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Athenian Women

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Alexander the Great
Career and Conquest
Consolidation of Power in Aftermath
of Philip II’s Assassination (336 BCE)
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Uncertain Succession
пЃ® Pixodarus Affair
 Quarrel at Philip’s marriage to Cleopatra, daughter of
Attalus
пЃ® Alexander and Olympias in exile
пЃ® Maturity of Amyntas, son of Perdiccas III
(supported by Lyncestian
aristocracy?)
Purge at Pella
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“Alexander was only twenty years old when he inherited his kingdom,
which at that moment was beset by formidable jealousies and feuds,
and external dangers on every side.” (Plutarch, Alexander, 11)
Assassinations
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Lyncestians implicated in Pausanias affair
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Attalus and Cleopatra
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Amyntas
Supporters
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Antipater
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Parmenion
Revolts in North and
Greece upon Succession (336-335 BCE)
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First March on Greece (336 BCE)
пЃ® Alexander elected general of Greeks
Expedition to North (335 BCE)
пЃ® campaigns in Thrace and Illyria
Second March on Greece (335 BCE)
пЃ® Destruction of Thebes (October)
пЃ® Preservation of house of Pindar
Alexander’s “Trojan War”:
Persian Expedition
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Exhortations of Isocrates (Panegyricus, 380 BCE;
Philippus)
Alexander begins expedition in spring, 334 BCE
Preparations of Parmenion in Asia Minor
Antipater left as regent in Greece
Alexander’s March of 334 BCE
пЃ® 43,000 infantry
пЃ® 6,100 cavalry
Alexander and Homer (see Plutarch, Alexander, 26)
Alexander’s Regard for Greek Public Opinion:
Piety and Reverence towards Greek Culture
As for the population of Thebes, he singled out the priests, a few citizens
who had friendly connections with Macedonia, the descendants of the
poet Pindar, and those who had opposed the revolt to be spared: all the
rest were publicly sold into slavery to the number of twenty thousand.
Those who were killed in the battle numbered more than six thousand.
~ Plutarch, Alexander 11
There is a river called Dirce after the wife of Lycus. The story goes that
Antiope was ill-treated by this Dirce, and therefore the children of Antiope
put Dirce to death. Crossing the river you reach the ruins of the house of
Pindar, and a sanctuary of the Mother Dindymene. Pindar dedicated the
image, and Aristodemes and Socrates, sculptors of Thebes, made it.
~Pausanias (2nd century CE) 9.25.3 = proof of Alexander’s
preservation of Pindar’s house
Principal Battles I: Granicus
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Background to Battle at Granicus River (334 BCE)
пЃ® Objective: to control coastline; establish base at
Ephesus and reduce key ports (neutralize Phoenician
fleet)
пЃ® Siege of Lydia
пЃ® Siege of Miletus
пЃ® Siege of Halicarnassus
пЃ® Conquest of Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia (334-333 BCE)
Principal Battles II: Issus
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Background to Battle at Issus
 Alexander’s symbolic act at Gordion
пЃ® Conquest of Cilicia (control of Asia Minor)
пЃ® Issus (November 333 BCE): Second clash with Darius III
пЃ® Cilician Gates: Passage into Syria and Egypt
Site of
Issus
Alexander in Egypt:
Pharaoh-King
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Visit to Ammon-Zeus at Siwah (Alexander’s tomb?)
пЃ® When Alexander had crossed the desert and arrived at
the shrine, the high priest of Ammon welcomed him on
the god’s behalf as a father greeting his son.
Alexander’s first question was to ask whether any of
his father’s murderers had escaped punishment. At
this the high priest commanded him to speak more
guardedly, since his father was not a mortal.
(Plutarch, Alexander, 27)
Alexander as Pharaoh
Foundation of Alexandria (Spring 331 BCE)
Siwah Oasis
Principal Battles III: Gaugamela
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Site in Mesopotamia (Autumn 331 BCE)
Consolidation of Achaemenid capitals
пЃ® Babylon, Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Ecbatana
пЃ® In each of these he seized the royal treasury; the total
was reckoned at 180,000 talents of gold, an amount
equal to 200 years of income of Athens at the height of
its power. This treasure would radically alter the
economy of the ancient world in the Hellenistic period
as more and more of it was coined and passed into
circulation.
~ N. Demand, History of Ancient Greece, 319
Aftermath of Defeat of Persia
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Burning of Palace at Persepolis in Spring 330 BCE
Push to East and Resistance of Old Guard
 Parmenion and “Conspiracy of Philotas” in 330 BCE
пЃ® Further Purges:
пЃЇ Alexander the Lyncestian, Kleitos, Kallisthenes
and Conspiracy of the Royal Pages (327 BCE)
Assassination of Darius III and Alexander’s Punishment
of Bessus
India: Final Frontier
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Preliminaries: conquest of Arachosia (329); conquest of
Bactria and Sogdiana (328); Alexander at Samarkhand,
and conquest of eastern Sogdiana (327); Alexander crosses
Hindu Kush (327)
Winter campaigns in Kunar, Chitral, and Swat regions
(327-6)
Alexander crosses Indus; Battle of Hydaspes; conquest of
Punjab (326)
Foundation of towns on lower Indus; Alexander sails in
Indian ocean (325)
Troops refuse to go further at Hyphasis river
May 326 BCE
Alexander against
King Porus
Hydaspes
Macedonian Cavalry and Indian War Elephants
Alexander and the Brahmins
Return Westwards
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March through Gedrosian desert (August-October 325
BCE)
Mutiny at Opis (324 BCE)
пЃ® Backfire of honorable discharge of Macedonian
veterans
пЃ® Alexander threatens to transfer high commands to
Persian and Median noblemen
пЃ® Tearful reconciliation and great banquet
Death at Babylon (June 13, 323 BCE)
Assessment
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Alexander Romance (exploratory thaumata; see Plutarch,
Alexander 17, 27, 46, 63, 73)
Alexander and the Unity of Mankind? Homonoia (Tarn)
or Megalomaniac (Green)?
пЃ® Persians admitted to military and bureaucratic
positions
пЃ® Adoption of Persian dress and customs (proskynesis)
пЃ® Alexander as Pharaoh and son of Ammon
пЃ® Mass marriage: Companions/Persian noblewomen;
marriage to Roxanne
Detail of
Alexander from
Issus Mosaic at
Pompeii
Contemporary
Iranian storyteller performs
tale of Darius’
death as told by
medieval
Persian poet
Firdowski
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