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Chapter 12

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Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History
Copyright В© by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
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GLENCOE DIVISION
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240
CHAPTER FOCUS
SECTION 1 Philip II of Macedonia
SECTION 2 Alexander the Great
CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
3
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Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.
Overview
• Chapter 12 describes the accomplishments
of Philip of Macedonia and Alexander the
Great in spreading Greek civilization. пѓІ
– Section 1 analyzes the political and
military strategies that enabled Philip to
conquer the Greek city-states. пѓІ
– Section 2 describes the personality,
military conquests, and political
objectives of Alexander the Great.
4
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the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 193 of your textbook.
Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
• summarize how the spread of Greek culture
influenced people from Gibraltar to India. пѓІ
• explain how Philip II of Macedonia gained
control of Greece. пѓІ
• discuss how Alexander tried to unify his
empire. пѓІ
• describe how Alexander’s empire changed
after his death.
5
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the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 193 of your textbook.
Read to Discover
• How the spread of Greek culture influenced
people from Gibraltar to India пѓІ
• How Philip II of Macedonia gained
control of Greece пѓІ
• How Alexander attempted to bring unity
to his empire пѓІ
• How Alexander’s empire changed after
his death
6
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the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 193 of your textbook.
7
Terms to Learn
• hostage 
• Philip of Macedonia 
• phalanx 
• Demosthenes 
• alliances 
• Alexander the Great 
• orator 
• barbaroi 
Places to Locate
• Macedonia 
• factories 
• Persia 
• emigrated 
• Alexandria
People to Know
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the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words.
Why It’s Important
After the Greek city-states lost their independence,
many changes took place. The new rulers of Greece
built empires and increased trade. At the same time,
they spread Greek culture and customs. Before long,
Greek ideas were influencing people from Gibraltar to
India.
The Greek language came to be spoken by many
people. Greek architecture was copied for new
buildings. Students studied Greek literature in school.
People used Greek furniture in their homes. Greek
plays became a popular form of entertainment.
Business people took up Greek ways of banking.
The period in which all this took place has come to be
called the Hellenistic Age. The term “Hellenistic”
means “like the Hellenes, or the Greeks.”
Click the Speaker On button to replay audio.
8
Philip II of Macedonia
• By 338 B.C. Greece had a new ruler,
Philip II of Macedonia. пѓІ
• Philip became ruler of Macedonia in
359 B.C. пѓІ
• In his youth he was held hostage–a
person held by an enemy until certain
promises are carried out–for three years
in Thebes.
10
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the information. Section 1 begins on page 193 of your textbook.
Philip II of Macedonia (cont.)
• Phillip learned… 
– to love Greek culture. 
– to dislike the weaknesses of the Greek form of
government. пѓІ
• It took him a little more than 20 years to
reach his goal of unifying the Greek citystates. пѓІ
– He changed the Macedonian army from parttime volunteers to a year-round, well-organized
group of professionals.
11
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the information.
Philip II of Macedonia (cont.)
– Phillip developed an infantry formation called a
phalanx, a solid body formed by foot soldiers
16 rows deep. пѓІ
– He armed his soldiers with spears that were
twice as long as most, and trained some with
slingshots and bows and arrows. пѓІ
– He flattered Greek officials and provoked
disagreements among the Greek city-states. пѓІ
– When the city-states were weak from fighting
each other, his army conquered them. пѓІ
– He used marriage as a way of forming political
alliances, or partnerships.
12
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the information.
Philip II of Macedonia (cont.)
• Demosthenes, an Athenian orator, or
public speaker, tried unsuccessfully to warn
the Greeks that Philip was dangerous. пѓІ
• Thebes and Athens tried to stop Philip’s
invasion into central Greece in 338 B.C. пѓІ
• The Greek army was defeated at the Battle
of Chaeronea. пѓІ
• Philip was killed in 336 B.C. while preparing
for a military campaign against Persia. пѓІ
• His son, Alexander, took over the throne.
13
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the information.
Section Assessment
Why was Philip able to defeat
the Greek city-states?
Philip defeated the Greek city-states
by encouraging them to fight each
other until they became weak and
disunited, and because the Greek
army was small.
14
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Who was Demosthenes?
Demosthenes was an Athenian
statesman and orator who warned
the Greeks about Philip II.
15
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Making Inferences How do you
think a Greek citizen living under
the rule of Philip II would describe
him as a ruler?
Answers will vary.
16
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Use a web like the one on page
195 of your textbook to list the
achievements of Philip II.
Your web may include:
– created professional army
– developed phalanx
– armed soldiers with longer spears
– trained soldiers with slingshots
and bows and arrows
– conquered Greek city-states
– unified Greece
17
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the answer.
Alexander the Great
• Alexander, an army commander since age
16, took over Philip’s throne at age 20. 
• He had studied literature, political science,
geography, and biology with Aristotle for
three years. пѓІ
• Because of this, Alexander included
philosophers and scientists in his army. пѓІ
• He crushed the Persian Empire and
marched as far east as northern India
without ever losing a battle.
19
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the information. Section 2 begins on page 195 of your textbook.
Alexander’s Empire
• Alexander believed that his dream of a
world-wide state of peace could only be
achieved by uniting the Macedonians, the
Greeks, and the Persians. пѓІ
• He married a Persian woman and
encouraged his officers to do the same. пѓІ
• When he claimed to be a god, the
Macedonians and Greeks refused to treat
him as such.
20
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the information.
Alexander’s Empire (cont.)
• The Greeks objected to equal treatment for
Persians and looked down on people who
did not speak Greek or follow Greek
customs. пѓІ
• They called such people barbaroi, from
which the word “barbarians” comes. 
• Alexander’s attempt to achieve unity
among the people in his empire was not
successful.
21
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the information.
Alexandria
• Alexander founded about 70 cities, 16 of
which were named Alexandria after himself. пѓІ
• The most important of these cities was
Alexandria in Egypt. пѓІ
• It quickly became a center of trade and
learning. пѓІ
• The city had two great harbors dominated
by a lighthouse 400 feet tall. пѓІ
• The library at Alexandria held the largest
collection of books in ancient times.
22
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the information.
End of the Empire
• In 323 B.C. Alexander became ill and died at
the age of 33. пѓІ
• After his death, fighting broke out over
who was to rule the empire. пѓІ
• The areas in India returned to their
original rulers.
23
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the information.
End of the Empire (cont.)
• Three of Alexander’s generals divided the
rest of the empire among themselves. пѓІ
– Antigonus became king of Macedonia. 
– Ptolemy established the dynasty of the
Ptolemies in Egypt. пѓІ
– Seleucus formed the Seleucid Empire in Persia. 
• Athens and Sparta again became
independent, while other city-states
banded together into one of two leagues.
24
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the information.
End of the Empire (cont.)
• Greek cultural influence, however, became
stronger than ever. пѓІ
• The cities that had been part of Alexander’s
empire now existed chiefly for trade. пѓІ
• City officials made their law, language,
calendar, culture, customs, and coins
Greek. пѓІ
• The Greek city-states regained their political
independence, but could not gain back the
power of the past.
25
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the information.
End of the Empire (cont.)
• Great factories, or places where goods are
made, had been built in the new Hellenistic
cities. пѓІ
• Greek manufacturers could not compete
with these factories. пѓІ
• Many young Greeks emigrated, or left one
place to settle in another. пѓІ
• By 146 B.C., most of the Greek city-states
were under Roman control.
26
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the information.
Section Assessment
Who was Alexander the Great?
Alexander the Great was an emperor
who spread Greek culture.
27
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
What conquests did Alexander
make?
Alexander united the Macedonians,
the Greeks, and the Persians.
28
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
How did Greek influence continue
to grow and spread after Alexander’s
death?
Later rulers adopted the Greek
language, titles, law, language,
calendar, and coins; teachers used
Greek ideas in schools; and
merchants used Greek methods.
29
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
How successful would Alexander’s
dream of uniting the world in peace
be today? Explain.
Answers will vary.
30
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the answer.
Section Assessment (cont.)
Draw a time line like the one on
page 200 of your textbook, and use
it to show the major events in the
life of Alexander the Great.
Your time line may include:
– studies with Aristotle
– comes to throne (age 20)
– builds empire
– builds 70 cities
– dies (age 33)
31
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the answer.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide
• Philip II believed it was his destiny to unify
the Greek city-states and spread Greek
culture. пѓІ
• Philip II was able to conquer Greece in
338 B.C. пѓІ
• When Philip II died in 336 B.C., his son
Alexander took over power. пѓІ
• Alexander was a great general whose
conquests stretched from the Nile to
the Indus.
33
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the information.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• Alexander tried without success to unite
the Macedonians, the Greeks, and the
Persians. пѓІ
• The most famous city founded by Alexander
was Alexandria, Egypt. пѓІ
• After Alexander died in 323 B.C., his empire
was divided among three of his generals. пѓІ
• Despite Alexander’s death, Greek cultural
influence became stronger.
34
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the information.
Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.)
• Although the Greek city-states again
became independent following Alexander’s
death, economic conditions in Greece grew
worse. пѓІ
• Most Greek city-states were under Roman
control by 146 B.C.
35
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the information.
Understanding the Main Idea
What changes did Philip II make in
his army?
Philip armed a professional army with
long spears, slingshots, and bows
and arrows. He also developed the
phalanx.
37
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did Philip II view marriage?
Philip viewed marriage as a way to
form political alliances.
38
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did the Greeks refuse to listen
to Demosthenes’ warnings?
The Greeks were unhappy with their
local governments.
39
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
What did Aristotle teach
Alexander?
Aristotle taught Alexander literature,
political science, geography, and
biology.
40
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
Why was Alexander unable to
achieve unity among the people of
his empire?
They refused to treat Alexander as a
god; Greeks looked down on all nonGreeks.
41
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
Why did many Greeks go to
Alexandria, Egypt?
Alexandria offered economic
opportunities and intellectual and
social life.
42
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
How did the physical features of
Alexandria, Egypt, help trade?
Alexandria had two great harbors that
were protected by breakwaters.
43
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the answer.
Understanding the Main Idea
What happened to the Greek citystates by 146 B.C.?
The Greek city-states fell under
Roman control.
44
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
Why do you think many people did
not listen to Demosthenes’
warnings? Explain your answer.
Answers will vary but should include
the powers of crowd mentality.
45
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
What other names might historians
have given Alexander besides “the
Great”?
Answers will vary but could include
aspects of Alexander’s character.
46
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
What do you think Alexander could
have done differently to achieve
unity among the peoples of his
empire?
Answers will vary but you might say
Alexander should not have tried to
force a new way of life on the people.
47
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the answer.
Critical Thinking
In what ways can customs be spread
without conquest?
Answers will vary but might include
through trade, learning, traveling
missionaries and merchants,
marriage, and alliances.
48
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the answer.
Geography in History
Human/environmental Interaction
What geographical features had an
impact on the Greek economy? Note
especially the development of
manufacturing over farming and the
Greeks’ constant travel and trade.
Answers will vary but should include
the accessibility of the sea for trade
and for obtaining raw materials, lack
of good farmland, and mountains.
49
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the answer.
Alexander was a very practical,
clear-thinking leader. If he were to
write a handbook of rules on how to
organize an army, what do you think
would be the first three suggestions
in his book?
50
Explore online information about the
topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human
Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive
activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the
chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the
browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty
connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
http://www.humanheritage.glencoe.com
52
323 B.C.
338 B.C.
Philip becomes
ruler of Greece
53
Alexander the
Great dies in
Persia
336 B.C.
146 B.C.
Alexander
the Great
rules Greece
Rome rules most
Greek city-states
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the information.
Demosthenes
383 B.C.–322 B.C.
Greek Orator
Demosthenes, born into a wealthy
Athenian family, was a great speaker
and politician. He is most famous for a
series of speeches called “Philippics,”
in which he warned the Greek people
about King Philip of Macedonia. By
338 B.C., however, Philip had conquered
Greece, and the city-states had lost
their independence.
54
Alexander’s Hero
Greek Discoveries
55
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Alexander’s Hero
The mother of Alexander the Great told
her son that Achilles, a hero of the
Trojan War, was his ancestor. He
learned Homer’s Iliad–which tells
Achilles’ story–by heart and always
carried a copy of it with him.
56
Greek Discoveries
Greek scientists at Alexandria made
several key discoveries. Eratosthenes
calculated the earth’s circumference to
within 1 percent of its actual size.
Archimedes invented a watering tool
that Egyptian farmers used for nearly
2,000 years.
57
Greek Translation
In about 250 B.C., Jewish scholars in
Alexandria translated the Hebrew Bible
into Greek, a version known as the
Septuagint. The Eastern Orthodox
Church still uses the Septuagint
version of the Old Testament.
58
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