Questioning Teacher provides focused feedback and questions to students that : п‚§ Activate prior knowledge п‚§ Probe studentsвЂ™ conceptual understanding п‚§ Lead to deeper understanding What do you know about questioning techniques? Give one, get one: 2 minutes to think, 2 minutes to share вЂў Under вЂњGive oneвЂќ write: вЂ“ What do you know about questioning strategies? вЂ“ What problems do you have with questioning in your classroom? вЂў Under вЂњGet oneвЂќ write two new things you learn from two other partners. Why Questioning Matters: вЂў Instruction which includes posing questions during lessons is more effective in producing achievement gains than instruction carried out without questioning students. вЂў Oral questions posed during classroom recitations are more effective in fostering learning than are written questions. вЂў Questions which focus student attention on the most important points of the lesson result in better comprehension than questions which do not. вЂў Questioning makes student thinking visible and provides immediate feedback to the teacher. Question their background knowledge first! вЂў Guide students from the known to the unknown вЂў Use cues, questions, and organizers to set the stage for learning вЂў Before new knowledge can be incorporated into studentвЂ™s existing schema, the schema must be activated вЂў Start by asking what students already know вЂў Focus on content that is most important, not on what students will find most interesting (hopefully you can make important content interesting!) вЂў You can discover and clear up misconceptions by taking time to ask questions before you begin a unit of study! Hook their interest! Make questions an вЂњitchвЂќ, not a вЂњscratchвЂќ вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Odd fact, anomaly, counterintuitive example Provocative entry question Mystery Challenge Problem or issue ExperimentвЂ”predict outcome Role-play or simulation Personal experiences Emotional connection Humor Making Hooks вЂњhookierвЂќ: вЂў How does a peer group influence the beliefs and actions of early adolescents? вЂў Was Gorbachev a hero or a traitor to this country? вЂў How do the structure and behavior patterns of insects help them survive? вЂў Who do some people act stupid when they are in groups? вЂў Who blew it? вЂў What good is a bug? The goal in design is neither to pander to the studentsвЂ™ likes nor to cause them to fear bad results. The design challenge is to tap intrinsic motivation more effectively. As Bruner put it long ago, вЂњThe best way to create interest in a subject is to render it worth knowing, which means to make the knowledge gained usable in oneвЂ™s thinking beyond the situation in which learning has occurred.вЂќ Understanding by Design Wiggins & McTighe TodayвЂ™s Essential Question вЂў How do students вЂў If students donвЂ™t benefit when like answering questioning is used questions why as an instructional should we ask strategy? them? вЂў How can teachers вЂў How can I get my improve the use of students to answer questioning questions without strategies? violating the Geneva Convention? вЂњFatвЂќ v. вЂњSkinnyвЂќ Questions вЂњFatвЂќ Questions вЂў Higher cognitive questions вЂ“ require students to take knowledge and/or skills they have learned and manipulate that information to create an answer or to support an answer with logically reasoned evidence. вЂў вЂњFatвЂќ questions are also called вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Open ended (no definite answer) Interpretive Evaluative Inquiry Inferential Synthesis вЂњSkinnyвЂќ Questions вЂў Lower Cognitive questions вЂ“ Recall verbatim or in studentвЂ™s own words material previously read or taught by the teacher вЂ“ вЂњSkinnyвЂќ questions are also called: вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Fact Closed (only one right answer) Direct Recall Knowledge What kind of question is used most? вЂў 60% lower cognitive вЂў 20% higher cognitive вЂў 20% procedural Should All questions be вЂњFatвЂќ? вЂў вЂњSkinnyвЂќ question more effective when teacher wants to give factual knowledge and help students commit those facts to memory вЂў If using вЂњskinnyвЂќ question, level of difficulty should elicit correct responses вЂў In classes above primary level, a mix of вЂњfatвЂќ and вЂњskinnyвЂќ questions is superior to exclusive use of one or the other. Benefits of Higher Cognitive Questions: вЂў Using more than 20% produces superior learning gains for secondary students вЂў Using 50%+ increases: вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ On-task behavior Length of student responses Number of relevant contributions volunteered by students Number of student-to-student interactions Student use of complete sentences Speculative thinking on the part of students Relevant questions posed by students Teacher expectations about student abilities, especially for students regarded as slow or poor learners Teach students to write different Levels of Questions: In the text: вЂў Right there!: You can put your finger on the place in the text where the answer is found. вЂў Pulling it together: You have to put the answer together using different parts of the text. In my mind: вЂў On my own: The answer is not in the text, but reading the text will help you know how to answer. вЂў Author & me: You have to answer by combining what you find in the text with what you already know. (For more advanced students) Concept Question Chain вЂў Select an important concept or theme from text вЂў Write a chain of questions about this concept of theme that include: вЂ“ Right there вЂ“ Think and Search вЂ“ On My Own вЂў After students have read and written answers, lead a discussion of the questions. вЂў Follow up with a performance task that demonstrates their understanding. Discussion Web вЂў Students read and think individually вЂў Students compare thinking with a partner вЂў Partners pair up with another set of partners and groups of four compare thinking and discuss. вЂў Call on a spokesperson from each group to share the groupвЂ™s thinking вЂў Open topic up for further discussion whole group Discussion Web Made giant mad Reasons Wrong to steal, go to jail Giant had possession of his stuff Jack got trapped DidnвЂ™t ask permission No Was it all right for Jack to take things from the giantвЂ™s castle? Really JackвЂ™s things anyway Giant was mean Yes Jack didnвЂ™t think he was stealing HeвЂ™d be richer Conclusion He & his mother had nothing left Questioning techniques вЂў Knowledge: Eliciting factual answers, testing recall and recognition вЂў Comprehension: translating interpreting, and extrapolating вЂў Application: to situations that are new, unfamiliar, or have a new slant for students вЂў Analysis: breaking down into parts, forms вЂў Synthesis: Combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before вЂў Evaluation: According to some set criteria and state why Knowledge вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў What do you remember about . . . ? How would you define . . .? How would you identify . . .? How would you recognize . . .? Describe what happens when . . .? How? Where? Who? Why? What? When? Stop and write a knowledge question you could use in tomorrowвЂ™s lesson. Comprehension вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў How would you compare вЂ¦? ContrastвЂ¦? How would you clarify the meaningвЂ¦? How would you differentiate betweenвЂ¦? How would you generalizeвЂ¦? How would you expressвЂ¦? What can you infer fromвЂ¦? What did you observeвЂ¦? How would you identifyвЂ¦? Stop and write a comprehension ElaborateвЂ¦? question you could What would happen ifвЂ¦? use in tomorrowвЂ™s lesson. Application вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў What actions would you take to performвЂ¦? How would you developвЂ¦to presentвЂ¦? What other way would you choose toвЂ¦? What would the result be ifвЂ¦? How would you demonstrateвЂ¦? How would you presentвЂ¦? How would you changeвЂ¦.? Stop and write an application question How would you modifyвЂ¦? you could use in How could you developвЂ¦.? tomorrowвЂ™s lesson. Why doesвЂ¦ work? Analysis вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў How can you classifyвЂ¦according toвЂ¦? How can you compare the different partsвЂ¦? What explanation do you have forвЂ¦? How isвЂ¦connected toвЂ¦? Discuss the pros and cons of вЂ¦. How can you sort the partsвЂ¦.? What is your analysis of вЂ¦? What can you infer вЂ¦? Stop and write an analysis question What ideas validateвЂ¦? you could use in How would you explainвЂ¦? tomorrowвЂ™s lesson. What can you point out about вЂ¦? Synthesis вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў What alternative would you suggest forвЂ¦? What changes would you make to reviseвЂ¦? How would you explain the reasonвЂ¦? How would you generate a plan toвЂ¦? What could you inventвЂ¦? What facts can you gatherвЂ¦? Predict the outcome ifвЂ¦? What would happen ifвЂ¦? Stop and write a synthesis question How would you portrayвЂ¦? you could use in Devise a way toвЂ¦ tomorrowвЂ™s lesson. How would you compile the facts forвЂ¦? Evaluation вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў What criteria would you use to assessвЂ¦? What data was used to evaluateвЂ¦.? What choice would you have madeвЂ¦.? How would you determine the factsвЂ¦.? What is the most importantвЂ¦.? What would you suggestвЂ¦.? Stop and write an How would you gradeвЂ¦.? evaluation question What is your opinion ofвЂ¦.? you could use in How could you verifyвЂ¦.? tomorrowвЂ™s lesson. What information would you use to prioritizeвЂ¦? Rate the вЂ¦ Another way to classify questions: Core questions вЂў Cue, direct thought & experience вЂў Focus on: вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Observation Recall Compare/contrast Grouping Labeling Classifying Predicting Sequencing Inferring Processing questions вЂў Narrow focus of discussion вЂў Elicit a variety of responses from different students вЂў Let students give evidence for their ideas вЂў Help students create relationships between ideas and evidence Wait-time вЂў Average wait time teachers allow after posing a question is one second or less вЂў Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners are given less wait-time than students teachers perceive as more capable вЂў For lower cognitive questions successful wait time is 3 seconds вЂў For higher cognitive questions the more wait time teachers give, the more engaged students become and the better they perform For students, 3+ seconds wait time : вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Improves achievement Improves retention Increases number of higher cognitive responses Increases length of responses Increases number of unsolicited responses Decreases failure to respond Increases amount of quality evidence used to support inferences вЂў Expands variety of responses вЂў Increases student-to-student interactions вЂў Increases number of questions posed by students And for teachers, 3+ second wait time: вЂў Increases flexibility of teacher responses (teachers listen more and engage students in more discussions) вЂў Increases expectations for students usually perceived as slow вЂў Expands the variety of questions asked вЂў Increases number of higher cognitive questions asked How to respond to student answers: вЂў Use student responses to form your next question and narrow the focus of the discussion вЂў Probing questions help you know how deeply the student is thinking вЂў Teacher redirection and probing help student achievement when they focus on clarity, accuracy, plausibility of student responses. How do students feel about questions? вЂў Generally fear them, which stops learning вЂў We usually only ask a 2nd question when the first response was wrong = students have an aversion to the 2nd question вЂў If redirection/probing are vague or critical (вЂњThatвЂ™s not right; try againвЂќ; вЂњWhere did you get an idea like that?вЂќ) students may not continue to respond and achievement does not improve. Your response to their answers will determine whether or not they continue to answer! вЂў Acknowledge correct responses вЂў Listen carefully to student responses! вЂў Praise of student responses should be sincere and credible and should be used sparingly. вЂў Establish community where all answers are accepted as a gift вЂ“ model this for your students Teach students how to state their opinions вЂ“ civic discourse вЂў I think, I feel, I believe . . . вЂў Support with reasons, facts, details вЂў Use reasonable tone of voice вЂ“ good manners DonвЂ™t Forget: вЂў Ask questions that focus on most important elements of the lesson вЂў Ask questions before and after material is read and studied вЂў Scaffold lower ability students: ask lower cognitive questions, gradually transitioning to higher cognitive questions. Ensure student success during questioning experiences. вЂў Teach students strategies for making inferences. вЂў 3 seconds for lower cognitive questions вЂў More than 3 seconds for higher cognitive questions вЂў Allow generous wait time for lower ability students Teaching inference making вЂў Model first вЂ“ Ask an inference question вЂ“ Answer it вЂ“ Find clues in the text to support the inference вЂ“ Tell how to get from the clues to the answer вЂў Have students practice with simple text вЂў Gradually have students make inferences with more difficult text Use the WASL stems document to help you know what kinds of questions students will need to handle on the WASL вЂў http://www.k12.wa.us/assessment/WASL/ Readingpubdocs/WASL6,7,8,10.xls Classroom Questioning вЂў вЂњSchool Improvement SeriesвЂќ Close-up #5 by Kathleen Cotton http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/cu5.html вЂў Mentoring Minds Critical Thinking Wheel developed by Michael L. Lujan. вЂў Haynes, Judy. вЂњHow to develop questioning strategies.вЂќ everythingESL.net 2004, 4/12/07. http://www.everytingesl.net/inserivdes/ questioning_strategies.php Self-reflection Review todayвЂ™s essential questions: вЂў How do students benefit when questioning is used as an instructional strategy? вЂў How can teachers improve the use of questioning strategies? Fill out вЂњTaking ActionвЂќ sheet to reflect on what you learned.