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Chapter 14 Section 1 powerpoint

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Chapter 14
Russian Revolution:
Before and After
(kings) Tsars/Czars of Russia
• House of Romanovs: (1613-1917)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Catherine II (the Great) (1762-1796)
Alexander I (1796-1801)
Nicolas I (1825-1855)
Alexander II (1855-1881)
Alexander III (1881-1894)
Nicolas II (1894-1917)
1918, Czar Nicolas II and his family are executed.
End of Czar Rule!
Timeline: 1800s
• Late 1800’s: most western European powers had
industrialized, militarized, and developed their
economies. Russia lagged western
Industrialization by 100 years but began to make
progress and doubled its number of factories
from 1863-1890s.
• 1881, Alexander III, halted all reforms in Russia.
That upset Russians. Caused many Russians to die
of famine and starvation; he ruled with absolute
authority as czar or Russia.
• Setup a police state (spies everywhere)
Timeline: 1900s
1900, Russia is the 4th largest Steel producer in the world.
1903, Revolutionary movements grow with the creation of the Bolsheviks (radical)
and the Mensheviks (moderate) upon banning of trade unions.
1904, Russia and Japan engage in the Russo-Japanese War; Russia’s repeated
losses led to unrest at home and revolt.
1905, Bloody Sunday: 200,000 workers approach the czar’s Winter Palace asking
for better working conditions, but more than 1,000 are wounded when Nicolas II’s
generals ordered soldiers to fire on the crowd.
1905, strikes lead to the creation of the first Duma (parliament). Tried to push for
a constitutional monarchy (like UK) but czar dissolves duma after 10 weeks.
1916, Complete the longest continuous rail line.
Timeline: 1914-1921
• WWI: (1914), Nicholas drags Russia into World War I;
costs him millions of troops, supplies, food, and
civilians. Many soldiers began to abandon and
mutiny from the front lines.
• March 1917 Revolution, women textile workers in
Petrograd led a citywide strike that ended including
up to 200,000 workers. Czar steps down.
• Octoer 1917, Bolsheviks led by Lenin’s “peace, land,
and bread” slogan overthrow provisional
government.
• 1918-1920, Red Army and White Army engage in a
Civil war; Reds win and rename Russia- USSR.
Figures of the Russian Revolution
Important people
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Stalin
Lenin
Karl Marx
Czar Nicholas II
Leon Trotsky
Rasputin
Alexander Kerensky
Czar Nicholas II
• King of Russia pre
revolution.
-Below with the Royal Family
Vladimir Lenin
-Leader of the Bolshevik
Movement
-Studied Karl Marx’ philosophies
on unequal distribution of wealth.
-Defeats the Czar in 1917 and
then the Mensheviks in October
1917.
-During the Russian Civil War
(1918-1920) , he defeats the White
Army and begins NEP program
which rebuilds economy.
-Reigns as leader of USSR until
1922 when he suffers a stroke.
-Dies in 1924
Rasputin
• Key policymaker
for the royal family.
Magician and
rumored lover of
the king’s wife.
Alexander Kerensky
Liberal revolutionary
leader who became
Russia’s second
prime minister under
the provisional
government that
relieved Czar Nicolas
II from power in 1917.
-Lost control of
Russia in
October, 1917
during the
Bolshevik
Revolution.
Leon Trotsky
Bolshevik leader
who commanded
the Red Army
from 1918-1920.
Stalin’s stark political
rival.
Became leader of the
Communist Party and
the Soviet Union in
1922 upon Lenin’s
stroke.
Ruthless leader who
made himself dictator
of the Soviet Union
and forced millions
into exile and death
during his reign of
terror.
Joseph Stalin
Russian Revolution
1917
Questions
• What flaws did Czar Nicholas make?
• Why is Lenin so important to the Russian
Revolution?
• How did Marx influence Russian Politics?
• What role did Trotsky play in the Revolution?
• How did Stalin rise to power?
Key terms
• Proletariat (working class/farmers)
• Bolsheviks (radical Marxist revolutionaries pushing for
land, political, and economical reform)
• Lenin (leader of the Bolsheviks and later of USSR)
• Rasputin (Imperial Russian advisor to Czar Nicholas II and his wife
Alexandra)
• Provisional Government (acting govt. following March
Revolution)
• Soviets (local councils made up of workers, peasants
and soldiers)
• Communist Party (new name of Bolshevik party)
• Joseph Stalin (communist leader who replaced Lenin)
Imperial Russia
• CZAR or King Alexander III rules imperial Russia
during WWI.
– Russia is a police state full of strict laws and
censorship.
– Secret police spied on people and political leaders
were sent to Siberia.
– King Alexander was unsuccessful in bringing the War
to an end.
– Soldiers and people become increasingly tired of King
Alexander’s war, economic, and political efforts.
Russia Industrializes
• Between 1863-1900, Russia doubled its factories.
• Russian Industries still lagged behind the Western
Europe.
• Russia develops its Steel Industry.
• New factory conditions distresses people in
Russia; the conditions are cruel and hard.
• Trade unions outlawed in Russia.
• Rise of Marxist revolutionaries: promoted regime
change.
Crisis at Home
• Between 1904 and 1917, several factors devastate
morale of people.
– Russo-Japanese War: many Russian losses spark revolt and
unrest at home.
– Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905: January 22, 200k
workers and families petition the Czar’s Winter Palace
asking for better working conditions, more personal
freedoms, and the army fires on the crowd. Provokes
strikes and violence across the country. Leads to the
creation of the DUMA (leg. body).
– WWI: constant defeats to the Germans and high Russian
death tolls lead to weaker Czarist rule. Soldiers begin to
refuse military orders and return home.
March Revolution:
• March 17, women textile workers in Petrograd
lead a citywide strike.
• Next five days riots grow.
• Soldiers eventually stop taking orders and join the
workers.
• Riots outbreak across country.
• Czar Nicholas II abdicates the throne.
• Leaders of the DUMA establish a temporary
Provisional Government.
Failures of the Provisional Govt.
• Provisional Government had inclinations to
setup a democratic government.
– Representation, land distribution.
– Still committed to fighting World War I.
– Lose support among Russian people due to lack of
willingness to make real changes.
– Unrest Leads to November Revolution.
Bolshevik Revolution
• Lenin (leader of Bolsheviks) returns to Russia in 1917.
• Gains control over the soviets (local revolutionary
groups).
• Begins a rallying call “All power to the Soviets”
• Peace, Land , and Bread”
• November 1917, factory workers storm Petrograd
Palace, arrest leaders of provisional government and
takeover power.
• Lenin distributes land to peasants, and gives control of
factories to the workers.
• Sign Brest-Litovsk Treaty ending war with Germany in
March 1918.
Russia Divides: Civil War
• Red Army (Bolsheviks)
• White Army (Mensheviks, socialist, czarist, democratic
groups, any anti Bolshevik group)
• Many people opposed Bolshevik policies in Russia.
• Bolsheviks and White Army wage civil war from 19181920.
• 14 million Russians die in Civil War.
• Bolsheviks defeat White Army
• Russian Revolution (like French Revolution) destroys
existing social, political , and economic structures.
• Violence and Terror win, attempt for democracy fails.
Questions
• 1. Who were the Bolsheviks?
• 2. Was the Czar’s policies favorable among the people?
Why?
• 3. How did WWI bring down Czar Nicholas’ rule?
• 3. How did the industrialization of Russia lead to civil
strife?
• 4. What happened in the March Revolution?
• 5. How did the Provisional Government fail?
• 6. What structural changes did Lenin promote?
• 7. What happened in the November Revolution?
• 8. How is the Russian Revolution similar to the French
Revolution?
Soviet Union
Red Square
Republics
Question
• Who makes up a majority of Russia’s people?
• How does geography influence the makeup of its
citizens?
• How has History affected the Russian people?
• How does physical Geography isolate Russia from
Western Europe?
• What form of language do Russians speak?
• Does the history, physical geography, and ethnic
makeup of Russia affect or influence its politics or
totalitarian nature?
Rise of Stalin
Lecture #3
Stalin’s Life
• Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
• Forced his political enemies into exile or death.
• 1922, became General Secretary of the
Communist Party.
• Stalin ruled
USSR from 1928until 1953
Communist Party: Stalin, Lenin
Gulag
• Prison and place of
exile in Siberian
tundra.
Stalinism: To rule with absolute
authority
• Creates command
economy. 5 yr. Plan
• Totalitarianism: government
that takes total centralized
control over every aspect of
public and private life.
–
Ideology, dynamic leader, control over
individuals, society, modern technology
(push propaganda), enforcement (police
terror, censorship), dictatorship and
one=party rule.
• Collective Farms (large govt.
owned farms)
• Women gain equal rights
Propaganda
Russia under Stalin
Questions
• How did Stalin enter politics in
Russia?
• How did Stalin eliminate his
enemies or political threats?
• What is Stalinism?
• How did Propaganda contribute to
Stalins’ rise to power?
• How did Stalin’s power grow?
• How did the Soviet economy
change under Stalin’s reign?
Russian Literature
Boris Pasternak
Doctor Zhivago
Anna Akhmatova
White Flock
• My voice is weak, but will does not get
weaker. It has become still better without
love, The sky is tall, the mountain wind is
blowing My thoughts are sinless to true God
above. The sleeplessness has gone to other
places, I do not on grey ashes count my
sorrow, And the skewed arrow of the clock
face Does not look to me like a deadly arrow.
How past over the heart is losing power!
Freedom is near. I will forgive all yet,
Watching, as ray of sun runs up and down The
springtime vine that with spring rain is wet.
Poetry Assignment Prompt
• How:
– In pairs
• When:
– Due next class meeting:
• What:
– Create your own short poem.
• Length:
– Five lines (minimum)
1. Express feeling of Russian Revolution
2. Compare the Revolution to something in nature.
3. Express some mode of hope or despair
4. Attach the poem to a construction Sheet.
– Include an illustration on the Sheet, may be printed or hand drawn.
• Points:
– Worth twenty points.
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