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10-5 Powerpoint - McCook Public Schools

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Russia: Reform and Reaction
Chapter 10 Section 5
•Peter the Great and
Catherine the Great had
attempted to Westernize
Russia, but with western
ideas came a threat to
the absolute rule of the
Russian Czar’s. Later
Czar’s saw the need to
modernize but resisted
reforms that would
undermine their
authority, thus Russia
fell behind Western
Europe in Economic and
Social reforms.
Alexander I
• Became Czar in 1801 and seemed to be
more liberal, and talked of reforms, but
after the invasion by Napoleon in 1812 he
drew back from reforms and became a
“typical” Czar. Died in 1825
#1a Decembrist Revolt
• After the death of Alexander I army officers tried to
revolt against Nicholas I but failed. These
revolutionaries wanted to have a more liberal
country with a constitution. They and their
followers were brutally cracked down upon and
Nicholas I
• Czar of Russia in 1825 crushed the
Decembrist Revolt, used special police
to spy on citizens, banned books from
Western Europe, only his approved
textbooks allowed in schools and
universities, put liberals in insane
asylums or exiled them to Siberia
• Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism
– Orthodoxy= tie between church and state
– Autocracy= absolute power
– Nationalism= respect for Russian tradition
• Did make some reforms with
economics and limiting power of nobles
over serfs Died in 1855
• Became Czar in 1855 who freed
serfs and set up reforms but still
people wanted more, eventually
Alexander moved away from
reforms and ruled Russia with
possibly the most absolute
authority ever. Even though he
was known as the “Czar
Emancipator” or “Czar Liberator”
he was assassinated by a bomb
while riding in his royal carriage in
#1b Alexander II
Alexander III
• Responded to his fathers
assassination by increasing
power of the secret police,
restoring strict censorship, and
exiling critics to Siberia.
Constantine Pobedonostsev
was chief advisor helped begin
Russification and Pogroms.
Was brutal in his suppression of
non Russians, led to a large
number of Jewish refugees
“there is no Czar in America”.
Died 1894
#1c Russification
• Suppression of all cultures that were non-
Russian! One language and One Church!
Nicholas II
Became Czar 1894 ruled until
abdication 1917 then executed along
with his entire family. Set about the
task of industrializing Russia, and with
that came ideas of westernization and
socialism, which the Czar would ignore
or quash. Lost war with Japan in 1904,
then Bloody Sunday, 1906 Revolution,
and finally entrance into WWI and the
defeats there doomed Czar Nicholas
Romanov II.
#1d Bloody Sunday
• Peaceful march organized by Father George
Gapon that made the Czar flee and soldiers
open fire on the marchers killing hundreds
was a turning point that “killed” peoples faith
in the Czar!
#1e October Manifesto
• In response to the Bloody
Sunday massacre and pressure
from citizens Nicholas II
promised freedom of the person,
conscience, speech, assembly,
and union, and set up the Duma
#1f Peter Stolypin
• Prime Minister appointed in 1906
tried to restore order by arrests,
pogroms, and executions but soon
realized the problems of Russia
could not be solved by repression,
then set out to strengthen
zemstvos and improve education,
too little to late!
#2a Colossus
• Russia seen as a huge and menacing
country by the rest of Europe
#2b Emancipation
• Freeing of People, Freeing of the Serfs in
Russia in 1861 the last in Europe
#2c Zemstvo
• Local assemblies that were elected that dealt with
issues like road repair, schools, and agriculture.
#2d Pogrom
• Violent mob attacks on non-Russian
groups, usually the Jews
#2e Duma
• Elected national legislature set up by Nicholas
II “no law would go into effect without the
approval of the Duma” but Nicholas II soon
dissolved this body for criticizing his rule.
#3 What conditions in Russia posed
challenges during the early 1800’s?
• Absolute rule by the Czar’s, economic
underdevelopment, rigid social structure,
continuation of serfdom.
#4 How did Russian Czars often
react to change?
• By increasing the repression of their
subjects, usually even more violently then
#5a What were the causes of the
revolution of 1905?
Worker discontent, desire for liberal
constitution, Russo-Japanese War, Bloody
#5b How did Nicholas II respond
Issued the October Manifesto, summoned the
Duma, Soon after though he dismissed the
Duma and continued to limit rights and
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