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Capacity Planning and Performance Monitoring with Free Tools

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Performance Management with
Free and Bundled Tools
Adrian Cockcroft
Netflix Inc.
acockcroft@netflix.com
(Co-authored with Mario Jauvin
MFJ Associates
mario@mfjassociates.net)
23 September, 2014
The Performance People
Agenda
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Overview of Capacity Planning Requirements
and Data Sources
Performance Data Collection
Free Network Monitoring Tools
Free System Monitoring Tools
Free Load Generation and Modelling Tools
Licences and References
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
What are we talking about?
QA Load generation with
Grinder or SLAMD,
modelling with PDQ and R
Network
monitoring with
Application Tier
monitoring with Orca,
Cacti, BigSister, Ganglia,
XEtoolkit
WireShark, MRTG,
BigSister, Cacti,
Nagios, OpenNMS,
Zenoss, Openxtra,
ntop
Database Tier monitoring
With SEtoolkit, Orca,
XEtoolkit
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Capacity Planning
Requirements and Data
Sources
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Definitions
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Capacity
– Resource utilization and headroom
Planning
– Predicting future needs by analyzing historical data
and modeling future scenarios
Performance Monitoring
– Collecting and reporting on performance data
Free Tools
– Bundled with the OS or available for no $$$
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Capacity Planning Requirements
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We care about CPU, Memory, Network and Disk
resources, and Application response times
We need to know how much of each resource we
are using now, and will use in the future
We need to know how much headroom we have to
handle higher loads
We want to understand how headroom varies, and
how it relates to application response times and
throughput
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
CPU Capacity Measurements
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CPU Capacity is defined by CPU type and
clock rate, or a benchmark rating like
SPECrateInt2000
CPU utilization is defined as busy time
divided by elapsed time for each CPU
CPU load average measures the average
number of jobs running and ready to run
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Memory Capacity Measurements
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Physical Memory Capacity Utilization and Limits
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Kernel memory
Shared Memory segment
Executable code, stack and heap
File system cache usage
Unused free memory
Virtual Memory Capacity - Swap Space
Memory Throughput
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Page in and page out rates
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Network Capacity Measurements
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Network Interface Throughput
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TCP Protocol Specific Throughput
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TCP connection count and connection rates
TCP byte rates input and output
NFS/SMB Protocol Specific Throughput
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Byte and packet rates input and output
Byte rates read and write
NFS/SMB service response times
HTTP Protocol Specific Throughput
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HTTP operation rates
Get and put payload byte rates and size distribution
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Disk Capacity Measurements
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Detailed metrics vary by platform
Easy for the simple disk cases
Hard for cached RAID subsystems
Almost Impossible for shared disk
subsystems and SANs
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Another system or volume can be sharing a
backend spindle, when it gets busy your own
volume can saturate, even though you did not
change your own workload
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Capacity Planning Challenges
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Constantly changing infrastructure
Limited attention span from staff
Horizontally scaled commodity systems
Per node software licencing costs too much
Too many tools, too many agents per node
Too much data, not enough analysis
Non-linear and non-intuitive scalability
Lack of tools and metrics for virtualized resources
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Observability
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Four different viewpoints
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Management
Engineering
QA Testing
Operations
Each needs very different information
Ideal would be different views of the same
performance database
Reality is a mess of disjoint tools
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Management Viewpoint
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Daily summary of status and problems
Business oriented metrics
Future scenario planning
Marketing and management input
Concise report with dashboard style status
indicators
Free tools: R, Spreadsheet and Web
based displays, no good summarization
tools
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Engineering Viewpoint
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Large volumes of detailed data at several different
time scales
Input to tuning, reconfiguring and future product
development
Low level problem diagnosis
Detailed reports with drill down and correlation
analysis
Free tools: XE/SE Toolkit, Orca, Ganglia, Cacti, R
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
QA Test Viewpoint
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Workload specification tools
Load generation frameworks
Testing for functionality and performance
Regression tools to compare releases
Modelling difference between test configuration
and production configuration
Free Tools: The Grinder, SLAMD, R, PDQ
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Operations Viewpoint
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Immediate timeframe
Real time display, updated in seconds
Alert based monitoring
High level problem diagnosis
Simple high level graphs and views
Free tools: BigSister, Nagios, OpenNMS,
MRTG, Cacti, Ganglia, WireShark, ntop
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Measurement Data Interfaces
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Several generic raw access methods
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Command based data interfaces
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Read the kernel directly (not a good idea)
Structured system data (Solaris kstat, Linux /proc)
Process data
Network data
Accounting data
Application data
Scrape data from vmstat, iostat, netstat, sar, ps
Higher overhead, lower resolution, missing metrics
Data available is platform specific either way
Much more detail on this topic in the Solaris/Linux Performance
Measurement and Tuning Class
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Free Network
Monitoring Tools
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SNMP
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Simple network management protocol
UDP protocol based on port 161
Client/server like
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Client is called management application entity
Server is called an agent entity
Agent entity is designed to be implemented
on network hardware, router, switches, etc
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SNMP – MIBs
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Management information base
Defines the structure and the semantic of the
information that can be reported on
Most commonly used is MIB-II which defines a set of
standard networking attributes
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Interface tables
System level information
Routing tables
Specified using ASN.1 (abstract syntax notation 1)
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SNMP – commands
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Called PDU (protocol data units)
GET
GETNEXT
GETBULK
SET
Encoded using BER (basic encoding rules)
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Versions
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Version 1, original version done in May 1991
Version 2, around 1993. Failed because the
IETF credo of “rough consensus and running
code” could not be met on securing SNMP
Turned into V2c for community string security
(like V1)
Version 3, added security and complexity in
1998
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SNMP tools
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Too numerous to name all but…
OpenNMS
Nagios
Cacti
MRTG
Net-snmp
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See www.snmplink.org
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SNMP tools
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Snmpwalk – will report all data in a specified
MIB
getIf – will report data about interfaces and
includes built-in MIB browser
Snmptable – will report tabular data from MIB
tables
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
OpenNMS
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Well…. it’s not that portable
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95% java is not 100% java
Requires about 20-30 different platform specific
packages (PostgreSQL, Perl, RRD tool, Tomcat 4
etc…)
Difficult to install
Easy auto discovery
Web-based interface
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
OpenNMS
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Main screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
OpenNMS
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Node screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Nagios
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Easy to build/compile (on Solaris 10)
Easy to install
Quick response from CGI
Configuration is manual and a pain
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13 configuration files with all kinds of interrelated
entries
Tedious and error prone
Requires plugins to do anything
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Nagios
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Main screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Nagios
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Host detail screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop
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Similar to familiar UNIX top tool for
processes but used for network
Provide huge selection of real-time data
Can be found at http://www.openxtra.co.uk/
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop – Active Sessions
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop Hosts
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop Network Load
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop_Network_Thruput
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop Port Dist
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop_Protocol_Dist
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
ntop Protocols
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Zenoss
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Open source monitoring and management of
IT infrastructure
Zenoss core is free
Other editions are for a fee
Get it from http://www.zenoss.com/download/
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
zenoss Architecture
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
zenoss Dash Config
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
zenoss Google
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
zenoss Google Alerts
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Zenoss Graphs
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
zenoss Topology
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
MRTG
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Really simple to install and configure
Require manual config file creation
Only for MIB-II interface plotting out of the
box
Graphing not flexible, axis, time etc
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
MRTG
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Interface screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
MRTG
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Other CPU screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
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Software to store, retrieve and graph
numerical time series data
Use a round robin algorithm
Data files are a fixed size
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Don’t grow
Don’t require maintenance
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
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Compiles on most platforms
Used by many SNMP based tools
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OpenNMS
Cacti
BigSister
WeatherMap4RRD
MailGraph
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
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14all CGI script that plots data similar to
MRTG
Configurable to collect data at different
interval (unlike MRTG)
Flexible and variable in what data can be
collected
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
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Sample screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
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Screen shot
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
Create a RRD database
rrdtool create test.rrd
\
--start 920804400
\
DS:speed:COUNTER:600:U:U \
RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:24
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RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:6:10
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September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
RRD tool
Create a graph
rrdtool graph speed.png
\
--start 920804400 --end 920808000
\
DEF:myspeed=test.rrd:speed:AVERAGE \
LINE2:myspeed#FF0000
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September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Free Performance Data
Collection and Rules
Toolkits
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SE toolkit Example Tools
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A free performance toolkit for rapidly creating custom data sources
Makes all the very extensive Solaris metrics easily available
Very system specific and not enough metrics exist to port to Linux
Written by Rich Pettit with contributions from Adrian Cockcroft
Get SE3.4 from http://sourceforge.net/projects/setoolkit/
Open source with support for SPARC & x86 Solaris 8, 9, 10
Function
Example SE Programs
Rule Monitors cpg.se
monlog.se
mon_cm.se
live_test.se
zoom.se
virtual_adrian.se
virtual_adrian_lite.se
iomonitor.se
iost.se
xit.se
ps-p.se
pwatch.se
pw.se
netmonitor.se netstatx.se nfsmonitor.se
nx.se
Disk Monitors
siostat.se
xio.se
xiostat.se
CPU Monitors
cpu_meter.se
vmmonitor.se
mpvmstat.se
Process Monitors
msacct.se
pea.se
ps-ax.se
Network Monitors
net.se
tcp_monitor.se
Clones
iostat.se
uname.se
Data browsers aw.se
infotool.se
multi_meter.se
Contributed Code
anasa
Test Programs
syslog.se
percollator.se
vmstat.se
nfsstat-m.se
perfmeter.se
xload.se
dfstats
kview
systune
watch
orcollator.se
cpus.se
pure_test.se
net_example
collisions.se
nproc.se
uptime.se
kvmname.se
dumpkstats.se
September 23, 2014
disks.se
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SE language features
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SE is a 64bit interpreted dialect of C
– Not a new language to learn from scratch!
– Standard C /usr/ccs/bin/cpp used at runtime to preprocess SE scripts
– Main omissions - pointer types and goto
– Main additions - classes and “string” type
– powerful ways to handle dynamically allocated data
– built-in fast balanced tree routines for storing key indexed data
Dynamic linking to all existing C libraries
– Built-in classes access kernel data
– Supplied class code hides details, provides the data you want
Example scripts improve on basic utilities e.g. siostat.se, nx.se, pea.se
Example rule based monitors e.g. virtual_adrian.se, orcallator.se
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Creating Rules
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Based on real experiences of all the things that go
wrong
Capture an approximation to intuition
Test and calibrate rules on as many systems as
possible
Easy??
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Configuring Rules
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Thresholds should be configured
Very application dependent
Capture the operating envelope
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Measure the underlying values
Measure peaks in normal operation
Note values during problems
Set thresholds to capture the difference
This applies to any tool
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SE Toolkit, Cacti, Ganglia, Nagios, OpenNMS etc.
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Rules as Objects
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Define only the input and output information
Hide implementation details
Make high level rule objects trivial to use and
reuse
SE Toolkit does it in three lines of code:
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#include <rules file>
Declare rule object as a typed variable
Read and use or print object status
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
"virtual adrian" rules summary
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Disk Rule for all disks at once
– Looks for slow disks and unbalanced usage
Network Rule for all networks at once
– Looks for slow nets and unbalanced usage
Swap Rule - Looks for lack of available swap space
RAM Rule - Looks for short page residence times
CPU Power Rule
– Scales on MP systems
– Looks for long run queue delays
Mutex Rule - Looks for kernel lock contention and high sys CPU time
TCP Rule
– Looks for listen queue problems
– Reports on connection attempt failures
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
XE Toolkit - www.xetoolkit.com
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Complete re-write of SE Toolkit by Rich Pettit
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Licencing
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Extensible Java collector, customize with jar files
Release 1.2 available April 2008
Multi-platform support Solaris, Linux/x86, Windows, BSD,
OSX, HP-UX, AIX, Linux/s390, Linux/Power
Free GPL version for standard use and shared derivations
Open source, hosted at http://sourceforge.net/projects/xe-toolkit/
Commercial support available if needed
Commercial product license for custom in-house derivations
Addresses all the issues people had with SE toolkit !
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Captive Metrics / XE Toolkit
Architecture
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Free System Monitoring
Tools
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Collated Performance Data - Orca
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Problems with time sync when collecting data from multiple tools
– No timestamp at all for vmstat, netstat, df...
– No timestamp by default for iostat and ps...
– No way to collect realtime stats from an http logfile
Use SE Toolkit to generate one timestamped row containing all the data
– First version of percollator.se written by Adrian Cockcroft in 1996
– Extended orcallator.se written by Blair Zajac a few years later
– Graphs generated by orca batch job feeding rrdtool based web pages
– Active community developing tool at http://www.orcaware.com
– Extended to collect much more data, including process workloads
– Basic data collection ported to Linux, HP-UX and Windows
Orca is basically MRTG for System metrics rather than Network
See http://www.orcaware.com/orca/docs/Orca_Understanding_Performance_Data.ppt
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Orca data collections
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Collected using “procollator” reading info from /proc on Linux
[Uptime] [Average # Processes in Run Queue (Load Average)] [CPU
Usage] [New Process Spawn Rate] [Number of System & Running
Processes] [Context Switches & Interrupts Rate] [Interface Input Bits Per
Second] [Interface Output Bits Per Second] [Interface Input Packets Per
Second] [Interface Output Packets Per Second] [Interface Input Errors Per
Second] [Interface Output Errors Per Second] [Interface Input Dropped Per
Second] [Interface Output Dropped Per Second] [Interface Output
Collisions] [Interface Output Carrier Losses] [TCP Current Connections] [IP
Statistics] [TCP Statistics] [ICMP Statistics] [UDP Statistics] [Disk System
Wide Reads/Writes Per Second] [Disk System Wide Transfer Rate] [Disk
Reads/Writes Per Second] [Disk Transfer Rate] [Disk Space Percent
Usage] [Physical Memory Usage] [Swap Usage] [Page Ins & Outs
Rate] [Swap Ins & Outs Rate]
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Orca on Solaris collects many more metrics than shown above
Strength of Orca is lots of detailed metrics with low overhead for collection
Easily customized to add more system metrics or application metrics
Orca can already track HTTP traffic and parse log files
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
All metrics are stored in
“round robin database”
format using RRDtool to
generate displays over
different time spans
Web page is simple collection
of plots with drill down by
metric or by time
Suitable for monitoring a
relatively small number of
systems in great detail, e.g.
backend database servers
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Cacti – www.cacti.net
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Web based user interface based on RRDtool
More sophisticated GUI than Orca or MRTG
Less sophisticated system metric collection,
but more coverage of networking
Better management of groups of systems
and devices than Orca, useful for tens to
hundreds of nodes
Access control and personalization for users
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Ganglia – www.ganglia.info
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Web based RRDtool GUI somewhat similar to Cacti
Better management of clusters of systems and
devices than Cacti, useful for hundreds to thousands
of nodes in a hierarchy of clusters
Provides many summary statistic plots at cluster
level and collects detailed configuration data
XML based data representation
Uses low overhead network protocol
In common use at hundreds of large HPC Grid sites,
less visibly in use at some large commercial sites
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
BigBrother and BigSister
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Network and system dashboard alert monitor
Widely used at internet sites
Bigbrother is at http://www.bb4.com
Bigsister is at http://bigsister.graeff.com
Bigsister seems to have more features, alert
logging, better portability and more efficient
data collection. Compatible update to BB4.
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Free QA Test and
Modelling Tools
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
QA Test Requirements
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Generate test workload
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Collect performance metrics
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SLAMD, Grinder
Any of the tools already mentioned
Report regression against baseline
Predict capacity needed for production system
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Use spreadsheets for simple linear prediction
Use modelling tools such as PDQ for queuing models
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Grinder 3 - Powerful New Features
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100% Pure Java - works on any hardware platform and any
operating system that supports J2SE 1.3 and above.
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Java and Jython based load testing framework
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Web Browsers: simulate web browsers using HTTP, and HTTPS.
Web Services: test interfaces using SOAP and XML-RPC.
Database: test databases using JDBC.
Middleware: RPC and MOM based systems using IIOP, RMI/IIOP,
RMI/JRMP, and JMS.
Other Internet protocols: POP3, SMTP, FTP, and LDAP.
See http://grinder.sourceforge.net/g3/features.html
J2EE Performance Testing with BEA WebLogic Server by
Peter Zadrozny, Philip Aston and Ted Osborne, originally
published by Expert Press and now by APress uses Grinder 2
throughout.
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
SLAMD
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Load generation framework, written in Java
Originally built to test LDAP servers by Sun
Extended to be very generic and published
as open source. Actively being developed.
Sophisticated functions and user interface
See http://www.slamd.com
Latest Release 2.0 has better usability focus
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
PDQ Modelling Tool
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Dr Neil Gunther’s toolkit at
http://www.perfdynamics.com
Library used from C or Perl provides MVA queueing
models
Use to calibrate in QA and predict in production
PDQ modelling tool details:
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The Practical Performance Analyst Dr. Neil Gunther McGraw-Hill, 1998 ISBN 0-07-912946-3
Analyzing Computer System Performance with Perl:PDQ
2004, ISBN 3-54-020865-8
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
References and
Conclusion
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Licences for Free Tools
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Open Source Initiative
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“OSI Approved licences”
http://opensource.org/licenses/category
Comparisons of Common Licences
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http://zooko.com/license_quick_ref.html
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Web Pages and Books
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Adrian’s Performance and other topics blog
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MFJ Associates performance tools link page
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http://www.generalconcepts.com/resources/monitoring/
More tools compiled by Openxtra
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http://www.mfjassociates.net/perf_links.html
More free tools compiled by John Sellens
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http://perfcap.blogspot.com
http://www.openxtra.co.uk/resource-center/open_source_network_monitor_tools.php
SE toolkit info: Sun Performance and Tuning - Java and the Internet - Adrian
Cockcroft and Richard Pettit - Sun Press/Prentice Hall, 2nd Edition, 1998 ISBN 0-13095249-4
Solaris 8 and Linux: System Performance Tuning 2nd Edition – Gian-Paolo Musumeci,
O’Reilly 2002 ISBN: 0-596-00284-X
Solaris Internals http://www.solarisinternals.com
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Richard McDougall and James Mauro - new 2nd edition and new performance book by
Richard McDougall and Brendan Gregg
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Concluding Remarks
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Many large installations depend on free tools
A full suite of functionality is available
Several tools are needed to cover the bases
Tradeoff between function and ease of use
Support may be available, but typically
Google is the best support tool
Functionality is increasing….
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
Questions?
acockcroft@netflix.com
mario@mfjassociates.net
September 23, 2014
Adrian Cockcroft and Mario Jauvin
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