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Teacher Work Sample Model by Phil Bennett

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Emporia State University
The Teachers College
Teacher Work Sample
Model
Phil Bennett
bennettp@emporia.edu
620-341-5367
Collaboration and Use
•
Emporia and Olathe mentor teachers
•
Emporia and Olathe elementary interns
•
Emporia State University faculty
•
Renaissance Group partner universities
•
Oklahoma teachers and university professors
•
Kansas Performance Assessment to obtain
professional license
Current Status at ESU
•
Required of all elementary and secondary
interns/student teachers beginning Spring 2002
•
“Practice” Teacher Work Sample completed
prior to Block 3/Student Teaching
•
The Teacher Work Sample is a major part of
the final grade for the course EL/ED 431
General Structure of the TWS
• Contextual Information & Learning Environment Adaptations
• Unit Learning Goals and Objectives
•Instructional Design and Implementation
• Demonstration of Integration Skills
• Analysis of Classroom Learning Environment
• Analysis of Assessment Procedures
• Reflection and Self-Evaluation
Factor 1: Contextual Information
& Learning Environment
Educational Purposes
• Increase student’s concept of classroom diversity
• Link information about diversity to instructional design
Measurement Purpose
• Provide information about student’s awareness of contextual
factors and ultimately data to examine their ability to function as
a professional in a diverse setting.
Factor 2: Unit Learning Goals
& Objectives
Educational Purposes
• Promote use of more challenging instruction for all PK-12 pupils
• Promote use, interpretation and application of local and
state standards
• Encourage student teachers/interns to avoid “knowledge only”
targets unless appropriate
Measurement Purpose
• Aid in interpretation of gain scores (i.e., what kind of learning
does the gain score represent; type and concentration)
Factor 3: Instructional Design &
Implementation
Educational Purposes
• Foster use of assessment & context data in planning instruction
• Link instructional design to learning objectives
• Encourage student teachers/interns to design challenging
lessons that:
-impact learning for all students
-address different learning styles,
-incorporate technology
-incorporate a wide range of reading abilities
-use learning-centered environments
Measurement Purpose
• Examine relationship between gain scores & teaching approaches
• Ensure that teachers understand and use a variety of appropriate
instructional strategies
Factor 4 Demonstration of
Integration Skills
Educational Purposes
• Demonstrate the ability to integrate across and within
content fields
• Demonstrate the ability to teach thinking skills
Measurement Purposes
• Ensure that teachers can facilitate all students’ abilities
to understand relationships between subject areas
Factor 5: Analysis of Classroom
Learning Environment
Educational Purposes
• Provide opportunity for student teachers/interns to link
learning results to classroom efforts
• Promote student teacher/interns reflection on the impact the unit
had on individual, small group and whole group learning
• Provide evidence of an appropriate classroom management plan
• Provide evidence of an appropriate motivational skills
Measurement Purpose
• Ensure teachers provide a classroom environment supportive
of student interaction in learning activities
Factor 6: Analysis of Assessment
Procedures
Educational Purposes
• Promote link between learning objectives and assessments
• Encourage the use of different assessment formats
• Encourage the use of challenging assessments
Measurement Purposes
• Encourage student teachers/interns to avoid using simple
knowledge based assessments unless appropriate
• Student Teachers/interns can present evidence of calculation
of student gain scores
Factor 7: Reflection and
Self-evaluation
Educational Purposes
• Promote analysis and synthesis of all activities
• Promote professional development
• Promote a better understanding of the implications of state
assessment and accreditation process on the teacher’s classroom
Measurement Purpose
• Estimate the degree to which the unit was successful
• Demonstrate that the student teacher/intern can successfully
evaluate the effects of his or her choices and actions on
student learning
Emporia State University
Teacher Work Sample
Survey of
Student Teachers/Interns
Spring of 2002, 2003, & 2005
Spring 2002 Open-ended responses
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Most important thing I gained doing the TWS:
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Determining gain scores/student progress (13%)
Being accountable for individual student learning
(11%)
Planning/using/pacing a teaching unit (10%)
Being aware of my teaching skills/instruction planning
and how to improve (9%)
Learning how to present/analyze assessment data
(9%)
Improving time management/organization (9%)
Spring 2002 Open-ended responses
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The one thing that would improve the
TWS assignment:
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Decrease length (17%)
Make TWS less repetitive (12%)
Provide examples of good Teacher Work
Samples (9%)
Spring 2003 Open-ended responses
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Most important thing I gained doing the TWS:
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Planning and implementing units and lessons (15%)
Reflecting about my experience of teaching (9%)
Learning to evaluate students’ gain scores (9%)
Spring 2003 Open-ended responses
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The one thing that would improve the
TWS assignment:
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Having more specific details and better
examples (16%)
Reduce/shorten the number of
requirements/amount of work (12%)
More training sessions (12%)
Spring 2005
“Agree-disagree” questions
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The TWS accurately show-cased my
knowledge/skills as a teacher.
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27% disagree; 73% agreed
The TWS was a valuable experience to
my professional training.
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21% disagree; 79% agree
Crocker Validity Survey Results
Response Percentages from TWS
Raters
Who are TWS raters at ESU?
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Readers/scorers of TWSs
Classroom teachers and university faculty
Trained in TWS purpose and format
Undergo anti-bias training and review
before each scoring session
Crocker validity, Spring 2002
Does the TWS measure
Knowledge/Skills necessary for
beginning teachers?
Not at all
(1)
0
N=28, in %
(2)
3.5
(3)
32.5
Yes, absolutely
(4)
64
How important to practice of
beginning teachers?
Unimportant Somewhat
important
(1)
0
N=28, in %
(2)
3.5
Important
(3)
46.5
Critical
(4)
50
How often would a beginning
teacher engage in each:
In %
Never
Annually
Monthly
Weekly
Daily
Context to set
0
goals and plan for
instruction/
assessment
Set significant/
0
challenging/
varied/ appropriate
learning goals
0
7
53.5
39
0
7
53.5
39
Use multiple
0
assessment modes
0
7
50
43
In %
Never
Annually
Monthly Weekly
Daily
Design instruction for 0
specific learning
goals
0
11
50
39
Use analysis of
0
student learning to
make instruct
decisions
Use assessment data 0
to profile student
learn & community
information
Reflect on instruction 0
and student learning
0
3.5
35.5
61
0
39
50
11
0
7
28.5
64.5
In %
Extent that TWS tasks reflect
following INTASC standards:
Knowledge of subject matter
Not Implicit- Direct
at all ly
-ly
0
18
82
Knowledge of human
0
development and learning
Adapting instruction for
0
individual needs
Multiple instructional strategies 0
43
57
14
86
7
93
Classroom motivation and
management skills
32
53
14
In %
Not at all Implicitly Directly
Communication skills
7
32.5
60.5
Instructional planning skills
0
7
93
Assessment of student
learning
0
0
100
Professional commitment
and responsibility
Partnerships
0
39
61
21.5
50
28.5
Crocker Validity, Spring 2003
Does the TWS measure Knowledge/Skills
necessary for beginning teachers?
Not at all
(1)
0
N=36, in %
(2)
2.8
Yes,
absolutely
(3)
(4)
27.8
66.7
How important to practice of
beginning teachers?
Unimportant Somewhat
important
(1)
0
N=36, in %
(2)
2.8
Important
(3)
52.8
Critical
(4)
41.7
In %
How often would a beginning
teacher engage in each
Never
Context to set
0
goals and plan for
instruction/
assessment
Set significant/
0
challenging/
varied/ appropriate
learning goals
Use multiple
0
assessment modes
Annually
Monthly
Weekly
Daily
0
11.1
16.7
72.2
2.8
27.8
15
66.7
0
8.3
38.9
52.8
In %
Never
Annually
Monthly
Weekly
Daily
Design instruction 0
for specific learning
goals
0
2.8
38.9
58.3
Use analysis of
0
student learning to
make instructional
decisions
Use assessment
0
data to profile
student learn &
community info
Reflect on
0
instruction and
student learning
0
0
27.8
72.2
0
33.3
44.4
22.2
0
5.6
13.9
80.6
In %
Extent that TWS tasks reflect
following INTASC standards
Not at
all
0
Implicit Directly
-ly
80.6
19.4
0
25
75
Adapting instruction for individual 0
needs
8.3
91.7
Multiple instructional strategies
0
8.3
91.7
Classroom motivation and
management skills
0
55.6
44.4
Knowledge of subject matter
Knowledge of human
development and learning
In %
Not at all Implicitly Directly
Communication skills
2.8
36.1
61.1
Instructional planning skills
0
2.8
97.2
Assessment of student
learning
0
2.8
97.2
Professional commitment
and responsibility
Partnerships
0
36.1
63.9
6
55.6
33.3
TWS-Specific Survey of Recent
Graduates after at Least 1 Year of
Teaching, Summer 2004
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Emporia-area new teachers who
completed a TWS during student teaching
Telephone survey
Guiding question:
What aspects of the Teacher Work
Sample (TWS) do you do in your
teaching job?
Do you…
N=10
Yes No
% %
Identify classroom context factors such as
prior knowledge, adaptations needed, etc.
Plan for and teach according to the
context factors.
Teach different levels of outcomes, such
as knowledge, skills, reasoning.
Teach to state or local curricular
standards.
100 0
100 0
100 0
100 0
Do you…
yes no
%
%
Use pre-post tests
60
40
Utilize an assessment plan
Set a mastery level for minimum
acceptable performance level
Teach in multiple formats or strategies
Use groups
100 0
Use technology
90
10
Evaluate individual or subgroup
performance.
80
20
90
10
100 0
100 0
Do you…
Calculate gain scores.
yes no
% %
10 90
Revise instruction based on learning
results.
90
10
Seek ways to teach better based on
learning results
100 0
Candidate
Performance Data
and Research
Means for Candidate Scores,
Learning Gain, Objective
Mastery Index
Spring
2002
Candidate
Mean
Scores
Fall
2002
Spring
2003
Fall
2003
82.24 82.39 83.89 82.46
Student Gain Scores are around 65%
Objective Masters are around 77%
Spring
2004
Fall
2004
Spring
2005
86.16
89.55
89.32
Mean percentage scores for
additional semesters
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Fall 05 87.8% Some major changes were
made this semester for which candidates
were not as prepared as in earlier years.
This likely had some impact on scores the
next two semesters as well.
Spring 06
89.88%
Fall 06
88.94%
Spring 07
91.5%
Descriptive Data
(overall group)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Strengths
Awareness of classroom context
Ability to write outcomes and align instruction
Use of collaborative/multi-learner environments
Use of “active learner/inquiry” models
Employment of multiple learning strategies
Use of formative assessments
Use of assessment throughout instruction
Ability to depict assessment data
Use of technology
Reflection on personal classroom successes & failures
High degree of reported learning impact
Descriptive Data
(overall group)
Challenges
• Assessment design (planning is all right but
needs more “rigor”)
• Reflection on professional development plan
• Alignment of objectives, instruction, and assessments
Comparison of TWS Scores by Subject
Fall 03
Subject
Mean Score Mastery Index Gain Score
Others
Physical Sci
Psych/MR
95.0
93.0
85.0
92.7
86.7
90.6
35.1
76.9
66.3
Phys Ed
ESL/For Lang
Science
82.5
82.4
81.3
90.7
76.3
80.0
72.1
68.7
68.2
Elem/EC
Math
81.0
80.2
73.7
76.2
73.7
77.2
Business
Engl/Journal
78.0
71.5
84.3
85.3
73.7
72.2
Soc Studies
70.8
77.7
65.3
Assessing The Benefits and
Challenges of Completing A
Teacher Work Sample During
Student Teaching From
The Perspective Of PK-12
Student Teachers/Interns and
Cooperating Teachers
Background
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Dr. Darla Mallein, Emporia State Social
Science faculty member and methods
instructor
Spring 2003
Descriptive study utilizing surveys of
student teachers/interns and cooperating
teachers
Benefits of TWS
According to Student
Teachers/Interns
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Raised student teachers/interns’ awareness of
the impact they have on students’ learning
(30%)
Student teachers/interns specifically stated there
were no benefits of completing the TWS (16%)
Helped student teachers/interns reflect on
teaching and learning (14%)
Prepared student teachers/interns for real-life
applications (14%)
Required student teachers/interns to create
adaptations and activities to meet the needs of
all their students (12%)
Benefits of TWS
According to Cooperating Teachers
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Prepares student teacher/intern for Quality Performance
Accreditation, NCLB, and other real-life applications
(32%)
Provides student teachers/interns opportunity to plan
and teach a complete unit that aligns with standards,
objectives, activities, and assessments (24%)
Helps student teachers/interns reflect about teaching
and learning (16%)
Gives student teachers/interns the practice in
administering and analyzing pre- and post-test
assessments (15%)
Raises student teachers/interns’ awareness of their
impact on student learning (15%)
Problems with TWS
According to Student Teachers/Interns
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The directions for completing the TWS were unclear or
confusing (22%)
Student teachers/interns had trouble finding the time to
complete the TWS (16%)
Some requirements were difficult to complete (15%)
Student teachers/interns had difficulty completing the TWS
because of lack of training, lack of good examples, and lack
of resource people to contact with questions (14%)
Completing the TWS was time-consuming (14%)
The TWS detracted from other classroom duties (12%)
The TWS was hard to adapt to grade level, subject area,
unit topic, assigned classroom, or curriculum (10%)
Problems with TWS
According to Cooperating Teachers
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Student teacher/intern had a difficult time dealing with
time constraints (19%)
Completing the TWS was time-consuming (15%)
Completing the TWS generated stress, frustration,
procrastination, and feelings that the project was not
valuable (12%)
Directions for the TWS were unclear or confusing (11%)
Student teacher/intern had difficulty adapting TWS to
grade level, subject area, assigned students, or district
curriculum (11%)
Creating, administering, and analyzing assessments were
difficult for student teachers/interns (11%)
Suggested Changes for TWS According
to Student Teachers/Interns
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Provide better training and resources for
student teachers/interns and cooperating
teachers (35%)
Simplify the TWS by shortening the
requirements and making it more practical
(31%)
Suggested Changes for TWS
According to Cooperating Teachers
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Provide better training and resources for
student teachers/interns and cooperating
teachers (20%)
Simplify the TWS by shortening the
requirements and making it more practical
(19%)
Move the TWS requirements to a different
semester other than the student teaching
semester (11%)
Recommendations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Explain the purpose and benefits of completing
the TWS
Provide more training sessions and support
concerning the TWS for student teachers/interns
throughout the student teaching semester
Provide more contact people at the university
level who can answer questions about the TWS
Make the TWS manual and rubric very clear and
understandable
Simplify the TWS by shortening the
requirements and taking out the repetitive
sections.
Recommendations
6. Provide good examples of completed Teacher
Work Samples
7. Allow flexibility in the format and design of the
TWS to fit the student teachers/interns
assigned grade levels and/or subject areas
8. Encourage students with split placements to
complete the TWS during the first placement
9. Reinforce the positive aspects of the TWS
10. Require all cooperating teachers to attend
training sessions and/or scoring sessions
Questions and
Maybe Answers
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