Chapter 5 Section 3 Alexander the Great Section Overview This section discusses Alexander the Great, his wide-reaching empire, and how his conquest spread Hellenism throughout southwest Asia. Main Idea Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: вЂў How did Philip II of Macedonia unite the Greek states? вЂў How did Alexander the Great change history? Places To Locate Macedonia: kingdom to the north of Greece Chaeronea: place near Thebes, location of the GreeksвЂ™ loss in battle to the Macedonians Places To Locate Syria: land in Asia Minor captured by Alexander Alexandria: great city in Egypt built by Alexander People To Meet Philip II: king of Macedonia who defeated the Greeks Terms To Know legacy: what a person leaves behind after death Hellenistic Era: period when Greek ideas spread to the peoples of southwest Asia Alexander the Great Macedonia Attacks Greece вЂў Macedonia was a powerful kingdom that lay north of Greece. вЂў Philip II needed to unite Greece with Macedonia to defeat the Persian Empire. вЂў After training a vast army, Philip began taking over the Greek city-states. Alexander the Great Macedonia Attacks Greece (cont.) вЂў A lawyer named Demosthenes tried to warn the Athenians about Philip, but it was too late. вЂў The Macedonians defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea. вЂў After this battle, Philip controlled all of Greece. Alexander the Great What led to the AtheniansвЂ™ defeat? The Greek city-states had been weakened in the Peloponnesian War, and their population had declined. Many farms had been destroyed during the war, and young people had no way to earn a living, so they had left Greece to join the Persian Army. Alexander the Great Alexander Builds an Empire вЂў Alexander the Great became king of Macedonia after his father, Philip, died. вЂў Alexander began his conquest of the Persian Empire in 334 B.C. with the Battle of Granicus. вЂў AlexanderвЂ™s forces destroyed the Persian forces. вЂў A year later, Alexander defeated the Persian army at Issus and freed the Greek cities in Asia Minor. Alexander the Great Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.) вЂў He then captured Syria and Egypt. вЂў Alexander built the city of Alexandria as the center of business. вЂў It became one of the most important cities in the ancient world. вЂў Alexander continued his conquest of the Persian Empire by fighting in modern Pakistan, India, and Iran. Alexander the Great Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.) вЂў In 323 B.C., Alexander planned to invade southern Arabia, but he became ill and died. вЂў A legacy is what a person leaves behind when he or she dies. вЂў AlexanderвЂ™s legacy is his skill and daring. вЂў AlexanderвЂ™s conquests marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era. (pages 176вЂ“179) Alexander the Great Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.) The lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. A fire in its tall tower guided ships into harbor. (pages 176вЂ“179) Alexander the Great Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.) вЂў This was a time when Greek language and ideas spread to non Greek areas of southwest Asia. вЂў After AlexanderвЂ™s death, his generals fought for power, and AlexanderвЂ™s empire ended. вЂў Four kingdoms emerged in its place. вЂў Government business in the four kingdoms was conducted in the Greek language. (pages 176вЂ“179) Alexander the Great Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.) вЂў People who did not speak Greek could not hold government jobs. вЂў This helped the Greeks maintain control. вЂў New cities were created in the Hellenistic Era, and these cities needed architects, engineers, and philosophers. вЂў The rulers of the four kingdoms sent Greek colonists to southwest Asia to help build the cities. In this way, Greek culture (pages 176вЂ“179) spread. Alexander the Great How did Alexander show his courage? Alexander rode into battle ahead of his men, and he often risked his own life. He once refused water because there was not enough for all of his soldiers to have a drink. Alexander the Great How did Philip II of Macedonia feel about the Greeks? He admired everything about the Greeks, including their art, ideas, and military. Alexander the Great What ended AlexanderвЂ™s conquest of India? His troops grew tired of fighting and refused to go farther. Alexander the Great Analyze Why was Alexander a good leader? His bravery inspired his troops.