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Chapter 5 Section 3

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Chapter 5
Section 3
Alexander the Great
Section Overview
This section discusses Alexander the Great,
his wide-reaching empire, and how his
conquest spread Hellenism throughout
southwest Asia.
Main Idea
Setting a Purpose for Reading Think
about these questions as you read:
• How did Philip II of Macedonia unite the
Greek states?
• How did Alexander the Great change
history?
Places To Locate
Macedonia: kingdom to the north of
Greece
Chaeronea: place near Thebes,
location of the Greeks’ loss in battle
to the Macedonians
Places To Locate
Syria: land in Asia Minor captured by
Alexander
Alexandria: great city in Egypt built by
Alexander
People To Meet
Philip II: king of Macedonia who defeated
the Greeks
Terms To Know
legacy: what a person leaves behind after
death
Hellenistic Era: period when Greek ideas
spread to the peoples of southwest Asia
Alexander the Great
Macedonia Attacks Greece
• Macedonia was a powerful kingdom that
lay north of Greece.
• Philip II needed to unite Greece with
Macedonia to defeat the Persian
Empire.
• After training a vast army, Philip began
taking over the Greek city-states.
Alexander the Great
Macedonia Attacks Greece (cont.)
• A lawyer named Demosthenes tried to
warn the Athenians about Philip, but it
was too late.
• The Macedonians defeated the Greeks
at the Battle of Chaeronea.
• After this battle, Philip controlled all of
Greece.
Alexander the Great
What led to the Athenians’ defeat?
The Greek city-states had been
weakened in the Peloponnesian
War, and their population had
declined. Many farms had been
destroyed during the war, and
young people had no way to earn a
living, so they had left Greece to join
the Persian Army.
Alexander the Great
Alexander Builds an Empire
• Alexander the Great became king of
Macedonia after his father, Philip, died.
• Alexander began his conquest of the
Persian Empire in 334 B.C. with the
Battle of Granicus.
• Alexander’s forces destroyed the
Persian forces.
• A year later, Alexander defeated the
Persian army at Issus and freed the
Greek cities in Asia Minor.
Alexander the Great
Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
• He then captured Syria and Egypt.
• Alexander built the city of Alexandria as
the center of business.
• It became one of the most important
cities in the ancient world.
• Alexander continued his conquest of the
Persian Empire by fighting in modern
Pakistan, India, and Iran.
Alexander the Great
Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
• In 323 B.C., Alexander planned to invade
southern Arabia, but he became ill and
died.
• A legacy is what a person leaves
behind when he or she dies.
• Alexander’s legacy is his skill and
daring.
• Alexander’s conquests marked the
beginning of the Hellenistic Era.
(pages 176–179)
Alexander the Great
Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
The lighthouse of
Alexandria was
one of the
Seven Wonders
of the Ancient
World. A fire in
its tall tower
guided ships into
harbor.
(pages 176–179)
Alexander the Great
Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
• This was a time when Greek language
and ideas spread to non Greek areas of
southwest Asia.
• After Alexander’s death, his generals
fought for power, and Alexander’s
empire ended.
• Four kingdoms emerged in its place.
• Government business in the four
kingdoms was conducted in the Greek
language.
(pages 176–179)
Alexander the Great
Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
• People who did not speak Greek could
not hold government jobs.
• This helped the Greeks maintain
control.
• New cities were created in the Hellenistic
Era, and these cities needed architects,
engineers, and philosophers.
• The rulers of the four kingdoms sent
Greek colonists to southwest Asia to help
build the cities. In this way, Greek culture
(pages 176–179)
spread.
Alexander the Great
How did Alexander show his
courage?
Alexander rode into battle ahead of
his men, and he often risked his
own life. He once refused water
because there was not enough for
all of his soldiers to have a drink.
Alexander the Great
How did Philip II of Macedonia feel
about the Greeks?
He admired everything about the
Greeks, including their art, ideas, and
military.
Alexander the Great
What ended Alexander’s conquest of
India?
His troops grew tired of fighting and
refused to go farther.
Alexander the Great
Analyze Why was Alexander a good
leader?
His bravery inspired his troops.
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