Chapter 14 Russian Revolution: Before and After (kings) Tsars/Czars of Russia вЂў House of Romanovs: (1613-1917) вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Catherine II (the Great) (1762-1796) Alexander I (1796-1801) Nicolas I (1825-1855) Alexander II (1855-1881) Alexander III (1881-1894) Nicolas II (1894-1917) 1918, Czar Nicolas II and his family are executed. End of Czar Rule! Timeline: 1800s вЂў Late 1800вЂ™s: most western European powers had industrialized, militarized, and developed their economies. Russia lagged western Industrialization by 100 years but began to make progress and doubled its number of factories from 1863-1890s. вЂў 1881, Alexander III, halted all reforms in Russia. That upset Russians. Caused many Russians to die of famine and starvation; he ruled with absolute authority as czar or Russia. вЂў Setup a police state (spies everywhere) Timeline: 1900s 1900, Russia is the 4th largest Steel producer in the world. 1903, Revolutionary movements grow with the creation of the Bolsheviks (radical) and the Mensheviks (moderate) upon banning of trade unions. 1904, Russia and Japan engage in the Russo-Japanese War; RussiaвЂ™s repeated losses led to unrest at home and revolt. 1905, Bloody Sunday: 200,000 workers approach the czarвЂ™s Winter Palace asking for better working conditions, but more than 1,000 are wounded when Nicolas IIвЂ™s generals ordered soldiers to fire on the crowd. 1905, strikes lead to the creation of the first Duma (parliament). Tried to push for a constitutional monarchy (like UK) but czar dissolves duma after 10 weeks. 1916, Complete the longest continuous rail line. Timeline: 1914-1921 вЂў WWI: (1914), Nicholas drags Russia into World War I; costs him millions of troops, supplies, food, and civilians. Many soldiers began to abandon and mutiny from the front lines. вЂў March 1917 Revolution, women textile workers in Petrograd led a citywide strike that ended including up to 200,000 workers. Czar steps down. вЂў Octoer 1917, Bolsheviks led by LeninвЂ™s вЂњpeace, land, and breadвЂќ slogan overthrow provisional government. вЂў 1918-1920, Red Army and White Army engage in a Civil war; Reds win and rename Russia- USSR. Figures of the Russian Revolution Important people вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Stalin Lenin Karl Marx Czar Nicholas II Leon Trotsky Rasputin Alexander Kerensky Czar Nicholas II вЂў King of Russia pre revolution. -Below with the Royal Family Vladimir Lenin -Leader of the Bolshevik Movement -Studied Karl MarxвЂ™ philosophies on unequal distribution of wealth. -Defeats the Czar in 1917 and then the Mensheviks in October 1917. -During the Russian Civil War (1918-1920) , he defeats the White Army and begins NEP program which rebuilds economy. -Reigns as leader of USSR until 1922 when he suffers a stroke. -Dies in 1924 Rasputin вЂў Key policymaker for the royal family. Magician and rumored lover of the kingвЂ™s wife. Alexander Kerensky Liberal revolutionary leader who became RussiaвЂ™s second prime minister under the provisional government that relieved Czar Nicolas II from power in 1917. -Lost control of Russia in October, 1917 during the Bolshevik Revolution. Leon Trotsky Bolshevik leader who commanded the Red Army from 1918-1920. StalinвЂ™s stark political rival. Became leader of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union in 1922 upon LeninвЂ™s stroke. Ruthless leader who made himself dictator of the Soviet Union and forced millions into exile and death during his reign of terror. Joseph Stalin Russian Revolution 1917 Questions вЂў What flaws did Czar Nicholas make? вЂў Why is Lenin so important to the Russian Revolution? вЂў How did Marx influence Russian Politics? вЂў What role did Trotsky play in the Revolution? вЂў How did Stalin rise to power? Key terms вЂў Proletariat (working class/farmers) вЂў Bolsheviks (radical Marxist revolutionaries pushing for land, political, and economical reform) вЂў Lenin (leader of the Bolsheviks and later of USSR) вЂў Rasputin (Imperial Russian advisor to Czar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra) вЂў Provisional Government (acting govt. following March Revolution) вЂў Soviets (local councils made up of workers, peasants and soldiers) вЂў Communist Party (new name of Bolshevik party) вЂў Joseph Stalin (communist leader who replaced Lenin) Imperial Russia вЂў CZAR or King Alexander III rules imperial Russia during WWI. вЂ“ Russia is a police state full of strict laws and censorship. вЂ“ Secret police spied on people and political leaders were sent to Siberia. вЂ“ King Alexander was unsuccessful in bringing the War to an end. вЂ“ Soldiers and people become increasingly tired of King AlexanderвЂ™s war, economic, and political efforts. Russia Industrializes вЂў Between 1863-1900, Russia doubled its factories. вЂў Russian Industries still lagged behind the Western Europe. вЂў Russia develops its Steel Industry. вЂў New factory conditions distresses people in Russia; the conditions are cruel and hard. вЂў Trade unions outlawed in Russia. вЂў Rise of Marxist revolutionaries: promoted regime change. Crisis at Home вЂў Between 1904 and 1917, several factors devastate morale of people. вЂ“ Russo-Japanese War: many Russian losses spark revolt and unrest at home. вЂ“ Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905: January 22, 200k workers and families petition the CzarвЂ™s Winter Palace asking for better working conditions, more personal freedoms, and the army fires on the crowd. Provokes strikes and violence across the country. Leads to the creation of the DUMA (leg. body). вЂ“ WWI: constant defeats to the Germans and high Russian death tolls lead to weaker Czarist rule. Soldiers begin to refuse military orders and return home. March Revolution: вЂў March 17, women textile workers in Petrograd lead a citywide strike. вЂў Next five days riots grow. вЂў Soldiers eventually stop taking orders and join the workers. вЂў Riots outbreak across country. вЂў Czar Nicholas II abdicates the throne. вЂў Leaders of the DUMA establish a temporary Provisional Government. Failures of the Provisional Govt. вЂў Provisional Government had inclinations to setup a democratic government. вЂ“ Representation, land distribution. вЂ“ Still committed to fighting World War I. вЂ“ Lose support among Russian people due to lack of willingness to make real changes. вЂ“ Unrest Leads to November Revolution. Bolshevik Revolution вЂў Lenin (leader of Bolsheviks) returns to Russia in 1917. вЂў Gains control over the soviets (local revolutionary groups). вЂў Begins a rallying call вЂњAll power to the SovietsвЂќ вЂў Peace, Land , and BreadвЂќ вЂў November 1917, factory workers storm Petrograd Palace, arrest leaders of provisional government and takeover power. вЂў Lenin distributes land to peasants, and gives control of factories to the workers. вЂў Sign Brest-Litovsk Treaty ending war with Germany in March 1918. Russia Divides: Civil War вЂў Red Army (Bolsheviks) вЂў White Army (Mensheviks, socialist, czarist, democratic groups, any anti Bolshevik group) вЂў Many people opposed Bolshevik policies in Russia. вЂў Bolsheviks and White Army wage civil war from 19181920. вЂў 14 million Russians die in Civil War. вЂў Bolsheviks defeat White Army вЂў Russian Revolution (like French Revolution) destroys existing social, political , and economic structures. вЂў Violence and Terror win, attempt for democracy fails. Questions вЂў 1. Who were the Bolsheviks? вЂў 2. Was the CzarвЂ™s policies favorable among the people? Why? вЂў 3. How did WWI bring down Czar NicholasвЂ™ rule? вЂў 3. How did the industrialization of Russia lead to civil strife? вЂў 4. What happened in the March Revolution? вЂў 5. How did the Provisional Government fail? вЂў 6. What structural changes did Lenin promote? вЂў 7. What happened in the November Revolution? вЂў 8. How is the Russian Revolution similar to the French Revolution? Soviet Union Red Square Republics Question вЂў Who makes up a majority of RussiaвЂ™s people? вЂў How does geography influence the makeup of its citizens? вЂў How has History affected the Russian people? вЂў How does physical Geography isolate Russia from Western Europe? вЂў What form of language do Russians speak? вЂў Does the history, physical geography, and ethnic makeup of Russia affect or influence its politics or totalitarian nature? Rise of Stalin Lecture #3 StalinвЂ™s Life вЂў Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) вЂў Forced his political enemies into exile or death. вЂў 1922, became General Secretary of the Communist Party. вЂў Stalin ruled USSR from 1928until 1953 Communist Party: Stalin, Lenin Gulag вЂў Prison and place of exile in Siberian tundra. Stalinism: To rule with absolute authority вЂў Creates command economy. 5 yr. Plan вЂў Totalitarianism: government that takes total centralized control over every aspect of public and private life. вЂ“ Ideology, dynamic leader, control over individuals, society, modern technology (push propaganda), enforcement (police terror, censorship), dictatorship and one=party rule. вЂў Collective Farms (large govt. owned farms) вЂў Women gain equal rights Propaganda Russia under Stalin Questions вЂў How did Stalin enter politics in Russia? вЂў How did Stalin eliminate his enemies or political threats? вЂў What is Stalinism? вЂў How did Propaganda contribute to StalinsвЂ™ rise to power? вЂў How did StalinвЂ™s power grow? вЂў How did the Soviet economy change under StalinвЂ™s reign? Russian Literature Boris Pasternak Doctor Zhivago Anna Akhmatova White Flock вЂў My voice is weak, but will does not get weaker. It has become still better without love, The sky is tall, the mountain wind is blowing My thoughts are sinless to true God above. The sleeplessness has gone to other places, I do not on grey ashes count my sorrow, And the skewed arrow of the clock face Does not look to me like a deadly arrow. How past over the heart is losing power! Freedom is near. I will forgive all yet, Watching, as ray of sun runs up and down The springtime vine that with spring rain is wet. Poetry Assignment Prompt вЂў How: вЂ“ In pairs вЂў When: вЂ“ Due next class meeting: вЂў What: вЂ“ Create your own short poem. вЂў Length: вЂ“ Five lines (minimum) 1. Express feeling of Russian Revolution 2. Compare the Revolution to something in nature. 3. Express some mode of hope or despair 4. Attach the poem to a construction Sheet. вЂ“ Include an illustration on the Sheet, may be printed or hand drawn. вЂў Points: вЂ“ Worth twenty points.