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Launching a New Republic, 1789 – 1800

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Launching a New Republic,
1789 – 1800
Washington’s Presidency
The leaders of the new nation face
the challenges of establishing a
strong economy and a stable,
democratic government.
Washington Takes Office
George Washington inaugurated, sworn in,
as 1st U.S. President (1789)
John Adams, first vice-president
Washington knows every action as
president will set a precedent
Congress agrees to call Washington “Mr.
President”
Setting Up the Courts
Congress passes the Federal Judiciary Act
(1789)
Gives Supreme Court six members
1 Chief Justice or Judge
5 Associate Judges
The number of Judges later grows to nine
Act also provides for lower federal courts
John Jay is named Chief Justice
Washington’s Cabinet
Congress creates 3 departments to help
the president:
– War department
– State department
– Treasury department
Heads of departments are president’s
cabinet
Secretary of State
Secretary of State,
Thomas Jefferson,
oversees
diplomatic relations
Secretary of War
Secretary of War,
Henry Knox, Oversees
the nation’s defense
Attorney General
Attorney general,
Edmund Randolf,
gives legal advice
Secretary of Treasury
Secretary of the
Treasury,
Alexander
Hamilton, manages
U.S. finances
FOR UNDERSTANDING
______ was inaugurated as
president on April 30, 1789.
1) Thomas
Paine
3) George
Washington
2) John Adams
4) Alexander
Hamilton
______ of Massachusetts
became Washington’s Vice
President.
1) John Adams
2) Alexander
Hamilton
3) Thomas
Jefferson
4) John Jay
In 1789, Congress passed
the_______ which established the
federal court system.
1. Administration of Justice Act
2. Department of Justice
3. Supreme Court
4. Judiciary Act
The Supreme Court of 1789
was characterized by:
1) Eight associate
justices
3) Three Supreme
Court justices.
2) Nine Federal
Court justices
and one chief
justice.
4) Five associate
justices and one
chief justice.
______ was appointed by
Washington as the Supreme
Court’s first chief justice.
1) John Adams
3) John Jay
2) James
Madison
4) Henry Knox
The heads of departments are
known as the president’s…
1.
2.
3.
4.
Kitchen sink
Closet
Cabinet
Committee
Washington’s secretary of
war was ______ .
1) Henry Knox
3) John Jay
2) Thomas
Jefferson
4) Edmond
Randolph
Washington’s secretary of
state was ______ .
1) Edmond
Randolph
2) Alexander
Hamilton
3) John Knox
4) Thomas
Jefferson
Washington’s attorney
general was ______ .
1) Edmond
Randolph
2) Thomas
Jefferson
3) John Jay
4) Alexander
Hamilton
Washington’s secretary of
the treasury was ______ .
1) Edmond
Randolph
3) Alexander
Hamilton
2) John Knox
4) John Jay
Economic Problems
By 1789, U.S. has a huge national
debt - $52 million
U.S. must pay debt to gain respect of
other countries
Hamilton’s Plan
Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan
shows his belief in:
– A strong central government
– Government encouraging business,
industry
– Pay debt to nation’s wealth, gain their
support for government
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
Alexander Hamilton proposes 3 step
financial plan to Congress (1790)
– Pay off all war debts
– Raise government revenues
– Create a national bank
Problems and Solutions
Many southern states have paid war
debts, northern states have not
To gain southern support, U.S.
agrees to place capital in South
Hamilton’s financial plan
continued
Hamilton supports tariffs (tax on
imported goods) because:
– Raises money for U.S. government
– Encourages growth of U.S. industry
– Encourages people to buy American
goods
Hamilton calls for National bank, safe
for government investments
Bank would make loans to
businesses, issue bank notes
Interpreting the Constitution
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison
against a national bank
Claim that the Constitution does not
allow for a national bank
Thomas Jefferson has a strict
interpretation of the Constitution
Alexander Hamilton has a flexible
or loose interpretation of
Constitution
Claims Congress has power to set up
bank
George Washington approves a
national bank (1791)
FOR UNDERSTANDING
Hamilton proposed raising
money by placing a tax,
called a ______, on imported
goods.
1) duty
3) ratification
2) tariff
4) debt
Alexander Hamilton had a
_____ interpretation of the
Constitution.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Weak
Expensive
Faulty.
Loose
Thomas Jefferson had a _____
interpretation of the
Constitution.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Weak
Expensive
Strict
Faulty
•One of the ways that the national
government raised money was by
1. putting a tariff on goods imported
from other countries.
2. Income tax
3. Selling land acquired after the
Revolution
4. Borrowing money from other
countries
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