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Chapter 9-3: Alexander the Great

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Chapter 9-3: Alexander the
Great
Alexander the Great
The Big Idea
Alexander the Great built a huge empire and helped spread Greek
culture into Egypt and Asia.
Main Ideas
• Macedonia conquered Greece in the 300s BC.
• Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe,
Asia, and Egypt.
• The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexander’s empire blended
Greek and other cultures.
Main Idea 1:
Macedonia conquered Greece
in the 300s BC.
• Phillip II became
king of Macedonia
and targeted
Greece for an
invasion.
• He beat Athens,
and the rest of
Greece agreed to
make him their
leader after seeing
Athens’s defeat.
• Phillip was a
brilliant military
leader.
• His soldiers fought
as a phalanx with
spears that were
longer than the
Greeks.
• He also had a
cavalry and archers
supporting the
phalanx.
• When Phillip died,
his throne and his
plans were passed
on to his son,
Alexander.
Why were the soldiers’ spears so long?
Main Idea 2:
Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of
Europe, Asia, and Egypt.
• Alexander began his rule by ending the revolt in Thebes, setting an
example to the Greeks not to rebel.
• He then set out to build an empire and earned the name Alexander the
Great.
• He went on to conquer Egypt and was crowned pharaoh without a fight.
• He then defeated Persia and became the ruler of the Persian Empire.
• Alexander wanted to push into India, but his troops were exhausted and
refused to go. He began the march home, but died from sickness before
making it back to Greece.
1. About how long was the route of Alexander
from Pella to Babylon?
2. What bodies of water did Alexander cross?
Spreading Greek Culture
• Alexander’s empire was the largest the world had ever seen.
• An admirer of Greek culture, he worked to spread it throughout his
empire.
• He encouraged Greek settlers to move to the new cities he
conquered.
– These settlers passed along the language and culture of
Greece.
• Alexander also encouraged people to keep their own culture, so
Greek and native customs blended. Historians call the culture
Hellenistic, or Greek-like.
Main Idea 3:
The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexander’s
empire blended Greek
and other cultures.
• After Alexander
died, his generals
fought for power
and divided the
empire among
themselves.
• The three
kingdoms were
Macedonia, Greece,
and Syria.
• Macedonia had the
weakest
government and
had to put down
Greek revolts.
• Syria was
weakened by
rebellions.
• Egypt, especially
Alexandria,
became a great
cultural center.
• Each empire was
eventually taken
over by the
Romans.
Quick Questions
1. In your own words, define the term phalanx.
2. Philip wanted to conquer the Persian Empire. Was he successful?
Why or why not?
3. After Athens and Thebes were defeated by Philip, why did the rest
of Greece agree to make Philip their leader?
4. Why is Alexander called “the great?”
5. Using the information on this page (274) and in the map of
Alexander’s empire, summarize Alexander’s efforts to conquer the
world.
6. How did Alexander help spread Greek culture throughout his
empire?
7. What does Hellenistic mean?
8. Why did Alexander model new cities after the cities of Greece?
9. What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?
10. Do you think Alexander was successful as a conqueror? Should he
be called “great?”
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