s. Research board in TE;
raise of academic level in TE,
funding of PhD training of teacher
educators, mainly in the discipline
of Education
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2000: Faculty Board of Teacher
Education
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New research discipline,
Educational Work
End of 2007, about 30 doctoral theses
and licentiates presented
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UmeГҐ Faculty Board of Teacher Education
(2000-)
Aims:
пЃ® Profound university integration of teacher
education
пЃ® Raised academic quality of teacher education
пЃ® Profession-based postgraduate program:
opportunities for teachers to graduate on
basis of teacher education & teacher
profession
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Current teacher education research
structures, UmeГҐ
Faculty Board of Teacher Education (2000)
Research in 3 areas
Educational
Work
for teachers &
teacher educators
Pedagogik
(Discipline of
Education)
Other academic
disciplines:
’subject didactic
research’
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Regional, national and
international co-operation
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Regional:
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Regional Development Centre (Cooperation municipalities in northern region +
UmeГҐ university, TE) .
National:
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Teacher EducatorsВґ Convent.
To facilitate the development and argue for regular and expanding state
faculty funding in the teacher education field
International:
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Initiation and coordination of EU-financed Thematic Network for Teacher
Education in Europe (TNTEE, 1997-2000). To develop research and PhD
programs in TE.
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2 EU-funded projects: European Doctorate in Learning and Teacher Education
(EDIL) & European Doctorate Programme in Teaching and Teacher Education
(EUDORA).
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work, 2001пЃ®
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History:
TE no access to postgraduate studies before
year 2000
Go back to discipline or Education
In both cases: complementary courses
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work
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In Sweden as well as internationally a strong
connection between the discipline Education and
Teacher Education.
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“Foundation courses”
The ghost of Herbart has lingered
Has brought about two fallacies:
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On the one hand the unhappy dichotomy between theory and
practice and
On the other hand the lack of understanding of the differences
between academic discipline and the school subject, i.e.
neglect of the links between knowledge production,
development and transmission of the school subject.
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work
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Two different structures or tracks
Connected to academic disciplines;
History, Chemistry etc. and undergraduate studies.
Normally, 3 or 4 terms full time study
Related to a professional program,
related to undergraduate studies, i.e. medicine,
engineering etc.
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More of a continuation of an undergraduate program and in
that sense looser connected to a specific discipline.
Cross disciplinary
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work
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In 2001 the Government established 16 national
graduate schools in Sweden
intention to stimulate recruitment to postgraduate
studies
develop postgraduate programmes
improve cooperation between different subjects and
various Universities and University colleges.
to enhance the links between undergraduate
programmes and research at higher education
institutions that did not have their own postgraduate
programmes.
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work
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Each national graduate school has a �host university’ and a
number of partner universities/university colleges.
Two of these 16 graduate schools directed towards TE: In that
respect it represents one of three (beside Education/Pedagogy
and subject didactics) research fields within the field of Teacher
Education.
The National Graduate School in Educational Work (UmeГҐ
University)
The National Graduate School in Technical and Scientific
Didactics (Linköpings University)
At UmeГҐ university also: The National Graduate School in
Gender Studies.
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work
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Formal requirements and conditions :
Teacher Education exam, not shorter than three years. Will be changed
from autumn 2007 due to the Bologna process.
Two years of practical experience from the educational field
You are employed (social security etc)– four years full time or five
years 80 percent of full time, plus teaching at department or in school.
Monthly salary; approximately 60 percent of a senior lecturer
10-15 applicants per employment
You write a thesis; either a monograph of approximately 200 p. or a
collection of 4-5 articles (published and unpublished) with a “kappa”
(coat). In Swedish with an English summary or in English or German
and French.
Public presentation with an opponent and an examination board (three)
8 students have presented their thesis
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National Postgraduate School in
Educational Work
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Structure and organisation
The faculty of TE at UmeГҐ University hosts the national
postgraduate school in Educational Work (NaPa).
Formally attached to the Faculty of Teacher Education at UmeГҐ
university
Embraces eight universities and university colleges
Steering committee consists of representatives from all
participating universities/university colleges, schools as well as
doctoral students. UmeГҐ University is the host University.
25 doctoral students
Network of approximately. 40 supervisors who regularly meet
once or twice a year.
Each student has two supervisors
Week-long seminars in Sweden and abroad: Athen, Malta,
Ljubliana and Edinburgh.
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