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Alexander III, 1881

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Alexander III, 1881-1894
Alexander Alexandrovich
? Born 1845 (when
Alexander II was 47)
? Second son, so not
prepared for throne
? 1865: older brother
Nicholas died of
tuberculosis
Alexander III comes to throne
? Re-educated S. Soloviev
and K. Pobedonostsev
? Married Danish princess
Dagmar (Maria
Feodorovna)
? Disagreed with Alex II?s
pro-Prussian foreign policy,
especially during FrancoPrussian war, 1870-71.
? Otto von Bismarck allied
with Austria and Russia.
Alexander II, r. 1855-1 March 1881
2 March 1881:
Alexander III ascended throne
? 8 March: discussed
Loris-Melikov?s
?constitution?
elected, advisory
body
? Pobedonostsev and
more conservative
advisors criticized it
sharply.
? Never implemented.
Anti-Jewish Pogroms, 1881-1884
? Sparked by rumors that
Jews killed Alexander II.
? Gesya Mirovna Gelfman
? Pale of Settlement:
Ukraine and Poland
? over 200 anti-Jewish
riots:
? Kiev
? Warsaw
? Odessa
? Led to mass migration
and Zionist movement
Instead? 29 April 1881: proclaimed a sort of manifesto for autocracy:
??But in the middle our great sorrow the voice of
God commands us to be cheerful in the matter of
Ruling, in reliance on Divine Providence, with
faith in the power and truth of autocratic power,
which we intend to assert and protect for the
benefit of the people from all their longing?
[Alexander called] all loyal subjects to serve in
faith and truth in the eradication of the vile
sedition, [which] disgraced the Russian land - to
the assertion of faith and morals - to the good
upbringing of children - the extermination of
injustice and theft - to the restoration of order
and justice in the actions of all institutions. "
14 August 1881: ?Decree about measures for the preservation of
state order and public quiet and the placement of certain places
in a position of reinforced surveillance?
? Gave political police right to operate without
subordinating to the administration or courts
? Exile an ?undesirable individuals? without trial or
the courts? involvement
? Close educational institutions, newspapers,
printing houses, or private businesses.
? Temporary, but was in force in various
locations until 1917.
Reforms
? Redemption payments
reduced somewhat.
? Rules of peasants
selling land loosened.
? Land captains created
to oversee peasant
communes.
? Re-invigorated official
nationality policy.
? Russification policies
1887: Assassination ?attempt??
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Alexander Ilyich Ulyanov, 1866-1887
Excellent student
Earned two gold medals (zoology)
1883: St. Petersburg University
Father died January 1886
Joined ?terrorist faction? of revived
Narodnaya Volya.
Strongly influenced by Marx, Engels,
Plekhanov
1 March 1887: Arrested (with 14 others)
still planning assassination.
Made political speech at trial.
Sentenced to death.
Mother tried to save him.
8 May: Executed (with five others).
Left younger brother in charge
? Vladimir Iliich Ulyanov, 18701924 (Lenin)
? Then, oldest male in Ulyanov
household
? Graduated from gymnasium
that spring 1887 with gold
medal.
? In response to brother?s
execution, supposedly said,
?"Нет, мы пойдем не таким
путём. Не таким путем надо
идти". [No, we will not take
that path. It is not necessary
to go down that path.]
? 1902: What is to be done?
17 (29) October 1888: Train crashed
? Near Kharkov in south
? Two engines, too fast (68
km/hour)
? 21 died, but royal family
unharmed, having dinner
? Alex held up the roof!
? Church and government
used it as propaganda:
?miracle?
? Sergei Witte emerged as
important state figure.
Crucial foreign policy change, 1890-2
? 1888: new German
emperor: Wilhelm II
? Pushed Bismarck to retire
? 1890: refused to renew
Reinsurance treaty
? 1891: French fleet visited
Kronstadt
? first time La Marseillaise
played on an official occasion
in Russian Empire
? 1892: Franco-Russian
Alliance
? Changed balance of power
? Led to two armed blocs
Marianna to the Russian bear: ?Tell
me, darling, I'll give you my heart, but
will I get your fur coat in the winter??
Died 20 October 1894
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