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Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student

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Teacher Training,
Teacher Quality and
Student Achievement
Douglas Harris
Tim R. Sass
Dept. of Educational
Policy Studies
Univ. of Wisconsin
Dept. of Economics
Florida State Univ.
Teacher Training and
Educational Policy
пЃ¬
Strong evidence that teacher quality has a
large impact on student achievement
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Aaronson, et al. (2003)
Ballou, et al. (2004)
Nye, et al. (2004)
Rockoff (2004)
Hanushek, et al. (2005)
Rivkin, et al. (2005)
Teacher Training and
Educational Policy
пЃ¬
Wide array of proposals to improve teacher
training
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
strengthening traditional teacher preparation
“highly qualified teachers” required by NCLB
enhancements to professional development
alternatives to traditional teacher preparation
programs
пЃ¬
Teach for America, state alternative certification routes
Previous Studies of the Effects
of Teacher Training
пЃ¬
Recent panel data/random assignment studies
using U.S. data
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
In-service professional development
пЃ¬ Jacob and Lefgren (2004)
College major
пЃ¬ Betts. et al. (2003)
Experience and/or advanced degrees
пЃ¬ Clotfelter, et al. (2006), Dee (2004), Ding and Lehrer
(2005), Hanushek, et al. (2005), Jepsen (2005), Nye, et al.
(2004), Rivkin et al. (2005), Rockoff (2004)
Alternative certification
пЃ¬ Boyd, et al. (2006), Kane, et al. (2006)
Summary of Results from
Recent Studies
Teacher Characteristic
or Form of Preparation
Undergraduate Major
Estimated Effect on
Teacher Effectiveness
Insignificant/
Positive
Negative
0
1
Graduate Degree
3
6
Professional Development
0
1
Experience
9
1
Traditional Teacher Prep.
Small, mixed effects (2)
Three Methodological Issues
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Non-random assignment of teachers to
training
Non-random assignment of teachers to
students
Measurement of teacher training
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
pre-service (undergraduate)
in-service (professional development and postgraduate degrees)
experience (on-the-job training)
Value-Added Model
пЃ„ A it пЂЅ ОІ 1 X it пЂ« ОІ 2 PпЂ­ ijmt пЂ« ОІ 3 Tkt пЂ« пЃ§ i пЂ« пЃЁ km пЂ« пЃ® it
where A=student achievement
X=time varying student/family inputs
P=classroom peer characteristics
T=time varying teacher characteristics
indices: individuals (i), classrooms (j), schools (m) and time (t).
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Computational issues estimating 3-level fixed effects
models with large data sets
Solutions
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
teacher-school “spell” effects
iterated OLS
Florida’s K-20 Education Data
Warehouse
пЃ¬
Census of all students attending public schools
in Florida, 1995/96 – 2004/05
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Includes student test scores and student
demographic data, attendance, disciplinary
actions and program participation
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Student records linked over time
Statewide testing began in 1999/2000
Includes all employee records including
individual teacher characteristics and means of
linking students and teachers to classrooms
Includes undergraduate records of teachers who
attended Florida public colleges and universities
Sample for Analysis
пЃ¬
All students in Florida, grades 3-10
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Elementary students in self-contained classrooms
Middle and high school students in math and
reading/language arts/English classes
Sample restricted to:
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Classes with 10-50 students per class
Classes with a single “primary instructor”
Students enrolled in only a single course in the
relevant subject area at a point in time
Two-Stage Estimation
пЃ¬
First Stage
пЃ¬
estimate student achievement gains as a function of teacher
fixed effects, professional development and experience
пЃ¬ model includes time-varying student characteristics,
student fixed effects, exogenous peer characteristics,
class size and teacher/school fixed effects
пЃ¬
Second Stage
пЃ¬
Regress estimated teacher/school fixed effects from first
stage on teacher pre-service variables and school fixed
effects
пЃ¬ since college information only available back to 1995,
can only include relatively young teachers
Effects of Teacher Experience and Professional
Development on Student Achievement
(No Teacher Fixed Effects)
______________________________________________________________________________
Math
_________________________________
Reading
_________________________________
Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 4-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 4-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
______________________________________________________________________________
Experience (Up to 10 Yrs.)
0.3137*** 0.5268**
(2.61)
(9.49)
0.1792*
(1.92)
0.3882*** 0.0793
(3.65)
(0.98)
0.0424
(0.39)
Experience2 (Up to 10 Yrs.)
-0.01865
(1.54)
-0.0140
(1.46)
-0.0242**
(2.43)
-0.0060
(0.50)
Over 10 Yrs. of Experience
1.3437*** 2.0823*** 0.3608**
(5.57)
(18.22)
(2.00)
2.0749*** 0.7448*** 0.0303
(8.12)
(4.34)
(0.13)
Total In-service Hourst
-0.0020
(1.32)
-0.0016
(1.15)
Total In-service Hourst-1
0.0038*** 0.0037*** -0.0021
(3.08)
(4.58)
(1.52)
0.0036*** -0.0016*
(3.40)
(1.71)
0.0012
(0.96)
Total In-service Hourst-2
-0.0007
(0.57)
0.0017
(1.34)
-0.0008
(0.71)
0.0008
(0.68)
-0.0018
(1.623)
Total In-service Hourst-3
0.0035*** 0.0051*
(3.20)
(1.86)
0.0029**
(2.42)
0.0019
(1.42)
0.0008
(0.82)
-0.0006
(0.52)
-0.0399**
(7.09)
0.0023**
(2.44)
-0.0010
(1.08)
0.0006
(0.47)
-0.0041
(0.49)
0.0023**
(2.24)
-0.0024
(1.55)
______________________________________________________________________________
Effects of Teacher Experience and Professional
Development on Student Achievement
(With Teacher Fixed Effects)
______________________________________________________________________________
Math
_________________________________
Reading
_________________________________
Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 4-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 4-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
______________________________________________________________________________
Experience (Up to 10 Yrs.)
0.5014*
(1.79)
0.7007*** 0.0407
(7.29)
(0.26)
0.5972*** 0.0054
(2.96)
(0.03)
-0.6602***
(2.77)
Experience2 (Up to 10 Yrs.)
-0.0488*
(1.73)
-0.0547*** -0.0173
(6.15)
(1.13)
-0.0597*** 0.0038
(3.11)
(0.24)
0.0490**
(2.00)
Over 10 Yrs. of Experience
-0.2474
(0.24)
2.1332*** -2.3830***
(3.25)
(3.47)
0.5318
(0.50)
0.2898
(0.37)
-2.6960**
(2.21)
Total In-service Hourst
-0.0022
(0.90)
0.0010
(0.70)
0.0027
(1.34)
-0.0033
(1.51)
0.0009
(0.47)
-0.0008
(0.32)
Total In-service Hourst-1
0.0030
(1.41)
0.0050*** 0.0012
(3.90)
(0.55)
-0.0019
(0.83)
-0.0020
(1.41)
0.0032
(1.37)
Total In-service Hourst-2
-0.0031
(1.44)
0.004
(0.29)
0.0045
(2.40)
-0.0030*
(1.65)
0.0005
(0.28)
-0.0005
(0.27)
Total In-service Hourst-3
-0.0017
(0.85)
0.0000
(0.02)
0.0040
(2.30)
-0.0015
(0.74)
-0.0012
(0.84)
-0.0025
(1.09)
______________________________________________________________________________
Effects of Teacher Experience and Professional
Development on Student Achievement
(With
Teacher Fixed Effects)
______________________________________________________________________________
Math
_________________________________
Reading
_________________________________
Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 4-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 4-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
______________________________________________________________________________
Content In-service Hourst
-0.0013
(0.38)
-0.0005
(0.26)
Content In-service Hourst-1
0.0040
(1.13)
Content In-service Hourst-2
0.0066**
(2.10)
-0.0084**
(2.23)
0.0052*
(1.69)
0.0045
(1.02)
0.0069*** 0.0054
(2.65)
(1.45)
-0.0021
(0.53)
0.0010
(0.33)
0.0070
(1.41)
-0. 0070**
(2.00)
0.0050*
(1.79)
0.0088**
(2.26)
-0.0105*** 0.0010
(3.27)
(0.29)
-0.0115*
(1.81)
Content In-service Hourst-3
-0.0020
(0.52)
0.0037
(1.41)
0.0009
(0.22)
0.0017
(0.45)
-0.0027
(0.84)
-0.0073
(1.19)
Other In-service Hourst
-0.0028
(0.92)
0.0016
(0.98)
0.0006
(0.22)
0.0003
(0.13)
-0.0017
(0.81)
-0.0057
(1.63)
Other In-service Hourst-1
0.0024
(0.92)
0.0041*** -0.0010
(2.77)
(0.32)
0.0044
(1.67)
-0.0034**
(2.06)
0.0004
(0.12)
Other In-service Hourst-2
-0.0013
(0.49)
-0.0016
(1.16)
0.0023
(0.86)
0.0008
(0.37)
0.0001
(0.03)
0.0026
(1.13)
Other In-service Hourst-3
-0.0015
(0.61)
0.0016
(1.01)
0.0050***
(2.63)
-0.0023
(0.92)
-0.0011
(0.63)
-0.0010
(0.43)
______________________________________________________________________________
Effects of Teacher Professional Development on
Student Achievement
(With Teacher Fixed Effects)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Math
пЂ Reading
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Advanced Degree
-0.3082
(0.60)
0.6596**
(2.42)
-1.6128***
(4.52)
-0.2832
(0.59)
-1.0555*** -1.2244**
(2.83)
(2.12)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Impacts of Pre-Service on Estimated
Teacher Fixed Effect: College Major
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Math
пЂ Reading
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Education Major
1.1626
(0.73)
-1.5503**
(2.04)
0.7309
(0.47)
Math Ed./English Ed. Major
-2.5634
(0.15)
0.1609
(0.15)
-4.2401***
(2.87)
-0.0190
(0.01)
-4.2792***
(2.67)
Math/English Major
1.8138
(1.08)
-2.2757
(0.31)
-1.2188
(0.99)
3.4573
(1.49)
2.3328*
(1.91)
-1.7982
(0.91)
0.8609
(0.73)
0.7950
(0.44)
______________________________________________________________________________
Impacts of Pre-Service on Estimated
Teacher Fixed Effect: College Major
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Math
пЂ Reading
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Education Major
-2.1753
(1.22)
-1.6948
(0.40)
Math Ed./English Ed. Major
0.0527
(0.02)
-1.0773
(0.24)
Math/English Major
-0.2933
(0.04)
-12.6489**
(2.34)
-0.0054
(0.95)
-0.0005
(0.06)
SAT Total Score
-4.7991
(1.02)
-0.0080
(1.26)
-1.1566
(0.22)
-2.7975
(1.00)
4.2839
(0.90)
2.0415
(0.76)
-0.2788
(0.07)
-10.9833
(0.80)
-0.9587
(0.34)
0.7840
(0.21)
0.0074
(1.14)
0.0025
(0.41)
0.0011
(0.17)
______________________________________________________________________________
Impacts of Pre-Service on Estimated
Teacher Fixed Effect: Course Content
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Math
пЂ Reading
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Gen. Educ. Theory Credits
-0.1874
(0.35)
0.0250
(0.06)
0.8100
(1.25)
0.6288
(1.12)
0.5379
(0.96)
-0.0526
(0.08)
Pedagogical - Instructional
Credits
-1.4568*** -0.0036
(3.24)
(0.01)
0.4846
(0.89)
-1.0590**
(2.24)
0.1933
(0.41)
-1.3332*
(2.06)
Pedagogical - Management
Credits
-3.3424
(0.56)
4.7273
(1.14)
7.7517
(1.00)
-1.5535
(0.25)
-2.3189
(0.52)
17.5420
(1.42)
Pedagogical - Content
Credits
0.0194
(0.06)
-0.1332*
(0.46)
0.1326
(0.21)
-0.2029
(0.49)
-1.1837**
(2.26)
0.7000
(0.70)
Professional Development
Credits
0.0904
(0.30)
-0.0007
(0.00)
-0.3211*
(1.95)
0.0273
(0.09)
-0.0929
(0.28)
-0.1028
(0.24)
Classroom Practice Credits
-0.1004
(0.22)
0.0761
(.20)
-0.1289
(0.24)
-0.1773
(0.37)
-0.1813
(0.35)
0.4412
(0.61)
Subject Content Credits
-0.8294
(0.27)
0.3053
(0.27)
3.3009**
(2.12)
0.0769
(0.06)
-2.0058
(1.07)
2.1991
(0.58)
______________________________________________________________________________
Impacts of Pre-Service on Estimated
Teacher Fixed Effect: Course Content
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Math
пЂ Reading
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕпЂ Elementary
Middle
High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades 9-10)
Elementary
Middle High School
(Grades 3-5) (Grades 6-8) (Grades9-10)
п‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕп‚ѕ
Gen. Educ. Theory Credits
1.9261
(1.10)
-1.3399
(0.97)
3.2782
(1.06)
-1.1665
(0.65)
0.0728
(0.04)
-1.0800
(0.61)
Pedagogical - Instructional
Credits
-0.7478
(0.56)
0.1152
(0.10)
-2.6655
(1.04)
-1.4855
(1.09)
2.0816
(1.42)
-0.0203
(0.01)
Pedagogical - Management
Credits
1.2883
(0.08)
6.2693
(0.56)
-13.1851
(0.79)
-3.2739
(0.29)
26.6491
(0.79)
Pedagogical - Content
Credits
0.9252
(0.82)
0.5403
(0.66)
-0.7257
(0.28)
-0.1928
(0.14)
-1.5511
(1.06)
-1.9554
(0.86)
Professional Development
Credits
-1.6202
(1.48)
-0.6190
(0.06)
-2.0051
(0.87)
1.9156*
(1.71)
0.7603
(0.57)
-0.5596
(0.38)
Classroom Practice Credits
-0.9803
(0.68)
-1.2529
(0.49)
3.8386
(1.54)
-0.6372
(0.44)
-2.4172
(1.64)
1.2981
(0.70)
Subject Content Credits
-2.259
(0.59)
2.7129
(1.00)
2.1143
(0.40)
-1.9746
(0.52)
-6.3997
(1.41)
6.5426
(0.93)
SAT Total Score
-0.0057
(1.07)
0.0048
(0.36)
-0.0190*
(1.73)
0.0054
(1.01)
0.0010
(0.19)
-0.0032
(0.51)
______________________________________________________________________________
Summary of Findings
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Experience matters, even after controlling for
unmeasured teacher characteristics
Positive correlations between in-service professional
development and teacher effectiveness only found
for middle-school math teachers
No evidence that education majors perform better
than non-education majors
Limited evidence that subject content course work in
education is correlated with improved teacher
effectiveness in high school math
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