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2 Lecture #1 Programming Language Overview

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1.3 Executing Programs
How is Computer Code Transformed into
an Executable?
• Interpreters
• Compilers
• Hybrid systems
Language Implementation Methods
• Compilation
– Programs translated into machine language code
that is directly executable
• Pure Interpretation
– Programs are interpreted by an "interpreter"
– Intermediate machine code is not produced.
• Hybrid Implementation Systems
– A compromise between compilers and pure
interpreters
Layered View of a Computer System
(hardware and software)
The operating system
and language
implementation are
layered over the
Machine interface of
a computer
В© Addison-Wesley
Compiler Implementation
• Compiler - program that
– Reads a program written in one language (the source
language)
– Translates it into an equivalent program in another
language (the target language)
• Checks for the presence of errors in the source
program
source program
compiler
target program
error messages
8 Phases of a Compiler
•
4.
5.
6.
•
Lexical
analyzer
6 main phases
1.
2.
3.
Lexical analyzer
Syntax analyzer
Semantic
analyzer
Intermediate
code generator
Code optimizer
Code generator
Two more activities
(in parallel with 6
phases above)
A. Symbol table
manager
B. Error handler
Source
program
Lexical units
Syntax
analyzer
Parse trees
Symbol
table
Intermediat
Code generator
(and semantic
analyzer)
Optimization
Intermediate code
Code
generator
Machine language
Input data
Computer
Results
(optional)
A. Symbol Table Manager
• Keeps track of the source program's identifiers
and their attributes
– Attributes: storage allocated, type, scope,
arguments, return type, etc.
– Uses a symbol table
• Data structure (array, linked list, hash table, etc.) with a
record for each identifier where fields are the
identifier's attributes
B. Error Detection and Reporting
• When an error is detected, the compiler must
somehow deal with that error, then proceed to find
more possible errors
– Lexical analysis phase detects errors where the characters in the
source file do not form any token of the language
• Example: s p a c es in var
– Syntax analysis phase detects violations to the rules of the language
• Example: var1 = var2 +
– Semantic analysis phase detects constructs that have no meaning
• Example: var1 = array1 + procedure1
1. Lexical (Linear) Analysis
• Lexical = of or relating to words or vocabulary of a
language as distinguished from its grammar and
construction
• Identifies tokens (keywords, identifier names,
integers, etc.) of the programming language
• Token – sequences of characters that have a
collective meaning
2. Syntax (Hierarchical) Analysis
• Syntax - the way linguistic elements (e.g. words) are
put together to form constituents (e.g. sentence,
phrase, clause)
• Also called "parsing"
• Groups tokens into grammatical phrases
• Usually the grammatical phrases are represented by
a "parse tree"
3. Semantic Analysis
• Semantic - of or relating to meaning in language
• Checks for semantic errors
– gathers type information for the subsequent code
generation phase
• Uses hierarchical structure (determined by the
parser) to identify the operators and operands of
expressions and statements
4. Intermediate Code Generator
• Generates an intermediate representation of the
source program
• Not all compilers perform this
• An intermediate representation can be thought of as
a program for an abstract machine
• Should be
– easy to produce
– easy to translate into the target program
5. Code Optimization
• Improve the intermediate code to produce a faster
running machine code in the final translation
• Optional - not all compilers include the code
optimization step, which can be time (and space)
intensive
6. Code Generation
• Generate the target code, usually relocatable machine code
– Relocatable code can be loaded at any location R in memory
– In other words, if the number R is added to all the addresses in
the code, then all references will be the actual memory address
• The relocatable code is contained in the object file
– .obj
• It contains machine language instructions
– only bits – 1's and 0’s
Post-Compilation - Linking
• Linker (link-editor) connects:
– Object files (.obj) from the program modules
– Additional library files
– Creates the executable (.exe file) program
• Usually uses relocatable addresses within the
program
– Allows the program to run in different memory locations
– Allows time-sharing and virtual memory
Post-Compilation - Loading
• Loading the executable (.exe file) program
• Also called load module or executable image
• The loader
– Identifies a memory location to load the program
– Alters the relocatable machine code addresses to run in
the designated memory location
• A program must be in (loaded) memory each time it
executes
Implementation Methods - Interpretation
• Pure interpretation - high-level
language statements are
immediately decoded into
machine code & executed
– Fast to write, modify, experiment and
try different solutions
– Easy to debug
– Decoding is slower than execution of
compiled code, however the need to
compile is eliminated
– May require more space for symbol
table & source program
Implementation Methods - Hybrid
• Hybrid – combination of compilers and interpreters
– High-level language programs are translated to an intermediate language, which is easily
interpreted
• E.g. Java – compiled and interpreted
– Intermediate “byte code” is created by the compiler,
– Then the byte code is interpreted
• Lisp – interpreted, or compiled, or both
– Compilation not required - increases speed 10 X or more
– Interpreted and compiled code can run together!
– Saves compiling an entire project when only one or two files have been changed!
– Can be compiled after debugging - make it work, then make it fast!
• Perl – seems interpreted
– Partially compiled to detect errors, then interpreted
Hybrid Implementation System
Summary
• Programming language study is valuable
– Adds problem-solving methods and paradigms
– Increases capacity to use different features/tools in all languages
– Ability to choose implementation languages intelligently to increase
productivity
– Makes learning new languages (thus new tools) easier
• Most important criteria for evaluating programming languages include:
– Readability, writability, reliability, cost
• Major influences on language design have been machine architecture and
software development methodologies
• The major methods of implementing programming languages are:
compilation, pure interpretation, and hybrid implementation
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