Russia: Reform and Reaction Chapter 10 Section 5 вЂўPeter the Great and Catherine the Great had attempted to Westernize Russia, but with western ideas came a threat to the absolute rule of the Russian CzarвЂ™s. Later CzarвЂ™s saw the need to modernize but resisted reforms that would undermine their authority, thus Russia fell behind Western Europe in Economic and Social reforms. Extra Alexander I вЂў Became Czar in 1801 and seemed to be more liberal, and talked of reforms, but after the invasion by Napoleon in 1812 he drew back from reforms and became a вЂњtypicalвЂќ Czar. Died in 1825 #1a Decembrist Revolt вЂў After the death of Alexander I army officers tried to revolt against Nicholas I but failed. These revolutionaries wanted to have a more liberal country with a constitution. They and their followers were brutally cracked down upon and executed Extra Nicholas I вЂў Czar of Russia in 1825 crushed the Decembrist Revolt, used special police to spy on citizens, banned books from Western Europe, only his approved textbooks allowed in schools and universities, put liberals in insane asylums or exiled them to Siberia [150,000] вЂў Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationalism вЂ“ Orthodoxy= tie between church and state вЂ“ Autocracy= absolute power вЂ“ Nationalism= respect for Russian tradition вЂў Did make some reforms with economics and limiting power of nobles over serfs Died in 1855 вЂў Became Czar in 1855 who freed serfs and set up reforms but still people wanted more, eventually Alexander moved away from reforms and ruled Russia with possibly the most absolute authority ever. Even though he was known as the вЂњCzar EmancipatorвЂќ or вЂњCzar LiberatorвЂќ he was assassinated by a bomb while riding in his royal carriage in 1881. #1b Alexander II Extra Alexander III вЂў Responded to his fathers assassination by increasing power of the secret police, restoring strict censorship, and exiling critics to Siberia. Constantine Pobedonostsev was chief advisor helped begin Russification and Pogroms. Was brutal in his suppression of non Russians, led to a large number of Jewish refugees вЂњthere is no Czar in AmericaвЂќ. Died 1894 #1c Russification вЂў Suppression of all cultures that were non- Russian! One language and One Church! Extra Nicholas II Became Czar 1894 ruled until abdication 1917 then executed along with his entire family. Set about the task of industrializing Russia, and with that came ideas of westernization and socialism, which the Czar would ignore or quash. Lost war with Japan in 1904, then Bloody Sunday, 1906 Revolution, and finally entrance into WWI and the defeats there doomed Czar Nicholas Romanov II. #1d Bloody Sunday вЂў Peaceful march organized by Father George Gapon that made the Czar flee and soldiers open fire on the marchers killing hundreds was a turning point that вЂњkilledвЂќ peoples faith in the Czar! #1e October Manifesto вЂў In response to the Bloody Sunday massacre and pressure from citizens Nicholas II promised freedom of the person, conscience, speech, assembly, and union, and set up the Duma #1f Peter Stolypin вЂў Prime Minister appointed in 1906 tried to restore order by arrests, pogroms, and executions but soon realized the problems of Russia could not be solved by repression, then set out to strengthen zemstvos and improve education, too little to late! #2a Colossus вЂў Russia seen as a huge and menacing country by the rest of Europe #2b Emancipation вЂў Freeing of People, Freeing of the Serfs in Russia in 1861 the last in Europe #2c Zemstvo вЂў Local assemblies that were elected that dealt with issues like road repair, schools, and agriculture. #2d Pogrom вЂў Violent mob attacks on non-Russian groups, usually the Jews #2e Duma вЂў Elected national legislature set up by Nicholas II вЂњno law would go into effect without the approval of the DumaвЂќ but Nicholas II soon dissolved this body for criticizing his rule. #3 What conditions in Russia posed challenges during the early 1800вЂ™s? вЂў Absolute rule by the CzarвЂ™s, economic underdevelopment, rigid social structure, continuation of serfdom. #4 How did Russian Czars often react to change? вЂў By increasing the repression of their subjects, usually even more violently then before! #5a What were the causes of the revolution of 1905? вЂў Worker discontent, desire for liberal constitution, Russo-Japanese War, Bloody Sunday #5b How did Nicholas II respond вЂў Issued the October Manifesto, summoned the Duma, Soon after though he dismissed the Duma and continued to limit rights and freedoms.