Your Guide to APA Style WHAT IS APA ? вЂў When instructors ask you to write in the APA Style, they are referring to the editorial style that was adopted to present written materials in the social and behavioral sciences. The APA style is a requirement for student writing assignments in many leading universities. Why do you have to learn APA style? вЂў Because graduate level writing means mastering uniform writing style. вЂў Because APA style is the most common writing style in the social sciences. WhatвЂ™s Included in APA Style? вЂў Basically everything in your paper: - How your pages are set up - How you cite sources - Your references - Your language Where can you learn APA style? Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) Anderson C.E., Carrell S.T., & Widdifield, J.L. (2007). Citing sources with APA documentation. Boston, MA: Pearson. Lipson, C. (2006). Cite right. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Amato, C.J. (2008). The worldвЂ™s easiest guide to using the APA (4th ed.). Corona, CA: Stargazer. Internet Sources about APA Citation Style вЂў You can also use reliable Internet sources to find answers to your questions about APA citation style: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/p04_c09_s2.html The List of References вЂў Required if you cite any sources in your paper вЂў Every source cited in your paper must appear on the reference list вЂў Double spaced! Single-authored book Perloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Dual-authored book Baran, S. J., & Davis, D. K. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment and future. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. *Note: when listing authors, use an ampersand (&) in the reference list, not вЂњand.вЂќ Single-authored article Garramone, G. M. (1985). Effects of negative political advertising: The roles of sponsor and rebuttal. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 29, 149-159. *Note: The first letter of each word in the title of the journal is capitalized. Two or more authors (article) Suzuki, S., & Rancer, A. S. (1994). Argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness: Testing for conceptual and measurement equivalence across cultures. Communication Monographs, 61, 256-279. *Note: Can you find the volume number and page numbers in this citation? Personal Communication Personal communications may be private letters, e-mails, interviews, telephone conversations, and the like. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. T.K Lutes provided us with his companyвЂ™s business expenses in 2009 (personal communication, April 18, 2010) Article in an online journal: Retrieval Information вЂў Johnson, T. E. & Lee, G. (2009). The relationship between shared mental models and task performance in an online teambased learning environment. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(3), 97-112. doi: 10:1002/piq.20033 * Include DOI, or Digital Object Identifier! Article in an online journal: Retrieval Information Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3. Retrieved from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/ pre0030001a.html *If DOI is not listed, the URL of where the document was found is used instead ItвЂ™s only the beginningвЂ¦ Learning how to do your reference page is only the beginning IN-TEXT CITATIONS: When do you need to cite your sources in your paper? вЂў When youвЂ™re referring to an idea or concept you drew from something you read. вЂў When you quote from something you read or heard. вЂў When you want to give the reader some other places to look for additional information. APA Style In-Text Citations вЂў Any works that are mentioned in the body of your paper must be cited. вЂў There are two ways of citing the work of other authors: 1) by paraphrasing, and 2) by quoting directly In-Text Citations (Format) вЂў Include the authorвЂ™s last name (no initials) in your text. Write the year of publication in parentheses. Then paraphrase the statement. Example: According to Watkins (2005), the number of MBA students in the United States will be growing. In-Text Citations (Format) вЂў If a work is referred to indirectly, cite the last name of the author and the year, separated by a comma, in parentheses Example: вЂў These data are consistent with other statistics and research concerning this topic (U.S.Census, 2007; Patterson, 2009; Smith & Jones, 2008) What Is Paraphrasing? Scott (1992) identifiedвЂ¦ Several researchers (Anthony, 1990; Gregory & Jacobs, 1985; Polk et al., 1980) reportedвЂ¦ Or at the end of a sentence paraphrased from another work (Scott, 1992). Verbs used in APA style acknowledged added admitted affirmed agreed answered argued asked asserted attacked believed called claimed commented compared confirmed contended countered counterattacked declared defined denied disputed echoed emphasized endorsed estimated found, AND MANY OTHERSвЂ¦. Citing Sources With Several Authors 1 вЂ“ 5 Authors: List the last names of all authors the first time you cite them. For a second or more time, list last name of first author, followed by вЂњet al.,вЂќ and the date. Citing Sources With Several Authors 6 OR MORE AUTHORS: If there are 6 or more authors, write the first authorвЂ™s last name followed by вЂ�et al.вЂ™ for the first and subsequent citations. Examples Scott, Williamson, and Schaffer (1990) reported thatвЂ¦ (FIRST TIME) Scott et al. (1990) reported that (EVERY TIME AFTER) 6 or more authors, use вЂњet al.,вЂќ first time and every time. Citing while quoting вЂў You need to put the author last name(s) and date, like while paraphrasing, but also the PAGE NUMBERS or PARAGRAPH NUMBERS (for online sources). вЂў Example: вЂњthe research findings clearly indicate support for the hypothesesвЂќ (Douglass, 1986, p. 55). Warning вЂў Keep quotations to a minimum (less than 3 per paper) вЂў DonвЂ™t forget the quotation marks and page numbers (or paragraph numbers), or you will be guilty of plagiarism! How to set up your paper in APA вЂў Use 8 ВЅ by 11вЂќ white paper, with margins of 1вЂќ (or 1 ВјвЂќ) вЂў Double space EVERYTHING вЂў Font should be Times Roman 12 pitch вЂў Page numbers in upper right hand corners Title Page APA style requires a page number at the top right-hand corner of each page of your document. The first page of your manuscript is the title page, which is numbered page 1. The title page consists of three parts: the running head, the title, and the byline. Running Head The running head is an abbreviated title specified by the author that would be used if the article was published. It should be typed flush left at the top of the title page in all capital letters, and should not exceed 50 characters. Rules to follow when writing your references page: вЂў Start the reference section on a new page. вЂў The word вЂњReferencesвЂќ should be centered at the top of the page in boldface, but should not be underlined or capitalized. вЂў List citations alphabetically by the authorвЂ™s last name. If you have more than one citation for the same author, order them from oldest to most recent. Other rules вЂў Title page should contain the title of your paper (not a topic, but a title that reflects the content of the paper), your name, the course name the paper is for, and the date you wrote it If you have references, tables, and appendicesвЂ¦ They go in this orderвЂ¦ 1. Title page 2. Paper 3. References 4. Appendices 5. Notes 6. Tables, Figures, etc.