close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

THE HIGH COST OF FREE PARKING

код для вставкиСкачать
THE HIGH COST OF
FREE PARKING
Donald Shoup
V E H IC L E O W N E R S H IP R A T E S :T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S F R O M 1900 T O 1996
A N D 15 O T H E R C O U N T R IE S IN 1996
(M o to r v eh icles p er 1 ,0 0 0 p erso n s)
800
1996
1990
750
V eh icle o w n ersh ip ra tes in 1 5 co u n tries in 1 9 9 6
(E ach co u n try is p laced b esid e th e year in w h ich th e U S
1985
h ad th e sam e o w n ersh ip rate.)
700
1980
650
1975
600
M O T O R V E H I C L E S P E R 1,0 00 P E R S O N S
A u stra lia (5 8 3 )
550
J a p a n (5 4 7 )
1970
F ra n ce (5 2 6 )
500
U n ited K in g d o m (4 8 6 )
1965
S p a in (4 5 7 )
450
1960
D en m a rk (3 9 7 )
400
1955
350
Irela n d (3 4 3 )
1950
G reece (3 1 0 )
300
Isra el (2 6 6 )
250
1940
1945
200
1930
S o u th K o rea (2 0 8 )
1935
1925
A rg en tin a (1 7 0 )
150
V eh icle o w n ersh ip ra tes in th e U n ited S ta tes fro m 1 9 0 0 to 1 9 9 6
M exico (1 2 5 )
100
1920
R u ssia (8 0 )
50
C h in a (9 )
1915
0
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
YEAR
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
All transportation systems have three basic elements:
Vehicles
Rights of way
Terminal capacity
Trains
Airplanes
Ships
Cars
Train tracks
Sky
Oceans
Roads
Train stations
Airports
Seaports
Parking spaces
Automobile travel is unusual in two ways:
• It requires enormous terminal capacity
(several parking spaces per car).
• The cost of parking has been shifted out of
the transportation sector and into the prices
for everything else. Drivers park free for 99
percent of automobile trips in the US.
Who pays for free parking?
Everyone but the motorist.
TABLE 7-4
ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST
OF PARKIN G AND ROADS
($billions per year in 1990-1991)
Low
High
Bundled non-residential parking
$49
$162
Bundled residential parking
$15
$41
Municipal and institutional parking
$12
$20
$3
$3
Total cost of parking
$79
$226
Total parking subsidy
$76
$223
Priced parking as % of total parking
4%
1%
Total cost of roads
$98
$177
81%
128%
Priced parking
Parking cost as % of road cost
Source (De lucchi 1997, Tables 1-5, 1-6, and 1-7)
In 2002, the total subsidy for off-street
parking was between $135 billion and
$386 billion.
In 2002, the federal government
spent $231 billion for Medicare, and
$349 billion for national defense.
Results of changing the price of
off-street parking
Employer-Paid Parking
•
•
•
•
95% of all automobile commuters park free at work
91% of all commuters drive to work
91% of commuters’ cars have one occupant
Most commuters park free regardless of
–
–
–
–
–
age
gender
income
education
residence
• 85 million free parking spaces at work in 1994
• Parking subsidy for commuters was $36 billion a year
Employer-Paid Parking:
A Matching Grant
• Employers pay for parking at work if
the employee is willing to pay for
driving to work
• Commuters who do not drive to work
do not get a subsidy
• Employer-paid parking encourages
solo driving
Free parking increases solo driving by 60%
S o lo d riv e r s h a re
100%
90%
80%
67%
70%
60%
50%
42%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Driver-paid parking
Employer-paid parking
P arking P rices A ffect M od e C h oices
s h a re
F or C om m uters to D ow ntow n L os A ngeles
80%
C o m m u te r m o d e
70%
60%
50%
Drive solo
40%
Transit
30%
Carpool
20%
10%
0%
$0
$1
So u rce: Estimated fro m W illso n (1 9 9 1 )
$2
$3
$4
Price of parking at work ($/day)
$5
$6
C alifornia’s P arking C ash O ut L aw
• E m plo yers m ust p rovide a cash allo w ance to
an e m plo yee equivalent to an y parking
subsidy o ffered
• T he require m ent applies to:
– F irm s w ith 50 or m o re em plo yees
– O nly for leased park ing spaces
sh a re
C om m uter M ode Share B efore and A fter Parking C ash O ut
C o m m u te r m o d e
100%
80%
76%
63%
Before cash out
After cash out
60%
40%
23%
20%
14%
6%
9%
2%
3%
.8%
.9%
0%
Solo Driver
Carpool
Transit
Commuter mode choice
Walk
Bicycle
Results
• Parking cash out reduced the number
of cars driven to work by 11%
• After parking cash out, employees
– traveled 652 fewer vehicle miles per year
– consumed fewer 26 gallons of fuel per
year
Results of increasing the price
of curb parking
P r ic e o f o f f - s tr e e t p a r k in g ( $ /h o u r )
FIGURE 13-1
PRICES OF CURB AND OFF-STREET PARKING
IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
(for parking one hour at noon on a weekday)
$11
$10
House of Blues
$9
$8
Chinese Theatre, Music Center, SCAG
$7
Santa Monica Pier, UCLA, Biltmore Hotel
Reagan Building
MGM Plaza
Union Station, LA MTA, Pasadena City Hall, Coliseum,USC
$6
$5
Venice Beach, County Museum
$4
SM City Hall
LA City Hall
$3
$2
Long Beach City Hall
$1
Pasadena Playhouse
$0
$0
$1
$2
$3
$4
$5
$6
$7
Price of curb parking ($/hour)
$8
$9
$10
$11
P r ic e o f o f f - s tr e e t p a r k in g ( $ /h o u r )
FIGURE 13-2
PRICES OF CURB AND OFF-STREET PARKING
(for parking one hour at noon at city hall on a weekday)
$15
New York City
$14
Chicago
$13
$12
$11
Boston
$10
$9
$8
Seattle
$7
$6
Pasadena, San Diego, Baltimore
$5
Santa Barbara
Cambridge, Santa Monica
$4
Los Angeles
$3
Buffalo, Philadelphia
$2
Long Beach
San Francisco, Portland
$1
Palo Alto, Berkeley
$0
$0
$1
$2
$3
$4
$5
$6
$7
$8
$9 $10 $11 $12 $13 $14 $15
Price of curb parking ($/hour)
TABLE 11-4
SUMMARY O F RESEARCH ON CRUISING
Year
Location
Share of
traffic
cruising
Average
search
time
(percent)
(minutes)
1927
Detroit (1)
19%
1927
Detroit (2)
34%
1960
New Haven
17%
1965
London (1)
6.1
1965
London (2)
3.5
1965
London (3)
3.6
1977
Freiburg
1984
Jerusalem
1985
Cambridge
30%
11.5
1993
New York (1)
8%
7.9
1993
New York (2)
10.2
1993
New York (3)
13.9
1997
San Francisco
6.5
2001
Sydney
6.5
Average
74%
6.0
9.0
30%
7.7
P a rk -a n d -v isit tim e (m in u te s )
Park-and-visit times before and after changing
the price of curb parking in London
14
Before
12.7
After
12
9.8
10
8.1
8
6
4.4
5.1
4
2
0
Quadruple
Double
Curb parking prices
No change
P a rk -a n d -v is it tim e s (m in u te s )
Park-and-visit times before and after
R
parking prices were quadrupled
e
14
12.7
12
Before
After
10
8
6.0
6
4.4
4
2.9
2
1.0
0.6
0.
0
Searching
Parking
Walking
Components of park-and-visit times
Total
The effects of parking prices on Grosvenor Square in London
No meters
Meters
Prices quadrupled
Conclusion
• Parking is heavily subsidized. The annual
subsidy for off-street parking may be about
the size of the budget for national defense.
• Parking prices have a profound effect on
travel choices. Parking subsidies
substantially increase vehicle travel.
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
16
Размер файла
1 046 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа